WorldWideScience

Sample records for current youth unrest

  1. Current Youth Unrest: The Image of French Romanticism between 1800 and 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, John Wesley, Jr.

    This study analyzes the causes, philosophies, goals, psychologies, and mechanisms of current youth movements in comparison with the Romantic movements in France. Commentary is focused on: the prerevolutionary background history, revolution, Napoleon, post-Napoleonic France, romantic philosophy, French Romanticism, Chateaubriand, Lamartine, Hugo,…

  2. Current Youth Unrest: The Image of French Romanticism between 1800 and 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, John Wesley, Jr.

    This study analyzes the causes, philosophies, goals, psychologies, and mechanisms of current youth movements in comparison with the Romantic movements in France. Commentary is focused on: the prerevolutionary background history, revolution, Napoleon, post-Napoleonic France, romantic philosophy, French Romanticism, Chateaubriand, Lamartine, Hugo,…

  3. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  4. Quantifying the current unrest of the Santorini volcano: Evidence from a multiparametric dataset, involving seismological, geodetic, geochemical and other geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazachos, C. B.; Panagiotopoulos, D.; Newman, A. V.; Stiros, S.; Vougioukalakis, G.; Fytikas, M.; Laopoulos, T.; Albanakis, K.; Vamvakaris, D.; Karagianni, E.; Feng, L.; Psimoulis, P.; Moschas, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Santorini volcanic center is the most active volcano system in the Southern Aegean Volcanic Arc, characterized by very rare Plinian eruptions (minimum time interval of 20Kyrs) and more frequent Vulcanian-type eruptions in historic times (e.g. 3 eruptions in the 20th century). Though the Coloumbo submarine volcano, located roughly 8km to the NE of the main Santorini island caldera, is the most active volcanic center, with continuous seismicity and hydrothermal activity, since the beginning of 2011 the main Santorini volcano has gone through a period of unrest. The most detectable symptoms of this unrest, as they are recognized by the local people, are small earthquakes (M2.8-3.0) being quite strongly felt along the caldera rim villages. We examine the main characteristics of this unrest by using seismicity information from a local seismological network, in operation before the unrest initiation. This dataset is complemented by other important information such as geodetic measurements (using a network of permanent and temporary stations, also in operation before the unrest start), geochemical information concerning CO2 and H2 emissions, and a local network of tide gauges providing sea temperature changes and sea level changes. The results show that a previously identified but inactive near-vertical NE-SW tectonic line, known as the Kameni line, has been activated at a length of ~5-6km and a depth extent of 4km. This activation is a response to a magma uplift that occurs to the north of this line (that crosses the intra-caldera Palea and Nea Kameni islands), which has resulted in significant relative displacements, both horizontal and vertical, locally of the order of 15-20cm until know, as confirmed by GPS and sea level data. Significant sea temperature changes are also observed along the fault zone, probably due to hydrothermal fluids originating from the main fault crack network. The observed quantities show an excellent spatial and time correlation, with

  5. Renewed unrest at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO),a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has detected unrest at Mount Spurr volcano, located about 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska, at the northeast end of the Aleutian volcanic arc.This activity consists of increased seismicity melting of the summit ice cap, and substantial rates of C02 and H2S emission.The current unrest is centered beneath the volcano's 3374-m-high summit, whose last known eruption was 5000–6000 years ago. Since then, Crater Peak, 2309 m in elevation and 4 km to the south, has been the active vent. Recent eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992.

  6. Rising Expectations, Social Unrest & Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between peace and development holds the key to effective strategies for addressing the roots of social unrest. Rising expectations are the principal driving force for social development. However, the faster and higher aspirations rise, the greater the gap between expectations and reality. That gap promotes a sense of frustration, depravation and aggression leading to social unrest and violence. The opposite is also true: rising economic opportunity can mitigate or eliminate social unrest. The remarkable renunciation of armed struggle by the IRA in North Ireland in mid - 2005 appears inexplicable until the impact of rising incomes and expanding employment opportunities in the Republic of Ireland is also taken into account. A similar approach can be applied to address the problems of violence and social unrest in Kashmir and Palestine. Here too apparently intractable conflicts will lend themselves to be addressed economically. India's recent efforts to provide guaranteed employment to its rural poor are part of a strategy to stem the rising tide of social unrest in impoverished areas resulting from rising expectations among the poor.

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Current Practices in American Youth Theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, F. Scott

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes results of a survey of youth theatres on (1) theatre goals; (2) staff training and courses offered; (3) organization and funds; and (4) teachers' knowledge of actor training, child and adolescent psychology, playwriting trends in children's theatre, and current theoretical writings. (PD)

  8. Current Trends in Internet Usage and Cyber Crimes against Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bansal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a written survey, this paper examines the current trends in internet use and cyber crime against youth for a given set of demographic conditions and presents suggestions for related safety measures and precautions. A written survey of young internet users aged between 10 and 17 years was conducted in the schools of Chandigarh, India. It showed that nearly 84 percent of the youth surveyed have internet connectivity at their homes. Seventy percent of the youth surveyed use the internet for social networking, the majority of whom share photographs, videos and personal information online. Fifteen percent of the youth reported online harassment, and approximately 30 percent reported online interaction with unknown people. According to the youth surveyed, the parents or guardians of more than 90 percent know about their browsing habits. In most cases parents or guardians had talked to their children about internet safety and possible threats. Schools and parents/guardians should ensure that the children are aware of internet dangers, including the dangers of sharing personal information and trusting unknown people online, and regulate their browsing activities.

  9. Exergaming and obesity in youth: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nan Zeng, Zan Gao College of Education and Human Development, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Although exergaming has been used as a physical activity modality among various populations, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on health-related outcomes in overweight/obese individuals remains unclear. The current study systematically reviewed literature and summarized findings of exergame-based interventions in overweight/obese populations with the goal of clarifying the current perspectives on exergaming and obesity. The initial search yielded 202 articles from six databases; 12 studies were included after evaluating for inclusion criteria and removing duplicates. Among these studies, seven were randomized controlled trials, two were control trials, and three were comparison studies. Overall, exergaming has the potential to attenuate weight gain and shows promise when used for physical activity and physical fitness promotion. Further, exergame play is positively associated with psychological well-being, but its effects on physiological outcomes are inconclusive. Finally, effects of exergaming on energy intake are not clear. Existing evidence supports that exergaming may elicit some health benefits in people who are overweight or/and obese. The limited number of available randomized controlled trials, however, restrict the ability to draw a conclusion that exergaming can trigger a change in all health-related outcomes. More research is warranted to make definitive conclusions regarding the effects of exergaming on health-related outcomes in such populations. Keywords: active video game, weight loss, children and adolescents, systematic review

  10. A Universal Model of Global Civil Unrest

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, we analyze records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008. We demonstrate that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  11. A catalogue of caldera unrest at Taupo Volcanic Centre, New Zealand, using the Volcanic Unrest Index (VUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sally H.; Scott, Bradley J.; Jolly, Gill E.; Johnston, David M.; Neall, Vince E.

    2015-09-01

    Caldera unrest occurs frequently at Taupo Volcanic Centre (TVC), New Zealand, occasionally resulting in deleterious socio-economic impacts. This large silicic volcano most recently erupted in 232 AD in an explosive, caldera-forming rhyolitic eruption, devastating the central North Island. Eruptions are preceded by volcanic unrest, often consisting of seismicity, deformation, degassing, and/or geothermal system changes. These phenomena may also occur due to non-magmatic processes, complicating eruption forecasting. As volcanic unrest may or may not lead to an eruption, it needs to be characterised to provide effective warnings; this is best achieved by understanding past unrest. In this research, a catalogue of caldera unrest at TVC is developed using an historical chronology methodology, spanning from 1872 to December 2011. The Volcanic Unrest Index (VUI), which is introduced by Potter et al. (2015), is estimated for the catalogue, demonstrating its use and providing a characterisation of unrest at TVC. Sixteen episodes of unrest are identified; 4 are classified as moderate unrest (VUI 3), and 12 are classified as minor unrest (VUI 2). There has been median interval of approximately 3 years between unrest episodes and a median unrest episode duration of just under 5 months. This research provides context for future caldera unrest crises at TVC and contributes to the global caldera unrest dataset.

  12. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  13. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Johnson, Renee M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103). The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B Fulmer

    Full Text Available Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students.By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use.In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation.These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  15. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. Metabolic syndrome in youth: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ball, Geoff D C; Franks, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The current paper reviews the important issues and challenges facing children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies suggest that the MetS and its risk components may be on the rise in children along with rising rates of obesity; however, further study remains warranted. The topics reviewed encompass the definition of the syndrome, its prevalence, clustering and tracking of metabolic risk factors, the role of physical activity and diet in the development of the MetS, criticisms and utility of the MetS definition, and special considerations needed in the pediatric population. Physical activity and diet may play important roles in the MetS; however, research with precise measurements of activity, diet, and metabolic outcomes is needed. The paper concludes by emphasizing that regardless of one's position in the ongoing debate about the MetS, the long-term risks attributable to each individual risk component are real. The abnormality of one component should automatically prompt the screening of other components. Among children and adolescents, lifestyle modification should always serve as the frontline strategy. Prevention during childhood is key to the largest possible impact on adult health at the population level.

  17. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  18. The impact of the April 1992 civil unrest on the Los Angeles REI WIC program and its participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, R E; Baranov, M S

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a study conducted in south central Los Angeles in August 1992 among women in the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. The goals of the study were to determine the current demographics of WIC participants; examine the financial hardship, need for relief services, and extent of hunger resulting from the civil unrest of April 1992; look at the effects of the unrest on different ethnic groups; determine the unmet need for WIC services; and evaluate the State and local WIC responses to the unrest. The 1,189 respondents were approximately 77 percent Latina, 20 percent African American, and 3 percent white. Half or more were recent immigrants, 19 percent were pregnant and parenting adolescents, 74 percent were school dropouts, and 56 percent were single mothers. Only 1 percent had any problems using WIC vouchers after the unrest, although more than half of their grocery stores had closed. Thirty-five percent experienced food deficits in their households, and 33 percent of those who applied for emergency food stamps had trouble getting them. Four percent said their children had gone to bed hungry in the last week, and 9 percent said they, the respondents, had as well. Only 2 percent needed shelter, and 1 percent became homeless, but 6 percent had family members who lost jobs due to the unrest. This study suggests that the chronically substandard conditions under which many families in south central Los Angeles live affect them more profoundly than did the dramatic consequences of the civil unrest.

  19. Geodetic Observations of Ongoing Unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A. V.; Stiros, S. C.; Moschas, F.; Saltogianni, V.; Feng, L.; Psimoulis, P.; Jiang, Y.; Karakas, O.; Polster, S.

    2012-12-01

    After approximately 60 years of seismic quiescence within Santorini caldera, in January 2011 the volcano reawakened with a significant seismic swarm and rapidly expanding near-radial deformation. Using a combination of 10 continuous and 22 campaign GPS stations with observations beginning in 2006, we've captured the onset, and 3D shape of surface deformation. Deformation primarily radiates from inside the northern half of the caldera, with episodic growth periods lasting several months at a time. As of this writing, the caldera has expanded laterally about 185 mm, and uplifted at least 80 mm (with the maximum uplift likely occurring under the submerged caldera floor—unobservable by GPS). We will discuss the current geodetic evolution including continuous and 4 GPS campaigns during the period of unrest, exploring new numerical models to address the accompanying stress evolution of the system. We recognize that only anelastic inflation models including volumetric addition and viscoelastic relaxation or discrete dislocation will allow such growth to occur without a long-term stress increase. While observations of the current deformation sequence are unprecedented at Santorini, it is not certain that they mark the early stages of a process leading to an eruption given that other similar calderas have experienced comparable activity without eruption.

  20. Volcanic unrest and hazard communication in Long Valley Volcanic Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    emissions. Initial response plans developed by county and state agencies in response to the volcanic unrest began with “The Mono County Volcano Contingency Plan” and “Plan Caldera” by the California Office of Emergency Services in 1982–84. They subsequently became integrated in the regularly updated County Emergency Operation Plan. The alert level system employed by the USGS also evolved from the three-level “Notice-Watch-Warning” system of the early 1980s through a five level color-code to the current “Normal-Advisory-Watch-Warning” ground-based system in conjunction with the international 4-level aviation color-code for volcanic ash hazards. Field trips led by the scientists proved to be a particularly effective means of acquainting local residents and officials with the geologically active environment in which they reside. Relative caldera quiescence from 2000 through 2011 required continued efforts to remind an evolving population that the hazards posed by the 1980–2000 unrest persisted. Renewed uplift of the resurgent dome from 2011 to 2014 was accompanied by an increase in low-level earthquake activity in the caldera and beneath Mammoth Mountain and continues through May 2016. As unrest levels continue to wax and wane, so will the communication challenges.

  1. Application of the probabilistic model BET_UNREST during a volcanic unrest simulation exercise in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Robert; Robertson, Richard; Lindsay, Jan M.; Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmitri; Smith, Patrick; Stewart, Roderick

    2016-11-01

    We report on the first "real-time" application of the BET_UNREST (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Unrest) probabilistic model, during a VUELCO Simulation Exercise carried out on the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles, in May 2015. Dominica has a concentration of nine potentially active volcanic centers and frequent volcanic earthquake swarms at shallow depths, intense geothermal activity, and recent phreatic explosions (1997) indicate the region is still active. The exercise scenario was developed in secret by a team of scientists from The University of the West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago) and University of Auckland (New Zealand). The simulated unrest activity was provided to the exercise's Scientific Team in three "phases" through exercise injects comprising processed monitoring data. We applied the newly created BET_UNREST model through its software implementation PyBetUnrest, to estimate the probabilities of having (i) unrest of (ii) magmatic, hydrothermal or tectonic origin, which may or may not lead to (iii) an eruption. The probabilities obtained for each simulated phase raised controversy and intense deliberations among the members of the Scientific Team. The results were often considered to be "too high" and were not included in any of the reports presented to ODM (Office for Disaster Management) revealing interesting crisis communication challenges. We concluded that the PyBetUnrest application itself was successful and brought the tool one step closer to a full implementation. However, as with any newly proposed method, it needs more testing, and in order to be able to use it in the future, we make a series of recommendations for future applications.

  2. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  3. Climate change, social unrest and dynastic transition in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dian; JIM Chiyung; LIN Chusheng; HE Yuanqing; LEE Fung

    2005-01-01

    The evident connection between human evolution and climatic changes has been concurred by scientists. Although many people are trying to forecast the impacts of climatic changes on our future society, there are not any studies to quantitatively scrutinize the interrelation between climatic changes and social developments by using historical data. In line with this knowledge gap, this study adopted a scientific approach to compare the paleoclimatic records with the historical data of wars, social unrests, and dynastic transitions in China spanned from the late Tang to Qing Dynasties. Results showed that war frequency in cold phases was much higher than that in mild phases. Besides, 70%-80% of war peaks and most of the dynastic transitions and nationwide social unrests in China took place in cold phases. This phenomenon could be attributed to the diminishing thermal energy input in cold phases resulting in the fall of land-productivity and hence, the deficiency of livelihood resources across society. Accompanied with certain social circumstances, this kind of ecological stress was transformed into wars and social unrests, followed by dynastic transitions in most of the cases. By closer examination, it was even found that war frequency was negatively correlated with temperature anomaly series. As land carrying capacities vary from one climatic zone to another, the magnitude of war- temperature association also differed among different geographic regions. It is suggested that climatic change was one of the most important factors in determining the dynastic cycle and alternation of war and peace in ancient China.

  4. Recent geodetic unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew V.; Stiros, Stathis; Feng, Lujia; Psimoulis, Panos; Moschas, Fanis; Saltogianni, Vasso; Jiang, Yan; Papazachos, Costas; Panagiotopoulos, Dimitris; Karagianni, Eleni; Vamvakaris, Domenikos

    2012-03-01

    After approximately 60 years of seismic quiescence within Santorini caldera, in January 2011 the volcano reawakened with a significant seismic swarm and rapidly expanding radial deformation. The deformation is imaged by a dense network of 19 survey and 5 continuous GPS stations, showing that as of 21 January 2012, the volcano has extended laterally from a point inside the northern segment of the caldera by about 140 mm and is expanding at 180 mm/yr. A series of spherical source models show the source is not migrating significantly, but remains about 4 km depth and has expanded by 14 million m3 since inflation began. A distributed sill model is also tested, which shows a possible N-S elongation of the volumetric source. While observations of the current deformation sequence are unprecedented at Santorini, it is not certain that an eruption is imminent as other similar calderas have experienced comparable activity without eruption.

  5. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Clark, Rachael S; Plano Clark, Vicki L

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  6. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Elizabeth L.; Clark, Rachael S.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Methods Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12–25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. Results We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. Conclusions The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults. PMID:28841689

  7. Building and interpreting a database to understand recent caldera unrest from monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; Acocella, Valerio; Scandone, Roberto; Geshi, Nobuo

    2014-05-01

    Calderas are among the most spectacular, dangerous and active volcanoes on the Earth. Activation of seismicity, surface deformation and anomalous degassing are commonly observed at many calderas, denoting unrest. The unrest can be intermittent, lasting for months to years, or persistent, over decades to centuries. Although most caldera unrest episodes do not lead to an eruption, the possibility of an impending eruption warrants detailed monitoring and study. To better understand caldera unrest, we built a database from all available publications and reports on the recent unrest episodes at calderas in the world. We focused our attention on the unrest episodes which have occurred in the last 25 years, being complementary to Newhall and Dzurisin (1988). We considered the monitoring data from more than 45 unresting calderas, 35 of which characterized by eruptions. Attention has been given to seismicity, deformation and gas variations, along with their possible interaction. The database consists of an excel sheet containing the: (a) caldera descriptive parameters (caldera name, UTM coordinates, maximum and minimum diameter, area, date of last eruption, magma composition); (b) seismic data (width, maximum and minimum depth of area undergoing seismicity, frequency and duration and maximum magnitude; (c) geodetic data (location and width of deformed area, intensity and duration of the deformation); (d) geochemical data (location of anomalies, changes in maximum temperature, variations in chemical composition, duration of the anomaly, pH changes); (e) presence of eruptions and their characterization. The preliminary analysis of the database confirms that all eruptions are preceded by an unrest episode, but not all unrest episodes culminate in an eruption; this suggests that these indicators are a necessary condition to establish the state of unrest, which may anticipate an impending eruption; however, the indicators are not always adequate to determine the occurrence of

  8. Current and recalled childhood gender identity in community youth in comparison to referred adolescents seeking sex reassignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumia, Maria; Lindberg, Nina; Työläjärvi, Marja; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-04-01

    We studied current (GIDYQ-A) and recalled (RCGI) childhood gender identity among 719 upper secondary school students 401 girls, mean age 17.0 (SD = 0.88) years old and 318 boys, mean age 17.2 (SD = 0.86 years old in Finland. We also compared these dimensions of identity in community youth to same dimensions among adolescent sex reassignment (SR) applicants. Most community youth scored high on the normative, cis-gender end of gender experience (median score 4.9 for boys and 4.9 for girls) and recalled fairly gender typical childhood behaviours and experiences. The girls displayed more gender non-conformity in childhood. Among the boys 2.2% and among the girls 0.5% displayed potentially clinically significant gender dysphoria on the GIDYQ-A. The community youth differed clearly from adolescent SR applicants on current and recalled childhood gender identity (SR applicants were 47, 6 natal boys and 41 natal girls, average ages were 16.4 years old (SD = 0.93) and girls were on average 16.8 years old (SD = 1.0). Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The evolution of periodic seismicity, waveform similarity, and conduit processes during unrest episodes at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; Hernandez, Stephen; Gaunt, Elizabeth; Mothes, Patricia; Hidalgo, Silvana; Ruiz, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Tungurahua is a large andesitic stratovolcano located in the Andes of Ecuador. The current eruptive phase at Tungurahua began in 1999, and has been characterised by episodes of vulcanian and strombolian activity, interspersed by periods of relative quiescence. Despite showing only modest eruptive activity in 2015, seismic data revealed a pronounced change in the behaviour of the magma-conduit system compared to the preceding 15 years of activity. The change is most notable in the periodicity of interevent-times of volcanic earthquakes. Previous seismicity at Tungurahua is characterised by interevent-time periodicities typical of a Poisson process, or modestly clustered, with slightly elevated (anti-clustered) periodicities observed only rarely during vulcanian episodes. However, activity in 2015 saw a series of unrest episodes characterised by highly-periodic interevent-times, and including several notable episodes of 'drumbeat' earthquakes. Here we report seismic and associated geophysical signals recorded at Tungurahua in 2015 by the monitoring network of the Instituto Geofisico of Ecuador, their relation to conduit processes, and implications for the origins of unrest and likely future activity. Although the nature of the low-frequency seismic signals change both within and between unrest episodes, the underlying periodicity is more consistent and gradually evolving. Waveform similarity is high within phases, resulting from the repeated activation of persistent sources, but low between different episodes, suggesting the emergence of new sources and locations. The strength of periodicity is correlated with the average waveform similarity for all unrest episodes, with the relatively low waveform similarities observed for the highly periodic drumbeat earthquakes in April due to contamination from coexisting continuous tremor. Eruptive activity consisted of a few minor explosions and ash emission events. Notably, a short-lived episode of Strombolian activity in

  10. Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

    This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch),…

  11. Maltreatment, Academic Difficulty, and Systems-Involved Youth: Current Evidence and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susan; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Youth involved in child-serving systems of care (e.g., child welfare and juvenile justice) often exhibit specific academic performance problems. The magnitude of academic risk among these students is a serious concern given that school attachment, performance, and attainment closely relate to indicators of well-being across the lifespan. It is…

  12. Transition to Employment and Community Life for Youths with Visual Impairments: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Katherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Outcome data from the 21st Annual Report to Congress and the National Longitudinal Transition Study for youths with visual impairments indicate that postsecondary education does not lead to increased employment opportunities. Recommendations are offered concerning agency collaboration, vocational assessment and training, social skills training,…

  13. An Empirical Assessment of Social Unrest Dynamics and State Response in Eurasian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo de Cadenas-Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an empirical assessment of social unrest dynamics in the Eurasian countries. We use a big database of social events (GDELT to build up several real time indexes of social unrest escalation by social agents divided in several stages consistent with the Unrest Lifecycle Theory (vindication, protest and conflict and alternatives measures of state response (repression and cooperation. We build a Vector Autoregressive (VAR model to analyse the unrest dynamic cycle of social agents and state response. Our results show that Eurasia is a fairly volatile region in what shock-generation and inertia relates. Social reactivity is also relevant but we find that this is stronger at the initial stages of unrest while it decays as the intensity of shocks increases. Repressive state response is a fact but it decays too in intensity as the conflict escalates along the unrest cycle, falling even into an accommodative mode. We attribute this behaviour to the limited state enforcing ability of among other things. Unrest and government action are not homogenous across the region, West and Central Eurasia are more prone to conflict escalation and their enforcing ability of the state is also lower. This gives an insight were prevalent unrest theories such as unrest lifecycle; deterrence and backslash seem more dominant. We also find traces of spill over-effects or contagion among countries who share boundaries but the intensity and sign is undefined. We compare these stylized facts against the MENA region and suggest that Eurasia carries similar though milder dynamics in all terms, volatility and reactivity of social unrest, state response and enforcing inability and contagion.

  14. [Current Problems Encountered by American Youth: Delinquency, Crime, School Violence, School Discipline, and Related Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Alfred S.

    This paper presents a broad overview of information about delinquency, crime, and school discipline and violence in relation to U.S. youths. Part 1 compares U.S. and West Germany's crime rates for 1980-1985, while part 2 focuses on U.S. juvenile crime facts and on the contribution of the increasing number of U.S. family breakdowns to juvenile…

  15. The Configuration of Youth Transitions. Current Debates about Education and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Elizabeth Otero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the passage from educational institutions to work and adult life have gained momentum in the framework of the employment crisis. Since the 1980s, changes in the situations that affect the life trajectories of contemporary youth have been a topic of discussion. This article addresses such issues by analyzing the educational and work careers of a group of young urban Argentines. The study focuses on a particular moment of their trajectories: that of the transition from high school graduation to higher education and/or work. In this way we attempt to reach a substantive discussion on those discretionary and/or determining factors that can be identified in the configuration of these transitions as well as on the points of tension that were encountered. The research is based on a reconstruction of the experiences of a group of youth (Cohort-2003 from different public and private high schools in townships in the cities of Buenos Aires and La Plata, Argentina, and involves the description given by these young people and their perception of the various scenarios that comprise their traveled paths.

  16. Factors Associated With Current Smoking Among Off-Reserve First Nations and Métis Youth: Results From the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher; Leatherdale, Scott; Cooke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    First Nations and Métis, two of Canada's constitutionally recognized Indigenous groups, suffer from poorer overall health than non-Indigenous Canadians. Current smoking, a known predictor of chronic health conditions, is close to twice as prevalent among Indigenous youth as it is among non-Indigenous Canadian youth. However, little population-level research has examined the correlates of current smoking among this population. Guided by a health framework centered on Indigenous-specific determinants, we used data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine the correlates of current smoking among First Nations and Métis youth aged 15-17 years living outside of First Nations reserves. Using binary logistic regression, we investigated how culturally specific factors, namely knowledge of an Indigenous language, participation in traditional activities, and family members' attendance at residential schools, were correlated with current smoking. We also considered demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related correlates. Overall, an estimated 20.6% of First Nations and Métis youth reported current smoking. We found no significant associations between culturally specific activities and current smoking in the multivariate analyses, although those who spoke an Indigenous language were more likely to smoke. Those who participated in sports more often were less likely to smoke, and respondents who reported heavy drinking and who were from families with lower income were more likely to smoke. Gender, body mass index, urban/rural geography and regional geography, and mother's highest level of education were not significantly correlated with smoking. The results of our study support prior research that has found a disturbingly high prevalence of current smoking among Indigenous youth, compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Our results highlight the importance of considering sports participation, co-occurring health-risk behaviours and socioeconomic

  17. Critical Development? Using a Critical Theory Lens to Examine the Current Role of Evaluation in the Youth-Development Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A critical theory lens is used to explore the role of evaluation in youth development, a field aimed at recognizing youth as assets. A theory of change in the field is questioned for its emphasis on individual youth outcomes as programmatic outcome measures. A review of 209 evaluations of 131 programs in the Harvard Family Research Project's…

  18. The magmatic engine of unrest episodes at Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, R.; G. Berrino; Arienzo, I.; Chiodini, G.; L. Civetta; Orsi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic calderas are affected by unrest episodes usually dominated by hybrid magmatic-hydrothermal system dynamics, but which can evolve to variable intensity eruptions, up to Plinian. Campi Flegrei caldera...

  19. Ethnographies of Youth and Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line; Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Højlund, Susanne

    As we experience and manipulate time—be it as boredom or impatience—it becomes an object: something materialized and social, something that affects perception, or something that may motivate reconsideration and change. The editors and contributors to this important new book, Ethnographies of Youth...... emotional unrest and violence but also creativity and hope are responses to troubling times. The chapters discuss notions of time and its “objectification” in diverse locales including the Georgian Republic, Brazil, Denmark, and Uganda. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork, the essays in Ethnographies...

  20. The lateral extent of volcanic interactions during unrest and eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Juliet; Robertson, Elspeth; Cashman, Katharine

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions often occur simultaneously or tap multiple magma reservoirs. Such lateral interactions between magmatic systems are attributed to stress changes or hydraulic connections but the precise conditions under which coupled eruptions occur have yet to be quantified. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar satellite data to analyse the surface deformation generated by volcanic unrest in the Kenyan Rift. We identify several magma sources located at depths of 2-5 km importantly, sources that are spaced less than about 10 km apart interact, whereas those spaced more than about 25 km apart do not. However, volcanoes up to 25 km apart have interacted in the geologic past. Thus, volcanic coupling is not simply controlled by the distance between the magma reservoirs. We then consider different tectonic settings globally, including intraplate volcanoes such as Hawaii and Yellowstone, arc volcanism in Alaska and Chile, and other rift settings, such as New Zealand, Iceland and Afar. We find that the most closely spaced magmatic interactions are controlled by the extent of a shallow crystal mush layer, stress changes can couple large eruptions over distances of about 20-40 km, and only large dyke intrusions or subduction earthquakes could generate coupled eruptions over distances of about 50-100 km.

  1. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  2. Current Practices for Training Staff to Accommodate Youth with Special Health Care Needs in the 4-H Camp Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Lauren; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2013-01-01

    The theory of inclusion is the foundation for the study reported here; inclusion is a focus not only of formal education, but also of nonformal educational settings such as 4-H. Ideally, 4-H camps are designed to serve youth of all backgrounds and abilities. By accommodating youth with special health care needs, 4-H camps are effectively meeting…

  3. Impact of Work Experience and Training in the Current and Previous Occupations on Earnings: Micro Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Dougherty

    2000-01-01

    In the empirical literature on work experience, job tenure, training and earnings, only one previous study has made a distinction between the effects of work experience in the current occupation and work experience in previous ones, and no study has made the distinction with respect to training. Yet it is reasonable to hypothesize that the distinction is important. Using data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, it is found that the returns to work experience in the current occu...

  4. Voluntary sport and highway risks in adolescents and youths (following current French and Canadian periodical publications of 2000th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinovich M.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss some personal traits of adolescents and young people, disposed to different types of risky behavior. We describe correlations between different types of risky behavior in one individual. We discuss also the gender aspect of risk taking in adolescents and youth. Some modern theories of risk taking are recapitulated. Finally, we discuss the organizational question about the preventive work with adolescents and youth, aimed on minimization of sportive and highway risk.

  5. Towards a Psychological Frame for Explicating Student Unrest in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Imhanlahimi, Joseph E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focused on three dominant psychological theories--Cognitive Dissonance, Relative Deprivation and Campus Ecology that have been evolved to explain student unrest, to determine their ability to account for the phenomenon in Nigerian universities. It found that none of the theories could all alone holistically account for all the causal…

  6. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  7. WOVOdat: Data Population and Current Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Baguet, A.; Lyou, C.; Newhall, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories’ (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. A large and valuable body of data on volcanic seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other precursory parameters is now being assembled into a single database which later will be open to all and accessible through the WOVOdat website. The project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). Historical data of volcanic unrest, whether that unrest leads to an eruption or not, can be a reference in forecasting of future activity. Forecasts are based mainly on interpretation of present unrest, but comparisons to past unrest and outcomes give a useful context for the first. WOVOdat will help researchers and those responding to volcanic crisis to search for all close matches to some features of unrest in question, and to use modern techniques to find patterns. For eruption data, WOVOdat uses the Smithsonian Institution’s database of historical eruptions. In the current stage of WOVOdat (data population), our website is supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing design information and documentation, and also data uploading. When the database is sufficiently complete, this website will provide tools for users to access and query data, and visualize it in time-series and spatial distributions and other ways.

  8. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  9. The Italy's D.P.C. - I.N.G.V. Project UNREST: Realization of an integrated method for the definition of the unrest phases at Campi Flegrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Lucia; Del Pezzo, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    In this poster we present the framework of the Project "UNREST" and the preliminary results obtained in the first 18 months of activity. The Campi Flegrei resurgent caldera, where several hundred thousands people live, have been characterized during last decades by several bradiseismic crises which determined the partial evacuation of the population, as for the crises in 1969-72 and 1982-84. Recent studies have revealed a process of unrest which continues since the fifties, and which presents characteristics similar to the several centuries-decades long unrest period which led to the last eruption in AD 1538. In the frame of last INGV-DPC Agreement a method has been developed, which allows accounting of any information and associated uncertainty coming from historical, field, and modelling studies, and from the monitoring network, providing a probability on the state of the volcano and on the occurrence of an eruption. In the present project this method is explored and developed, particularly through the experimentation of methods for the definition of reference parameters and thresholds, and of criteria and procedures to make it an operational tool useful for volcano surveillance and crisis management. The research in the project include the following points: a) Definition of the reference database for the validation of models of pre-eruptive dynamics. The database will include geologic, geophysic, geochemical, hydrological and hystorical data. b) Quantitative analysis of measured signals, and formulation of hypotheses on source mechanisms. c) Definition of a general conceptual model for the magma-rocks-geothermal system at Campi Flegrei. d) Physico-mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of the magmatic and geothermal process dynamics, and of the space-time relationships between such dynamics and the geophysical and geochemical signals measured at the surface. e) Definition of the critical parameters for the definition of the different unrest phases, and

  10. “怀旧风潮”影响下的大学生恋爱观%The College Students’ Attitude towards Love under the Influence of “Unrest of Nostalgia”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林聪

    2016-01-01

    怀旧风潮是反映特定时期内社会中一定数量的人对于逝去的青春岁月的怀念的一种思想潮流,多伴随着对当前境况的不满与对年少时光的虚幻美化,具有社会历史性、群体趋同性、症候象征性和功利机动性的特征。怀旧风潮给大学生恋爱观带来了下述挑战:恋爱危机感持续得到强化、真实发生的青春历史在虚拟历史幻象中受到消解和遮蔽、理性的反思与判断被扭曲的事件陈述所取代和对大学生道德责任意识的弱化。基于上述问题,应发挥高校各类资源对恋爱观引导的合力作用,发挥兼具真实性与反思性的文艺作品的引导作用,发挥特色婚恋教育课程的助力作用和发挥社会、学校和家庭环境的熏陶作用。%Unrest of Nostalgia means a certain number of people in the community within a specific period expressing an idea of the trend of nostalgia for lost youth years, mostly accompanied by dissatisfaction with the current situation and young unreal moments landscaping. With four characteristic: social historic, groups of convergence, symptoms of symbolic, mobility of utilitarianism, it had a negative impact on the college students’ attitude towards love, including crisis continued to strengthen, the real history in the history of virtual illusion of youth by digestion and shielding, rational reflection and judgment replaced by distorting events statement and the weakening of the college students’ moral responsibility consciousness. Guidance of students out of the nostalgic countermeasures including:various kinds of resources of colleges and universities should be utilized to love, using literatures and arts that both authenticity and reflective to guide, exerting the assistance role of various kinds of special marriage education courses and the influence of the society, school and family environment.

  11. Unsupervised spatial event detection in targeted domains with applications to civil unrest modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available Twitter has become a popular data source as a surrogate for monitoring and detecting events. Targeted domains such as crime, election, and social unrest require the creation of algorithms capable of detecting events pertinent to these domains. Due to the unstructured language, short-length messages, dynamics, and heterogeneity typical of Twitter data streams, it is technically difficult and labor-intensive to develop and maintain supervised learning systems. We present a novel unsupervised approach for detecting spatial events in targeted domains and illustrate this approach using one specific domain, viz. civil unrest modeling. Given a targeted domain, we propose a dynamic query expansion algorithm to iteratively expand domain-related terms, and generate a tweet homogeneous graph. An anomaly identification method is utilized to detect spatial events over this graph by jointly maximizing local modularity and spatial scan statistics. Extensive experiments conducted in 10 Latin American countries demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. A new Bayesian Event Tree tool to track and quantify volcanic unrest and its application to Kawah Ijen volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmitri; Caudron, Corentin; Marzocchi, Warner; Suparjan

    2016-07-01

    Although most of volcanic hazard studies focus on magmatic eruptions, volcanic hazardous events can also occur when no migration of magma can be recognized. Examples are tectonic and hydrothermal unrest that may lead to phreatic eruptions. Recent events (e.g., Ontake eruption on September 2014) have demonstrated that phreatic eruptions are still hard to forecast, despite being potentially very hazardous. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to identify indicators that define the condition of nonmagmatic unrest, in particular for hydrothermal systems. Often, this type of unrest is driven by movement of fluids, requiring alternative monitoring setups, beyond the classical seismic-geodetic-geochemical architectures. Here we present a new version of the probabilistic BET (Bayesian Event Tree) model, specifically developed to include the forecasting of nonmagmatic unrest and related hazards. The structure of the new event tree differs from the previous schemes by adding a specific branch to detail nonmagmatic unrest outcomes. A further goal of this work consists in providing a user-friendly, open-access, and straightforward tool to handle the probabilistic forecast and visualize the results as possible support during a volcanic crisis. The new event tree and tool are here applied to Kawah Ijen stratovolcano, Indonesia, as exemplificative application. In particular, the tool is set on the basis of monitoring data for the learning period 2000-2010, and is then blindly applied to the test period 2010-2012, during which significant unrest phases occurred.

  13. Using publicly visible social media to build detailed forecasts of civil unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Ryan; Lee, Craig; Xu, Jiejun; Artieda-Moncada, Luis; Lu, Tsai-Ching; Silva, Lalindra De; Macy, Michael

    We demonstrate how one can generate predictions for several thousand incidents of Latin American civil unrest, often many days in advance, by surfacing informative public posts available on Twitter and Tumblr. The data mining system presented here runs daily and requires no manual intervention. Identification of informative posts is accomplished by applying multiple textual and geographic filters to a high-volume data feed consisting of tens of millions of posts per day which have been flagged as public by their authors. Predictions are built by annotating the filtered posts, typically a few dozen per day, with demographic, spatial, and temporal information. Key to our textual filters is the fact that social media posts are necessarily short, making it possible to easily infer topic by simply searching for comentions of typically unrelated terms within the same post (e.g. a future date comentioned with an unrest keyword). Additional textual filters then proceed by applying a logistic regression classifier trained to recognize accounts belonging to organizations who are likely to announce civil unrest. Geographic filtering is accomplished despite sparsely available GPS information and without relying on sophisticated natural language processing. A geocoding technique which infers non-GPS-known user locations via the locations of their GPS-known friends provides us with location estimates for 91,984,163 Twitter users at a median error of 6.65km. We show that announcements of upcoming events tend to localize within a small geographic region, allowing us to forecast event locations which are not explicitly mentioned in text. We annotate our forecasts with demographic information by searching the collected posts for demographic specific keywords generated by hand as well as with the aid of DBpedia. Our system has been in production since December 2012 and, at the time of this writing, has produced 4,771 distinct forecasts for events across ten Latin American nations

  14. From quiescence to unrest: 20 years of satellite geodetic measurements at Santorini volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Moore, James D. P.; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Raptakis, Costas; Paradissis, Demitris; Hooper, Andrew; Parsons, Barry; Nomikou, Paraskevi

    2015-02-01

    Periods of unrest at caldera-forming volcanic systems characterized by increased rates of seismicity and deformation are well documented. Some can be linked to eventual eruptive activity, while others are followed by a return to quiescence. Here we use a 20 year record of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS measurements from Santorini volcano to further our understanding of geodetic signals at a caldera-forming volcano during the periods of both quiescence and unrest, with measurements spanning a phase of quiescence and slow subsidence (1993-2010), followed by a phase of unrest (January 2011 to April 2012) with caldera-wide inflation and seismicity. Mean InSAR velocity maps from 1993-2010 indicate an average subsidence rate of 6 mm/yr over the southern half of the intracaldera island Nea Kameni. This subsidence can be accounted for by a combination of thermal contraction of the 1866-1870 lava flows and load-induced relaxation of the substrate. For the period of unrest, we use a joint inversion technique to convert InSAR measurements from three separate satellite tracks and GPS observations from 10 continuous sites into a time series of subsurface volume change. The optimal location of the inflating source is consistent with previous studies, situated north of Nea Kameni at a depth of 4 km. However, the time series reveals two distinct pressure pulses. The first pulse corresponds to a volume change (ΔV) within the shallow magma chamber of (11.56 ± 0.14) × 106 m3, and the second pulse has a ΔV of (9.73 ± 0.10) × 106 m3. The relationship between the timing of these pulses and microseismicity observations suggests that these pulses may be driven by two separate batches of magma supplied to a shallow reservoir. We find no evidence suggesting a change in source location between the two pulses. The decline in the rates of volume change at the end of both pulses and the observed lag of the deformation signal behind cumulative seismicity, suggest

  15. CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS REGARDING YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Lect. Ph.D Student Moisa Claudia Olimpia

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is no clear definition for the youth travel concept. This concept emerged much latter than the first forms of manifestation of tourism for young people, namely the beginning of the ’90s when the first studies regarding youth travel were also conducted. No doubt, the concept of youth travel ensues from three notions, namely: youth, tourism and vacation – in the sense of free time. All the definitions used by tourism organizations, by various national tourism administrations an...

  16. Geodetic constraints to the source mechanism of the 2011-2013 unrest at Campi Flegrei (Italy) caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Polcari, Marco; Bonafede, Maurizio; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Campi Flegrei (Italy) is a nested caldera and together with Vesuvius is one of the Italian GEO Geohazard Supersites (GSNL). The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard of the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants (1800/km²), the persistent activity of the system and the explosive character of volcanism. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m. Minor uplifts of few centimeters, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000 and 2004-06. Since 2005 Campi Flegrei is uplifting, reaching a ground velocity of 9 cm/yr in 2012, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. In this work, we present results from SAR Interferometry and geodetic data modelling at Campi Flegrei in the framework of the EU's FP7 MED-SUV Project. We exploit two COSMO-SkyMed data sets to map the deformation field during 2011-2013. The spatial distributions of the cumulative displacement from COSMO-SkyMed ascending/descending orbits show similar behaviors, confirming the bell-shaped pattern of the deformation at least within the inner rim of the caldera. The resulting data, together with GPS data from the Neapolitan Volcanoes Continuous GPS network (NeVoCGPS) is fitted through a geophysical inversion process using finite element forward models to account for the 3D heterogeneous medium. The best fit model is a north dipping mixed-mode dislocation source lying at ~5 km depth. The driving mechanism is ascribable to magma input into the source of the large 1982-1984 unrest (since similar source characteristics were inferred) that generates initial inflation followed by additional shear slip accompanying the extension of crack tips. The history and the current state of the system indicate that Campi Flegrei is able to erupt again. Constraining the defomation source may have important implications in terms of civil protection and the

  17. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  18. African 'Youth'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... The Royal Tropi- cal Institute's library in Amsterdam was also used but to a lesser extent. .... that the term 'youth' has a different meaning in a given cultural, social and historical .... The study of youth is maturing; theories around youth and who and what ... where the making of society by youth is emphasised.

  19. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  20. Aspects of historical eruptive activity and volcanic unrest at Mt. Tongariro, New Zealand: 1846-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bradley J.; Potter, Sally H.

    2014-10-01

    The 6 August and 21 November 2012 eruptions from Upper Te Maari crater have heightened interest in past activity at Mt. Tongariro, New Zealand. Risks caused by volcanic hazards are increasingly being quantified by using probability estimates through expert elicitation, partly based on the frequency of past eruptions. To maximise the accuracy of these risk values at Mt. Tongariro, a historical eruption catalogue is required. This paper presents the findings of a detailed historical chronology of unrest and eruptions at Mt. Tongariro between 1846 AD and 2013 AD. It builds on the findings of previous researchers, highlighting that volcanic eruptions and unrest have occurred frequently from this volcano. Eruptions are now thought to have occurred at Mt. Tongariro in 1869, 1892, 1896-97, 1899, 1926, 1927, 1934 and 2012. Eruptions also potentially occurred in 1846, 1855, 1886, and 1928, in addition to frequent eruptions from neighbouring Mt. Ngauruhoe. The number of recognised eruptions during the 1896-97 episode has increased to 18, and the Red Crater area has been found to be more active than previously appreciated. Multiple episodes of unrest not resulting in eruptions have also been identified. New eruption recurrence rates are derived from this catalogue, with the baseline probability of the onset of an eruption episode calculated to be 0.07 per year (if 1896-97 and 2012 are considered as one episode each, and all others separately), and the maximum eruption rate within an eruption episode is 18 per year. These new data contribute towards risk assessments for future eruptions at Mt. Tongariro.

  1. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia 1921–1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries M. Fokkens

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1915, the Union of South Africa was requested to administrate South West Africa (SWA (today Namibia on behalf of the British Crown and approved the South West Africa Mandate.  The policies of the Union strongly influenced the administration of SWA, and the administration met with indigenous opposition discontent with the maltreatment.  An attitude of master and servant was prevalent in the mandated territory and the maltreatment of the indigenous people in the mandated territory, racial prejudice, double standards in executing branding laws, enforced indentured labour, dog and hut tax were some of the grievances that the Bondelswarts, the Rehoboth Basters and the Ukuambi had against the SWA Administration.  The Administration perceived these actions as internal unrest and subdued it using police and military resources. Suppressing unrest through force was part of the military policing tradition prevalent in Southern Africa and abroad during the colonial era.  The tactical deployment of ground forces in conjunction with aircraft was an innovation that transformed future operations in SWA between the suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article discusses the utilisation of the Union Defence Force (UDF and South West Africa Forces against indigenous people of South West Africa between the two world wars focusing on three incidents over the period 1922 to 1932.  Tactical deployments of ground forces and the application of air power in support of ground forces to suppress internal unrest are explained and discussed.  These discussions provide the military historian with salient facts on physical conditions encountered, the tactics employed and the role of a new weapon system, aircraft, yet to be fully understood in its role as a force multiplier.

  2. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris ML

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark L Norris,1 Wendy J Spettigue,2 Debra K Katzman3 1Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients. Keywords: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID, eating disorder, picky eating, prevalence, treatment

  3. ST-HASSET for volcanic hazard assessment: A Python tool for evaluating the evolution of unrest indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Short-term hazard assessment is an important part of the volcanic management cycle, above all at the onset of an episode of volcanic agitation (unrest). For this reason, one of the main tasks of modern volcanology is to use monitoring data to identify and analyse precursory signals and so determine where and when an eruption might occur. This work follows from Sobradelo and Martí [Short-term volcanic hazard assessment through Bayesian inference: retrospective application to the Pinatubo 1991 volcanic crisis. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 290, 111, 2015] who defined the principle for a new methodology for conducting short-term hazard assessment in unrest volcanoes. Using the same case study, the eruption on Pinatubo (15 June 1991), this work introduces a new free Python tool, ST-HASSET, for implementing Sobradelo and Martí (2015) methodology in the time evolution of unrest indicators in the volcanic short-term hazard assessment. Moreover, this tool is designed for complementing long-term hazard assessment with continuous monitoring data when the volcano goes into unrest. It is based on Bayesian inference and transforms different pre-eruptive monitoring parameters into a common probabilistic scale for comparison among unrest episodes from the same volcano or from similar ones. This allows identifying common pre-eruptive behaviours and patterns. ST-HASSET is especially designed to assist experts and decision makers as a crisis unfolds, and allows detecting sudden changes in the activity of a volcano. Therefore, it makes an important contribution to the analysis and interpretation of relevant data for understanding the evolution of volcanic unrest.

  4. The Politics of Paternalism: Adult and Youth Perspectives on Youth Voice in Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Jerusha Osberg; Ober, C. Nathan; Brown, Amanda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the last two decades, youth involvement in policy advocacy has increased sharply, through youth councils, organizing coalitions, and new media forums. Currently 12 states and 140 American cities have youth councils or commissions established to advise policymakers on the impact of their legislation on youth. Despite their…

  5. The Politics of Paternalism: Adult and Youth Perspectives on Youth Voice in Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Jerusha Osberg; Ober, C. Nathan; Brown, Amanda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the last two decades, youth involvement in policy advocacy has increased sharply, through youth councils, organizing coalitions, and new media forums. Currently 12 states and 140 American cities have youth councils or commissions established to advise policymakers on the impact of their legislation on youth. Despite their…

  6. The 2011-2012 unrest at Santorini rift: Stress interaction between active faulting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    Santorini, active normal faulting controls the emission of volcanic products. Such geometry has implication on seismic activity around the plumbing system during unrest. Static Coulomb stress changes induced by the 2011-2012 inflation within a preexisting NW-SE extensional regional stress field, compatible with fault geometry, increased by more than 0.5 MPa in an ellipsoid-shaped zone beneath the Minoan caldera where almost all earthquakes (96%) have occurred since beginning of unrest. Magmatic processes perturb the regional stress in the caldera where strike-slip rather than normal faulting along NE-SW striking planes are expected. The inflation may have also promoted more distant moderate earthquakes on neighboring faults as the M > 5 January 2012, south of Christiania. Santorini belongs to a set of en echelon NE-SW striking rifts (Milos, Nysiros) oblique to the Aegean arc that may have initiated in the Quaternary due to propagation of the North Anatolian fault into the Southern Aegean Sea.

  7. Youth development in India: does poverty matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bijaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the differentials in youth development patterns determined by the economic condition of the household in India. The wealth index is used to glean youth development differentials in the different economic categories of the household. The findings suggest that youth from the bottom 20 per cent (poorest) of households are deprived in education, employment, labour force and are not working currently compared to youth from the middle and rich households. The states differ in youth development patterns (employment, appropriate education, skill development and awareness about health). There are more working youth among poor households than among rich households in India. Female youth are more disadvantaged compared to male youth and it is the same with the rural-urban distribution of youth. This paper concludes that the various economic categories/wealth index (poorest, poorer, middle, richer and richest) directly determine the pattern of youth development in India.

  8. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George

    2013-01-01

    and the nature of policies introduced to tackle youth (un)employment. It provides an overview of the six papers that make up this special issue and shows how highlighting the complexities and diversities of youth employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa provides valuable lessons, both for enhancing current......Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends...... conceptualisations and theorisation of youth employment and in terms of related policy instruments....

  9. Malaysia Youth Council (MBM and its Relevance to Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzuhailmi Dahalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Malaysia Youth Council (MBM which is also known as National Youth Council is a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO accredited to represent the voice of youth generation in Malaysia. Its’ main aim is to boost and motivate youth organizations to play a positive and effective role towards society and country. However, does MBM currently being transformed holistically in the true sense as the catalyst of Malaysian youth development? Does MBM’s presence being felt by youth in Malaysia completely? Approach: Data for this study were collected based on literature analysis, random observations on the scenario that happened, discussion among fellow researchers in the field of youth development and selective and informal feedback from a number of fellow practitioners that are active in youth work in Malaysia. Results: Analysis found that there are still several outdated issues that need to be resolved especially related to the weakness of the youth organizations in Malaysia, whereby this not reflect the acknowledgement of MBM as the body that fight for the youth concerns in Malaysia. Conclusion: The findings provide space for further research on issues raised from various perspectives apart from empowering Malaysian youth in the near future.

  10. LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV Violence Prevention Adolescent and School Health NCHHSTP LGBT Youth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... and health of any young person. However, for LGBT youth, a national study of middle and high ...

  11. A multi-data stream assimilation framework for the assessment of volcanic unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Patricia M.; Pettijohn, J. Cory

    2016-01-01

    Active volcanoes pose a constant risk to populations living in their vicinity. Significant effort has been spent to increase monitoring and data collection campaigns to mitigate potential volcano disasters. To utilize these datasets to their fullest extent, a new generation of model-data fusion techniques is required that combine multiple, disparate observations of volcanic activity with cutting-edge modeling techniques to provide efficient assessment of volcanic unrest. The purpose of this paper is to develop a data assimilation framework for volcano applications. Specifically, the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is adapted to assimilate GPS and InSAR data into viscoelastic, time-forward, finite element models of an evolving magma system to provide model forecasts and error estimations. Since the goal of this investigation is to provide a methodological framework, our efforts are focused on theoretical development and synthetic tests to illustrate the effectiveness of the EnKF and its applicability in physical volcanology. The synthetic tests provide two critical results: (1) a proof of concept for using the EnKF for multi dataset assimilation in investigations of volcanic activity; and (2) the comparison of spatially limited, but temporally dense, GPS data with temporally limited InSAR observations for evaluating magma chamber dynamics during periods of volcanic unrest. Results indicate that the temporally dense information provided by GPS observations results in faster convergence and more accurate model predictions. However, most importantly, the synthetic tests illustrate that the EnKF is able to swiftly respond to data updates by changing the model forecast trajectory to match incoming observations. The synthetic results demonstrate a great potential for utilizing the EnKF model-data fusion method to assess volcanic unrest and provide model forecasts. The development of these new techniques provides: (1) a framework for future applications of rapid data

  12. Pediatric Provider's Perspectives on the Transition to Adult Health Care for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Strategies and Promising New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlthau, Karen A.; Warfield, Marji E.; Hurson, Jill; Delahaye, Jennifer; Crossman, Morgan K.

    2015-01-01

    Few youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) nationally report receiving services to help them transition from the pediatric health care system to the adult health care system. For example, only one-fifth (21.1%) of youth with ASD receive any transition planning services. To better understand why the transition from pediatric to adult health care…

  13. Corrections and Juvenile Justice: Current Education Practice for Youth with Learning and Other Disabilities. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kenneth W.; Wolford, Bruce I.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, focuses on the educational services provided to youth with behavioral and cognitive disabilities placed in the juvenile justice system. It reports on a review of correctional system monitoring reports, materials from enforcement actions taken against…

  14. Cyberbullying among Youth: A Comprehensive Review of Current International Research and Its Implications and Application to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…

  15. Cyberbullying among Youth: A Comprehensive Review of Current International Research and Its Implications and Application to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…

  16. Long Valley Caldera 2003 through 2014: overview of low level unrest in the past decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stuart K.; Hill, David P.; Langbein, John O.; Lisowski, Michael; Mangan, Margaret T.

    2014-01-01

    Long Valley Caldera is located in California along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada Range. The caldera formed about 760,000 years ago as the eruption of 600 km3 of rhyolite magma (Bishop Tuff) resulted in collapse of the partially evacuated magma chamber. Resurgent doming in the central part of the caldera occurred shortly afterwards, and the most recent eruptions inside the caldera occurred about 50,000 years ago. The caldera remains thermally active, with many hot springs and fumaroles, and has had significant deformation and seismicity since at least 1978. Periods of intense unrest in the 1980s to early 2000s are well documented in the literature (Hill and others, 2002; Ewert and others, 2010). In this poster, we extend the timeline forward, documenting seismicity and deformation over the past decade.

  17. Latest legal and social developments in the euthanasia debate: bad moral consciences and political unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, N

    2007-06-01

    Several events that took place during recent years, such as the French Act on the rights of patients and the end of life, the Terri Schiavo case and Lord Joffe's proposal for an Assisted Dying Bill in the United Kingdom, have triggered the debate on euthanasia more than ever. It is therefore opportune to revisit basic notions related thereto and to make a comparative analysis of the legal regime of euthanasia in several countries in Europe and elsewhere, as well as to try to see how the public awareness of the problem has of late developed. There seems to be a clear trend in many legal systems towards an increasing respect for the patient's right to self-determination. However, we are still looking at a complex social game, where legal and medical terminology are manipulated and euphemisms are invented in order to accommodate bad moral consciences and avoid political unrest.

  18. Cotopaxi volcano's unrest and eruptive activity in 2015: mild awakening after 73 years of quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Silvana; Bernard, Benjamin; Battaglia, Jean; Gaunt, Elizabeth; Barrington, Charlotte; Andrade, Daniel; Ramón, Patricio; Arellano, Santiago; Yepes, Hugo; Proaño, Antonio; Almeida, Stefanie; Sierra, Daniel; Dinger, Florian; Kelly, Peter; Parra, René; Bobrowski, Nicole; Galle, Bo; Almeida, Marco; Mothes, Patricia; Alvarado, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Cotopaxi volcano (5,897 m) is located 50 km south of Quito, the capital of Ecuador. The most dangerous hazards of this volcano are the devastating lahars that can be generated by the melting of its ice cap during pyroclastic flow-forming eruptions. The first seismic station was installed in 1976. Cotopaxi has been monitored by the Instituto Geofísico (Escuela Politécnica Nacional) since 1983. Presently the monitoring network is comprised of 11 broadband and 5 short period seismometers, 4 scanning DOAS, 1 infrared and 5 visible cameras, 7 DGPS, 5 tiltmeters, 11 AFM (lahar detectors) and a network of ashmeters. Due to the recent unrest, the monitoring of the volcano has been complemented by campaign airborne Multi-GAS and thermal IR measurements and ground-based mobile DOAS and stationary solar FTIR. After 73 years of quiescence, the first sign of unrest was a progressive increase in the amplitude of transient seismic events in April 2015. Since May 20, an increase in SO2 emissions from ˜500 t/d to ˜3 kt/day was detected followed by the appearance of seismic tremor on June 4. Both SO2 emissions of up to 5 kt/day and seismic tremor were observed until August 14 when a swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes preceded the first phreatic explosions. These explosions produced ash and gas columns reaching up to 9 km above the crater. The ash fall produced by the opening phase covered over 500 km2 with a submillimetric deposit corresponding to a mass of 1.65E+8 kg (VEI 1). During this period of explosions, SO2 emission rates up to 24 kt/day were observed, the highest thus far. The ash was dominantly hydrothermally altered and oxidized lithic fragments, hydrothermal minerals (alunite, gypsum), free crystals of plagioclase and pyroxenes, and little juvenile material. Unrest continued after August 14, with three episodes of ash emission. However, the intensity of ash fallout, average seismic amplitude, and SO2 emissions during each successive episode progressively decreased

  19. Shallow earthquake inhibits unrest near Chiles-Cerro Negro volcanoes, Ecuador-Colombian border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebmeier, Susanna K.; Elliott, John R.; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Biggs, Juliet; Mothes, Patricia; Jarrín, Paúl; Yépez, Marco; Aguaiza, Santiago; Lundgren, Paul; Samsonov, Sergey V.

    2016-09-01

    Magma movement or reservoir pressurisation can drive swarms of low-magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquakes, as well as occasional larger earthquakes (>M5) on local tectonic faults. Earthquakes >M5 near volcanoes are challenging to interpret in terms of evolving volcanic hazard, but are often associated with eruptions, and in some cases enhance the ascent of magma. We present geodetic observations from the first episode of unrest known to have occurred near Chiles and Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcanoes on the Ecuador-Colombian border. A swarm of volcano-tectonic seismicity in October 2014 culminated in a Mw 5.6 earthquake south of the volcanoes. Satellite radar data spanning this earthquake detect displacements that are consistent with dextral oblique slip on a reverse fault at depths of 1.4-3.4 km within a SSW-NNE trending fault zone that last ruptured in 1886. GPS station measurements capture ∼20 days of uplift before the earthquake, probably originating from a pressure source ∼10-15 km south of Volcán Chiles, at depths exceeding 13 km. After the Mw 5.6 earthquake, uplift ceased and the rate of seismicity began to decrease. Potential mechanisms for this decline in activity include a decrease in the rate of movement of magma into the shallow crust, possibly caused by the restriction of fluid pathways. Our observations demonstrate that an earthquake triggered during volcanic unrest can inhibit magmatic processes, and have implications for the hazard interpretation of the interactions between earthquakes and volcanoes.

  20. A quantitative analysis of volcanic unrest: Mt. Spurr Alaska, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, David; Lowell, Robert P.

    2016-09-01

    The volcano unrest event at Mt. Spurr, Alaska, which occurred between 2002 and 2006, was characterized by increased seismicity and heat transfer that resulted in ice melting at the summit, increased CO2 transport, and debris flows; but it did not result in a magmatic eruption. We argue that rupturing of the brittle-ductile barrier at a depth of approximately 5 km below sea level, as suggested by the observed seismicity, coupled with the release of magmatic volatiles, and diffusion of the resulting pressure pulse through the edifice likely enhanced heat transfer from the pre-existing hydrothermal system beneath the summit. The estimated heat output of ≈ 32 MW and thermal energy release of ≈ 2.1 × 1015 J that derived from the volume of ice melted over the duration of the unrest event shows that heat transport by CO2 alone was not sufficient to generate the observed thermal effects. Assuming the observed heat output represents a ≈ 10% perturbation on the background heat output, a similar increase in the Rayleigh number in a convecting liquid-dominated reservoir above a background value ~ 100 times critical would produce the observed heat output. This result yields a permeability ranging between 2 × 10- 14 and 10- 13 m2, depending on the thickness and temperature difference assumed. The enhanced heat flux from the liquid reservoir to the overlying vapor-dominated regime, or movement of liquid into the two-phase regime as a result of the pressure drive associated with the rupture of the brittle-ductile barrier, could also yield the observed heat output.

  1. Is Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship Associated with Initiation of Tobacco Use among Current Tobacco Users in Youth in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Mohini; Goel, Sonu; Gupta, Madhu; Sardana, Veera; Singh, B S

    2015-01-01

    The rise in consumption of tobacco products among youth is a public health concern in India. Several studies have shown that advertisements promoting tobacco products influence decisions and behaviour of youth towards smoking. To ascertain which method of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship (TAPS) was more influential for initiating tobacco use in youth in India. The secondary data of youth (15-24 years) from nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-2010 was analyzed. Odds ratio and p-value were used to know the association between TAPS and initiation of use of tobacco products among youth. Logistic regression was used to determine the most significant means of TAPS altering the youth's behaviour towards tobacco products. Out of 13,383 youths, 1,982 (14.7%) used smokeless forms of tobacco and 860 (6.38%) used smoke forms. Logistic regression reveals that promotional activities mainly through cinemas (padvertisements particularly in cinema and promotional activities like distribution of free samples, coupons and sales on the price of tobacco products. Stronger legislative measures should be enforced to curb promotional advertisements in cinemas and distribution of free samples.

  2. Does high level youth sports participation increase the risk of femoroacetabular impingement? A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien

    2016-03-11

    Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement.

  3. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential tre

  4. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  5. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  6. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  7. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  8. Youth Motivations for Program Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer K. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through their participation in youth programs, young people have access to opportunities to learn and build important skills. A total of 214 youth between the ages of 10-19 (mean 15.5 years completed an online survey about characteristics of youth programs they participated in, didn’t participate in, and had participated in but quit. We found that youth participated in activities that provided a benefit to meet personal goals or develop skills. However, our findings suggest that youth may leave activities, or never join them, based on different sets of motivations than the reasons they stay in activities. There was variability across demographic groups: Males reported more problems with past activities, sexual minority youth were more likely to endorse social problems with past and never joined activities, and ethnic minorities reported less support for personal goals and connection to adults in current activities and more logistic barriers for activities never joined.

  9. Youth Empowerment Evaluation: Learning Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathrin

    2007-01-01

    Including youth in the evaluation process can enhance the quality of the inquiry and be empowering for the participants, but it is not without challenges. In this article, several principles for youth-involved research and evaluation are outlined. These come from those who are pioneering this approach and from current research on the dilemmas of…

  10. The types of unrest occurring at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy) since 1982 and the role of magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; De Natale, Giuseppe; Sarno, Federica; Schiavone, Roberto; Troise, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The thermodynamic response of a multiphase (at least biphasic) and multicomponent system that has enough degrees of freedom to respond to variations of external constraints consists in re-equilibrating phase proportions and compositions of dissolved components. For volcanic systems in unrest, such as CampiFlegrei, this puts first-order thermal constraints that typically the procedures of geophysical inversion of geodetic and gravimetric data cannot identify.In this study, based on a thermodyamically internally consistent approach to the geochemical data recorded in the last 35 years, we show that: 1) The fumarole-feeding portions of the Solfatara geothermal field have fluid pressures below the lithostatic gradients. Shallow steam condensation occurs certainly in the surroundingsof fumarole emissions, and was attained in few circumstances during the 1982-84 unrest. 2) Inert gases help evaluating the geochemical signature of the deep upcoming gas, not compatible with a magma migrating to shallow depths in recent times. Any magma emplaced at shallow depth should have a volatile content and a size incompatible with geophysical measurements and models on shallow magma emplacement.After exhaustion of the shallow magma emplaced in1982-84, the system is fed by a deep magmatic gas. 3) Gas indicators and the observed increase in magmatic fraction (Y) after year 2000 require a raise in the temperature of the formed hydrothermal vapour and the likely involvement of a supercritical fluid phase. This determines the opening of awindow for magmatic gases at surface, which is however hardly compatible with a magma raising to shallow depths. 4) The unrest style can be related to the P-T-H conditions of the deep hydrothermal vapour. These determine if the pore-filling fluid is a biphasic liquid+vapour. like in 1982-84, when pore overpressures developed under nearly undrained conditions. 5) The nature of the 1982-84 unrest was magmatic, due to the emplacement of a shallow (3-4 km deep

  11. How medium-size resurgent calderas work: the case of Pantelleria, Ischia and the unrest Campi Flegrei structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Arienzo, Ilenia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; de Vita, Sandro; di Renzo, Valeria; di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Belviso, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of time and space relationships among magmatism, volcanism, and resurgence of medium-size calderas is a necessary tool to formulate a general model for their dynamics which also permits to forecast their evolution. To define a general hypothesis for the Campi Flegrei caldera, in a persistent state of unrest, the Ischia and Pantelleria medium-size resurgent structures, in variable stages of evolution, have been investigated. In particular some parameters such as the structural and volcanological evolution, with emphasis on resurgence dynamics and coeval volcanism, and the evolution, present state and role of the magmatic system in resurgence, have been defined. For the Campi Flegrei caldera, the data collected during unrest episodes have also been taken into account. This innovative approach adds a time-perspective on how resurgent calderas behave. The proposed general hypothesis will help in long- and short-term volcanic hazards assessment and will support Civil Defence Authorities in elaborating actions devoted to volcanic risk reduction.

  12. Varying family planning strategies across age categories: differences in factors associated with current modern contraceptive use among youth and adult women in Luanda, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ndola Prata,1 Suzanne Bell,1 Karen Weidert,1 Benjamin Nieto-Andrade,2 Adelaide Carvalho,3 Isilda Neves3 1Bixby Center for Population, Health and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; 2Population Services International Angola, 3National Directorate of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Luanda, Angola Background: The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with current modern contraceptive use among Angolan women. By differentiating according to age groups (15–24 and 25–49 years, this study aimed to help family planning program planners better tailor interventions to improve utilization of modern contraception.Methods: A household survey was used to collect data from 1,545 women of reproductive age living in Luanda Province, Angola. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive behavior and intentions, contraceptive knowledge and use, and attitudes and beliefs regarding contraception and abortion were collected. The analyses were stratified based on age: 15–24 years (youth and 25–49 years (adult. Multivariate logistic regression models were built for each age group, adding different subsets of variables in groups to see how relationships changed across the models.Results: Common factors associated with modern contraceptive use among all ages include education level, perceived contraceptive accessibility, contraceptive knowledge, communication with partner about family planning in last year, and self-efficacy. Exposure to family planning information in the media in the last few months, perceived partner approval of family planning, and marital status were all positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among women aged 15–24 years. Meanwhile, receiving information about family planning from a pharmacy in the last year was uniquely associated with current modern contraceptive use among women aged 25–49 years.Conclusion: Young women in

  13. Numerical models for ground deformation and gravity changes during volcanic unrest: simulating the hydrothermal system dynamics of an active caldera

    OpenAIRE

    Coco, A.; Gottsmann, J.; F. Whitaker; Rust, A; G. Currenti; A. Jasim; S. Bunney

    2015-01-01

    Ground deformation and gravity changes in active calderas during periods of unrest can signal an impending eruption and thus must be correctly interpreted for hazard evaluation. It is critical to differentiate variation of geophysical observables related to volume and pressure changes induced by magma migration from shallow hydrothermal activity associated with hot fluids of magmatic origin rising from depth. In this paper we present a nu...

  14. Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Modeling Social Unrest in Karachi, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Jarrod; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Hund, Gretchen; Fagley, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Social unrest represents a major challenge for policy makers around the globe, as it can quickly escalate from small scale disturbances to highly public protests, riots and even civil war. This research was motivated by a need to understand social instability and to unpack the comments made during a spring 2013 conference hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security and the U.S. Institute for Peace, where policymakers noted that models considering social instability are often not suitable for decision-making. This analysis shows that existing state level models of instability could be improved in spatial scale to the city level, even without significantly improved data access. Better data would make this analysis more complete and likely improve the quality of the model. Another challenge with incorporating modeling into decision-making is the need to understand uncertainty in a model. Policy makers are frequently tasked with making decisions without a clear outcome, so characterization of uncertainty is critical. This report describes the work and findings of the project. It took place in three phases: a literature review of social stability research, a “hindsight scan” that looked at historical data, and a “foresight scan” looking at future scenarios.

  15. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, S.; Arnoso Sampedro, J.; Gonzalez Montesinos, F.; Martí Molist, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gravity changes occurring during the initial stage of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the preeruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LaCoste and Romberg gPhone-054. On 15 September 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 μGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, is consistent with a lateral magma migration that occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on 10 October 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on 6-11 October 2011, pointing to an occurring interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 μGal, during the first 3 days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which could indicate that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  16. Association between volume and momentum of online searches and real-world collective unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Johnson, Daniela; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Neil F.

    A fundamental idea from physics is that macroscopic transitions can occur as a result of an escalation in the correlated activity of a many-body system's constituent particles. Here we apply this idea in an interdisciplinary setting, whereby the particles are individuals, their correlated activity involves online search activity surrounding the topics of social unrest, and the macroscopic phenomenon being measured are real-world protests. Our empirical study covers countries in Latin America during 2011-2014 using datasets assembled from multiple sources by subject matter experts. We find specifically that the volume and momentum of searches on Google Trends surrounding mass protest language, can detect - and may even pre-empt - the macroscopic on-street activity. Not only can this simple open-source solution prove an invaluable aid for monitoring civil order, our study serves to strengthen the increasing literature in the physics community aimed at understanding the collective dynamics of interacting populations of living objects across the life sciences.

  17. Pricing a Protest: Forecasting the Dynamics of Civil Unrest Activity in Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Goode

    Full Text Available Online social media activity can often be a precursor to disruptive events such as protests, strikes, and "occupy" movements. We have observed that such civil unrest can galvanize supporters through social networks and help recruit activists to their cause. Understanding the dynamics of social network cascades and extrapolating their future growth will enable an analyst to detect or forecast major societal events. Existing work has primarily used structural and temporal properties of cascades to predict their future behavior. But factors like societal pressure, alignment of individual interests with broader causes, and perception of expected benefits also affect protest participation in social media. Here we develop an analysis framework using a differential game theoretic approach to characterize the cost of participating in a cascade, and demonstrate how we can combine such cost features with classical properties to forecast the future behavior of cascades. Using data from Twitter, we illustrate the effectiveness of our models on the "Brazilian Spring" and Venezuelan protests that occurred in June 2013 and November 2013, respectively. We demonstrate how our framework captures both qualitative and quantitative aspects of how these uprisings manifest through the lens of tweet volume on Twitter social media.

  18. Pricing a Protest: Forecasting the Dynamics of Civil Unrest Activity in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Brian J; Krishnan, Siddharth; Roan, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2015-01-01

    Online social media activity can often be a precursor to disruptive events such as protests, strikes, and "occupy" movements. We have observed that such civil unrest can galvanize supporters through social networks and help recruit activists to their cause. Understanding the dynamics of social network cascades and extrapolating their future growth will enable an analyst to detect or forecast major societal events. Existing work has primarily used structural and temporal properties of cascades to predict their future behavior. But factors like societal pressure, alignment of individual interests with broader causes, and perception of expected benefits also affect protest participation in social media. Here we develop an analysis framework using a differential game theoretic approach to characterize the cost of participating in a cascade, and demonstrate how we can combine such cost features with classical properties to forecast the future behavior of cascades. Using data from Twitter, we illustrate the effectiveness of our models on the "Brazilian Spring" and Venezuelan protests that occurred in June 2013 and November 2013, respectively. We demonstrate how our framework captures both qualitative and quantitative aspects of how these uprisings manifest through the lens of tweet volume on Twitter social media.

  19. Science centres around the world see unrest for art and science in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Drioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In present times it would not be appropriate to say art made a “debut” in science centres, as it has been a feature since the beginning of their history, and it appeared precisely in the ‘parent’ science centre, the Exploratorium. However, now it is time to check the progress. There is unrest for this issue, as in history-making times, and it is worthwhile to follow the new developments and hear the words of the coordinators of the artistic activities in science centres and, more in general, in science museums, and also of the artists involved in the process. The goal is to promote a debate on the final results of this phenomenon and on what will happen next. Also, emphasis should be put on the importance for each museum to define right from the start an ‘art policy’, even a complex one, but somehow structured, that may be employed at many levels according to the needs of the museum itself.

  20. Science centres around the world see unrest for art and science in society (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Drioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In present times it would not be appropriate to say art made a “debut” in science centres, as it has been a feature since the beginning of their history, and it appeared precisely in the ‘parent’ science centre, the Exploratorium. However, now it is time to check the progress. There is unrest for this issue, as in history-making times, and it is worthwhile to follow the new developments and hear the words of the coordinators of the artistic activities in science centres and, more in general, in science museums, and also of the artists involved in the process. The goal is to promote a debate on the final results of this phenomenon and on what will happen next. Also, emphasis should be put on the importance for each museum to define right from the start an ‘art policy’, even a complex one, but somehow structured, that may be employed at many levels according to the needs of the museum itself.

  1. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  2. Exploring the Role of Social Connectedness among Military Youth: Perceptions from Youth, Parents, and School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin N.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Sudhinaraset, May; Blum, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The increased stress on military families during wartime can be particularly difficult for adolescents. The current study employed 11 focus groups with military youth, parents, and school personnel working with military youth to better understand how youth and their families cope with stressors faced as result of living in a military family. An…

  3. Youth With Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Examining Current Challenges in Secondary Education and Transition. Issue Brief. Volume 4, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhjem, Pam

    2005-01-01

    How do communities begin to address the issue of youth with disabilities who become involved with correctional systems? This brief provides information on proactive solutions based on restorative justice and wrap-around services, models, and strategies. This topic is receiving more attention as research has begun supporting a critical need for…

  4. LGBTQ Youth Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Tracy; Kartoz, Connie; Himelfarb, Chaya

    2017-03-01

    In order to provide holistic care, school nurses must be culturally competent by being sensitive to health disparities experienced by students in at-risk populations. Despite the growing acceptance toward gender and sexual minorities, LGBTQ youth remain an at-risk population in our communities and our schools. School nurses as well as school counselors, social workers, and psychologists can increase their cultural competence in caring for this group of students by increasing their understanding of appropriate terminology and risks associated with this vulnerable group. This article is Part 1 of a two-article series designed to increase school nurses' abilities to advocate and care for LGBTQ youth in school settings. This first article provides information regarding proper terminology and current percentages of youth who identify as LGBTQ and concludes with implications for school nurses, including resources for nurses, school staff, and families.

  5. Using Bayesian Belief Networks and event trees for volcanic hazard assessment and decision support : reconstruction of past eruptions of La Soufrière volcano, Guadeloupe and retrospective analysis of 1975-77 unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Hincks, Thea; Sparks, Steve; Aspinall, Willy; Legendre, Yoann; Boudon, Georges

    2013-04-01

    the contemporary volcanological narrative, and demonstrates that a formal evidential case could have been made to support the authorities' concerns and decision to evacuate. Revisiting the circumstances of the 1976 crisis highlights many contemporary challenges of decision-making under conditions of volcanological uncertainty. We suggest the BBN concept is a suitable framework for marshalling multiple observations, model results and interpretations - and all associated uncertainties - in a methodical manner. Base-rate eruption probabilities for Guadeloupe can be updated now with a new chronology of activity suggesting that 10 major explosive phases and 9 dome-forming phases occurred in the last 9150 years, associated with ≥ 8 flank-collapses and ≥ 6-7 high-energy pyroclastic density currents (blasts). Eruptive recurrence, magnitude and intensity place quantitative constraints on La Soufrière's event tree to elaborate credible scenarios. The current unrest offers an opportunity to update the BBN model and explore the uncertainty on inferences about the system's internal state. This probabilistic formalism would provoke key questions relating to unrest evolution: 1) is the unrest hydrothermal or magmatic? 2) what controls dyke/intrusion arrest and hence failed-magmatic eruptions like 1976? 3) what conditions could lead to significant pressurization with potential for explosive activity and edifice instability, and what monitoring signs might be manifest?

  6. Volcanic Gas Measurements During the 2004 Unrest at Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, K. A.; Gerlach, T. M.; Doukas, M. P.; Sutton, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Volcanic gas observations during the 2004 unrest at Mount St. Helens began with helicopter measurements on September 27 and shifted to fixed-wing aircraft measurements on October 7. Helicopter measurements were done by downwind plume profiling at the crater rim and crater breach, orbiting the dome and cross traversing the top of the dome. Fixed-wing aircraft measurements consisted of profiling the downwind plume as it spilled over the crater rim. Target gases included CO2, SO2, and H2S measured by LI-COR, COSPEC and Interscan analyzers. These measurements defined three periods of volcanic degassing: (a) an initial period of negligible volcanic degassing characterized by scrubbing or sealing-in of all gases; (b) an intermediate period of wet volcanic degassing when gas scrubbing dominated volcanic degassing; and (c) a period of dry volcanic degassing when volcanic degassing exceeded gas scrubbing. Measurements during the September 27-30 period of negligible volcanic degassing showed little or no CO2 above atmospheric levels; SO2 and H2S were not detected. The absence of these gases implies fairly complete gas scrubbing at high water to gas mass ratios (greater than 100) or confinement of the gases by post-1986 sealing of gas transport channel ways. Scrubbing seems likely to have dominated sealing; the high rates of concurrent seismicity and deformation favored reestablishment of transport along fractures, and the unrest followed a period with an unusually large potential for groundwater recharge. No August-September interval since the cessation of dome-building eruptions in 1986 has had heavier rainfall than in 2004, and growth of the crater glacier since 1986 has increased the amount of water available for recharge in late summer. Measurements during the period of wet volcanic degassing that began on October 1 after the first steam and ash eruption showed an increase in the frequency and size of CO2 peaks together with the increasingly common detection of H2S

  7. The 2011-2012 Santorini unrest: Swarms of micro-seismicity, crustal deformation and magma pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis; Newman, Andrew; Papazachos, Costas; Moschas, Fanis

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2012 swarms of micro-seismicity were observed in Santorini caldera for the first probably time since its last eruption 60 years ago. This seismicity was along a major extensional lineament (Kammeni Line), in which all post-Minoan eruptions were confined and was characterized by extensional focal mechanisms. GPS observations provided evidence of a somewhat radial deformation, which was assigned to a spherical magma source ~4km deep in the north part of the caldera, about 2km away from the Kammeni Line. Because such a source cannot explain extensional seismicity observed along the Kammeni Line, we investigated alternative intrusion models. On the basis of seismicity and deformation rates, the unrest period was divided into five intervals each 3-6 months long. Then, using a new inversion method/software we modeled each interval separately for one or two sources. No solution was found possible for the fifth interval, while for the other four there was evidence of a shallow, relative small source at the north part of the caldera; this source tends to overshadow other deeper sources. During intervals of seismicity, the deeper source is identified inside or beneath the Kammeni Line and has the potential to produce the deviatoric stresses and explain the observed seismicity swarms. During the fourth interval, this source was found much smaller and at some distance from the Kammeni Line, in a position not permitting to trigger seismicity. The northern source seems to be systematically arrested by the upper most layers of sediments, as is also derived by marine geophysical surveys. The variability in space and time of intrusions in 2011-2012 is consistent with the hypothesis of composite pulses of magma from deeper sources.

  8. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  9. Stress controlled magma-earthquake interaction during unrest at Chiles-Cerro Negro Volcanoes (Ecuador-Colombian border)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebmeier, S. K.; Elliott, J. R.; Nocquet, J. M.; Biggs, J.; Mothes, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Samsonov, S. V.; Jarrin, P.; Yepez, M.; Aguaiza, S.

    2015-12-01

    The movement of fluids beneath a volcano can cause deformation, and therefore changes to the subsurface stress field that manifest in swarms of low magnitude (Chiles-Cerro Negro volcanoes on the Ecuador-Colombian border. These volcanoes were previously considered to be historically inactive, but between 2013 and early 2015 there were three episodes of unrest characterised by VT swarms of increasing energy and duration. GPS measurements at two stations near Volcán Chiles show inflation over a time period of approximately twenty days prior to the 20th October, consistent with the intrusion of magma at half space depths >13 km. This inflation took place during a swarm of VT seismicity with thousands of low magnitude events per day and culminated in a M 5.6 earthquake on the 20th October, when inflation abruptly ceased. We measure coseismic displacements from the M 5.6 earthquake with data from three independent InSAR platforms and find that they are consistent with shallow slip of 1.2 m on an oblique reverse fault. This fault plane would have experienced positive Coulomb stress changes from some of the range of potential sources consistent with the inflation. Magmatic intrusion could therefore have contributed to the loading on the fault directly through stress changes caused by pressurisation, and indirectly through the decrease in effective friction coefficient due to elevated pore fluid pressure. The cessation of inflation immediately after the moderate earthquake suggests a link between the two events. We expect slip on the fault plane identified from the InSAR data to have resulted in compression in the shallow crust south of Volcán Chiles, above the source that had previously been inflating. This would have inhibited further ascent of magma. The Chiles-Cerro Nego unrest provides rare observations of interaction between magmatic intrusion and a moderate earthquake during volcanic unrest.

  10. 4-H Youth Development Professionals’ Perceptions of Youth Development Core Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Fox

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the perceived level of competence among 4-H Youth Development Agents from a Southern state in the United States. The findings will be used to identify gaps in and opportunities for professional training and development experiences in supporting the competence and growth of youth professionals. Based on the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competency Model (Stone & Rennekamp, 2004, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence in nine youth development core competency areas. Utilizing a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1=no knowledge to 5=expert, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence ranging from 3.12 to 3.54. According to an interpretive scale, youth development professionals rated their competence as intermediate. Staff felt most competent in the areas of current youth issues, career opportunities for youth, and family structures/relationships. Staff felt least competent in the area of mental development of youth. No one identified themselves as an expert in the areas of psychological development, emotional development, and current youth issues.

  11. Electronic case management with homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Schau, Nicholas; Begun, Stephanie; Haffejee, Badiah; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Hathaway, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Case management, a widely practiced form of service brokerage, is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for homeless youth, but it may be difficult to implement, as youth face logistical barriers to attending in-person meetings. As part of a larger clinical trial, the current study investigates the feasibility of providing electronic case management (ECM) to homeless youth, using cell-phones, texts, email, and Facebook. Youth were given prepaid cell-phones and a case manager who provided four ECM sessions every 2-3 weeks over a 3-month period. Contact logs were used to record how many youth engaged in ECM, how many attempts were necessary to elicit engagement, and youths' preferred technology methods for engaging. Although engagement in the number of ECM sessions varied, the majority of youth (87.5%) engaged in at least one ECM session. Youth (41%) most commonly needed one contact before they engaged in an ECM session, and the majority responded by the third attempt. While youth most commonly answered calls directly, their chosen method of returning calls was texting. The majority of youth (80%) described ECM positively, reporting themes of convenience, connection, and accountability. The use of ECM, particularly of texting, offers promising implications for providing services to homeless youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural features of Panarea volcano in the frame of the Aeolian Arc (Italy): Implications for the 2002-2003 unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio; Neri, Marco; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-05-01

    Panarea, characterized by gas unrest in 2002-2003, is the volcanic island with the least constrained structure in the eastern-central Aeolian Arc (Italy). Based on structural measurements, we define here its deformation pattern relative to the Arc. The main deformations are subvertical extension fractures (63% of data), normal faults (25%) and dikes (12%). The mean orientation of the extension fractures and faults is ˜N38°E, with a mean opening direction of N135° ± 8°, implying extension with a moderate component of dextral shear. These data, matched with those available for Stromboli volcano (pure opening) and Vulcano, Lipari and Salina volcanoes (predominant dextral motions) along the eastern-central Arc, suggest a progressive westward rotation of the extension direction and an increase in the dextral shear. The dextral shear turns into compression in the western arc. The recent unrest at Panarea, coeval to that of nearby Stromboli, may also be explained by the structural context, as both volcanoes lie along the portion of the Arc subject to extension.

  13. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  14. Divisive dividing: revenue allocation and unrest in Nigeria since the late colonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aworawo

    2012-06-01

    them.  Some attempts have been made to analyse the issues mainly from the political economy perspective.   This article adopts the historical approach. It explores the changing patterns of revenue allocation in Nigeria and the response of the people to different prescribed formulas. In this way, it is possible to broadly assess the impact of revenue allocation on Nigeria’s political development. It is suggested that one of the best ways to address the revenue allocation crisis in Nigeria is to adopt a system that is fair and one that encourages industry. In this way, it would be possible to achieve a measure of contentment and attention can also be focused on how to produce and not just on how to share.KeyWords: Revenue Allocation, Political Instability, Unrest, Federalism, Nigeria

  15. Nowhere to Run: HIV Prevention for Runaway and Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Marc

    This volume is a guide to providing effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and substance abuse prevention services to runaway and homeless youth. The guide is based on current research and the best programs in this field. Chapters 1 and 2 summarize what is known about runaway and homeless youth, the services these youth require if they are…

  16. Sexuality Related Social Support among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Nathan Daniel; Willoughby, Brian L. B.; Lindahl, Kristin M.; Malik, Neena M.

    2010-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual ("LGB") youth may face significant stressors related to their sexual orientation. Few studies, however, have examined youth's experiences of support for coping with these stressors. The current study compared LGB youth's perceptions of support for sexuality stress to their support for other types of problems. The links…

  17. Sexuality Related Social Support among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Nathan Daniel; Willoughby, Brian L. B.; Lindahl, Kristin M.; Malik, Neena M.

    2010-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual ("LGB") youth may face significant stressors related to their sexual orientation. Few studies, however, have examined youth's experiences of support for coping with these stressors. The current study compared LGB youth's perceptions of support for sexuality stress to their support for other types of problems. The links…

  18. Numerical models for ground deformation and gravity changes during volcanic unrest: simulating the hydrothermal system dynamics of a restless caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, A.; Gottsmann, J.; Whitaker, F.; Rust, A.; Currenti, G.; Jasim, A.; Bunney, S.

    2016-04-01

    Ground deformation and gravity changes in restless calderas during periods of unrest can signal an impending eruption and thus must be correctly interpreted for hazard evaluation. It is critical to differentiate variation of geophysical observables related to volume and pressure changes induced by magma migration from shallow hydrothermal activity associated with hot fluids of magmatic origin rising from depth. In this paper we present a numerical model to evaluate the thermo-poroelastic response of the hydrothermal system in a caldera setting by simulating pore pressure and thermal expansion associated with deep injection of hot fluids (water and carbon dioxide). Hydrothermal fluid circulation is simulated using TOUGH2, a multicomponent multiphase simulator of fluid flows in porous media. Changes in pore pressure and temperature are then evaluated and fed into a thermo-poroelastic model (one-way coupling), which is based on a finite-difference numerical method designed for axi-symmetric problems in unbounded domains.Informed by constraints available for the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), a series of simulations assess the influence of fluid injection rates and mechanical properties on the hydrothermal system, uplift and gravity. Heterogeneities in hydrological and mechanical properties associated with the presence of ring faults are a key determinant of the fluid flow pattern and consequently the geophysical observables. Peaks (in absolute value) of uplift and gravity change profiles computed at the ground surface are located close to injection points (namely at the centre of the model and fault areas). Temporal evolution of the ground deformation indicates that the contribution of thermal effects to the total uplift is almost negligible with respect to the pore pressure contribution during the first years of the unrest, but increases in time and becomes dominant after a long period of the simulation. After a transient increase over the first years of unrest

  19. Numerical models for ground deformation and gravity changes during volcanic unrest: simulating the hydrothermal system dynamics of an active caldera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground deformation and gravity changes in active calderas during periods of unrest can signal an impending eruption and thus must be correctly interpreted for hazard evaluation. It is critical to differentiate variation of geophysical observables related to volume and pressure changes induced by magma migration from shallow hydrothermal activity associated with hot fluids of magmatic origin rising from depth. In this paper we present a numerical model to evaluate the thermo-poroelastic response of the hydrothermal system in a caldera setting by simulating pore pressure and thermal expansion associated with deep injection of hot fluids (water and carbon dioxide. Hydrothermal fluid circulation is simulated using TOUGH2, a multicomponent multiphase simulator of fluid flows in porous media. Changes in pore pressure and temperature are then evaluated and fed into a thermo-poroelastic model (one-way coupling, which is based on a finite-difference numerical method designed for axi-symmetric problems in unbounded domains. Based on data for the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy, a series of simulations assess the influence of fluid injection rates and mechanical properties on the hydrothermal system, uplift and gravity. Heterogeneities in hydrological and mechanical properties associated with the presence of ring faults are a key determinant of the fluid flow pattern and consequently the geophysical observables. Peaks (in absolute value of uplift and gravity change profiles computed at the ground surface are located close to injection points (namely at the centre of the model and fault areas. Temporal evolution of the ground deformation indicates that the contribution of thermal effects to the total uplift is almost negligible with respect to the pore pressure contribution during the first years of the unrest, but increases in time and becomes dominant after a long period of the simulation. After a transient increase over the first years of unrest, gravity

  20. The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.; Rosen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that youth are society's future; individuals need to prepare and nurture them if they desire that future to be bright and productive. Yet, with the spotlight currently on slow economic growth and high unemployment across the U.S., there has been little focus on the plight of youth as they transition from school to adult life. But…

  1. Bullying and LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close Text Size: A A A Bullying and LGBT Youth Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth ... Orientation Additional Resources Creating a Safe Environment for LGBT Youth It is important to build a safe ...

  2. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  3. Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for p...

  4. A model for seismicity rates observed during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, M. E.; Bizzarri, A.; Berrino, G.; Ricciardi, G. P.

    2011-02-01

    We consider the space-time distribution of seismicity during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) where a correlation between seismicity and rate of ground uplift was suggested. In order to investigate this effect, we present a model based on stress transfer from the deformation source responsible for the unrest to potential faults. We compute static stress changes caused by an inflating source in a layered half-space. Stress changes are evaluated on optimally oriented planes for shear failure, assuming a regional stress with horizontal extensional axis trending NNE-SSW. The inflating source is modeled as inferred by previous studies from inversion of geodetic data with the same crustal model here assumed. The magnitude of the regional stress is constrained by imposing an initial condition of "close to failure" to potential faults. The resulting spatial distribution of stress changes is in agreement with observations. We assume that the temporal evolution of ground displacement, observed by a tide-gauge at Pozzuoli, was due mainly to time dependent processes occurring at the inflating source. We approximate this time dependence in piecewise-linear way and we attribute it to each component of average stress-change in the region interested by the observed seismicity. Then we evaluate the effect of a time dependent stressing rate on seismicity, by following the approach indicated by Dieterich (1994) on the basis of the rate- and state-dependent rheology of faults. The seismicity rate history resulting from our model is in general agreement with data during the period 1982-1984 for reasonable values of unconstrained model-parameters, the initial value of the direct effect of friction and the reference shear stressing rate. In particular, this application shows that a decreasing stressing-rate is effective in damping the seismicity rate.

  5. Seismicity, Vp/Vs and shear wave anisotropy variations during the 2011 unrest at Santorini caldera, southern Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, K. I.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Liang, W.-T.; Melis, N. S.; Kalogeras, I.

    2013-11-01

    The Santorini caldera has been the focus of several large explosive eruptions in the past, the last of which occurred in the early 1950s. The volcano was dormant until early 2011 when increasing number of earthquakes accompanied significant intra-caldera uplift. This seismic activity was recorded by 8 temporary as well as 19 permanent seismic stations that were installed on Santorini and nearby islands after the onset of the unrest. Using data from January 2011 until June 2012 we calculated accurate relative locations for 490 events utilizing both catalog and waveform cross-correlation differential travel times of P- and S-phases. The distribution of relocated events exhibits a large cluster between Thera and Nea Kameni islands along the caldera rim, suggesting the activation of a preexisting ring fault. All hypocenters are located between 5 and 11 km resulting in a sharp cutoff of seismicity above and below these depths. We also used P and S travel times in order to calculate average Vp/Vs ratios and estimated shear wave splitting parameters (fast direction φ, delay time δt) for events within the shear wave window. The Vp/Vs ratios at several stations exhibit a majority of values consistently below the regional one (~ 1.77). Their temporal variations can be explained as periods of gas influx and depletion in the upper crust beneath the caldera. A comparison of δt for a number of earthquake doublets shows a progressive decrease of delay times towards the end of the unrest probably as a result of cracks closing owing to stress relaxation. The seismological observations presented here are compatible with petrological models that suggest the existence of a deep (11-14 km) dacitic magma reservoir and a shallower (< 5 km) rhyolitic magma chamber.

  6. Assessing individual and organizational response to volcanic crisis and unrest at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Ashleigh; Gregg, Chris; Lindell, Michael; Prater, Carla; Joyner, Timothy; Eggert, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    This study describes response to and preparedness for eruption and unrest at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, respectively. The on-going 1983-present eruption of Kīlauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) has generated a series of lava flow crises, the latest occurring in 2014 and 2015 when lava from a new vent flowed northeast and into the perimeter of developed areas in the lower Puna District, some 20km distant. It took ca. 2 months for the June 27 lava flow to advance a distance to which scientists reported it might be a concern to people downslope, but this prompted widespread formal and informal responses and culminated in improvements to infrastructure, voluntary evacuations of residents and businesses and closure of schools. Unlike Kīlauea, which has had frequent crises since the mid-20th century, the last eruption of nearby Mauna Loa occurred in 1984 and the last eruption and crisis on its Southwest Rift Zone (SWZ) was in 1950, so residents there are less familiar with eruptions than in Puna. In September 2015, the US Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory upgraded Mauna Loa's Alert Level from Normal to Advisory due to increases in unrest above known background levels. A crisis on Mauna Loa's SWZ would likely be much different than the recent 2014-15 crisis at Kīlauea as steep topography downslope of the SWZ and typical high discharge rates mean lava flows move fast, posing increased risk to areas downslope. Typically, volcanic eruptions have significant economic consequences out of proportion with their magnitudes. Furthermore, uncertainties regarding the physical and organizational communication of risk information amplify these economic losses. One significant impediment to risk communication is limited knowledge about the most effective ways to verbally, numerically and graphically communicate scientific uncertainty. This was a challenge in the recent lava flow crisis on Kīlauea. The public's demand for near-real time information updates, including

  7. Insights from fumarole gas geochemistry on the recent volcanic unrest of Pico do Fogo, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Gladys V.; Dionis, Samara; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padilla, Germán; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sumino, Hirochika; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Semedo, Helio; Cabral, Jeremias

    2015-04-01

    air or by ASW. Few samples show a significant increase of the relative nitrogen content toward sediment composition. Gas geothermometry, based on chemical reactions related to measured gas species, indicate equilibrium temperatures between 240 to 504°C using the H2/H2O-CO/CO2 geothermometer and between 240 to 638°C using the CH4/CO2-CO/CO2 geothermometer. The chemical evolution of Pico do Fogo fumarolic gases coupled with the observed increase of CO2 soil flux, suggests the occurrence of an important increase of convective heat flux and evidences an active magmatic degassing beneath the volcano before the eruption onset. H2O/CO2 and H2O/St molar ratios showed an increasing trend towards the eruption onset, with higher values coinciding with the anomalous soil CO2 emissions registered at the summit crater, November 2008 and March 2014, suggesting a heat pulse from the depth affected the hydrothermal reservoir before the eruption onset. This is corroborated by the sharp increase observed in the CO/CO2 and H2/CO2 molar ratios in November 2013 (one year before the eruption), the last one probably due by H2O thermal dissociation. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth is also explained by the observed increase on the He/CO2 molar ratio, which showed two pulses in November 2008 to February 2011 and from November 2013 to March 2014, both also coinciding with two pulses on the soil CO2 emission. These two pulses on the He content occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio, indicating the prevalence of a magmatic dominated component during these two periods. The observed changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of Pico do Fogo fumarolic gases have proved to be clear geochemical precursory signals of the volcanic unrest occurred before the eruption onset of Pico do Fogo volcano in November 23, 2014.

  8. Youth Media and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  9. Moving beyond Youth Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serido, Joyce; Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    This study combines research documenting the benefits of positive relationships between youth and caring adults on a young person's positive development with studies on youth voice to examine the mechanisms through which participation in youth programs contributes to positive developmental outcomes. Specifically, the study explores whether youth's…

  10. Linking mother and youth parenting attitudes: indirect effects via maltreatment, parent involvement, and youth functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Jones, Deborah J; Litrownik, Alan J; English, Diana J; Kotch, Jonathan B; Lewis, Terri; Dubowitz, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parenting attitudes are transmitted within families. However, limited research has examined this prospectively. The current prospective study examined direct effects of early maternal attitudes toward parenting (as measured at child age 4 by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory [AAPI]) on later youth parenting attitudes (as measured by the AAPI at youth age 18). Indirect effects via child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment), parent involvement, and youth functioning (internalizing and externalizing problems) were also assessed. Analyses were conducted on data from 412 families enrolled in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). There were significant direct effects for three of the four classes of mother parenting attitudes (appropriate developmental expectations of children, empathy toward children, and appropriate family roles) on youth attitudes but not for rejection of punishment. In addition, the following indirect effects were obtained: Mother expectations influenced youth expectations via neglect; mother empathy influenced youth empathy via both parental involvement and youth externalizing problems; and mother rejection of punishment influenced youth rejection of punishment via youth internalizing problems. None of the child or family process variables, however, affected the link between mother and youth attitudes about roles.

  11. Employment-Related Experiences of Youths Who Are Visually Impaired: How Are These Youths Faring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexander; Gold, Deborah; Wolffe, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the results in the employment domain of a larger study of the lifestyles of 328 Canadian youths, aged 15-21 and 22-30, 131 of whom were blind and 197 of whom had low vision. The youths completed a survey on their work-related experiences, including their current employment status and job-search strategies. In addition to…

  12. Volcanic unrest primed by ice cap melting: A case study of Snæfellsjökull volcano, Western Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Lupi, Matteo; Frehner, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Fuchs, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The most dramatic effect of global warming is the water level rise due to rapid melting of ice sheets. In addition, recent studies suggest that accelerated glacial retreat and associated lithospheric relaxation may enhance upwelling of magmatic fluids through the crust. Here, we investigate whether, also at short geological timescales, shallow magmatic systems may be affected by rapid melting of ice caps. As a case study, we chose the Snæfellsjökull volcanic system in western Iceland, whose ice cap is rapidly melting with 1.25 m(w.e.)/year. To investigate the role of deglaciation in promoting volcanic unrest we use a cross-disciplinary approach integrating geophysical field data, laboratory rheological rock tests, and numerical finite-element analysis. Initial results from seismic data acquisition and interpretation in 2011 show seismic activity (occasionally in swarm sequences) at around a depth range of 8-13 km, indicating the presence of a magmatic reservoir in the crust. In addition, a temporary seismic network of 21 broad-band stations has been deployed in spring 2013 and continuously collected data for several months, which will help better constrain the subsurface geometry. During summer 2013 we collected samples of Tertiary basaltic bedrock from the flanks of Snæfellsjökull, which we assume to be representative for the subsurface volcanic system. Cores drilled from these samples were tri-axially deformed in a Paterson-type apparatus at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1, a confining pressure of 50 MPa (i.e. ~2 km depth), and a temperature ranging from 200 °C to 1000 °C (i.e. various proximities to magma chamber). From the obtained stress-strain curves the static Young's modulus is calculated to be around 35 (±2) GPa, which is not significantly influenced by increasing temperatures up to 800 °C. Beyond the elastic domain, cataclastic shear bands develop, accommodating up to 7% strain before brittle failure. The subsurface geometrical constraints from

  13. Seismological characteristics of the 2011 unrest in Santorini caldera: Implications for observed deformation and volcano-tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Evangelidis, Christos; Melis, Nikolaos; Liang, Wen-Tzong

    2013-04-01

    Santorini caldera has experienced several explosive eruptions in the past, the most well-known of these being the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1628 BC) eruption that may have been responsible for the demise of the Minoan civilization. Since the early 1950's the volcano has been dormant without exhibiting any significant activity except from discharge of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. In January 2011 both deformation and seismic activity increased considerably signaling a period of unrest which however, did not result in an eruption. One permanent and seven temporary seismic stations equipped with three-component sensors were deployed by the National Observatory of Athens. These were combined with seismic stations from the University of Thessaloniki, seven with only a vertical component and four with three-component sensors and all operated under the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network, thus densely monitoring the Santorini Volcano. These seismic stations have recorded the seismic activity from its start up to now. About 290 micro-earthquakes recorded by at least 5 stations were analyzed for the purpose of obtaining accurate epicentral and hypocentral locations using both catalog and differential travel times from waveform cross-correlation. All of these events exhibit clear P- and S-phases indicating that they resulted from shear failure of rock rather than fluid-flow within volcanic conduits. Results show two well-defined clusters in Palea and Nea Kameni islands within the caldera with hypocentral depths ranging between 5-10 km. Interestingly, one more cluster of events with depths between 15-19 km appears near the area of Cape Coloumbo and developed almost simultaneously with the clusters within the caldera. The Mogi source depth inferred from geodetic observations previously is shallower (~4 km) and does not coincide spatially with the clusters within the caldera. This points to the possibility that seismicity and deformation may be excited by deeper pressure changes

  14. The intrusion of new magma triggered the 2011-2012 unrest at Santorini: evidence from noble-gas isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M.; Di Piazza, A.; Francalanci, L.; Sortino, F.; D'Alessandro, W.

    2013-12-01

    Santorini is one of the most famous active volcanoes of the world for its catastrophic explosive eruption that occurred during the Minoan civilization. Since then the Kameni eruptive centers that formed within the caldera erupted repeatedly until 1950. In 2011-2012 the volcano has been characterized by a seismic unrest, that was unprecedented at Santorini at least since the 1950 eruption, and that led to fear for an imminent eruption. Because more than 100,000 visitors are present on the island during the tourist season, and considering the eruptive potential of Santorini, it is crucial to evaluate the hazard of this volcano, which depends on the type of magma actually present in the volcanic system. With the aim to address this question, this research shows the first comparison between noble-gas isotope composition of the present fumarolic gases with that of fluid inclusions hosted in enclaves contained in the 1570 and 1925 AD dacitic magmas erupted at Nea Kameni. These enclaves are a portion of mafic magma batches that replenished the shallow chamber of the plumbing system hosting cooler and more silicic melts. Their Sr-Nd isotope ratios are quite similar to those measured in the host dacitic rocks, implying a common parental magma. Therefore, the analyzed enclaves may be considered representative of the historic magma erupted at Nea Kameni which could be still present in the volcano plumbing system feeding the crater fumaroles. The 3He/4He ratios of enclaves, once corrected for air contamination (3.1-3.6 Ra), partially overlap those of the gases (3.5-4.0 Ra) collected from Nea and Palea Kameni. The range of 3He/4He ratios (3.1-4.0 Ra) is appreciably lower than typical arc volcanoes (R/Ra ~7-8), implying that a contamination by 4He-rich fluids occurred either directly in the mantle and/or in the plumbing system. Comparison of 3He/4He and 4He/40Ar* ratios measured in enclaves with those of gases, as well as long-term monitoring of R/Ra in the latters, coherently

  15. A cross-sectional view of the current state of treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes in the USA: Enrollment data from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium type 2 diabetes registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, clinical outcomes, and co-morbidities of youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T2D Registry. PDC enrolled 598 youth <21 yr of age with T2D from February 2012 to July 2015 at eight centers. ...

  16. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helps Protect Youth Multifaceted Youth Program Helps Counter Sex Trafficking in Houston FYSB Helps Trafficked Youth Get Off ... Sold: Recognizing and Assisting Youth Victims of Domestic Sex Trafficking February 10, 2017 2017 Title V State Abstinence ...

  17. Effects of hydrothermal unrest on stress and deformation: insights from numerical modeling and application to Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Coco, Armando; Privitera, Emanuela

    2017-04-01

    A numerical approach is proposed to evaluate stress and deformation fields induced by hydrothermal fluid circulation and its influence on volcano-flank stability. The numerical computations have been focused on a conceptual model of Vulcano Island, where geophysical, geochemical, and seismic signals have experienced several episodes of remarkable changes likely linked to the hydrothermal activity. We design a range of numerical models of hydrothermal unrest and computed the associated deformation and stress field arising from rock-fluid interaction processes related to the thermo-poroelastic response of the medium. The effects of model parameters on deformation and flank stability are explored considering different multilayered crustal structures constrained by seismic tomography and stratigraphy investigations. Our findings highlight the significant role of model parameters on the response of the hydrothermal system and, consequently, on the amplitudes and the timescale of stress and strain fields. Even if no claim is made that the model strictly applies to the crisis episodes at Vulcano, the numerical results are in general agreement with the pattern of monitoring observations, characterized by an enhancing of gas emission and seismic activity without significant ground deformation. The conceptual model points to a pressurization and heating of the shallow hydrothermal system (1-0.25 km bsl) fed by fluid of magmatic origin. However, for the assumed values of model material and source parameters (rate of injection, fluid composition, and temperature), the pressure and temperature changes do not affect significantly the flank stability, which is mainly controlled by the gravitational force.

  18. China’s cities: A “risk scenario”? Inequality, social unrest and the policy of cultural essentialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Zavoretti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The “growing inequality” in China is often described as a “collateral effect” of the country’s economic miracle, and as a potential threat to its stability and prosperity. Basing its argument on several alternative examinations of the connection that exists between the growth of GDP and poverty/welfare, this article claims that the failure to provide urban workers with access to social benefits and the growing inequality in China’s cities are two central aspects in the radical redesign of society that has been carried out in post-Mao China, and that it is essential to bear in mind the complexity of the situation in order to detect new areas of privilege and vulnerability. Following the outbreak of a growing series of conflicts and protests related to employment, the experts are debating the risks that social unrest could bring, and they often appeal to Chinese culture as a highly necessary element for drafting reliable scenarios. However, in order to grasp the project of China’s modernisation in all its complexity, we must eschew essentialist readings of the culture, and adopt a critical approach when studying the society. This article attempts to widen the scope of our questions and concerns regarding social stability in China, and suggests alternative areas of study on Chinese society.

  19. Monitoring the volcanic unrest of El Hierro (Canary Islands) before the onset of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.; Abella, R.; Brenes, B.; Cabrera Rodríguez, V. M.; Casas, B.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.; Felpeto, A.; de Villalta, M. Fernández; del Fresno, C.; García, O.; García-Arias, M. J.; García-Cañada, L.; Gomis Moreno, A.; González-Alonso, E.; Guzmán Pérez, J.; Iribarren, I.; López-Díaz, R.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Meletlidis, S.; Moreno, M.; Moure, D.; de Pablo, J. Pereda; Rodero, C.; Romero, E.; Sainz-Maza, S.; Sentre Domingo, M. A.; Torres, P. A.; Trigo, P.; Villasante-Marcos, V.

    2012-07-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south from El Hierro Island (Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. Earthquake migration from the north to the south of the island and acceleration of seismicity are in good correlation with changes in the deformation pattern as well as with some anomalies in geochemical and geomagnetic parameters. An earthquake of local magnitude 4.3 at 12 km depth (8 October 2011) and shallower seismicity a day after, preceded the onset of the eruption. This is the first time that a volcanic eruption is fully monitored in the Canary Islands. Data recorded during this unrest episode at El Hierro will contribute to understand reawakening of volcanic activity in this region and others of similar characteristics.

  20. Steam and gas emission rates from La Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Antilles arc): implications for the magmatic supply degassing during unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Patrick; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Beauducel, François; Calabrese, Sergio; Di Napoli, Rossella; Crispi, Olivier; Gaudin, Damien; Parello, Franceso; Hammouya, Gilbert; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    Since its last magmatic eruption in 1530 AD, La Soufrière andesitic volcano in Guadeloupe has displayed intense hydrothermal activity and six phreatic eruptive crises (the last of which, in 1976-1977, with 73000 evacuees). Here we report on the first direct quantification of gas plume emissions from La Soufrière summit vents, which gradually intensified during the past 20 years. Gas fluxes were determined in 2006 then 2012 [1] by measuring the horizontal and vertical distribution of volcanic gas concentrations in the air-diluted plume, the composition of the hot fumarolic fluid at exit (108°C), and scaling to the speed of plume transport (in situ measurements and FLIR imaging). We first demonstrate that all fumarolic vents of La Soufrière are fed by a common H2O-rich (97-98 mol %) fluid end-member, emitted almost unmodified at the most active South Crater while affected by secondary alterations (steam condensation, sulphur scrubbing) at other vents. Daily fluxes in 2012 (200 tons of H2O, 15 tons of CO2, ~4 tons of H2S and 1 ton of HCl) were augmented by a factor ~3 compared to 2006, in agreement with increasing activity. Summit fumarolic degassing contributes most of the bulk volatile and heat budget (8 MW) of the volcano. Isotopic evidences demonstrate that La Soufrière hydrothermal emissions are sustained by continuous heat and gas supply from an andesitic magma reservoir confined at 6-7 km depth. This magmatic supply mixes with abundant groundwater of tropical meteoric origin in the hydrothermal system. Based on petro-geochemical data for the erupted magma(s), we assess that the volcanic gas fluxes in 2012 can be accounted for by the release of free magmatic gas derived from about 1000 m3 per day of the basaltic melt replenishing the reservoir at depth. In terms of mass budget, the current degassing unrest is compatible with enhanced free gas release from that reservoir, without requiring any (actually undetected) magma intrusion. We recommend a regular

  1. Family ethnic socialization and ethnic identity: a family-driven, youth-driven, or reciprocal process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths' ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a 2-year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family driven: Youths' perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths' ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths' future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths' ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths' ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females.

  2. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Eichorst, Werner; Gábos, András;

    2015-01-01

    significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes......Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have...

  3. 77 FR 74168 - Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... history including vaccination history, previous and current illnesses or conditions that may affect... Forest Service Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History AGENCY... information collection, OMB 0596- 0084, Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History....

  4. Preparing At-Risk Youth for a Changing World: Revisiting a Person-in-Context Model for Transition to Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…

  5. Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population. This perspective article discusses this need and proposes the development of an evidence-based suicide risk reduction intervention tailored to SGM youth. Creating a supportive school climate for SGM youth has been shown to reduce suicide risk and may provide protective effects for all youth while simultaneously meeting the unique needs of SGM youth.

  6. Summer Youth Forestry Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

  7. Youth Development: Maori Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

  8. Values and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.

    Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

  9. Exploring critical youth media practice: connections and contributions for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Goodstar, Katie; Richards-Schuster, Katie; Sethi, Jenna K

    2014-10-01

    Youth media is emerging as an interdisciplinary field of practice and subject of study. Over the last two decades, there have been many efforts within communities to engage in media, especially within the fields of youth work and education. Despite the increase in practice, we found surprisingly little attention to the potential for youth media within the social work literature. Drawing on a qualitative content analysis of program descriptions from 49 youth media groups, the authors attempt to examine the current field of youth media. Using a critical media literacy framework, the authors analyze the practice of these youth media groups and apply those findings to social work practice, education, and research.

  10. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  11. Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth.

  12. Youth Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balvig, Flemming

    The number of juvenile dilenquints has declined in Denmark. Juvenile delinquincy is a problem first and foremost because it is often a symptom of other current and serious problems for young people in their everyday lives, and because it often concerns acts that may lead to problems for them later...

  13. Youth Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balvig, Flemming

    The number of juvenile dilenquints has declined in Denmark. Juvenile delinquincy is a problem first and foremost because it is often a symptom of other current and serious problems for young people in their everyday lives, and because it often concerns acts that may lead to problems for them late...

  14. Youth Asset Mapping: Showcasing Youth Empowerment and Positive Youth-Adult Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Deborah J.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Schwieterman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    Youth and adult partners participated in youth asset mapping, a form of action research, to assess community assets and youth involvement opportunities. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine youths' feelings of empowerment and experiences with adult partners. Asset mapping contributed to youth empowerment, especially when adults were engaging…

  15. READING FOR YOUTH INTEREST DURING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia, MARIN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and images conquer them permanently and irrevocably even children from the earliest age. For instance, I can say that as they grow departs books. So many young people arrive at teens refuse to read a book, even electronically. Children considered mandatory reading something imposed by adults and tries to escape, finding other concerns. They also have no motivation, the universe discovered through books hardly seems interesting, which is, in their opinion, obsolete. The environment in which I work led me to satisfy my curiosity namely that of finding out to what extent reading is among the priorities of young people today. This research considers the study of attitudes, behaviors, opinions and intentions of young people their interest in reading, be it physical or books in electronic format. Then I directed a questionnaire to students of the Faculty of Management Marketing in Economic Affairs Rm. Valcea. For example, we chose a target group of young people aged between 18 and 25 years.

  16. LGB Youth's Perceptions of Social Support: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiperman, Sarah; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Howard, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may endure adverse experiences related to their sexual orientation and gender identity/expression. While social supports are commonly described as protective factors, few researchers have investigated this phenomenon for LGBT youth. The current study used thematic coding to analyze…

  17. Validating Accelerometry and Skinfold Measures in Youth with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Phil Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current methods for measuring quantity and intensity of physical activity based on accelerometer output have been studied and validated in youth. These methods have been applied to youth with Down syndrome (DS) with no empirical research done to validate these measures. Similarly, individuals with DS have unique body proportions not represented by…

  18. Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

  19. Geothermal disruption of ice at Mount Spurr Volcano, 2004 - 2006: An unusual manifestation of volcanic unrest in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Neal, Christina A.; Wessels, Rick L.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    Mount Spurr, a 3,374-m-high stratovolcano in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska, showed signs of volcanic unrest beginning in 2004 and lasting through 2006. These signs included increases in heat flow, seismicity, and gas flux, which we interpret as the results of a magmatic intrusion in mid-2004. In response, debris-laden meltwater beneath the glacier in Mount Spurr's geothermally active summit basin accumulated as the overlying snow and ice melted. As heat output increased, the icecap subsided into a growing cavity over a meltwater lake, similar to that observed during subglacial volcanic activity in Iceland. An ice plug collapsed into the lake sometime between June 20 and July 8, 2004, forming an ice cauldron that continued to grow in diameter during 2004 and 2005. A freefall of ice and snow into the lake likely caused a mixture of water and debris to be displaced rapidly upward and outward along preexisting englacial and, possibly, subglacial pathways leading away and downslope from the summit basin. Where these pathways intersected crevasses or other weak points in the sloping icefield, the mixture debouched onto the surface, producing dark, fluid debris flows. In summer 2004, the occurrence of two sets of debris flows separated in time by as long as a week suggests two pulses of summit ice collapse, each producing a surge of water and debris from the lake. A single debris flow was also emplaced on May 2, 2005. This event, which was captured by a Web camera, occurred simultaneously with a lake-level drop of ~15 m. To the east of the ice cauldron, a spillway that fed the debris flows has apparently maintained a relatively constant lake level for months at a time. Aerial photographs show that the spillway is in the direction of a breach in the summit crater. Melting of snow and ice at the summit has continued through 2006, with a total meltwater volume of ~5.4 million m3 as of March 2006.

  20. The Santorini Volcanic Complex: A detailed multi-parameter seismological approach with emphasis on the 2011-2012 unrest period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, P.; Kapetanidis, V.; Karakonstantis, A.; Kaviris, G.; Voulgaris, N.; Makropoulos, K.

    2015-04-01

    existence of an anisotropic upper crust, while no significant temporal variations of the anisotropy direction were observed. The majority of the recorded events were classified as volcano-tectonic micro-earthquakes using spectral analysis. Nevertheless, certain cases of spasmodic bursts and LF events, which can be related to magma activity, have also been identified. A region of low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio has been detected north of Nea Kammeni, at depths between 3 and 5 km, that is directly associated with the magmatic chamber inside the Caldera. The applied multi-method approach revealed that the Santorini Volcano was activated, while the obtained results indicate that the Volcano did not reach a critical state during the 2011-2012 unrest period.

  1. Principles of youth participation in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony M

    2007-10-01

    Young people with mental illness face many barriers in accessing care and often have different needs to those of adult consumers. Young people's participation in mental health services is one way of addressing quality and access issues, through receiving feedback and implementing youth-driven and youth-friendly strategies. headspace, the National Youth Mental Health Foundation, established in July 2006, highlights the mental health care sector's commitment to young people. Existing youth participation programs provide examples of what can be achieved at national and local levels and with varying levels of financial and other support. These include: Ybblue, the youth program of beyondblue; Reach Out!, a web-based service; Headroom, providing health promotion and a website; and Platform Team (ORYGEN Youth Health), comprising current and past clients who advise the service and provide peer support. Current practice in youth participation in mental health services involves a variety of methods, such as ensuring information and education is appropriate for a youth audience, and participating in peer-support programs and staff selection panels. Challenges in the future development of youth participation in mental health services include avoiding tokenism, acknowledging that young people are not a uniform group, translating national strategies into local improvements in services, and gaining the support and cooperation of health care workers in genuine participation.

  2. NEET youth and political participation. The contribution of socio-spatial youth work to enhance political participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldur Sailer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Young people are one of the most vulnerable groups during the current financial and economic crisis. The amount of young people who are not integrated in the European labour market is a serious concern for democracies. In this context the focus has been directed at the ‘NEET’ indicator. NEET stands for Not in Employment, Education or Training and means that young people are not integrated in the education system and in the labour market. The experience of disintegration can also lead to less political participation. This article argues that disintegrated youth can be reached through open children- and youth work and secondly the disintegrated youth can be supported in an adequate way concerning their difficult histories. Thirdly the article shows that open children and youth work has also a positive effect on the political participation of disintegrated youth. In that context we are talking about socio-spatial youth work and present the theoretical basics of it.

  3. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  4. Sexual Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths: Consistency and Change Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sex...

  5. Social Unrest in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-08

    far from home less attractive. The labor shortage, a growing awareness of their rights under the PRC Labor Law , and help from both Chinese lawyers and...Ching Kwan Lee, “Made in China”: Politics of Labor , Law and Legitimacy,” Asia Program Special Report, (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

  6. Youth and Teens Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call NRS Publications Free Promotional Materials Runaway Statistics Crisis Hotline & Online Service Statistics Third Party Statistics NRS Publications Homeless Teen and Runaway Youth Research from NRS Resources & ...

  7. Marginal youth transititions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette

    2011-01-01

    A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised and fragmen......A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised...

  8. Modelling framework developed for managing and forecasting the El Hierro 2011-2014 unrest processes based on the analysis of the seismicity and deformation data rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alicia; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    In July 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), a volcanic unrest was detected, with significant deformations followed by increased seismicity. A submarine eruption started on 10 October 2011 and ceased on 5 March 2012, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through February 2012. However, the seismic activity did not end when the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed since. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. In all cases the seismic activity was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GNSS-GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma injection processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy released has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening. The model presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself.

  9. Pathways of volatile migration in the crust beneath Harrat Lunayyir (Saudi Arabia) during the unrest in 2009 revealed by attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, Ilya; Koulakov, Ivan; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    Harrat Lunayyir is a relatively young basaltic field in Saudi Arabia located at the western margin of the Arabian Peninsula. In April-June 2009, strong seismic activity and ground deformations at this site marked the activation of the magma system beneath Harrat Lunayyir. In this study, we present new three-dimensional models of the attenuation of P and S waves during the unrest in 2009 based on the analysis of t*. We measured 1658 and 3170 values of t* for P and S waves, respectively, for the same earthquakes that were previously used for travel time tomography. The resulting anomalies of the P and S wave attenuation look very similar. In the center of the study area, we observe a prominent high-attenuation pattern, which coincides with the most active seismicity at shallow depths and maximum ground deformations. This high-attenuation zone may represent a zone of accumulation and ascending of gases, which originated at depths of 5-7 km due to the decompression of ascending liquid volatiles. Based on these findings and previous tomography studies, we propose that the unrest at Harrat Lunayyir in 2009 was triggered by a sudden injection of unstable liquid volatiles from deeper magma sources. At some depths, they were transformed to gases, which caused the volume to increase, and this led to seismic activation in the areas of phase transformations. The overpressurized gases ultimately found the weakest point in the rigid basaltic cover at the junction of several tectonic faults and escaped to the surface.

  10. Anxiety in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret

    Mental health conditions are prevalent in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms are highly correlated and are two of the most prevalent mental health conditions in youth in the general population. The detrimental effect of depressive symptoms in youth with T1D has been well documented, but the effects of anxiety symptoms are not well understood. Studies were included if they were published between 1990 and 2015, and evaluated anxiety symptoms in a population of youth with T1D. A total of 20 studies were identified from a sample of 338 papers. Anxiety symptoms were prevalent in youth with T1D. Anxiety symptoms were associated with higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, poorer self-management and coping behaviors, depressive symptoms, fear of hypoglycemia, and lower blood glucose monitoring frequency. State anxiety and trait anxiety symptoms affected health outcomes differently. Girls were at a higher risk of anxiety symptoms than boys. Anxiety symptoms in youth with T1D have detrimental effects on health outcomes, including self-management, quality of life, and HbA1c. Future research should aim to improve our current screening and treatment practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Caregiver and youth agreement regarding youths' trauma histories: implications for youths' functioning after exposure to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oransky, Matthew; Hahn, Hilary; Stover, Carla Smith

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that youth are exposed to potentially traumatic events at high rates. Caregivers play an important role in youths' successful recovery following exposures to potentially traumatic events. However, past research has documented poor caregiver-youth agreement regarding youths' exposures to potentially traumatic events, indicating a potential lack of support for many youth exposed to such events. This study examined caregiver-youth discrepancies in the reports of youths' lifetime exposures to potentially traumatic events, and the relationship between these reporting discrepancies and youths' post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, mood symptoms, and functional impairment following disclosures of sexual abuse. Participants included 114 caregiver-youth dyads participating in a family-based intervention at four Child Advocacy Centers in New York City. Standardized measures of trauma history, youth PTSD symptoms, youth mood symptoms, youth functional impairment, and caregiver PTSD symptoms were given in interview format to caregivers and youth at the time of intake into the intervention. The demographic composition of the youth sample was 86.8 % female, 13.2 % male, 32.5 % African American, 54.4 % Latino/a, 2.6 % Caucasian, 0.9 % Asian American, 8.8 % other race/ethnicity. Youth ranged in age from 7 to 16. Results demonstrated poor agreement between youth and caregivers regarding youths' exposure to a range of potentially traumatic events and regarding youths' PTSD symptoms, mood symptoms and functional impairment. Both caregiver-youth discrepancies regarding youths' histories of exposures to potentially traumatic events and caregiver PTSD symptoms were significantly associated with youths' self-reported symptoms and functional impairment. Only caregiver PTSD symptoms were related to caregivers' reports of youths' symptoms and functional impairment. Findings underscore the importance of family support and communication

  12. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  13. Problems of youth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriuki, P

    1981-12-01

    Young people constitute a large and rapidly growing proportion of the population in most countries of Africa and in many parts of the world as a whole. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. Young people on the whole experience discomforting confusion, disquieting irritations and perplexities, and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in drug and alcohol use among youth leading to vandalism and disrespect toward their elders and authority. There also are teenage pregnancies and school dropouts. Illegal abortion is being practiced by many girls which sometime lead to premature death. Urbanization also has accentuated various kinds of evils and crimes. Modernization and western influences have helped to erode traditional Africa values. The family system has lost ground rapidly, and the indigenous systems of education have largely disappeared. The passing away of old Africa has contributed to laxity in morals. The current socioeconomic conditions in Africa block the progress of the Africa youth. Early marriages complicate matters for youth and increase the burdens of youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about fertility regulation methods all have helped to increase early childbearing. These are reinforced by African traditional values attached to childbearing. Furthermore, in traditional African society, the young people depended for guidance in behavior and personal relationships on some member of the family. This teaching was gradual and continued until the child was an adult. Today, the family has had to relinquish much of the responsibility of guiding youth on these concerns. Much of the task has been left to formal education and to chance. Problems relating to young people should be attacked at their roots. Such an effort should aim to inform, teach, educate, and orient youth so that they can face the reality of their sexual life. Family Life and Sex Education

  14. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  15. RUBII: Caring for Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On March 24th,China Guanghua Foundation (under the leadership of The Communist Youth League of China) along with the Ordifen International Group,together with 40 domestic Chinese Universities and Colleges,started the "RUBII Youth Career Building Plan" in Central University for Nationalities in Beijing.

  16. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the Ministry o

  17. Alliance in Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothman, Linda; Rijsingen, Rinie van; Pijnenburg, Huub

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of alliance in youth care. The concept of (therapeutic) alliance originates in adult psychotherapy and related research. Alliance refers to the working relationship between youth care workers and their clients. Within this concept, personal (emotional) and task re

  18. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  19. Queering the Youthful "Cyberflaneur"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Kenway, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article explores ways of queering the youthful cyberflaneur, using the television series "Queer as Folk" as the touchstone for such explorations. The concept of the youthful cyberflaneur, as developed by Kenway and Bullen, links power, pleasure, and consumer politics to pedagogy. However, it has been criticised for its heterosexist register.…

  20. Introduction: Ideologies of Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... emerging development in Africa and beyond: the rise of youth as an ideology. ... policy-orientations from the 'rural', the 'women' or the 'household', to the ... on local politics have influenced the manner in which the youth came to be .... different in Africa, compared to the West or Asia (for India see Sinha-.

  1. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  2. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  3. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  4. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  5. Respectful Youth Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

  6. Challenges of youth tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prospects of a new, fast-growing sector in the international tourism – youth tourism. It provides basic definitions of the essence of youth tourism, and statistics for the sector over the last decade as well as the most popular destinations.

  7. Challenges of youth tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva; Alice V. Khoshpakyants

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the prospects of a new, fast-growing sector in the international tourism – youth tourism. It provides basic definitions of the essence of youth tourism, and statistics for the sector over the last decade as well as the most popular destinations.

  8. Using InSAR to investigate long term caldera unrest: case studies from Yellowstone and Long Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    battaglia, maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Interpreting geodetic measurements can be particularly difficult in the case of slow, years-to-decades deformation, such as that commonly observed at large Quaternary silicic calderas. For example, Yellowstone caldera has shown a complex behavior over recent decades: uplift of resurgent domes within the caldera started sometime after 1923, reaching a total of 90 cm, but in 1984 the deformation reversed to subsidence at a rate of 1-2 cm/yr until 1992. Starting in 1992, the deformation began migrating from one resurgent dome to the other, and deformation was also detected along the caldera boundary - the so-called Northern Caldera Rim - starting in the mid-1990s. Evidence from geodetic surveys suggests that magma intrusion and/or pressurization of hydrothermal fluids may both drive uplift at Yellowstone. Geodetic measurements at Long Valley caldera have also revealed multiple episodes of caldera uplift, but in contrast to Yellowstone, deformation is largely restricted to the caldera's single resurgent dome. The fact that the energy released during the resurgent dome uplift is much larger than that which can be explained by seismic activity within and around the caldera, together with the observation that the onset of accelerated deformation precedes increases in earthquake activity by several weeks, suggests that the major source of caldera unrest is probably magma intrusion beneath the resurgent dome. Here we present time series of surface deformation for Yellowstone and Long Valley retrieved by applying the SBAS InSAR technique. We estimate the average regional deformation signal by using the mean velocity values derived from coherent SAR pixels belonging to areas outside the caldera. This tectonic signal is removed from the InSAR displacement and we modeled the InSAR, leveling, and gravity measurements to retrieve the best fitting source parameters. For Yellowstone caldera, different distinct sources, either hydrothermal or magmatic, have been intermittently

  9. How youth-friendly are pharmacies in New Zealand? Surveying aspects of accessibility and the pharmacy environment using a youth participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Emma; Kelly, Fiona; Clark, Terryann; Sheridan, Janie

    2014-01-01

    The international youth population has significant unmet health needs, and there have been many calls to increase youth health care access. Community pharmacies may be able to help address these needs, but very little research has investigated this area and it is not known whether the current community pharmacy setting is acceptable or appropriate for youth. 1) To obtain information on physical factors which could affect young people's use of community pharmacies in New Zealand, including accessibility, opening times and the physical youth-friendliness of the pharmacy environment. 2) To involve and utilize young people in the research process, in order to understand their needs and interpretation of survey data. This study applied a cross sectional survey design, informed by a sequential youth participatory approach. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a youth advisory group (YAG). Questionnaires distributed to pharmacists at 500 randomly selected pharmacies nationwide between May and September 2011 collected information on whether the pharmacy met selected youth-friendly criteria. These included physical aspects of youth-friendliness, such as opening times and the pharmacy environment. The YAG also provided a youth perspective in the interpretation of the results. Three mail shots achieved a response rate of 50.5%. Most respondents reported the pharmacy to be accessible by public transport and many had extended opening hours. Although most pharmacies met some youth-friendly criteria with regards to the pharmacy environment (e.g. having a private consultation area), more specific criteria (such as displaying youth health information) were usually not met. Interpretive feedback from the YAG highlighted areas for improvement. Pharmacies show potential as youth-friendly health care access points and most already meet some youth-friendly criteria. Areas identified for improvement will require a greater youth focus from the profession, and should be

  10. Prevention of youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Philip J

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Concern over the number of youth affected by violence in their homes, communities, and in schools has precipitated considerable discussion in the popular press and in professional journals. This article reviews recent activity to reduce youth violence with an emphasis on activity taking place in Maryland. The number of youth murdered or exposed to violence in Maryland remains too high. Although most of our youth are resilient, they are not unaffected by the violence that surrounds them. Exposure to violence places children at high risk for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and inadequate socialization and development.

  11. "It is about being outside": Canadian youth's perspectives of good health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Skarlato, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative data generated from an ethnographic study exploring Canadian youth's understanding of health, this paper examines youth's perspectives of the relationships between health and environment. Seventy-one youth (12 to 19 years of age) took part in individual and focus group interviews, as well as in photovoice interviews. Although initial discourse about health mainly focused on healthy eating and exercise, youth were more enthused and able to share their thoughts and feelings about the relationships between health and environment during the photovoice interviews. For these youth, good health was defined and visualized as "being outside" in a safe, clean, green, and livable space. Youth talked about conditions contributing to healthy environments and how healthy environments contributed to a strong sense of place. Overall, the conversations about the environment evoked many feelings in the youth. Results are discussed in the context of current research and in relation to youth, but also more broadly in relation to research on health and environment.

  12. Macroeconomic effects of the current crises in Japan and MENA countries - A model-based assessment of the medium term

    OpenAIRE

    Mönnig, Anke; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Two events currently preoccupy global news: the political unrest in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Both events are very different in its nature and location, but they not only affect economic developments within these countries but also across the world. In the current paper, the macroeconomic effects of both events and of a combination of both crises are analysed by applying a dynamic interindustry model. That not only al...

  13. CDC Vital Signs: HIV Among Youth in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Current issue Infographic Topics Covered Alcohol Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Food Safety ... Engage in HIV education programs and support safe environments in schools for all youth. Make sure your ...

  14. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past ... scans showed that their brains' outer mantle, or cortex, thickens more rapidly during childhood, reaching its peak ...

  15. Research Methodology and Youth Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.; Doolittle, Fred; Yates, Brian T.; Silverthorn, Naida; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring programs for youth have grown tremendously in popularity in recent years and in many important respects reflect core principles of community psychology. Mentoring of youth is a complex phenomenon, however, with a range of significant processes occurring at the levels of individual youth and their mentors, youth-mentor relationships and…

  16. A new approach to the unrest and subsequent eruption at El Hierro Island (2011) based on petrological, seismological, geodetical and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletlidis, Stavros; Di Roberto, Alessio; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; Pompilio, Massimo; García-Cañada, Laura; Bertagnini, Antonella; Benito Saz, Maria Angeles; Del Carlo, Paola; Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Lopez Moreno, Carmen; Moure García, David

    2014-05-01

    A shallow submarine eruption took place on 10th October 2011, about 1.8 km off the coast of La Restinga, a small village located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruption lasted for about four months and ended by early March 2012. The eruption was preceded by an unrest episode that initiated about three months before, in July 2011, and characterized by more than 10,000 localized earthquakes accompanied by up to 5 cm of vertical ground deformation. In the Canary Islands, this event represents the first case of an eruption that was monitored since the unrest to the end by the monitoring network of IGN (Instituto Geográfico National), providing a huge dataset that includes geophysical (seismic, magnetic and gravimetric), geodetic, geochemistry and petrological data. In this work we use the seismic, GPS and gravity records collected by IGN along with the petrological data derived from the study of various lava balloons, scoriaceous fragments and ash.Geophysical and geochemical monitoring tools provide a variety of information that need to be interpreted in terms of magma movement and/or interaction of magma with host rocks. We present a model, based on this data, which describes the intrusion and ascent of the magma. According to this model, a major intrusion beneath and around preexisting high-density magmatic bodies, localized in the central sector of the island, led to an eruption in the Southern sector of the island. After a failed attempt to reach the surface, while various dykes were emplaced, through a low fractured area in the Central and Northern parts of the island, the ascending magma finally found its way in the submarine area of La Restinga, in the South rift zone, at a depth of 350 m below sea level. Feeding of the eruption was achieved by the ascension of an important volume of material from the upper mantle which was emplaced near the crust-mantle boundary. However, the very energetic post-eruptive unrests - we had five episodes up today with

  17. Krystle Merrow: Representing LGBT Youth Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James H., III

    2009-01-01

    Krystle Merrow, a recent graduate of the Ohio State University, is a victim of the declining economy and is currently searching for opportunities in the photographic field. The photographic essay at the heart of this interview establishes a range of autobiographical narratives and coming out stories of LGBT youth in central Ohio. The interview…

  18. Helping Black Youths to Speak Standard English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daisy F.

    A work-study program was designed to provide black inner-city youths with instruction and guidance in skills needed in their current jobs, especially their ability to speak standard English. The program used the technique of modeling to arouse students' motivation to adopt standard spoken English. Research has shown that the use of a model will be…

  19. Population Density and Youth Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Turkheimer, Eric; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models concerning how neighborhood contexts adversely influence juvenile antisocial behavior frequently focus on urban neighborhoods; however, previous studies comparing urban and rural areas on the prevalence of youth antisocial behavior have yielded mixed results. The current study uses longitudinal data on the offspring of a…

  20. Krystle Merrow: Representing LGBT Youth Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James H., III

    2009-01-01

    Krystle Merrow, a recent graduate of the Ohio State University, is a victim of the declining economy and is currently searching for opportunities in the photographic field. The photographic essay at the heart of this interview establishes a range of autobiographical narratives and coming out stories of LGBT youth in central Ohio. The interview…

  1. Prevalence and risk indicators of smoking among on-reserve First Nations youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Tempier, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    To determine the current prevalence of smoking among First Nations youth living on reserve within the Saskatoon Tribal Council, and to determine the independent risk indicators associated with smoking among First Nations youth. Students in grades 5 to 8 attending school within the Saskatoon Tribal Council were asked to complete a youth health survey. Of 271 eligible students, 204 completed the consent protocol and the school survey, yielding a response rate of 75.3%; 26.5% of youth were defined as current smokers. Regression analysis indicated that older age, not having a happy home life, suicide ideation and having three or more friends who smoke cigarettes were independent risk indicators of smoking in First Nations youth. Smoking prevalence among on-reserve First Nations youth is quite high. The identification of four main risk indicators should assist with the design of youth smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  2. 社区青少年素质教育现状及对策研究%On Current Situation of Community Youth Quality-oriented Education and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔淑兰

    2014-01-01

    A more focused research work ,covering a broad area and focusing on the youth quality-oriented education in community ,has been carried out to find out youth’s participation status quo of community education and their psychological needs .After analysis ,it is found that needs for youth com-munity education have distinctive characteristics . The thesis puts forward the corresponding counter-measures and suggestions to promote quality -oriented education of community youth .%针对社区青少年素质教育方面开展了一次较有针对性、涉及面较广的调查研究工作,摸清了青少年对社区教育的参与状况、心理需求。经过分析研究,发现青少年社区教育活动需求具有鲜明的特征,对促进社区青少年素质教育提出了相应的对策与建议。

  3. Youth Media Citizenship: Beyond "Youth Voice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soep, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of youth culture complicates young people's relationship to democracy as traditionally conceived. More and more young people define themselves as cosmopolitan citizens, connected through popular culture, digital technologies, and migration histories to social geographies outside their own local and national contexts. Despite…

  4. Operational short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra fallout: an example from the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology for the short-term PVHA and its operational implementation, based on the model BET_EF, in which measures from the monitoring system are used to routinely update the forecast of some parameters related to the eruption dynamics, that is, the probabilities of eruption, of every possible vent position and every possible eruption size. Then, considering all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes, tephra dispersal models are coupled with frequently updated meteorological forecasts. Finally, these results are merged through a Bayesian procedure, accounting for epistemic uncertainties at all the considered steps. As case study we retrospectively study some stages of the volcanic unrest that took place in Campi Flegrei (CF) in 1982-1984. In particular, we aim at presenting a practical example of possible operational tephra fall PVHA on a daily basis, in the surroundings of CF at different stages of the 1982-84 unrest. Tephra dispersal is simulated using the analytical HAZMAP code. We consider three possible eruptive sizes (a low, a medium and a

  5. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  6. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012–2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km3 of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area. PMID:26279090

  7. 北非动荡与中国企业对非投资的对策思考%Implications of North Africa Unrest to Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林成华

    2011-01-01

    Since unrest started in North Africa by the end of 2010, Chinese investment has suffered greatly. This article analyses the challenges and opportunities for these Chinese enterprises and gives suggestions on risk control and sustainable development for Chinese enterprises investing in Africa.%自2010年底以来.北非国家发生了持续性政局动荡,给中国企业带来巨大损失。本文分析了北非局势变化对中国企业带来的机遇与挑战,并从政府和企业两个层面对中国企业在非投资的风险控制与可持续发展提出建议。

  8. Magma replenishment and volcanic unrest inferred from the analysis of VT micro-seismicity and seismic velocity changes at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, F.; Rivemale, E.; Clarke, D. S.; Schmid, A.; Got, J.; Battaglia, J.; Taisne, B.; Staudacher, T.; Peltier, A.; Shapiro, N. M.; Tait, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Di Muro, A.

    2011-12-01

    Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF) is among the most active basaltic volcanoes worldwide with more than one eruption per year on average. Also, PdF is densely instrumented with short-period and broad-band seismometers as well as with GPS receivers. Continuous seismic waveforms are available from 1999. Piton de la Fournaise volcano has a moderate inter-eruptive seismic activity with an average of five detected Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes per day with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.5. These earthquakes are shallow and located about 2.5 kilometers beneath the edifice surface. Volcanic unrest is captured on average a few weeks before eruptions by measurements of increased VT seismicity rate, inflation of the edifice summit, and decreased seismic velocities from correlations of seismic noise. Eruptions are usually preceded by seismic swarms of VT earthquakes. Recently, almost 50 % of seismic swarms were not followed by eruptions. Within this work, we aim to gather results from different groups of the UnderVolc research project in order to better understand the processes of deep magma transfer, volcanic unrest, and pre-eruptive magma transport initiation. Among our results, we show that the period 1999-2003 was characterized by a long-term increase of VT seismicity rate coupled with a long-term decrease of seismic velocities. These observations could indicate a long-term replenishment of the magma storage area. The relocation of ten years of inter-eruptive micro-seismicity shows a narrow (~300 m long) sub-vertical fault zone thus indicating a conduit rather than an extended magma reservoir as the shallow magma feeder system. Also, we focus on the processes of short-term volcanic unrest and prove that magma intrusions within the edifice leading to eruptions activate specific VT earthquakes that are distinct from magma intrusions that do not lead to eruptions. We thus propose that, among the different pathways of magma transport within the edifice, only one will

  9. 'Youth' making us fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This article problematizes the construction of youth as a ‘driving force’ in the contemporary configuration of the European Union (EU) as an educational and political space. The study draws empirical nourishment out of documents that are central to the ongoing formation of the Union, be it White......, expected to constantly ‘adapt’ ourselves in compliance with the aim of the Lisbon process. Furthermore, as the Union itself is coded in a similar way, we may even claim that the EU, literally speaking, appears as a youth project in itself. Thus, the notion that youth can be seen as political rationality...

  10. Sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Causes of unrest at silicic calderas in the East African Rift: New constraints from InSAR and soil-gas chemistry at Aluto volcano, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Clor, Laura E.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2016-08-01

    Restless silicic calderas present major geological hazards, and yet many also host significant untapped geothermal resources. In East Africa, this poses a major challenge, although the calderas are largely unmonitored their geothermal resources could provide substantial economic benefits to the region. Understanding what causes unrest at these volcanoes is vital for weighing up the opportunities against the potential risks. Here we bring together new field and remote sensing observations to evaluate causes of ground deformation at Aluto, a restless silicic volcano located in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data reveal the temporal and spatial characteristics of a ground deformation episode that took place between 2008 and 2010. Deformation time series reveal pulses of accelerating uplift that transition to gradual long-term subsidence, and analytical models support inflation source depths of ˜5 km. Gases escaping along the major fault zone of Aluto show high CO2 flux, and a clear magmatic carbon signature (CO2-δ13C of -4.2‰ to -4.5‰). This provides compelling evidence that the magmatic and hydrothermal reservoirs of the complex are physically connected. We suggest that a coupled magmatic-hydrothermal system can explain the uplift-subsidence signals. We hypothesize that magmatic fluid injection and/or intrusion in the cap of the magmatic reservoir drives edifice-wide inflation while subsequent deflation is related to magmatic degassing and depressurization of the hydrothermal system. These new constraints on the plumbing of Aluto yield important insights into the behavior of rift volcanic systems and will be crucial for interpreting future patterns of unrest.

  12. Transition-Aged Youths With Dual Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinyak, Christopher M; Gary, Faye A; Killion, Cheryl M; Suresky, M Jane

    2016-03-01

    The current study provides an overview of the research knowledge about unique problems encountered by transition-aged youths with dual diagnoses. A description of the considerable physical and emotional changes experienced by transition-aged youths provides a foundation for exploring the pressures and challenges compounded by mental health issues and substance abuse. Programs that provide intensive support throughout the transition years pay valuable dividends. However, transition-aged youths with dual diagnoses of mental disorders and substance abuse find themselves faced with limited or nonexistent options. There is a confusing lack of continuity and consistency of supports and services, which complicates the already perplexing circumstances that beleaguer the lives of young adults with dual diagnoses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Eichorst, Werner; Gábos, András

    2015-01-01

    Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have...... significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes...... in the economic sphere around labor market flexibility, skills attainment, and employer demand, as well as understanding the impact of family legacies affecting increasingly polarized trajectories for young people today. The success of EU policy initiatives and investments will be shaped by the ability...

  14. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline O’Reilly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes in the economic sphere around labor market flexibility, skills attainment, and employer demand, as well as understanding the impact of family legacies affecting increasingly polarized trajectories for young people today. The success of EU policy initiatives and investments will be shaped by the ability of national actors to implement these effectively.

  15. Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Fish, Jessica N

    2016-01-01

    Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.

  16. Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified. PMID:26772206

  17. Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; David Hawkins, J; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2011-05-01

    This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings.

  18. Marketing Youth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  19. Marketing Youth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  20. Youth's Unemployment and Illiteracy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... Government should therefore build strong economic institutions and those .... So, poverty and illiteracy can destroy the bases of ..... should be reformed to allow the youths access the funds through loans with little interest. 5.

  1. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with emails, text messages, RSS Feeds, content syndication, social media and more to learn about the latest federal tobacco regulations. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon ...

  2. Collaborating on Evaluation for Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Genevieve; Netherland, Nancy H.; Haywood, Mary L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Youth Development Learning Network's extended evaluation, a collaboration of funders, program administrators, youth workers, and evaluators, that illustrates the process of building capacity for youth and youth workers. (SLD)

  3. A Different Kind of Smart: A Study of the Educational Obstacles Confronting Homeless Youth in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melanie; Houghton, Alison

    This study provides information on obstacles facing homeless youth in school. Research occurred in four diverse New England cities. Researchers collected detailed case histories on youth age 10-15 years who were currently homeless or who had recently been homeless. Data came from staff of local youth agencies, government officials, and youths…

  4. Youth Homelessness in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børner Stax, Tobias

    Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....

  5. Current Situation And Countermeasure On The New Media To Promote The Work Of The Communist Youth League~%浅析新媒体推进共青团工作的现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2012-01-01

    In the information age of high - speed development today, the use of new media to guide the youth of this social mobilization mode will become the next important point of the work of the Communist Youth league. Young people to build a new media stereo system, accelerate the establishment of new media commentator team construction, advocate for the establishment of new media ethics system will be the next focus.%在信息时代高速发展的今天,运用新媒体引导青年这一社会化动员方式必将成为未来共青团工作重要着力点。新媒体既带来了挑战也带来了机遇,搭建工作阵地、增强引导的针对性和实效性、更好地服务和维权、扩大团组织覆盖面等已成为新媒体服务共青团工作的巨大优势。打造青少年的新媒体立体体系、加快建立新媒体评论员队伍建设、倡导建立新媒体道德体系将是下一步的工作重点。

  6. Extension Youth Educators' Technology Use in Youth Development Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Carli; Buquoi, Brittany; Kotrlik, Joe W.; Machtmes, Krisanna; Bunch, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to determine the use of technology in youth programming by Extension youth development educators in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Data were collected via e-mail and a SurveyMonkey© questionnaire. Extension educators are using some technology in youth development programming. More…

  7. Rural Hispanic Youths' Perceptions of Positive Youth Development Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedeken, Jill A.; Xia, Yan; Durden, Tonia; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study examined rural Latino youths' perceptions regarding positive youth development (PYD), particularly related to aspects such as the definition of PYD, potential benefits of PYD, and motivations for participating in PYD activities. A total of 28 self-identified Hispanic youths participated in focus groups. Findings suggest that…

  8. YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies, 9(1): May 2012. Page 74. YOUTH ... the age of 25 (Youth Business International [YBI], 2009). Although this ..... management is a very important entrepreneurial competency. In embarking on an activity ...

  9. Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This essay was written for the essay competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It discusses the possible determinant factors of youth crimes in Pakistan and provides logical suggestion to tackle the problem.

  10. Unraveling the Hidden Curriculum. Values in Youth Care Interventions and Youth Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Themes such as “effectiveness” and “evidence-based practice” dominate current debates about and within the professional field of youth care. The field seems to focus almost solely on the effectiveness of interventions and policy measures and there appears to be a general consensus on the objectivity

  11. Sport, Educational Engagement and Positive Youth Development: Reflections of Aboriginal Former Youth Sports Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Nicole; Ma'ayah, Fadi; Harms, Craig; Guilfoyle, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Participation in sport during high school has been linked with a range of educational and developmental benefits. However, there is limited research investigating the benefits of participation in sport from the perspective of Aboriginal former youth sports participants. The purpose of the current research was to investigate how participation in…

  12. Dating violence prevention in middle school and high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Sharron M

    2005-01-01

    Dating violence and interpersonal abuse among middle school and high school students. To review the current literature and evaluate the need of conducting further study in order to create early interventions for the prevention of relationship abuse. Case report and review of the literature. Dating violence among middle school and high school youth must be addressed by screening risk and offering anticipatory guidance during each health maintenance visit in order to prevent victimization of youth in dating and attraction relationships.

  13. Youth leadership at PPNC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, N; Smith, J

    2000-04-01

    Planned Parenthood of Nassau County (PPNC) employs a wide range of local programs to assist young people in developing the skills necessary to make responsible decisions and help them become good leaders in the future. The mission that underpins their work with the youth is to help them recognize the powerful positive impact they can have on their peers, friends, loved ones, and families. For the last 16 years, peer education has played an essential role in the programs and services of PPNC for teens. The Teen Advocate Project (TAP) has trained and supported dozens of local youth who have in turn participated in several outreach and education activities. The PPNC also created the Teen Info Line, a telephone peer support service operated by and for teens. Along with the TAP, PPNC operates three other successful components of its education programs targeting the youth and their families: 1) male involvement program, 2) multicultural education program, and 3) substance awareness/sexual health education program. In recognizing that its mission to help the youth must not stop at the county border, PPNC established the Global Institute for Training in 1992 to develop youth leadership programs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe.

  14. 青年肢体残疾人全面康复需求现状调查%Survey on the Current Situation of Comprehensive Rehabilitation Needs of Limb Disa-bled Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金明

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore rehabilitation needs of physically disabled youth in order to provide references for poli-cies making.Methods Non-random sampling and structured questionnaires were used in this study.Results The reha-bilitation needs of physically disabled youth were diversified and urgent.All respondents needed medical rehabilita-tion,functional training,assistive technology,social inclusion and information consultation.More than half of re-spondents needed education training,employment services and reconstruction of barrier-free environments,cultural and recreational activities.57.4% of respondents didn't need special care.Conclusions Rehabilitation needs of disa-bled youth should be given more attention and individual rehabilitation services should be provided for helping them to achieve fully social inclusion.%目的了解青年肢体残疾人的康复需求状况,为制定相关政策提供依据。方法采用非随机抽样方法,通过结构式问卷调查收集数据。结果肢体残疾人康复需求多样而迫切,其中医疗康复需求、功能训练需求、辅助器具需求、社会融入需求,以及讯息咨询需求在调查对象中均为100%需要;教育培训需求、就业服务需求、无障碍环境改造需求及文化体育需求超过50%;不需要托养服务者为57.4%。结论应重视青年肢体残疾人的康复需求,为这一群体提供有针对性的康复服务,促进青年肢体残疾人的全面发展。

  15. Walker's Sampler: Youth Advocacy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Clarence; And Others

    This resource book, which provides a sampling of programs developed by the Youth Advocacy Projects of the Teacher Corps on behalf of troubled youth, is organized ln tbree major sections. Section I presents outlines, resources, and critiques of staff development courses, organized according to target youth group(s) and by subject area. Section II…

  16. Chapter 11: Civic Youth Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We propose civic youth work as a new craft orientation in the family of child and youth care, education, social work, recreation and other relevant semi-to-full professions. We envision this practice as based in the philosophies and practical sciences of pedagogy, politics, and human development. The ideal-type civic youth worker will have a…

  17. Toward a Youth Work Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in the professionalization of the youth work field in Australia and the United States. In this article I draw on relevant literature from the sociology of professions to explore the appeal of professionalization for youth work. The interest in professionalism is examined along with the strategies youth work practitioners…

  18. Forgotten Youth: Homeless LGBT Youth of Color and the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelle Page

    2017-01-01

    [...]there is presently a disproportionate percentage of youth of color, and especially LGBT youth of color, who experience homelessness in a given year compared to their overall percentage in the general population...

  19. Forgotten Youth: Homeless LGBT Youth of Color and the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelle Page

    2017-01-01

    .... [...]this Comment focuses on how and why this problem occurs, the effects it has on homeless LGBT youth of color, and then proposes specific revisions to the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act that would...

  20. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.

  1. Parent-Youth Discordance about Youth-Witnessed Violence: Associations with Trauma Symptoms and Service Use in an At-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth…

  2. Marginalization of the Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  3. Typologies of Youth Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeter, T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tourism differentiated itself from the concept of traditional tourism by the distinctive profile of its participants. In the last 10 years this branch had a very rapid growth, contributingsignificantly to any countries’ economy due to the amount of money that was spent by young people on different types of tourism. The aim of this paper is to present the most practiced forms of youth tourism, and their development worldwide and also in Romania. The conclusions show the most practiced types on a European and on Romanian level.

  4. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  5. RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR YOUTH: MYTHS AND FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using resistance training with the aim of developing muscle strength among youth is still a matter of debate and often receives severe criticism. Previous research, which has not noted an increase in muscle strength, led to the conclusion that resistance training is ineffective among youth. However, the results of numerous more recent studies which have closely followed the published statements and recommendations obtained by leading global professional and health organizations, indicate that if carried out properly, resistance training among youth can have very positive results. In addition to its positive influence on muscle strength and endurance, as well as the potential increase in the success rate of motor performance, regular resistance training can result in the improvement of body composition, increased bone mineral density, an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as its influence on one’s psychological well-being. The most commonly used types of load for resistance training include free weights and weight machines, which can have standard dimensions, but are also specially designed for younger people. It is also often the case that these training programs consist of body weight exercises, exercises with a medicine ball, expanders and elastic bands. Current findings from well-organized and monitored studies involving samples of youth indicated a very small possibility of injury during resistance training, provided that all the training recommendations for the given age group are adhered to.

  6. Youth Services Participation of YouthYouth Policy in Hungary (2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANCSÁK, Csaba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary’s youth context changed in 2006, before the world crisis, and recession has spread since then. Youth institutions have gone through constant changes which are difficult to follow, after six years almost none of them are left. Youth resources have decreased both on the local and on the national level, due to mutually reinforcing economic and political effects. During the examined period, the proportion of youth tolerating more violent behaviour has increased, as well as those longing for strong leaders and those disillusioned with capitalism. Nowadays, apart from lobbying, demonstrations, elaborating independent political alternatives, a new, rational behaviour appears among youth, the phenomenon of leaving the country.

  7. Motivating Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Television, advertising, the Internet, music, and the proliferation of chain stores have had a homogenizing effect on children. Regardless of what type of environment they live in, the style of youth's dress, the way they talk, and how they respond to a wide range of stimuli are surprisingly similar. In spite of these similarities, the challenges…

  8. Suicide and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Essie E.

    1978-01-01

    Suicide among young people is increasing at phenomenal rates. This article examines the problem of adolescent suicide and suicide attempts in relation to cultural factors, sex differences, and probable causes. The importance of parents, teachers, and counselors in becoming alert to conflict and stress situations in youths is delineated. (Author)

  9. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these factors does not always mean that a young person will become an offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history ... a positive role model and helps guide the young person’s ... and social environment. These changes address the social and economic causes ...

  10. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  11. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…

  12. Canada Youth & AIDS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan J. C.; And Others

    This report contains the findings from a survey of over 38,000 youth in grades 7, 9, 11, and the first year of college or university, designed to obtain a cross-sectional perspective of the development of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Also included…

  13. Youth Ministry after Christendom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William R.

    2016-01-01

    The author identifies historic factors supportive of the 20th-century church's embrace of a program model for youth ministry while showing how its location outside the centering practices of the church by century's end produced a strong theological critique. The presence of both qualitative and quantitative research data and the reality of…

  14. Youth in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  15. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  16. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be prevented. Youth across America are affected by suicide, be it in families, at school, or in their own lives. The ... viii Nonsuicidal self-injury x Exposure to friends’/family members’ suicide xii Low self-esteem xiii Protective Factors Family ...

  17. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  18. Jovens e associações em Moçambique: motivações e dinâmicas actuais Youths and associations in Mozambique: motivations and current dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mateus Biza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é uma reflexão sobre dinâmicas associativas de jovens no Moçambique pós colonial. O objectivo desta reflexão foi identificar e analisar as motivações de engajamento dos jovens nesses agrupamentos. Baseando-se em aproximações empíricas feitas a duas associações de jovens - Associação Aro Juvenil e Associação Positiva Juvenil - a análise demonstra que dinamica associativa de jovens mete em evidência relações complexas entre identidade, contexto, o privado, o público e o afectivo. Embora haja múltiplas motivações, a adesão dos jovens em associações associa trajectórias e expectativas individualizadas. A nível discursivo, a entrada na vida associativa representa uma forma de legitimação sóciopolítica em resposta a um discurso que considera os jovens passivos e pouco intervenientes na solução dos problemas que lhes afecta em particular e à sociedade no geral. A nível das práticas associativas quotidianas, os jovens reintrepretam e dão outro sentido às motivações do seu engajamento: para lá dos objectivos formais, pretensamente desenvolvimentistas, altruistas e humanitários, o associativismo é uma estratégia de vida e de realização de projectos individuais. Criar uma associação e/ou nela aderir pode significar maiores possibilidades de aceder e controlar recursos e capitais diversificados como emprego/profissão, dinheiro, trabalho, poder, reconhecimento e prestigio, formações entre outros que de outra forma não seria possível.This article reflects on youth associations dynamics in Postcolonial Mozambique. The aim is to identify and analyze motivations for young people's involvement in such groups. Based on empirical work with two youth associations - namely "Associação Aro Juvenil" and "Associação Positiva Juvenil" - the assessment finds that youth associations dynamics highlights intricate relationships involving identity, context, private, public and affective milieus

  19. Youth, Technology, and HIV: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, Jose; Zhang, Chen; LeGrand, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Technology, including mobile technologies and social media, offers powerful tools to reach, engage, and retain youth and young adults in HIV prevention and care interventions both in the USA and globally. In this report, we focus on HIV, technology, and youth, presenting a synthesis of recently published (Jan 2014-May 2015) observational and experimental studies relevant for understanding and intervening on HIV risk, prevention, and care. We present findings from a selection of the 66 relevant citations identified, highlighting studies that demonstrate a novel approach to technology interventions among youth in regard to content, delivery, target population, or public health impact. We discuss current trends globally and in the USA in how youth are using technology, as well as emergent research issues in this field-including the need for new theories for developing technology-based HIV interventions and new metrics of engagement, exposure, and evaluation.

  20. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy.

  1. Emotion Socialization in Anxious Youth: Parenting Buffers Emotional Reactivity to Peer Negative Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Waller, Jennifer M; Ryan, Neal D; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Sheeber, Lisa; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Anxious youth exhibit heightened emotional reactivity, particularly to social-evaluative threat, such as peer evaluation and feedback, compared to non-anxious youth. Moreover, normative developmental changes during the transition into adolescence may exacerbate emotional reactivity to peer negative events, particularly for anxious youth. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may buffer emotional reactivity within peer contexts among anxious youth. The current study examined the role of parenting behaviors in child emotional reactivity to peer and non-peer negative events among 86 anxious youth in middle childhood to adolescence (Mean age = 11.29, 54 % girls). Parenting behavior and affect was observed during a social-evaluative laboratory speech task for youth, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods were used to examine youth emotional reactivity to typical daily negative events within peer and non-peer contexts. Results showed that parent positive behaviors, and low levels of parent anxious affect, during the stressful laboratory task for youth buffered youth negative emotional reactivity to real-world negative peer events, but not non-peer events. Findings inform our understanding of parenting influences on anxious youth's emotional reactivity to developmentally salient negative events during the transition into adolescence.

  2. Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sexual behaviors that were more same-sex centered and they scored higher on aspects of the identity integration process (e.g., more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their same-sex sexuality, more involved in gay-related social activities, more possessing of positive attitudes toward homosexuality, and more comfortable with others knowing about their sexuality) than youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity and youths who consistently identified as bisexual. Contrary to the hypothesis that females are more sexually fluid than males, female youths were less likely to change identities than male youths. The finding that youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity differed from consistently gay/lesbian youths suggests that identity integration continues after the adoption of a gay/lesbian sexual identity.

  3. Youth-caregiver Agreement on Clinical High-risk Symptoms of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembo-Smith, Shana; Bachman, Peter; Senturk, Damla; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494

  4. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue.

  5. Sexual Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths: Consistency and Change Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sexual behaviors that were more same-sex centered and they scored higher on aspects of the identity integration process (e.g., more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their same-sex sexuality, more involved in gay-related social activities, more possessing of positive attitudes toward homosexuality, and more comfortable with others knowing about their sexuality) than youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity and youths who consistently identified as bisexual. Contrary to the hypothesis that females are more sexually fluid than males, female youths were less likely to change identities than male youths. The finding that youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity differed from consistently gay/lesbian youths suggests that identity integration continues after the adoption of a gay/lesbian sexual identity. PMID:16817067

  6. Enhancing the Developmental Appropriateness of Treatment for Depression in Youth: Integrating the Family in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; Asarnow, Joan R.

    2016-01-01

    Youth depression is an impairing and frequently recurrent and persistent disorder that impacts current and later development, resulting in high social and economic costs. Depression and interpersonal stress are frequently transactional, with depression powerfully negatively impacting relationships and relationship stress negatively impacting the course and outcome of depression. In this context, treatment models for youth depression that emphasize interpersonal functioning, particularly family relationships, may be particularly promising. This article has three objectives. It first reviews the current state of knowledge on the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for depression in youth, with an emphasis on the role of family involvement in treatment. Second, it discusses developmental factors that may impact the applicability and structure of family-focused treatment models for preadolescent and adolescent youth. Third, two family-based treatment models that are currently being evaluated in randomized clinical trials are described: one focusing on preadolescent depressed youth and the other on adolescents who have made a recent suicide attempt. PMID:22537731

  7. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  8. Family Profiles of Cohesion and Parenting Practices and Latino Youth Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Henry, Carolyn S; Kim, Peter S Y; Roblyer, Martha Zapata; Plunkett, Scott W; Sands, Tovah

    2017-08-10

    Using a sample of 279 (52% female) Latino youth in 9th grade (M = 14.57, SD = .56), we examined profiles of family cohesion and parenting practices and their relation to youth adjustment. The results of latent profile analyses revealed four family profiles: Engaged, Supportive, Intrusive, and Disengaged. Latino youth in the Supportive family profile showed most positive adjustment (highest self-esteem and lowest depressive symptoms), followed by youth in the Engaged family profile. Youth in the Intrusive and Disengaged profiles showed the lowest levels of positive adjustment. The findings contribute to the current literature on family dynamics, family profiles, and youth psychological adjustment within specific ethnic groups. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  9. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  10. Romantic Experiences of Homeland and Diaspora South Asian Youth: Westernizing Processes of Media and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined 1316 South Asian youth socialized in progressively Westernized contexts: "traditional" Indian homeland single-sex schools, "transitional" Indian homeland co-educational schools, and the immigrant "diaspora" in Canadian schools. Results showed youth in the three contexts were similar on…

  11. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  12. Are Somatic Symptoms and Related Distress More Prevalent in Hispanic/Latino Youth? Some Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    This article comments on the current status of the anxiety literature involving Latino children and adolescents. As the 2 articles that focus on Hispanic/Latino youth in this special section independently found somatic symptoms to be more prevalent in Latino youth than other racial/ethnic groups (Pina & Silverman, this issue; Varela et al., this…

  13. Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…

  14. Mapping Challenges for Vulnerable Children, Youth, and Families: Implications for University-Assisted Community Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Lawson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Challenges confronting children, youth, and families in the current socioeconomic environment are examined, and the role of the university-assisted community school in addressing them is explored. Comprehensive, collaborative change strategies that support and strengthen families and nurture children and youth in addition to providing education…

  15. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  16. The evolution of Smokey Bear: Environmental education about wildfire for youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi L. Ballard; Emily Evans; Victoria E. Sturtevant; Pamela. Jakes

    2012-01-01

    Many environmental education programs in the United States educate youth about the prevention of wildfire and its role in ecosystems.We reviewed 50 wildfire education programs for youth (WEY) in the U.S. through an Internet search and interviews with program providers. We investigated whether they reflect current wildfire science, environmental education (EE)...

  17. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  18. The Effectiveness of Youth Financial Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Martha Henn

    2009-01-01

    In the current financial crisis, children and youth are uniquely impacted by household finance complexities. Moments of financial trouble are teachable opportunities for children and youth to learn about personal finance and to improve their own money management skills. However, comprehensive strategies for educating them about personal finance…

  19. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  20. The Evolution of Smokey Bear: Environmental Education about Wildfire for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Evans, Emily; Sturtevant, Victoria E.; Jakes, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many environmental education programs in the United States educate youth about the prevention of wildfire and its role in ecosystems. We reviewed 50 wildfire education programs for youth (WEY) in the U.S. through an Internet search and interviews with program providers. We investigated whether they reflect current wildfire science, environmental…

  1. Policy Reflections Guided by Longitudinal Study, Youth Training, Social Exclusion, and More Recently Neet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynner, John

    2012-01-01

    From the "sexual behaviour of young people" in the 1960s to "youth and the great recession" in the 2000s a steady current running through the author's educational research career has been "youth". Although the early stages of his career supplied the foundations for the topic of this paper--starting in 1962 with a…

  2. Social Exclusion and Youth Work--From the Surface to the Depths of an Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, Tineke; Coussee, Filip; Bouverne-De Bie, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The current dominant discourse on social exclusion and youth work depicts inclusion in youth work as an instrument for inclusion in other more pivotal institutions of society. Recent studies have shown, however, that the participation of socially vulnerable young people does not necessarily yield the anticipated inclusions. Suggestions are…

  3. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  4. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  5. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  6. The School-Based Lives of LGBT Youth in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygan, Finn

    2009-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The current study assessed the school-based experiences of twenty five (N = 25) participants in the BeLonG To LGBT youth group in Dublin city using a mixed design survey instrument. The majority (n = 19) of…

  7. Romantic Experiences of Homeland and Diaspora South Asian Youth: Westernizing Processes of Media and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined 1316 South Asian youth socialized in progressively Westernized contexts: "traditional" Indian homeland single-sex schools, "transitional" Indian homeland co-educational schools, and the immigrant "diaspora" in Canadian schools. Results showed youth in the three contexts were similar on…

  8. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  9. The School-Based Lives of LGBT Youth in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygan, Finn

    2009-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The current study assessed the school-based experiences of twenty five (N = 25) participants in the BeLonG To LGBT youth group in Dublin city using a mixed design survey instrument. The majority (n = 19) of…

  10. Perceived benefits and proposed solutions for teen pregnancy: qualitative interviews with youth care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Maya Mroué; Frazier, Stacy L; Hartley, Chelsey; Meinzer, Michael; Hedemann, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine youth care workers' perceptions of the specific and unique sexual health needs of youth at risk for foster care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with youth care workers (N = 10) at a shelter for youth in or at risk for foster care. Youth care workers perceive that youth have unique experiences and needs related to sexual health programming and pregnancy prevention. Reflecting a great deal of family dysfunction, 3 themes emerged that revealed perceived benefits of teen pregnancy: youths' effort to prove themselves as adults, opportunity to secure their relationship with a partner, and desire to create an emotional connection with a baby. Lack of knowledge and accumulation of risk factors were viewed as most problematic. Current pregnancy prevention programs assume teen pregnancies are unwanted and emphasize the costs of sexual risk taking. Current findings suggest that sexual health programming for youth in or at risk for foster care should account for 3 perceived benefits of teen pregnancy. New opportunities for improving the reach and effectiveness of intervention for youth in or at risk for foster care are discussed.

  11. Perceptions of employers and unemployed youth on the proposed youth employment wage subsidy incentive in South Africa: A KwaZulu-Natal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi N. Mtembu

    2015-03-01

    and 10% of whom were employers.Main findings: The overall results indicate that more that 93% of the youth surveyed and more than 90% of employers are in support of the youth wage subsidy. In terms of how it should be structured and implemented, about 80% of respondents in the employer survey preferred the tax rebate and incentive option as most of them stated that it will be an easier process to manage and monitor. More than 50% of employers believed that it will ease the wage burden and ensure business sustainability. On the other hand, 88% of the youth surveyed believed it will increase employment for the youth. Findings furthermore reveal that 10% of employers and 28% of the youth were concerned that the subsidy has the potential to exploit older workers (i.e. those who are already in employment and feared corruption from some employers; otherwise they are in support of its implementation.Contribution: This is one of the areas that have not been sufficiently explored; as a result, there is not much information about it in the current body of knowledge. This study will contribute to current knowledge about a current policy initiative critical to the development of the country. This research also culminates in important recommendations and draws conclusions that could contribute to the formulation of guidelines on how the government could embrace the youth wage subsidy incentive scheme as a strategic intervention that could benefit the employers and the youth and at the same time aid in finding a solution to South Africa’s youth unemployment crisis.

  12. Youth Subcultures: From Deviation to Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Smolík

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical text introduces the issue of youth subcultures and tries to define particular basic concepts that are essential for the study of this issue in context of social pedagogy and sociology. These terms include culture, dominant culture, subculture, counterculture, scene, etc. The article also deals with the basic definition of youth subcultures; it discusses this category on the basis of current debates and then introduces various sociological schools which have dealt with this issue for a long time. These are the Chicago school of sociology, Center for the Study of Popular Culture and the post-subculture approaches. Finally, it is noted that in the last two decades there has occurred a fragmentation of particular styles, which led to the gradual replacement of sociological term subculture.

  13. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... how they allow youth carefully to curate and update the identities they project online, on the go and in real time. As such, Stald argues that mobile phones act as mediators for social engagement and sharing of personal information with others. Growing up with the technology, newer generations view...

  14. An empirical study of factors influencing total unemployment rate in comparison to youth unemployment rate in selected EU member-states

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotović, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The issue of youth unemployment rate in the heavily indebted and less developed EU countries is currently on the margins of both media interest and policy debates. This paper compares the influence of several economic variables on the total unemployment rate and the youth unemployment rate. The countries that are studied are three countries with the highest youth unemployment rate: Greece, Croatia and Spain, and three countries with the lowest youth unemployment rate: Germany, ...

  15. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ALGERIA AFTER 1990 IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL UNREST, TERRORIST ATTACKS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTRICTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the conquest of independence, Algeria experienced major socio-economic changes, but it also faced a civil war that has been responsible for more than 150,000 casualties. Despite the efforts made by the auhorities in the direction of national reconciliation, the terrorist activities, like the one of January 2013, still feed the insecurity feeling. In its economic and social development, Algeria depends to a very large extent both on its oil fields and on the oil price on the world markets. Large public projects were started in economy, education, health, and transport infrastructure, with the revenues generated by oil and natural gas. However, the development efforts are influenced by the environmental restrictiveness, as the country is mostly a desert and water resources are scarce. Moreover, after the independence the population increased rapidly, exceeding the capacity of the state to provide enough jobs, which explains why unemployment is currently so high among young people.

  16. The Danish Youth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Riegels, Mette; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2010-01-01

    income. Loss to follow-up was only associated with adolescents' higher probability of drinking and use of tobacco, and none of the other factors were associated with attrition. CONCLUSIONS: The participants in the Danish Youth Cohort represent a great variety of different groups of socio-demographic...... factors, although they differ from non-participants as regards a range of socio-demographic factors. This should be taken into account in future analyses....

  17. NEET and Youth Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mihai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and social exclusion represent one of the most important themes in contemporary social policy both in UE countries and the rest of the world. In order to combat this and to improve the inclusion rate among NEET youth the social policies need to be channeled in three directions: education, training and employment. This study allows us a broad view of the proposed policies based on the analysis of this indicator.

  18. Magma injection into a long-lived reservoir to explain geodetically measured uplift: Application to the 2007-2014 unrest episode at Laguna del Maule volcanic field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mével, Hélène; Gregg, Patricia M.; Feigl, Kurt L.

    2016-08-01

    Moving beyond the widely used kinematic models for the deformation sources, we present a new dynamic model to describe the process of injecting magma into an existing magma reservoir. To validate this model, we derive an analytical solution and compare its results to those calculated using the Finite Element Method. A Newtonian fluid characterized by its viscosity, density, and overpressure (relative to the lithostatic value) flows through a vertical conduit, intruding into a reservoir embedded in an elastic domain, leading to an increase in reservoir pressure and time-dependent surface deformation. We apply our injection model to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from the ongoing unrest episode at Laguna del Maule (Chile) volcanic field that started in 2007. Using a grid search optimization, we minimize the misfit to the InSAR displacement data and vary the three parameters governing the analytical solution: the characteristic timescale τP for magma propagation, the maximum injection pressure, and the inflection time when the acceleration switches from positive to negative. For a spheroid with semimajor axis a = 6200 m, semiminor axis c = 100 m, located at a depth of 4.5 km in a purely elastic half-space, the best fit to the InSAR displacement data occurs for τP=9.5 years and an injection pressure rising up to 11.5 MPa for 2 years. The volume flow rate increased to 1.2 m3/s for 2 years and then decreased to 0.7 m3/s in 2014. In 7.3 years, at least 187 × 106 m3 of magma was injected.

  19. Evidences of volcanic unrest on high-temperature fumaroles by satellite thermal monitoring: The case of Santa Ana volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J. E.; Cigolini, C.; Escobar, D.; Funes, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Henriquez, B.; Hernandez, A.; Montalvo, F.; Olmos, R.; Ripepe, M.; Finizola, A.

    2017-06-01

    On October 1st, 2005, Santa Ana volcano (El Salvador) underwent a VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption after approximately one century of rest. Casualties and damages to some of the local infrastructures and surrounding plantations were followed by the evacuation of the nearby communities. The analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data reveals that the main explosion was preceded by a one-year-long thermal unrest, associated to the development of a fumaroles field, located at the western rim of the summit crater lake. By combining space-based thermal flux and ground-based measurements (seismicity, sulfur emissions and lake temperatures), we suggest that the activity observed at Santa Ana between 2004 and 2005 was driven by the gradual intrusion of an undegassed magma body at a very shallow depth. Magma injection induced thermal anomalies associated with sustained degassing from the fumaroles field and promoted the interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal system and the overlying water table. This process culminated into the VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption of October 2005 that strongly modified the shallow structure of the crater area. The subsequent three-years-long activity resulted from self-sealing of the fracture system and by the opening of a new fracture network directly connecting the deeper hydrothermal system with the crater lake. Our results show that satellite-based thermal data allow us to detect the expansion of the high-temperature fumarolic field. This may precede an explosive eruption and/or a lava dome extrusion. In particular, we show that thermal records can be analyzed with other geochemical (i.e. SO2 emissions) and geophysical (seismicity) data to track a shallow magmatic intrusion interacting with the surrounding hydrothermal system. This provides a remarkable support for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, particularly in remote areas where permanent ground data acquisition is hazardous, expensive

  20. Prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care despite the critical public health concern and the burden of suffering on such youths. The current study examined the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment across five public sectors of care. Youths aged 11-18 (n = 1,135) enrolled in one of five public sectors of care reported on their maltreatment history using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Across all sectors, 78% of youth reported experiencing at least moderate levels of maltreatment with the majority (58%) reporting multiple types of maltreatment. The prevalence of maltreatment was highest for youths involved in the alcohol/drug (86%) and child welfare (85%) sectors, and lowest in the serious emotional disturbance sector (72%). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in the likelihood of multiple types of maltreatment by sector affiliation, controlling for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. The results indicate that rates of maltreatment across sectors do not differ greatly from those in child welfare. The high incidence of maltreatment across all sectors, not solely child welfare, indicates that all youth in public sectors of care should be screened for a history of maltreatment when they enter into care.

  1. An analysis of the Current Problems of Youth Social Mobility and Social Stratification in China---Taking Shandong Province as an Example%现阶段我国青年社会流动及阶层固化问题探析--以山东省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继艳

    2016-01-01

    Class solidification is a special class status or abnormal state of social mobility,young people are the main sectors of cured groups.Given the current transition period in the country,a new generation of young people go into the community,the social mobility and Class Solidification problems has the new features and the formation factors.Chinese social mobility presents the cross flow in the dominant class and horizontal flow in the bottom class resulting in class solidification.Weakening ascription factors and strengthening consistency factors in youth mobility is an effective measure to solve the youth class solidification.%阶层固化是社会流动的一种特殊状态或非正常状态,青年是阶层固化的主要研究群体。由于当前国家处于转型时期,新一代青年进入社会,其社会流动和阶层固化问题具有新的特点和形成因素。本文认为现阶段中国社会流动呈现出优势阶层的交叉流动和底层子弟的水平流动,造成代内和代际垂直层面的阶层固化。弱化青年流动的先赋性因素,强化后致性因素是解决青年阶层固化的有效措施。

  2. 试论影响青年就业难的因素——从青年心理健康管理的现状探询就业难的因素%On the Factors to Impact Youth Employment Difficulty——Probing the Difficult Employment Factor from the Current Situation of the Youth Mental health Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志梅

    2012-01-01

    For many years' experience in the college career guidance, job market and employment status of the degree of certainty. For college youth employment difficult psychological factors, namely the individual in the course of employment in the management of mental health issues to analyze: If thare is no adequate social adaptability; can not be fully aware of their, not their ability to do appropriate estimates; can not maintain contact with reality; can not maintain the integrity and harmony of the personality; no ability to learn from practice; can not maintain good interpersonal relationships and many other factors, and the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.%笔者因多年从事高校就业指导工作,对就业市场和就业现状有一定的把握。本文主要针对高校青年人就业难的心理因素,即个体在就业过程中在心理健康管理方面出现的主要问题做逐一分析:如没有充分的社会适应能力;不能充分了解自己,不能对自己的能力做恰当的估计;不能与现实环境保持接触;不能保持人格的完整和谐;没有从实践中学习的能力;不能保持良好的人际关系等诸多因素,以及相应的对策建议。

  3. At the Mercy of Gaia: Deep Ecologial Unrest and America's fall as Nature's Nation in Kingdom of the Spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Lillemose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks as the animal horror genre as a way to discuss current notions of ecology in relation to a specific American idea of being "Nature's Nation". The central work for the discussion is the movie Kingdom of the Spiders (1977 by John Cardos, which depicts how a small Arizona town is taken over by a "swarm" of tarantulas. Without any obvious explanation the spiders slowly but steadily invade the town and start killing both other animals and humans until they have completely covered the town in their web. The paper connects the movie to a long tradition of fiction describing how nature turns on humans and reverses the power relation be-tween man and nature that is fundamental to modernity. Moreover, the paper connects the movie to Maurice Maeterlincks ideas of swarm communities as mani-fested by ants and termites to argue that these communities are ecologically superior to the the communities of man-made civilisation. Finally, the paper discusses Kingdom of the Spiders and animal horror in general in relation to recent ideas of non-human ecologies and critiques of anthropocentrism and makes the point that these works of fiction serve as both dramatic and philosophical visions of a world without humans.

  4. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  5. The Voice of Youth: Atmosphere in Positive Youth Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stefan; Parker, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Positive youth development (PYD) programs adhere to the notion that all children have strengths and assets to be promoted and nurtured rather than deficits that require "fixing." The study of PYD programs indicates three aspects which set them apart from other programs for youth: activities, goals, and atmosphere. Of these,…

  6. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  7. Suitable Enemies? Governmentality of Youth: Youth as a Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowicka, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the discourse of politics towards (for) youth, which the author defines as the "cultural politics of risk". The article begins with scientific representations of youth as a threat, as a group inclined to engage in risky behaviours. It then focuses on theoretical approaches called the "risk…

  8. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jennifer M; Storch, Eric A; Pinto, Anthony; Lewin, Adam B

    2016-04-01

    While interest in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder has increased, there are currently no studies that have examined the presence of obsessive compulsive personality traits (OCPTs) in youth. The current study sought to determine the latent factors and psychometric properties of a modified version of the Childhood Retrospective Perfectionism Questionnaire (CHIRP) and examine the correlates of specific OCPTs (e.g., rigidity, perfectionism) in youth with OCD. Participants included 96 treatment-seeking youth diagnosed with primary OCD (and a parent). Parents and youth completed measures of OCPTs, OCD severity, depression, and disability. A confirmatory factor analysis of the modified CHIRP resulted in a two-factor model: perfectionism and preoccupation with details. The CHIRP and its subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and preliminary evidence for convergent and divergent validity. Obsessive compulsive traits in youth were also found to be associated with the checking, symmetry and contamination symptom dimensions.

  10. Fostering Youth Engagement on Community Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Scheve

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the youth development field a growing movement exists to establish youth member positions on community teams (e.g. organizational boards and planning committees. The involvement of youth on decision-making teams is commonly referred to as youth engagement. As a relatively new approach to youth and community development, the existing research shows the potential positive impacts youth engagement efforts may produce and encourages youth practitioners to incorporate such efforts into their programs and organizations. In doing so, successful youth engagement efforts may be sustained within teams that best adapt their organizational structure, policies, and practices to complement the developmental needs of youth. Such adaptations begin with the four team characteristics presented in this paper: adult support, a youth-friendly environment, opportunities to complete meaningful tasks, and opportunities to learn and use new skills. When these practices are woven through the work of the team, youth engagement may flourish.

  11. Reducing youth unemployment beyond the Youth Wage Subsidy: A study of Simtech apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogantheran Naidoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa currently has the twin challenges of worsening youth unemployment and scarce skills that threaten its economic and social stability. Artisanal trades are an occupation category that strongly reflects this current problem. Simtech Training Institute in Durban, the study setting, currently trains artisan apprentices and facilitates their internship work placements.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to identify some of the critical success factors that differentiated Simtech artisan apprentices who obtained permanent employment, compared to those who are currently unemployed.Motivation for the study: The main motivation of the study was to improve the conversion rate of artisan apprentices to permanently employed artisans.Research design, approach and method: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 51 artisan apprentices who had graduated over the past 3 years at Simtech and who were selected randomly. An online questionnaire comprising primarily Likert scale type questions was utilised to obtain the responses from the sample. Factor analysis was used to remove scale items from the independent variables that did not impact the variability sufficiently. Then the remaining scale items that impacted variability significantly were combined and categorised as new composite independent variables. Logistic regression analysis identified success factors for permanent employment of Simtech graduates.Main findings: Internship or workplace environment had a statistically significant impact on permanent employment. Youth work ethic had a minor impact on permanent employment status – albeit not a statistically significant one.Practical/managerial implications: These findings showed that improving the internship/ workplace environment can reduce youth unemployment and address skills scarcity.Contribution: Internship host companies and other stakeholders need to urgently focus on improving the quality of

  12. Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (acculturative stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. SOCIAL ACTIVITY OF STUDENT YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhela I. BALOG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to disclosure of features of social activity of modern student's youth. At the beginning of the article different classifications of social activity forms are described, that proves their great diversity. To identify specifics of social activity of modern student's youth we used the results of the survey conducted among university students in Kirov. We analyzed the readiness of students to participate in social activities; the popularity of various social organizations in the student environment; the expectations related to social activity and subjective self-determination of the level of social activity of student's youth. It should be noted that to date, indeed public youth organizations are well represented in our country. As for the student youth, then, of course, the most common of the non-governmental organizations in this environment are the bodies of the student government. They are represented by student councils, trade unions, student scientific society, student centers and personnel agencies, councils of dormitories and other organizations. The majority of respondents to impose requirements youth organizations develop their leadership and managerial qualities as well as promote selforganization of young people. This proves the need for the development of youth public organizations of competent state youth policy. 

  14. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed…

  15. Childhood, Agency and Youth Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to reframe debates in the sphere of youth justice in order to move away from narrow and one-sided conceptualisations of young people who offend and appropriate forms of intervention with them. Whilst different positions have been adopted within the field of youth justice, largely around "justice" or "welfare" models of practice,…

  16. Youth subculture and social exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this article a detailed description is given of the subculture of a group of socially-excluded boys in The Netherlands. The relevance of some classical theories on youth subculture is assessed for understanding the lifestyles of today’s disadvantaged youth, especially in a developed welfare

  17. Youth Employability Training: Two Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…

  18. Schooling in a Youth Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Morghan Velez; Phillips, Rachel Sophia; Nasir, Na'ilah Suad

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines schooling inside a youth prison. We draw on interview and observation data from a study of a youth prison school to understand the practices and tensions of schooling in a juvenile incarceration facility. We describe the processes of schooling in the facility with an eye towards understanding both the conditions of learning and…

  19. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed significant…

  20. Youth subculture and social exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this article a detailed description is given of the subculture of a group of socially-excluded boys in The Netherlands. The relevance of some classical theories on youth subculture is assessed for understanding the lifestyles of today’s disadvantaged youth, especially in a developed welfare state

  1. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  2. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Murnaghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement

  3. Adopted youth and sleep difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radcliff Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zach Radcliff, Allison Baylor, Bruce Rybarczyk Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Sleep is a critical component of healthy development for youth, with cascading effects on youth’s biological growth, psychological well-being, and overall functioning. Increased sleep difficulties are one of many disruptions that adopted youth may face throughout the adoption process. Sleep difficulties have been frequently cited as a major concern by adoptive parents and hypothesized in the literature as a problem that may affect multiple areas of development and functioning in adopted youth. However, there is limited research exploring this relationship. Using a biopsychosocial framework, this paper reviews the extant literature to explore the development, maintenance, and impact of sleep difficulties in adopted youth. Finally, implications for future research and clinical interventions are outlined. Keywords: adoption, sleep, youth

  4. The Relative Importance of Mothers' and Youths' Neighborhood Perceptions for Youth Alcohol Use and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Maguin, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Prior studies have examined the influence of neighborhood perceptions on youth outcomes, but few studies have examined whose report of neighborhoods, parents' or youths', are most important in predicting youth outcomes. This study addresses the relative associations of youths' and mothers' neighborhood perceptions with youth alcohol use and…

  5. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  6. Injuries in youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutures, Chris G; Gregory, Andrew J M

    2010-02-01

    Injury rates in youth soccer, known as football outside the United States, are higher than in many other contact/collision sports and have greater relative numbers in younger, preadolescent players. With regard to musculoskeletal injuries, young females tend to suffer more knee injuries, and young males suffer more ankle injuries. Concussions are fairly prevalent in soccer as a result of contact/collision rather than purposeful attempts at heading the ball. Appropriate rule enforcement and emphasis on safe play can reduce the risk of soccer-related injuries. This report serves as a basis for encouraging safe participation in soccer for children and adolescents.

  7. Youth behind bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbenfeldt Bengtsson, Tea

    Through an ethnographic study, this thesis examines the everyday life and meaning-making of young people locked up in secure care institutions for young offenders in Denmark. The purpose of the thesis is to make sense of their everyday life both inside and the outside the secure care setting......, actively drawing on theories of youth and crime. By applying a relational approach founded in interactional sociology, the thesis explores how apparently senseless actions and situations are constructed socially by the young people when they bring together meanings in their everyday practices. Data......, including both observation and interviews with the confined young people, is analysed as context-dependent and relationally constructed....

  8. Media violence and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresin, E V

    1999-06-01

    This column reviews the literature on violence in the media and its effects on youth. The author summarizes the findings of naturalistic, longitudinal, and population-based studies conducted over the last 30 years. The literature provides compelling evidence that exposure of media violence to children plays a major role in the etiology of aggressive behavior. Psychiatrists can facilitate primary prevention of violence in our society by discussing the problem of media violence with parents, medical students, residents, and allied health and school professionals.

  9. Predictors of Resilience among Inner City Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiet, Quyen Q.; Huizinga, David; Byrnes, Hilary F.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that living in high-risk neighborhoods is associated with youths' maladjustment. Youths who maintained favorable outcomes, despite being exposed to such neighborhood risks, were considered resilient. Using structural equation modeling techniques, longitudinal data of 877 youths from the Denver Youth Survey were…

  10. Alternative Youth Employment Strategies Project: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadd, Susan; And Others

    The Alternative Youth Employment Strategies (AYES) Project began as one of the demonstration projects funded under the Youth Employment and Demonstration Project Act in 1980. The program, which features three training models, is targeted toward high-risk, disadvantaged youth, especially minority youths from urban areas who had prior involvement…

  11. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth (

  12. The evidences of progressive pressurization of volcanic conduit as driving forces of unrest phenomena analyzed via modelling of multiplatform geodetic measurements: Fernandina (GALAPAGOS) and Maunaloa (HAWAII) case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Casu, Francesco; D'Auria, Luca; De Luca, Claudio; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Solaro, Giuseppe; Tizzani, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the source of the ground deformation pattern affecting the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes by jointly exploiting different dataset collected by both GPS and multiplatform and multiorbit SAR sensors. We exploited the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques to analyze unrest episode in two different geodynamics context. Our main goal is the understanding of the relationship among the spatio-temporal evolution of the ground deformation field and the temporal volumetric variation of the detected geodetic source during the uplift phenomena. We highlight the huge opportunity in understanding volcano unrest phenomena offered by the joint use of remote sensing data and inversion procedures: this prospect is particularly relevant for the analysis of uplift events, when other geophysical measurements are not available. For Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes, the performed statistic analysis support the source pipe-like as the more suitable geometry to explain the unrest phenomena in which magmatic masses intrude in volcanic conduits. In particular, the deformation time series achieved at MounaLoa volcano are achieved by 23 GPS permanent stations of the Hawaii surveillance network, processed by Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, 7 SAR dataset acquired from ascending and descending orbits, with different look angles and along different tracks, by the C-Band Envisat satellite along the 2003 - 2010 time period for a total of 189 SAR imagery. Moreover, we exploited 2 dataset collected from ascending and descending passes by the X-Band Cosmo Sky-Med constellation during the 2012 - 2015 time span . These SAR datasets have been processed through the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as P-SBAS (De Luca et al., 2016), which allows us to retrieve the Line of Sight (LOS) projection of the surface deformation and analyze its temporal evolution by generating displacement time series. Starting this data

  13. Anomalous increase of diffuse CO_{2} emission from Brava (Cape Verde): evidence of volcanic unrest or increase gas release from a stationary magma body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Merino, Marta; García-Hernández, Rubén; Montrond, Eurico; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Silva, Sonia V.; Alfama, Vera; Cabral, Jeremías; Pereira, Jose M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    degassing rate about 1.700 t d-1. These observed changes on diffuse CO2 emission are geochemical evidences which seem to support a volcanic unrest for the recent anomalous seismic activity registered at Brava.

  14. Geochemical and isotopic changes in the fumarolic and submerged gas discharges during the 2011-2012 unrest at Santorini caldera (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Papazachos, C. B.; Giannini, L.; Chiodini, G.; Vougioukalakis, G. E.; Karagianni, E.; Vamvakaris, D.; Panagiotopoulos, D.

    2013-04-01

    A geochemical survey of fumarolic and submerged gases from fluid discharges located in the Nea Kameni and Palea Kameni islets (Santorini Island, Greece) was carried out before, during, and after the unrest related to the anomalously high seismic and ground deformation activity that affected this volcanic system since January 2011. Our data show that from May 2011 to February 2012, the Nea Kameni fumaroles showed a significant increase of H2 concentrations. After this period, an abrupt decrease in the H2 contents, accompanied by decreasing seismic events, was recorded. A similar temporal pattern was shown by the F-, Cl-, SO4 2-, and NH4 + concentrations in the fumarolic condensates. During the sharp increase of H2 concentrations, when values up to 158 mmol/mol were measured, the δ13C-CO2 values, which prior to January 2011 were consistent with a dominant CO2 thermometamorphic source, have shown a significant decrease, suggesting an increase of mantle CO2 contribution. Light hydrocarbons, including CH4, which are controlled by chemical reactions kinetically slower than H2 production from H2O dissociation, displayed a sharp increase in March 2012, under enhanced reducing conditions caused by the high H2 concentrations of May 2011-February 2012. The general increase in light hydrocarbons continued up to July 2012, notwithstanding the contemporaneous H2 decrease. The temporal patterns of CO2 concentrations and N2/Ar ratios increased similarly to that of H2, possibly due to sealing processes in the fumarolic conduits that diminished the contamination related to the entrance of atmospheric gases in the fumarolic conduits. The compositional evolution of the Nea Kameni fumaroles can be explained by a convective heat pulse from depth associated with the seismic activation of the NE-SW-oriented Kameni tectonic lineament, possibly triggered by either injection of new magma below Nea Kameni island, as apparently suggested by the evolution of the seismic and ground deformation

  15. Geochemical monitoring of volcano unrest and multi-step magma propagation: the example of the 2007-2011 Piton de la Fournaise activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muro, Andrea; Métrich, Nicole; Deloule, Etienne; Civetta, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    The 2007 eruption represents a major event in the recent history of Piton de la Fournaise volcano because it produced: i) the most voluminous lava field (at least 0.21 km3), ii) the most intense lava fountaining activity (>200 m high), iii) the largest SO2 plume (>230 kt), iv) the largest summit collapse (1 km wide x 0.34 km deep) and v) the main flank slip event (up to 1.4 m eastwards) ever documented at PdF. The bulk magma volume extruded during the 2007 eruption is similar to that emitted during the entire 1998-2006 period. As a whole, the volume of lavas emitted during the whole 1998-2007 cycle is remarkably close to that estimated (~0.35 km3) for the shallow plumbing system of Piton de la Fournaise. The 2007 eruptive sequence consisted of three successive phases (February, March and April). The main phase in April ended a 9 years long period (1998-2007) of continuous edifice inflation and frequent eruptive activity (3 eruptions per year on average). On the contrary, the 2008-2011 activity is associated with a trend of continuous deflation and consists of small-volume summit eruptions of moderate/low MgO magmas and frequent shallow magma intrusions. Bulk rocks, minerals, melt inclusions, matrices and very fast cooled ejecta (Pele's hairs and tears) are studied in order to assess the link between volcano unrest processes, structure of the magma plumbing system, ascent dynamics and summit caldera collapse. Melt heterogeneity demonstrate that the shallow part of PdF edifice (upper 3 km) host low-MgO (MgO: 6.2 wt%) melts with variable normative An/Di ratios and olivine content, at variable steps of evolution towards a common ternary eutectic minimum. Repeated summit collapses favor the formation of discontinuities for shallow temporary magma storage. Extrusion of shallow evolved melts is triggered by ascent of small volumes of deeper, hotter magnesian melts (MgO: up to 8.7 wt%), previously stored in the depth range 2-4 km below sea level. Finally, the good match

  16. Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. The current report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14 – 21) in New York ...

  17. Connecting youth violence prevention, positive youth development, and community mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kevin W; Edmonds, Torey; Wilson, Karen; Pope, Michell; Farrell, Albert D

    2011-09-01

    Several disconnects serve to weaken the use of evidence based programming in community settings. Communities face the need to address the challenges of multiple risk behaviors faced by adolescents in their communities, but must also work to support successful transitions to adulthood and the broader positive development of their youth. The stronger integration of positive youth development and prevention of youth risk at the community level may offer an opportunity to support the implementation and ongoing development of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This article provides an overview of the VCU Clark-Hill Institute for Positive Youth Development Institute's community mobilization effort in Richmond, Virginia and reports preliminary findings from our integrated mobilization efforts. First, we review the role of our Community Advisory Council in their collaborative work to support positive youth development and reduce risk for youth violence. Next, we present examples of institute efforts in providing technical assistance relevant to supporting the use and development of EBPs. We then discuss the adaptation of an evidence-based program to target positive youth development. We also present overviews from qualitative investigations examining barriers and supports that inform and are relevant to the implementation of EBPs. Finally, we consider ways in which community efforts inform and shape institute efforts to develop EPBs. Taken together, these activities provide examples of how community-based mobilization efforts can integrate and inform the implementation of EBPs and the role and use of prevention science as a tool in supporting effective programming to promote positive youth development and prevent youth violence.

  18. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  19. The Lifeworld of Youth in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shauna A.; Friedland, Lewis A.

    2011-01-01

    Media is now central to how youth form their identities. Media also shapes the cultural background of much of young people's action and decision making and the institutional framework of social interaction. This article explores this mediated "lifeworld" of young people by examining rates of current media use and the infiltration of media into…

  20. Prior Trauma Exposure for Youth in Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Burns, Barbara J.; Southerland, Dannia G.; Cox, Julia Revillion; Wagner, H. Ryan; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has focused on rates of trauma exposure for youth in treatment foster care (TFC). Available research has utilized record review for assessing exposure, which presents limitations for the range of trauma types examined, as records are predominantly focused on abuse and neglect. The current study examines exposure rates and…

  1. A Conceptual Process Model for Improving Youth Science Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Tom; Hodnett, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Improving youth science comprehension in the United States is imperative to reverse current trends in student achievement and to meet an expected shortage of scientists in the future. This lag in achievement scores and need for future scientists is a problem. One challenge is to link inquiry-based learning and experiential education with…

  2. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  3. The Lifeworld of Youth in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shauna A.; Friedland, Lewis A.

    2011-01-01

    Media is now central to how youth form their identities. Media also shapes the cultural background of much of young people's action and decision making and the institutional framework of social interaction. This article explores this mediated "lifeworld" of young people by examining rates of current media use and the infiltration of media into…

  4. Assessing Intelligence in Children and Youth Living in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra P. M.; Bakker, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we briefly describe the history of intelligence test use with children and youth in the Netherlands, explain which models of intelligence guide decisions about test use, and detail how intelligence tests are currently being used in Dutch school settings. Empirically supported and theoretical models studying the structure of human…

  5. Media literacy and positive youth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Michelle J; Dobrow, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores the links among media literacy (specifically news media literacy), civic engagement, and positive youth development (PYD). We begin by providing an overview of the literature on PYD and media literacy, and go on to discuss media literacy in the context of civic development. We also explore the existing literature on the associations between news media use, news media literacy, and civic indicators. In addition, we discuss the promotion of media literacy (with a focus on news media literacy) and PYD in educational, extracurricular, and home settings. We conclude with a discussion of the current research in this nascent and interdisciplinary area and, as well, consider directions for future research.

  6. Influence of Youth Volunteering on Socialization and Development of Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteering is one of manifestations of citizenship. It indicates the individual’s quality in terms of citizenship and the readiness to take an active part in public activities. The current paper analyses the phenomenon of volunteering (its place and role in ensuring public development and sustainability. The influence of volunteer - ing on the youth socialization and personal development of competences (in particular, social, professional and communicative is disclosed in the article. The article also highlights the motives and factors that promote and prevent the youth participation in voluntary activities.

  7. Lifetime suicide attempts in juvenile assessment center youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Scott; McReynolds, Larkin S; DeComo, Robert E; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M; Wasserman, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    To describe suicide risk in youth seen at a Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC), we examined relationships among self-reported lifetime attempts and demographic, justice, and psychiatric data via logistic regression. Similar to other settings, youth reporting lifetime attempts were more likely to be older, female, not living with both parents and currently arrested for a violent or felony crime. Mood, substance use, and behavior disorder each increased prediction substantially. Anxiety Disorder was associated with elevated attempt rates for boys only. JACs need to develop protocols for identifying suicide risk; further, since suicide history predicts future attempts, Anxiety Disordered boys may be at particular risk.

  8. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement of Mexican American Youths: What Kinds of Involvement in Youths' Education Matter Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Inna

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in education is a key focus of current policies and programs aimed at improving the academic outcomes of students at risk for academic underachievement. This study examines six forms of parental involvement in education to determine which forms of involvement have the strongest relationships with youths' academic outcomes.…

  9. Student Perceptions of Teacher Support and Competencies for Fostering Youth Purpose and Positive Youth Development: Perspectives from Two Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundick, Matthew J.; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    With the growing interest in the development of purpose in youth, one important role that requires attention is the school teacher. The current article explores student perceptions of the role teachers can play in fostering purpose in their students in the mid- and late adolescent years, and the teacher competencies that facilitate purpose…

  10. Student Perceptions of Teacher Support and Competencies for Fostering Youth Purpose and Positive Youth Development: Perspectives from Two Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundick, Matthew J.; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    With the growing interest in the development of purpose in youth, one important role that requires attention is the school teacher. The current article explores student perceptions of the role teachers can play in fostering purpose in their students in the mid- and late adolescent years, and the teacher competencies that facilitate purpose…

  11. Pakistan programme thrives despite unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In Pakistan, strikes and riots in the Korangi district of Karachi during 1995 prevented staff from finding a suitable location for the new Marie Stopes International family planning clinic. Once the clinic opened, field workers received violent threats and had to be escorted to and from work. A mobile clinic was hijacked at gun point. Nevertheless, the Pakistan program has expanded to five clinics with one more to open soon. It has established an extensive community-based distribution (CBD) network. Before the CBD project was implemented, less than 10% of couples within the target group used a modern contraceptive method. An effective information and education strategy along with high quality service provision has increased use of modern contraceptives three-fold in some areas. The program plans to expand into underserved areas of rural Sind Province and Balochistan. 4% of women in Balochistan and 9% in Sind have access to modern contraceptives. In fact, many women resort to illegal and unsafe abortion. The program aims to submit a proposal to UK's Overseas Development Administration for major funding.

  12. Energy drinks: an emerging public health hazard for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a public health threat and are increasingly consumed by youth internationally. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. We review these practices and the current inconsistent state of labeling. We also examine international support for regulation of these products, including a survey showing that 85 per cent of United States parents agreed that regulations requiring caffeine content disclosure and warning labels on energy drinks are warranted. We then examine the regulatory structure for energy drinks in the United States, analyzing legal and self-regulatory strategies to protect consumers, especially youth, from these potentially dangerous products. Recommended government interventions include revised labeling requirements, addressing problematic ingredients, and enacting retail restrictions. We conclude by identifying areas for future research.

  13. Kinematics and Kinetics of Youth Baseball Catchers and Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the throwing kinematics and kinetics of youth catchers and pitchers. It was hypothesized that catchers and pitchers would exhibit differences throughout the throwing motion. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate kinematics during the four events of throwing: foot contact (FC, maximum shoulder external rotation (MER, ball release (BR and maximum shoulder internal rotation (MIR. Additionally, kinetics were investigated within phases of the events: Phase 1 (cocking; FC to MER, Phase 2 (acceleration; MER to BR and Phase 3 (deceleration; BR to MIR. Results revealed significant difference in torso flexion, lateral flexion, pelvis lateral flexion and segment velocities between the catchers and pitchers. Based on data from the current study, it appears that the youth catchers execute their throw as they have been instructed. It is unclear if the throwing mechanics displayed by these youth are efficient for a catcher, thus further investigation is needed to determine long-term injury susceptibility.

  14. Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2014-04-01

    This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components.

  15. Cultures Around the World: A Unique Approach to Youth Cultural Diversity Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly diverse cultural trends have significant implications for the educational needs of American youth. Learning about and valuing diverse cultures will help prepare youth to become better citizens in an ever-changing society. Cultures Around the World was developed to meet the educational needs of youth in the area of cultural diversity. The Cultures Around the World program brings to life exciting cultures and customs from countries all over the world. Countries are presented in a unique format by teaching youth (ages 10 to 18 a specific country’s history, culture, food, music, dance, language, religion, and current issues. The Cultures Around the World program can be used by any youth educator. The program comes in a ready to use CD containing presentations, handicraft instructions, language guides, and resource guides for nine different countries (Armenia, Australia, Ecuador, Egypt, England, France, Ghana, Slovakia and Mexico.

  16. The evaluation of North Carolina's state-sponsored youth tobacco prevention media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, K L; McCullough, A; Summerlin-Long, S; Agans, R; Ranney, L; Goldstein, A O

    2013-02-01

    In 2003, the state of North Carolina (NC) implemented a multi-component initiative focused on teenage tobacco use prevention and cessation. One component of this initiative is Tobacco.Reality.Unfiltered. (TRU), a tobacco prevention media campaign, aimed at NC youth aged 11-17 years. This research evaluates the first 5 years of the TRU media campaign, from 2004 to 2009, using telephone surveys of NC youth. Overall, TRU campaign awareness was moderate among youth in its first year, with awareness significantly increasing over time. The majority of youth who saw the advertisements reported that they were convincing, attention grabbing and gave good reasons not to smoke. In 2009, logistic regression models revealed awareness of the TRU advertisements was associated with decreased odds of current smoking and experimenting with cigarettes for at-risk NC youth. Results from this research may help other states to define, evaluate and modify their own media campaigns, especially within financially or politically constraining environments.

  17. The Social Values of Aggressive-Prosocial Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L; Benish-Weisman, Maya; O'Brien, Christopher T; Ungvary, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has identified youth who utilize both aggressive and prosocial behavior with peers. Although the social values and motivations associated with aggression and prosocial behavior have been well studied, the values of youth who utilize both aggression and prosocial behavior are unknown. The current study identified groups of adolescents based on peer nominations of aggression and prosocial behavior from both Israel (n = 569; 56.94% Arab, 43.06% Jewish; 53.78% female) and the United States (n = 342; 67.54% African-American; 32.46% European-American; 50.88% female). Self-enhancement, self-transcendence, openness-to-change, and conservation values predicted behavioral group membership. Power values predicted membership in the aggressive group relative to the aggressive-prosocial, prosocial, and low-both groups. For Israeli boys, openness-to-change values predicted membership in the aggressive-prosocial group relative to the prosocial group. The values of aggressive-prosocial youth were more similar to the values of prosocial peers than to aggressive peers, suggesting that motivational interventions for aggressive-prosocial youth should differ in important ways than those for aggressive youth.

  18. Preventing, Reducing and Ending LGBTQ2S Youth Homelessness: The Need for Targeted Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Abramovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender non-conforming and sexual minority youth are overrepresented in the homeless youth population and are frequently discriminated against in shelters and youth serving organizations. This paper provides a contextual understanding of the ways that institutional and governmental policies and standards often perpetuate the social exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2-Spirit (LGBTQ2S youth, by further oppression and marginalization. Factors, including institutional erasure, homophobic and transphobic violence, and discrimination that is rarely dealt with, addressed, or even noticed by shelter workers, make it especially difficult for LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness to access support services, resulting in a situation where they feel safer on the streets than in shelters and housing programs. This paper draws on data from a qualitative Critical Action Research study that investigated the experiences of a group of LGBTQ2S homeless youth and the perspectives of staff in shelters through one-on-one interviews in Toronto, Canada. One of the main recommendations of the study included the need for governmental policy to address LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. A case study is shared to illustrate how the Government of Alberta has put this recommendation into practice by prioritizing LGBTQ2S youth homelessness in their provincial plan to end youth homelessness. The case study draws on informal and formal data, including group activities, questions, and surveys that were collected during a symposium on LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. This paper provides an overview of a current political, social justice, and public health concern, and contributes knowledge to an under researched field of study by highlighting concrete ways to prevent, reduce, and end LGBTQ2S youth homelessness.

  19. Preventing, Reducing and Ending LGBTQ2S Youth Homelessness: The Need for Targeted Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Abramovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender non-conforming and sexual minority youth are overrepresented in the homeless youth population and are frequently discriminated against in shelters and youth serving organizations. This paper provides a contextual understanding of the ways that institutional and governmental policies and standards often perpetuate the social exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2-Spirit (LGBTQ2S youth, by further oppression and marginalization. Factors, including institutional erasure, homophobic and transphobic violence, and discrimination that is rarely dealt with, addressed, or even noticed by shelter workers, make it especially difficult for LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness to access support services, resulting in a situation where they feel safer on the streets than in shelters and housing programs. This paper draws on data from a qualitative Critical Action Research study that investigated the experiences of a group of LGBTQ2S homeless youth and the perspectives of staff in shelters through one-on-one interviews in Toronto, Canada. One of the main recommendations of the study included the need for governmental policy to address LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. A case study is shared to illustrate how the Government of Alberta has put this recommendation into practice by prioritizing LGBTQ2S youth homelessness in their provincial plan to end youth homelessness. The case study draws on informal and formal data, including group activities, questions, and surveys that were collected during a symposium on LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. This paper provides an overview of a current political, social justice, and public health concern, and contributes knowledge to an under researched field of study by highlighting concrete ways to prevent, reduce, and end LGBTQ2S youth homelessness.

  20. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  1. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  3. Behaviour of Youths in Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Botswana. Gaborone ... poor intellectual and work performance and death (Kinney and Leaton, 1983;. Gossop, 1989 .... alcohol consumption than the number of times youth drink alcohol. ...... Kluwer Academic Publishers. Santelli ...

  4. Marginal youth transitions in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    and visions of the future (as grown ups). In the paper we will illustrate some of the dilemmas and challenges that especially ‘youth a rick’ face as part of their life-and educational pathways from primary school and onwards. A main focus will be on the dialectic relationship between subjective narratives...... on education – and the dominant political discourses. How can political discourses on education be traced, in young people’s narratives, and to what extent are these discourses reproduced, or challenged in this process? Furthermore the paper will address a pivotal theme in youth research; that youth......Young people’s involvement in education is receiving enormous political attention in Denmark. The political aim is to ensure ‘education for all’. The background is the fact, that despite an ongoing political focus on the importance of ‘youth education’ over the past 30 years, a relatively stable...

  5. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  6. Kinship foster care among African American youth: Interaction effects at multiple contextual levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufa, Anne K.; Fowler, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth. PMID:26924865

  7. Promoting Youth Agency Through Dimensions of Gay-Straight Alliance Involvement and Conditions that Maximize Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Calzo, Jerel P; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-07-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) may promote wellbeing for sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning youth) and heterosexual youth. We considered this potential benefit of GSAs in the current study by examining whether three GSA functions-support/socializing, information/resource provision, and advocacy-contributed to sense of agency among GSA members while controlling for two major covariates, family support and the broader school LGBT climate. The sample included 295 youth in 33 Massachusetts GSAs (69 % LGBQ, 68 % cisgender female, 68 % white; M age = 16.06 years). Based on multilevel models, as hypothesized, youth who received more support/socializing, information/resources, and did more advocacy in their GSA reported greater agency. Support/socializing and advocacy distinctly contributed to agency even while accounting for the contribution of family support and positive LGBT school climate. Further, advocacy was associated with agency for sexual minority youth but not heterosexual youth. Greater organizational structure enhanced the association between support/socializing and agency; it also enhanced the association between advocacy and agency for sexual minority youth. These findings begin to provide empirical support for specific functions of GSAs that could promote wellbeing and suggest conditions under which their effects may be enhanced.

  8. Implementing and Evaluating Comprehensive Evidence-Based Approaches to Prevent Youth Violence: Partnering to Create Communities Where Youth Are Safe From Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Massetti, Greta M; Bacon, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Violence, including its occurrence among youth, results in considerable physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences in the U.S. Youth violence prevention work at the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes preventing youth violence-related behaviors, injuries, and deaths by collaborating with academic and community partners and stakeholders. Since 2000, DVP has funded three rounds of CDC's National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) in 5-year cycles, with the goal of supporting university-community partnerships so that the best science can be utilized in order to prevent youth violence. The current YVPCs focus on: (a) partnering with communities to identify community needs; (b) selecting and implementing the best comprehensive evidence-based programs to meet those needs; and (c) rigorously evaluating whether those efforts have a community-level impact on youth violence rates. The introduction to this special issue on the current YVPCs provides a brief historical overview on the YVPC Program; outlines the YVPCs' accomplishments to date; and describes the current YVPCs, their community partners, and their activities. The introduction concludes with an overview of the special issue.

  9. ‘Their Words Cut me Like a Knife’ : coping responses of Dutch lesbian, gay and bisexual youth to stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana; Spiegel, Tali

    2014-01-01

    Stigmatization experienced by lesbian, gay and bisexual youth (LGB) is associated with reduced psychological well-being and suggests that coping is an important mediator. The current study investigates the coping with stigma of Dutch LGB youth, and examines the social and individual mechanisms that

  10. The Role of Youth Anger in Explaining Links between Parenting and Early Adolescent Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Sheffield Morris, Amanda; Cui, Lixian; Henry, Carolyn S.; Criss, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of youth anger regulation and reactivity in the link between parenting and social adjustment among a sample of 84 youth residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods in a mid-southwestern city. Using path analysis, findings indicate that parents' responsive and discipline-related behaviors…

  11. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  12. Stress-Reactive Rumination, Negative Cognitive Style, and Stressors in Relationship to Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Meesters, Cor

    2012-01-01

    The role of cognitive vulnerability in the development of depressive symptoms in youth might depend on age and gender. The current study examined cognitive vulnerability models in relationship to depressive symptoms from a developmental perspective. For that purpose, 805 youth (aged 10-18, 59.9% female) completed self-report measures.…

  13. Juventud Sin Futuro : Subjective experiences of Spanish youth: resistance and organization in the context of economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Trejo Mendez (Paulina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at the subjective experiences of Spanish organized youth who are being affected by the economic crisis. This paper follows a standpoint epistemology. This research focuses on how their practices question the current dominant discourse depicting today’s Spanish youth as a

  14. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  15. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 3: Employment Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Sara; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief is one of three that focus on programs providing services to youth transitioning out of foster care in three common service domains: education, employment, and financial literacy and asset building. This brief highlights why employment services are important to youth currently or formerly in foster care, what we know about the…

  16. Positive Youth Development: Minority Male Participation in a Sport-Based Afterschool Program in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rhema D.; Percy, Vernon E.; Bruening, Jennifer E.; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As there is little research that investigates the experiences of minority boys participating in youth development programs (Fashola, 2003), the current research focused on a sport-based youth development program for early adolescent Black and Latino boys in Hartford, CT. Specifically, the present study explored (a) what attracted minority…

  17. Reinforcement Sensitivity and Risk for Psychopathology Following Exposure to Violence: A Vulnerability-Specificity Model in Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…

  18. The Role of Youth Anger in Explaining Links between Parenting and Early Adolescent Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Sheffield Morris, Amanda; Cui, Lixian; Henry, Carolyn S.; Criss, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of youth anger regulation and reactivity in the link between parenting and social adjustment among a sample of 84 youth residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods in a mid-southwestern city. Using path analysis, findings indicate that parents' responsive and discipline-related behaviors…

  19. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  20. Correlates of parent-youth discordance about youth-witnessed violence: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B; Proctor, Laura J; Litrownik, Alan J; English, Diana J; Runyan, Desmond K; Wiley, Tisha R; Dubowitz, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence (YWV). However, little empirical investigation has been conducted on the correlates of disagreement. Concordance between youth and parents about YWV was examined in 766 parent-youth dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Results showed that significantly more youth (42%) than parents (15%) reported YWV. Among the dyads in which at least one informant reported YWV (N = 344), we assessed whether youth delinquency, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, history of child maltreatment, income, and parental depression were predictive of parent-youth concordance. Findings indicated that youth engagement in delinquent activities was higher in the groups in which the youth reported violence exposure. More empirical study is needed to assess correlates of agreement in high-risk youth to better inform associations found between exposures and outcomes as well as practice and policy for violence exposed youth.

  1. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  2. Development of a cohesion questionnaire for youth: the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark; Loughead, Todd; Bray, Steven R; Carron, Albert V

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus groups (n = 56), open-ended questionnaires (n = 280), and a literature review. In Phase 2, information from the initial projects was used in the development of 142 potential items and content validity was assessed. In Phase 3, 227 participants completed a revised 87-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 17 and suggested a two-factor structure (i.e., task and social cohesion dimensions). Finally, support for the factorial validity of the resultant questionnaire was provided through confirmatory factor analyses with an independent sample (n = 352) in Phase 4. The final version of the questionnaire contains 16 items that assess task and social cohesion in addition to 2 negatively worded spurious items. Specific issues related to assessing youth perceptions of cohesion are discussed and future research directions are suggested.

  3. Development of a Cultural Connectedness Scale for First Nations youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowshoe, Angela; Crooks, Claire V; Tremblay, Paul F; Craig, Wendy M; Hinson, Riley E

    2015-03-01

    Despite a growing recognition of cultural connectedness as an important protective factor for First Nations (FN) peoples' health, there remains a clear need for a conceptual model that organizes, explains, and leads to an understanding of the resiliency mechanisms underlying this concept for FN youth. The current study involved the development of the Cultural Connectedness Scale (CCS) to identify a new scale of cultural connectedness. A sample of 319 FN, Métis, and Inuit youths enrolled in Grades 8-12 from reserve and urban areas in Saskatchewan and Southwestern Ontario, Canada, participated in the current study. A combination of rational expert judgments and empirical data were used to refine the pool of items to a set that is a representative sample of the indicators of the cultural connectedness construct. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the latent structure of the cultural connectedness items, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of a more parsimonious version of the final EFA model. The resulting 29-item inventory consisted of 3 dimensions: identity, traditions, and spirituality. Criterion validity was demonstrated with cultural connectedness dimensions correlating well with other youth well-being indicators. The conceptualization and operationalization of the cultural connectedness has a number of potential applications both for research and prevention. This study provides an orienting framework that guides measurement of cultural connectedness that researchers need to further explore the role of culture in enhancing resiliency and well-being among FN youth in Canada.

  4. Cigarette brand preference as a function of price among smoking youths in Canada: are they smoking premium, discount or native brands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, S T; Ahmed, R; Barisic, A; Murnaghan, D; Manske, S

    2009-12-01

    Given that little is known about the price-related cigarette brand preferences of youths, the current study seeks to characterise cigarette brand preferences and examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands among Canadian youths who are current smokers. This study used nationally representative data collected from 71,003 grade 5-12 students as part of the 2006-7 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers, logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands relative to premium cigarette brands. In 2006, premium cigarettes were the most prevalent brand of cigarette youths report usually smoking (49.4%); a substantial number of youths do report usually smoking either discount (12.9%) or native (9.3%) cigarette brands. Occasional smokers were more likely to report usually smoking premium cigarettes whereas daily smokers were more likely to report smoking either discount or native cigarettes. In particular, discount and native brands appear to be appealing among smoking youths with less spending money or those who are heavier smokers compared to youths smoking premium brands. Discount and native cigarette brands are commonly used by a substantial number of smoking youths in Canada. Additional research is required to better understand the reasons behind different cigarette brand preferences and how youths are able to access premium, discount and illicit native cigarettes. Moreover, ongoing surveillance of the cigarette brand preferences of youths is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  5. Involvement of youth in Impact Assessment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjervedal, Anna-Sofie Hurup; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2017-01-01

    Initial studies of the current public participation (PP) forms, public consultations and workshops, applied in Greenland in relation to Impact Assessments (IAs) of oil-gas and mineral projects, have revealed a narrow representation of the local communities. The local representatives involved...... in the PP processes comprise primarily elder men, whereas the youth remain absent. The fast growing development in the natural resource area has already sparked societal change among the widespread communities in Greenland; changes that set high demands for a greater higher educated workforce among...... complementary alternative methods to the current PP forms. Through combining social media and the visual anthropological method of photo-interviewing, this paper seeks to give voice to the absent voice of the young Greenlanders, encouraging them to engage and have their say in these important matters regarding...

  6. Cultural correlates of youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersley, Richard; Dear, Keith

    2002-12-01

    Youth suicide has risen in most developed nations over the past 50 years, especially among males, but the increase remains to be explained. Statistical analyses were used to examine associations between youth suicide rates in 11-21 mainly Western, developed nations and 32 socio-economic and cultural variables. The central hypothesis was that suicide rates would be correlated with various cultural measures of social attachment and integration, especially individualism. Socio-economic variables were included in the analysis to demonstrate the relative strength of the cultural associations. The study found a strong positive correlation between male youth suicide rates and subjective measures of health, optimism, and several indices of individualism, including personal freedom and control. Correlations between female youth suicide and individualism were smaller, attaining significance in only one instance. Male youth suicide and individualism were negatively correlated with older people's sense of parental duty. Correlations between suicide and other possibly relevant cultural variables--tolerance of suicide, belief in God and national pride--were not significant. The analysis of socio-economic variables yielded only one significant, but doubtful, correlation. The findings can be interpreted as supporting two very different hypotheses: that youth suicide represents "an island of misery in an ocean of happiness" or "the tip of an iceberg of suffering". In favouring the latter interpretation, and consistent with Durkheim's theories on suicide, it is argued that increased youth suicide reflects a failure of Western societies to provide appropriate sites or sources of social identity and attachment, and, conversely, a tendency to promote unrealistic or inappropriate expectations of individual freedom and autonomy.

  7. The Story So Far...A Brief History of Environmental Youth Work. Environmental Youth Work Briefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Environmental Education, Reading (England).

    Surveys have repeatedly shown that vast numbers of young people are interested in and concerned about environmental issues. Good youth work is concerned with the interests of young people, so the idea of environmental youth work--taking a youth work approach to environmental education--is a logical development for both environmental and youth work…

  8. Expanding the Reach of Youth Mentoring: Partnering with Youth for Personal Growth and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renee; West, Jennifer; Rappaport, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The goals of youth mentoring have broadened from redressing youth problems to promoting positive youth development. Yet, many of the principles associated with contemporary conceptualizations of development found in the positive youth development (PYD) and community psychology (CP) literature have yet to be fully integrated into mentoring research…

  9. Measuring and Understanding Authentic Youth Engagement: The Youth-Adult Partnership Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng-Chieh Jamie; Kornbluh, Mariah; Weiss, John; Roddy, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Commonly described as youth-led or youth-driven, the youth-adult partnership (Y-AP) model has gained increasing popularity in out-of-school time (OST) programs in the past two decades (Larson, Walker, & Pearce, 2005; Zeldin, Christens, & Powers, 2013). The Y-AP model is defined as "the practice of (a) multiple youth and multiple…

  10. Family group conferences in youth justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Robin; Shemmings, David; Dugmore, Paul; Hyare, Mina

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses part of an evaluation of the 'Family Group Conference (FGC) Project for Young People Who Offend' within a large social services department ('Exshire'). The evaluation covers all 30 family group conferences during a 15-month period from September 2000 to December 2001. This article presents the findings relating to young people along with changes in their psychosocial profile using a modified version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman 1997). The views of all participants were positive, with the majority saying they would recommend FGCs to others. FGC was felt by most participants to have brought about changes in the way young people view the world, partly by helping them to accept the reality of offending in a way that had not previously been possible. It provided victims with a unique opportunity to become involved in the youth justice system, recognising them as key stakeholders as a result of a crime. This process left most victims with a sense of satisfaction and resolution. Average SDQ scores were lower following FGC for the 12 young people who responded to follow-up interviews. Although there are a number of restorative justice projects using FGC in youth justice, we believe this project is among the first in the UK to establish the use of the New Zealand model with its emphasis on 'private family time' as an ongoing established service. Although the data were collected before 2002, the project contains unique features which we believe should be brought to the attention of the wider academic and practice community given that FGC is still a fairly new, unexplored and under-evaluated phenomenon in youth justice. There is currently a need for more research looking at the use of FGC in relation to young offenders.

  11. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  12. Vision and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of vision problems among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which vision problems adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Literature review. More than 20% of school-aged youth have some kind of vision problem. In a nationally representative sample of more than 48,000 youth under age 18, those from lower income families were less likely to have diagnosed eye conditions than White children and children living in higher income families. When diagnosed with eye care problems, Black youth living in poverty received fewer and less intensive services. Causal pathways through which vision problems adversely affect academic achievement include sensory perceptions, cognition, and school connectedness. Vision screening is widespread in the nation's schools, but the educational (and public health) benefits from these efforts are jeopardized by lack of follow-up and coordination of efforts. Vision problems are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement through their effects on sensory perceptions, cognition, and school connectedness, and effective practices are available for schools to address these problems. School-based vision screening programs are a logical approach for the early detection and treatment of vision problems affecting youth and are widely implemented in the nation's schools. To more fully realize the educational (and public health) benefits of current investments in screening, programs will require improved follow-up and coordination between and among agencies conducting screening, school nurses, teachers and parents, and in some cases community resources. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  13. Mental sets in conduct problem youth with psychopathic features: entity versus incremental theories of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekin, Randall T; Lester, Whitney S; Sellers, Mary-Kate

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a motivational intervention on conduct problem youth with psychopathic features. Specifically, the current study examined conduct problem youths' mental set (or theory) regarding intelligence (entity vs. incremental) upon task performance. We assessed 36 juvenile offenders with psychopathic features and tested whether providing them with two different messages regarding intelligence would affect their functioning on a task related to academic performance. The study employed a MANOVA design with two motivational conditions and three outcomes including fluency, flexibility, and originality. Results showed that youth with psychopathic features who were given a message that intelligence grows over time, were more fluent and flexible than youth who were informed that intelligence is static. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of originality. The implications of these findings are discussed including the possible benefits of interventions for adolescent offenders with conduct problems and psychopathic features.

  14. Effects of cultural brokering on individual wellbeing and family dynamics among immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, Vanja

    2017-02-01

    Over 90% of immigrant youth help their parents navigate the mainstream US culture, a process known as cultural brokering. Past research has indicated that brokering can often have negative effects on development of immigrant youth and their families. The current study builds on the past literature by examining how various aspects of brokering may impact individual wellbeing and family dynamics among first generation immigrant and refugee youth from Eastern Europe (N = 197, Mage = 22.93 (SD = 2.89), 63.5% female) currently residing in the United States. The results show that family conflict mediates the relationship between brokering and youth psychological wellbeing. The findings suggest that there are distinct patterns of association between frequency of brokering and feelings toward brokering, pointing to the need to further understand the ways in which we can capitalize on positive aspects and minimize negative aspects of cultural brokering among immigrants.

  15. Youth and public policies: between prohibitions, underpaid work and new practices of sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Bueno Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current economic and sociocultural changes tend to deepen the crisis of legitimacy related to public policies that establish control measures and youth integration due to the belief in the dissuasive effect of criminal intimidation and the moral recommendation to learn menial occupations. The analytical aim of this article is to investigate the extent to which the current policy of drug prohibition and youth inclusion in the labor market reinforce the continuity of official actions of classist and labeling perspectives, either because they underestimate the cultural influence of advanced capitalism in the construction of the life plans of poor youth or because they do not consider as legitimate the existence of autonomous democratic spaces for youth themselves to formulate and guide solutions to their problems.

  16. A Vygotskian Perspective on Youth Participatory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Applies Lev Vygotsky's concept of developmental learning to youth-led evaluation projects and discusses the role of participatory evaluation in supporting youth to move beyond socially determined roles to become active participants in evaluation and their own growth. (SLD)

  17. Youth Prostitution: A Balance of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Richie J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)

  18. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  19. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  20. A Vygotskian Perspective on Youth Participatory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Applies Lev Vygotsky's concept of developmental learning to youth-led evaluation projects and discusses the role of participatory evaluation in supporting youth to move beyond socially determined roles to become active participants in evaluation and their own growth. (SLD)

  1. Youth Prostitution: A Balance of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Richie J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)

  2. Action programme for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A B

    1993-01-01

    In Nigeria, where abortion is illegal, unmarried women under 20 years of age comprises the majority of abortion patients and complications from unsafe abortion represent a major health problem among this sector. The high incidence of abortion in Nigeria reflects increased premarital sex activity in urban areas; opposition to family planning, and cultural sanctions against single parenting or forced marriage. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) is working, cautiously, toward liberalization of the grounds for legal abortion; however, its major strategy is to avert the need for abortion through overcoming opposition to family planning services for young people and family life education in the schools. To reach young people, PPFN has begun providing services in medical clinics attached to vocational schools and institutes of higher education. The concept of using peers to distribute non-prescription contraceptives is being considered, and special youth clinics are planned for urban areas. About 5% of new acceptors at PPFN clinics are under 20 years of age, and attempts are being made to tailor services to the unique needs of this population.

  3. Plugged in Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    This chapter investigates psychosocial consequences of global migration through an empirical study of South Asians to Scandinavian countries and is a follow up of a Danish project conducted in the mid-nineties. Diasporia and transnational processes in interaction with the everyday life’s technolo......This chapter investigates psychosocial consequences of global migration through an empirical study of South Asians to Scandinavian countries and is a follow up of a Danish project conducted in the mid-nineties. Diasporia and transnational processes in interaction with the everyday life......’s technological processes combined with life course perspectives, provide the theoretical framework for this study. In-depth interviews were employed and information was analysed through meaning condensation and subsequent categorisation of the narratives. The results show the reinterpretation of the self......, “others” and home in these families, for the parental as well as the young generation, in which the technological processes play an increasing part for the youth generation. The chapter also depicts the young adults’ diasporic identities involving the countries of origin as well as the Scandinavian...

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  5. Interpretation Bias Modification for Youth and their Parents: A Novel Treatment for Early Adolescent Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Reuland, Meg M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents’ maladaptive beliefs regarding social s...

  6. Proceedings of Braga 2014 Embracing Inclusive Approaches for Children and Youth with Special Education Needs Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Embracing Inclusive Approaches Conference, Braga, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This e-book, which is published under the title Braga 2014: Embracing Inclusive Approaches for Children and Youth with Special Education Needs contains a set of papers submitted by the authors in an international conference during July 2014 with the same name. Practitioners, researchers, policy makers, and NGOs from around the world joined their international colleagues to engage in lively and informed discussions about the current state of the art in meeting the needs of children and youth w...

  7. Queer Youth in Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Rebecca G; Stone Fish, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Trends in popular belief about same-sex relationships have undergone noteworthy change in the United States over the last decade. Yet this change has been marked by stark polarizations and has occurred at varying rates depending upon regional, community, racial, religious, and individual family context. For queer youth and their families, this cultural transformation has broadened opportunities and created a new set of risks and vulnerabilities. At the same time, youth's increasingly open and playful gender fluidity and sexual identity is complicated by unique intersections of class, race, religion, and immigration. Effective family therapy with queer youth requires practitioner's and treatment models that are sensitive to those who bear the burden of multiple oppressions and the hidden resilience embedded in their layered identities. We present case examples of our model of family therapy which addresses refuge, supports difficult dialogs, and nurtures queerness by looking for hidden resilience in the unique intersections of queer youths' lives. These intersections provide transformational potential for youth, their families and even for family therapists as we are all nurtured and challenged to think more complexly about intersectionality, sexuality, and gender. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  8. Youth with cerebral palsy with differing upper limb abilities: how do they access computers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T Claire; Chau, Tom; Fehlings, Darcy L; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Stott, N Susan

    2010-12-01

    To identify the current level of awareness of different computer access technologies and the choices made regarding mode of access by youth with cerebral palsy (CP) and their families. Survey. Two tertiary-level rehabilitation centers in New Zealand and Canada. Youth (N=60) with CP, Manual Ability Classification Scale (MACS) levels I to V, age 13 to 25 years. Not applicable. Questionnaire. Fifty (83%) of the 60 youth were aware of at least 1 available assistive technology (AT), such as touch screens and joysticks. However, only 34 youth (57%) were familiar with the accessibility options currently available in the most common operating systems. Thirty-three (94%) of 35 youth who were MACS I and II used a standard mouse and keyboard, while few chose to use assistive technology or accessibility options. In contrast, 10 (40%) of 25 youth who were MACS III to V used a variety of assistive technologies such as touch screens, joysticks, trackballs, and scanning technologies. This group also had the highest use of accessibility options, although only 15 (60%) of the 25 were aware of them. Most youth with CP were aware of, and used, assistive technologies to enhance their computer access but were less knowledgeable about accessibility options. Accessibility options allow users to modify their own computer interface and can thus enhance computer access for youth with CP. Clinicians should be knowledgeable enough to give informed advice in this area of computer access, thus ensuring that all youth with CP can benefit from both AT and accessibility options, as required. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-Cultural Understanding Through Youth Sports: Bridging the Tolerance Gap Through Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Ross

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The USPORT-Kyrgyzstan project was an ambitious initiative of public diplomacy, sports diplomacy, cross-cultural exchange, in-country grassroots projects, and international cooperation. The project consisted of three phrases which included youth recreational sport programming, youth leadership and development training, and youth tolerance training. Overall, it proved to be an extremely effective form of intervention that provided youth in this region of the Middle East with many positive and constructive youth sports and leadership development opportunities.

  10. Equipping Youth with Mature Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John C.

    2003-01-01

    To enhance the ability of youth to help peers and themselves, the author proposes specific training in mature social decision-making to help youth overcome immature moral development and egocentric thinking. The EQUIP program emphasizes the positive moral potential of anti-social adolescents, as well as the limitations of antisocial youth:…

  11. At-Risk Youth: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, Leslie

    This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…

  12. Youth Transitions: From Offending to Desistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines youth transitions and youth offending in tandem. It argues that the transition to adulthood is heavily implicated in the fact that most offending occurs in the youth phase. Drawing on a study of 20 male and 20 female persistent young offenders in Scotland, it explores young people's desire for integration with others in the…

  13. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  14. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  15. Beyond Borders: Youth, Education, Sexuality, Desire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzi, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review examines two texts that relate to youth, sexuality, and education. The first is James Sears' "Youth, Education and Sexualities: An International Encyclopedia" (2005) and the second is "Youth and Sexualities: Pleasure, Subversion and Insubordination In and Out of Schools" (2004) edited by Mary Louise Rasmussen, Eric Rofes, and Susan…

  16. Transgender Youth and Life-Threatening Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…

  17. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  18. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-09-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB.

  19. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  20. Overuse Physeal Injuries in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amanda; Thigpen, Charles A; Beattie, Paul F; Kissenberth, Michael J; Shanley, Ellen

    Despite rising awareness of the risks associated with sports participation, overuse injuries continue to increase in youth athlete populations. Physeal injuries are one type of overuse injury exclusive to pediatric populations that are often sustained during athletic practice or competition. Overuse physeal injuries are, in theory, preventable; however, little consensus has been reached surrounding the risk factors, prevention, and treatment strategies. This systematic review summarizes the best available evidence concerning overuse physeal injuries in youth and adolescent athletes. It can be used to develop prevention and treatment programs specific to this population. PubMed and Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost) were explored using the keyword physeal injuries from January 1950 through May 2015 to identify 24 studies. Original research studies of athletic populations with mechanisms of injury related to sport were chosen. Systematic review. Level 3. Data were extracted as available from 24 eligible studies. Study quality was rated using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (OCEBM) guidelines. Risk factors for injury include periods of accelerated growth, chronological age, body size, training volume, and previous injury. Injury prevention strategies currently emphasize participation limitations and sport-specific training programs in skeletally immature athletes. The most effective treatment after an overuse physeal injury was an extended period of active rest and joint immobilization when necessary. Overuse physeal injuries are multifactorial in nature. Muscular imbalances after accelerated growth periods predispose young athletes to overuse injuries. Modifiable risk factors such as flexibility, strength, and training volume should be regularly monitored to prevent these injuries.

  1. Youth employment and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  2. The Danish Youth Survey 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Sundaram, Vanita; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore ethical, legal and practical issues related to conducting a youth survey in Denmark on sexual experiences before the age of 15 and thereby achieve reliable data on child sexual abuse. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The relevant authorities were consulted on possible legal...... of the accompanying offer of counselling. CONCLUSION: An anonymous youth survey based on computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) would increase the validity of youth surveys on child sexual abuse to which no ethical or legal objections were found....... obtaining parental consent. The Central Scientific Ethical Committee had no objections. In a number of fields, Danish legislation accords 15-to-18-year-olds the competence to make independent decisions regarding their personal circumstances, and the UN Convention of Children's Rights states that a child...

  3. Sexting: serious problems for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Mechling, Brandy

    2013-07-01

    Youth engaging in sexting (texting plus sex) includes behaviors such as sending, receiving, or forwarding of nude or partially nude images via cell phones. The true prevalence of tweens and teens engaging in sexting is unclear. This might be because of the general secrecy of the behavior, the rapid advances in technology, and the lack of a clear definition that accounts for the added developmental factors (e.g., peak sexual development, impulsivity). Additionally, there is a lack of recognition of the consequences and increased risks of sexting (e.g., shame and guilt, earlier sexual behavior, bullying, incarceration, substance abuse, depression, suicide) for youth as a vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to examine sexting behaviors among youth by exploring factors specific to today's adolescent population that may influence the prevalence and outcomes of sexting behavior. Implications for nursing practice, including the assessment, intervention, and evaluation that is needed to treat adolescents affected by sexting, are discussed.

  4. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....

  5. Marginal youth transitions in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    figure of almost 20% of a youth-generation, still does not complete a youth education. Furthermore, research shows clear patterns in regards to, who is at risk in the educational system; Young people from a social background with little or no tradition for education are statistically less likely......Young people’s involvement in education is receiving enormous political attention in Denmark. The political aim is to ensure ‘education for all’. The background is the fact, that despite an ongoing political focus on the importance of ‘youth education’ over the past 30 years, a relatively stable...... to attain success in the educational system compared to young people who come from backgrounds with a strong educational tradition. Drawing on two longitudinal research projects (Pless&Katznelson, 2007; Pless, 2009) based on both quantitative and qualitative data, we will focus on the factors that seemingly...

  6. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  7. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eivind Grip, Fjær,; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  8. Investigating the construct of trauma-related acquired callousness among delinquent youth: differences in emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Kerig, Patricia K

    2014-08-01

    This study tested theories regarding differences in emotion processing among youth characterized by primary versus acquired callous-unemotional (CU) traits in a sample of 417 detained adolescents (306 boys, 111 girls). Mixture modeling identified 2 groups of youth high in CU, but with different levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms consistent with theoretical conceptualizations of acquired CU as being linked to trauma. Differences between the 2 groups of youth were investigated regarding 3 dimensions of emotion processing: emotion regulation, numbing, and recognition. Compared to youth classified in the primary group, youth classified as acquired CU demonstrated greater difficulty with lack of clarity (OR = 0.53), and nonacceptance of emotions, (OR = 0.57), general numbing of emotions (OR = 0.87), and recognition of disgust (OR = 0.18). Differences in emotion processing reported by youth in the 2 groups are consistent with theories regarding acquired callousness as related to emotional detachment in the aftermath of posttraumatic distress. The results of the current study have implications for the classification of primary and acquired CU, as well as the clinical treatment of youth with these characteristics.

  9. Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syndromic management of STIs has been advocated as simplified and cheap approach. Youth have been reported to be at increased risk of acquiring STIs which can facilitate HIV transmission. We have investigated the relationship between the syndromic management and specific aetiology diagnosis and its relationship with HIV infection and health seeking behaviour among youth attending a reproductive health clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Between September 1998 and February 1999 among 1895 adolescents and youth below 25 years seen in the clinic 199 (10.5% were randomly selected and consented to participate in the study. A standard questionnaire was administered. Blood and vaginal or urethral specimens were taken and investigated for STI causative agents. Results Among a total of 199 studied adolescents and youth 22.6 % were teenagers, with fewer females 17.8% than males; 27.5% (p Conclusion The burden of STIs in this youth population is large indicating that youth are at increased risk of STIs and will certainly require youth friendly clinics. There is a need to refine the current syndromic management guidelines.

  10. Vulnerable Youth as Prosumers in HIV Prevention: Studies Using Participatory Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Cath; Nayar, Shoba; Lubis, Dinar; Maibvisira, Carol; Modderman, Kristel

    2017-08-14

    Stigma, voicelessness, and legislative and rights barriers, coupled with top-down decision making, are the common experiences of vulnerable youth populations that limit their opportunities to participate in vital health promotion efforts such as HIV prevention. To consider new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. Drawing on research with vulnerable youth in Busoga, Uganda; Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Bangkok, Thailand; and Bali, Indonesia, we explore current youth participation, in theory and practice, while considering new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. Collaborative commons and prosumer models are defined as people employing new technology to codesign toward a common goal. Within the context of a diminishing role of the traditional institution and the rise of digitized networks, such models offer exciting new directions for youth as electronic health promotion prosumers to participate in difficult challenges such as HIV prevention in the 21st century. It is time for institutions to embrace such opportunities, especially in areas where access to technology is widening, while continuing to champion youth and advocate for supportive social environments.

  11. Conceptualizing and measuring youth-adult partnership in community programs: a cross national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Collura, Jessica; Lucchesi, Micaela; Sulaiman, Abdul Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Youth participation in program and community decision making is framed by scholars as an issue of social justice, a platform for positive youth development and effective citizenry, and a strategy for nation building. Recent literature reviews have consistently identified youth-adult partnership (Y-AP) as an effective type of youth participation across highly diverse contexts. These same reviews, however, note that indicators of Y-AP have not been conceptualized and validated for measurement purposes. The present study addresses this limitation by developing a brief measure of Y-AP that is explicitly grounded in current theory, research, and community practice. The measure was administered to youth in the United States, Malaysia, and Portugal (N = 610). Validation was assessed through factor analysis and tests of factorial, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Results confirmed the two predicted dimensions of the Y-AP measure: youth voice in decision making and supportive adult relationships. These two dimensions were also found to be distinct from other measures of program quality: safety and engagement. As predicted, they also significantly correlated with measures of agency and empowerment. It is concluded that the measure has the potential to support community efforts to maximize the quality of youth programs.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Expansion of Behavioral Interventions for Youth Obesity: A Family-Based Mindful Eating Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Janet L.; Staples, Julie K.; Sedillo, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Currently, over 30% of US youth are overweight and 1 in 6 have metabolic syndrome, making youth obesity one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century. Few enduring treatment strategies have been identified in youth populations, and the majority of standard weight loss programs fail to adequately address the impact of psychological factors on eating behavior and the beneficial contribution of parental involvement in youth behavior change. Methods: A critical need exists to expand treatment development efforts beyond traditional education and cognitive-behavioral programs and explore alternative treatment models for youth obesity. Meditation-based mindful eating programs represent a unique and novel scientific approach to the current youth obesity epidemic given that they address key psychological variables affecting weight. Results: The recent expansion of mindfulness programs to include family relationships shows the immense potential for broadening the customarily individual focus of this intervention to include contextual factors thought to influence youth health outcomes. Conclusions: This article provides an overview of how both mindful eating and family systems theory fits within a conceptual framework in order to guide development of a comprehensive family-based mindful eating program for overweight youth. PMID:26325143

  13. A Conceptual Framework for the Expansion of Behavioral Interventions for Youth Obesity: A Family-Based Mindful Eating Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Jeanne; Brody, Janet L; Staples, Julie K; Sedillo, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Currently, over 30% of US youth are overweight and 1 in 6 have metabolic syndrome, making youth obesity one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century. Few enduring treatment strategies have been identified in youth populations, and the majority of standard weight loss programs fail to adequately address the impact of psychological factors on eating behavior and the beneficial contribution of parental involvement in youth behavior change. A critical need exists to expand treatment development efforts beyond traditional education and cognitive-behavioral programs and explore alternative treatment models for youth obesity. Meditation-based mindful eating programs represent a unique and novel scientific approach to the current youth obesity epidemic given that they address key psychological variables affecting weight. The recent expansion of mindfulness programs to include family relationships shows the immense potential for broadening the customarily individual focus of this intervention to include contextual factors thought to influence youth health outcomes. This article provides an overview of how both mindful eating and family systems theory fits within a conceptual framework in order to guide development of a comprehensive family-based mindful eating program for overweight youth.

  14. Rehearsals and Roles: Youth Participation Frameworks in One Youth Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores rehearsals as a central learning structure of an urban youth organization. Drawing on research in participation, expertise, activity, multiliteracies, and situated cognition, it seeks to understand the extent to which the infrequently studied activity of rehearsal provides a space for cognitive growth. Using thematic coding and…

  15. The PIC Youth Primer: Improving JTPA Programs for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Bonnie; And Others

    This guide for Private Industry Council (PIC) officers, members, and staff is written to assist in planning and overseeing effective programs for youth at risk in the local labor market using resources allocated under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). Section I takes a broad view of the problem of building effective employability…

  16. Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett

    2011-12-01

    The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.

  17. Department of Defense Youth Poll Wave 11 - June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    recruiting goals set by The Department of Defense (DoD) have gone unmet as recruiters struggle to overcome the many daunting obstacles that have recently... obstacles to this improvement are the ongoing War in Iraq, decreasing approval ratings for the current administration and its’ use of the Military, and a...Business Math? D A Computer Science Class? E Intermediate Algebra or Algebra II? F Trigonometry ? G Calculus? H Physics? Appendix E: Youth Poll

  18. Habit and Heterogeneity in the Youthful Demand for Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael J.; Philip J. Cook

    1995-01-01

    Observed patterns of youthful drinking indicate substantial persistence. This paper analyzes how much of that persistence reflects the actual development of a habit, and how much is due to unobserved aspects of the individual and the environment. The role of restrictions on alcohol availability, both in the current period and in adolescence, is also explored. We find that much of the observed persistence represents habit formation, and not unobserved characteristics. Consequently, restriction...

  19. Positive Youth Development: Processes, Programs, and Problematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Lerner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the tripartite conception of positive youth development (PYD suggested by Hamilton (1999 – as a developmental process, a philosophy or approach to youth programming, and as instances of youth programs and organizations focused on fostering the healthy or positive development of youth – we review different theoretical models of the developmental process involved in PYD. In addition, we review the ideas for and the features of youth development programs aimed at promoting PYD. We discuss the need for research interrelating different, theoretically-predicated measures of PYD and, as well, the importance of clear links between models of the PYD developmental process and of the youth development programs seeking to enhance PYD among diverse youth. We discuss several conceptual and practical problematics that must be addressed in order to integrate the three facets of PYD scholarship.

  20. Youth-Adult Partnership: A New Way Forward for Greater Muslim Youth Participation in Schools and Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    steven eric krauss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Young people in Muslim majority countries are a valuable asset and investing in them can bring tremendous social and economic benefits. They also face many challenges that undermine their ability to develop and contribute to society. To make the most of the opportunity, these countries must find ways to increase the human and social capital of their respective youth populations. Youth participation in formal and non-formal educational settings such as schools and community programs has been identified as an effective approach to enhancing young people’s experiences. Building on initial findings from Malaysia, the current paper puts forth the concept of youth-adult partnership (Y-AP as a strategy for schools. Y-AP has been shown to enhance personal agency, empowerment and connection to community, three attributes that are critical for Muslim youth to play more substantive roles in national development. The paper further attempts to frame Y-AP within an Islamic socio-historical lens, drawing on examples from the Prophet Muhammad SAW and the early Muslim community to show how developmental relationships were central to the social and educational culture within the Prophet’s community. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/sd.v2i2.2810

  1. The Role of Youth Program Leaders in the Use of Technology: Challenges and Opportunities for Youth-Serving Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Nichter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth-serving organizations offer young people an opportunity to gain skills and advance their knowledge of current and evolving technology through experiential learning. The key to ensuring that young people have meaningful learning experiences is directly related to the youth program leader who is responsible for designing and implementing these programs. Programs conducted by well-trained and well-prepared adults are an essential component of community-based interventions. To date, there is relatively limited research on how technology such as smart phones can be used in community-based programs and the success or failure of this as a strategy for delivering information and engaging young people in a program. In this paper, we discuss how technology was introduced into eight programs conducted by youth-serving organizations in the Southwest. We discuss the training of youth program leaders and their experience using technology at their sites, highlighting what worked and what was problematic, how challenges were overcome, and lessons learned.

  2. Concussions From Youth Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan A.; Buzas, David; Morawa, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Youth football programs across the United States represent an at-risk population of approximately 3.5 million athletes for sports-related concussions. The frequency of concussions in this population is not known. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over an 11-year span from January 2002 to December 2012, the authors reviewed the concussions sustained by athletes aged 5 to 13 years while playing football, as evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and captured by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results: There were 2028 (national estimate, 49,185) young football players evaluated in NEISS EDs with concussion from 2002 to 2012. There were 1987 (97.9%) males and 41 (2.1%) females, with a mean age of 11.2 years. The total number of concussions reported increased with age and by year. The majority of concussions were treated in the outpatient setting, with 1878 (91.7%) being treated and released. The total number of head-to-head injury mechanisms mirrored the total number of concussions by year, which increased throughout the 11-year span. The total number of players experiencing a loss of consciousness increased throughout the study period but did not match the total number of concussions over the 11-year time period. Fractures occurred in 11 (0.5%) patients, with 2 being severe (1 skull fracture and 1 thoracic compression fracture). Conclusion: Within the 5- to 13-year age range, there were a significant number of young athletes who presented to EDs with concussion as a result of playing organized football. Older children may be at greater risk for sustaining concussions, fractures, and catastrophic injuries while playing football when compared with younger children. Clinical Relevance: Younger children are more susceptible to long-term sequelae from head injuries, and thus, improved monitoring systems for these athletes are needed to

  3. The whole picture: Child maltreatment experiences of youths who were physically abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristopher I; Schneiderman, Janet U; Negriff, Sonya; Brinkmann, Andrea; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the maltreatment experiences of a sample of urban youths identified as physically abused using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI). The sample (n=303) of 9-12 year old youths was recruited from active child protective services (CPS) cases in 2002-2005, and five years of child protective service records were reviewed. The demographic and maltreatment experiences of MCRAI-identified youths with physical abuse were compared to maltreated youths who were not physically abused and youths who were identified as physically abused by CPS when they entered this longitudinal study. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the demographics and maltreatment experiences of the sample MCRAI-identified physically abused to the sample MCRAI-identified as nonphysically abused maltreated by gender. Of the total sample, 156 (51%) were identified by MCRAI as physically abused and 96.8% of these youth also experienced other types of maltreatment. Whereas youth with the initial CPS identification of physical abuse showed little co-occurrence (37.7%) with other forms of maltreatment. The MCRAI-identified physically abused youths had a significantly higher mean number of CPS reports and higher mean number of incidents of maltreatment than MCRAI-identified nonphysically maltreated youths. Lifeline plots of case record history from the time of first report to CPS to entry into the study found substantial individual variability in maltreatment experiences for both boys and girls. Thus, obtaining maltreatment information from a single report vastly underestimates the prevalence of physical abuse and the co-occurrence of other maltreatment types.

  4. Trauma and homelessness in youth: Psychopathology and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin R; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-06-01

    Youth runaway behavior and homelessness (RHY) in the U.S. is increasingly common, with prevalence estimated at 1-1.7 million youth. RHY have multiple, overlapping problems often including poor physical and mental health, frequent street victimization, and histories of physical and sexual abuse. Further, current street victimization interacts with childhood abuse to produce complex, unique presentations of traumatic symptoms and related disorders in runaway and homeless youth. This review paper explores (1) the role of childhood trauma in the genesis of runaway and homeless behavior, and (2) how childhood trauma interacts with street victimization to create vulnerability to psychopathology. In response to the trauma needs of RHY, we conducted a systematic review of the state of the current literature on trauma-informed interventions for RHY. We conclude that the field currently lacks empirically validated trauma interventions in RHY. However, theoretically plausible frameworks do exist and could be the basis for future research and intervention development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biliteracy among Children and Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iliana

    2012-01-01

    The dual purposes of this review are, first, to synthesize the extant research on biliteracy, focusing particularly on children and youths and, second, to clarify key terms and phenomena in this developing field. The review is organized into three areas of research: (1) individual biliteracy development, (2) biliteracy in family and community…

  6. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the U.S. Building Connections to End Domestic Violence See Images and Stories from FYSB’s Tribal Peer-to-Peer Meeting What is the Family & Youth Services Bureau (FYSB)? The Family ... National Domestic Violence Hotline 1-800-799-SAFE ( ...

  7. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  8. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  9. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed.

  10. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  11. Youth and the City Streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  12. Team Building for Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gordon A.; Loughead, Todd M.; Newin, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Participation in youth sport generally begins to decline after the age of 12. Among the reasons for this are personal aspects such as lack of desire, and social aspects including negative experiences with coaches. One way that coaches can improve the sporting environment is through group activities that promote team building. The purpose of this…

  13. Concussions in Collision Youth Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Linzmeier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the University of Pittsburg, University of Arkansas, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, and Boston Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical College researched the incidence of concussions in youth hockey in relation to age and activity setting.

  14. Family Problems and Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Martijn; Spruijt, Ed; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Examines how family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents (N=995) in Denmark. Results show that parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment…

  15. Youth and the City Streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing,…

  16. Runaway Youths: Families in Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Margaret; And Others

    The Hamden Mental Health Service staff collaborated with the police on a joint research project concerning runaway youth. The data suggest that adolescents who run away come from broken homes where disruption during preadolescence has been associated with parental separation and remarriage. These adolescents often exhibit symptoms of depression…

  17. Equating accelerometer estimates among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W; Bornstein, Daniel B;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Different accelerometer cutpoints used by different researchers often yields vastly different estimates of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). This is recognized as cutpoint non-equivalence (CNE), which reduces the ability to accurately compare youth MVPA across s...

  18. Parental influences on the self-esteem of gay and lesbian youths: a reflected appraisals model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, R C

    1989-01-01

    Based on a population of 317 gay and lesbian youths, the current investigation explores the appropriateness of a reflected appraisals perspective in predicting the degree to which parental attitudes, as perceived by youth, affects their self-esteem and comfortableness being gay. A lesbian was most comfortable with her sexual orientation if she also reported that her parents accepted her homosexuality; these variables did not, however, predict her level of self-esteem. Among the gay males, parental acceptance predicted comfortable being gay if the parents were also perceived as important components of a youth's self-worth; a male most comfortable with his sexual orientation had the highest level of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) sex of parent, (b) sex-role development, (c) comparisons of gays and lesbians, and (d) research on gay and lesbian youth.

  19. Youth empowerment in context: exploring tensions in school-based yPAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohfeldt, Danielle; Chhun, Lina; Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2011-03-01

    In much of the youth empowerment literature, researchers focus on the relationship between youth and adults involved in empowerment programs while neglecting the broader social framework in which these relationships and the program itself functions. Utilizing an ecological model, the current research examines the tensions that surfaced in attempts to create an empowering setting in an after-school PAR program with fifth-graders. Challenging assumptions about youth, structural challenges, and conflicting theories of change are highlighted. Results examine the role of sociocultural context as PAR researchers attempt to create a setting in which students gain skills to become change agents within their school. The study suggests that youth empowerment is a context dependent process that requires attention to a multiplicity of factors that influence possibilities for empowerment via second order change.

  20. A theoretical evaluation of a youth mental health court program model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Krista M; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Skilling, Tracey A

    2016-01-01

    Mental health courts are a promising new approach to addressing the overrepresentation of mental health needs among offender populations, yet little is known about how they facilitate change, particularly for youth. The current study reports on a process evaluation of a youth mental health court in Toronto, Canada. Drawing upon observations of the court and interviews with key informants, we developed a program model of the court and explored its implementation within the context of empirical evidence for treating justice-involved youth. Findings revealed that the proposed mechanism of change, which focuses on reducing recidivism through the treatment of mental health needs, should also consider factors directly related to offending behavior. Findings further highlight several strengths of the program, including the program's supportive environment and ability to engage and link youth and families with treatment. Areas for continued growth include the need for comprehensive protections of legal rights.

  1. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youths' perspectives of inclusive school-based sexuality education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, L Kris; Winges-Yanez, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education is perceived as one way to prevent unhealthy sexual behaviors. However, current sexuality education materials are not tailored to fit the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and many have been critiqued for disenfranchising these populations. This study solicited the perspectives of LGBTQ youth on their experiences with school-based sexuality education in order to create a framework of LGBTQ-inclusive sexuality education. Five semistructured focus groups (N = 30 LGBTQ participants) were conducted to investigate the sexuality education experiences of LGBTQ youth and to solicit youth suggestions for improving the inclusiveness of sexuality education curricula. Results indicate that LGBTQ youth perceive current sexuality education as primarily "exclusive," although examples of "inclusive" sexuality education were provided. In addition, participants provided suggestions for creating a more inclusive experience, such as directly discussing LGBTQ issues, emphasizing sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention over pregnancy prevention, and addressing healthy relationships. Educators and policymakers can use these ideas to help improve the quality of sexuality education-not only to make it more inclusive for LGBTQ youth but to make sexuality education more inclusive for all young people.

  2. 湖南省青少年竞技武术套路现状调查与对策研究——以湖南省第11届运动会青少年武术比赛为例%Analysis on Current Condition of Youth Competitive Wushu Routine --Taking the Youth Wushu Competition of 11th Sports Meeting of Hunan Province as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一龙

    2012-01-01

    Through making field technical and rank statistics on Wushu competition of the 11 th Sports Meeting of Hunan Province, and by using the questionnaire, this paper analyzes the coach condition of different regions of Hunan province. The main purpose is to provide the countermeasures for youth Wushu talent cultivation and competitive level promotion in Hunan province.%通过对湖南省第11届运动会武术比赛的现场技术和名次的统计,同时发放问卷,调查分析湖南省各个地区教练员的现状,为湖南省青少年竞技武术人才的培养和竞技水平的提高提出相应对策。

  3. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  4. Cigarette smoking as a coping strategy: negative implications for subsequent psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-08-01

    The heightened risk of cigarette smoking found among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may be because smoking serves as a coping strategy used to adapt to the greater stress experienced by LGB youths. The current report examines whether smoking moderates the relation between stress and subsequent psychological distress, and whether alternative coping resources (i.e., social support) moderate the relation between smoking and subsequent distress. An ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths was followed longitudinally for 1 year. Significant interactions demonstrated that smoking amplified the association between stress and subsequent anxious distress, depressive distress, and conduct problems. Both friend and family support buffered the association between smoking and subsequent distress. Smoking has negative implications for the distress of LGB youths, especially those reporting high levels of stress or few supports. Interventions and supportive services for LGB youths should incorporate smoking cessation to maximally alleviate distress.

  5. Cigarette Smoking as a Coping Strategy: Negative Implications for Subsequent Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Objective The heightened risk of cigarette smoking found among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may be because smoking serves as a coping strategy used to adapt to the greater stress experienced by LGB youths. The current report examines whether smoking moderates the relation between stress and subsequent psychological distress, and whether alternative coping resources (i.e., social support) moderate the relation between smoking and subsequent distress. Method An ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths was followed longitudinally for 1 year. Results Significant interactions demonstrated that smoking amplified the association between stress and subsequent anxious distress, depressive distress, and conduct problems. Both friend and family support buffered the association between smoking and subsequent distress. Conclusions Smoking has negative implications for the distress of LGB youths, especially those reporting high levels of stress or few supports. Interventions and supportive services for LGB youths should incorporate smoking cessation to maximally alleviate distress. PMID:20123704

  6. Examining risk and protective factors for alcohol use in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: a longitudinal multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Heinz, Adrienne J; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-09-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at increased risk for alcohol misuse, but little is known about the psychosocial and demographic factors that are associated with these differences over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate change in alcohol use across development. We aimed to describe group/demographic differences in alcohol use, the effects of psychosocial variables on drinking within persons (i.e., psychological distress, sexual orientation-based victimization, and perceived family support), and the interactions between demographic differences and longitudinal psychosocial variables in predicting rates of alcohol use. The current study used data from the longest running longitudinal study of LGBT youth. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine both demographic differences and psychosocial predictors of alcohol use in an ethnically diverse sample of 246 LGBT youth (ages 16-20 years at baseline) across five time points over 2.5 years. Drinking increased significantly over time in a linear fashion, although it tended to increase more rapidly among male LGBT youth compared with females. Analyses of group differences revealed lower average rates of drinking for African American and female LGBT youth, and there were no differences between bisexual youth and gay/lesbian youth. Psychological distress and sexual orientation-based victimization were associated with increased alcohol use at each wave of data collection for female LGBT youth only. Perceived family support at each wave was negatively associated with alcohol use for all LGBT youth. Findings indicate that there is significant heterogeneity in the etiological pathways that lead to alcohol use in LGBT youth and that correlates of drinking are similar to those found in general populations. These crucial findings indicate that existing alcohol interventions also may be effective for LGBT youth and open up a wider array of prevention and treatment options for this at

  7. The Effects of Youth Participatory Evaluation and Youth Community Action Training on Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The bi-directional relationships within the personal and contextual environments of adolescents are critical to the development of adolescents and their transition into adulthood. Opportunities for youth to participate in and provide leadership in meaningful programs, gain life skills, and interact with adults in sustained relationships are key…

  8. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  9. Adventure Therapy with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Christine Lynn; Tucker, Anita; Russell, Keith C.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Gass, Michael A.; Gillis, H. L.; Behrens, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This state of knowledge article provides an overview of Adventure Therapy (AT) as it is practiced with adolescents in North America, presenting (a) current findings in AT research with adolescents, (b) critical issues in AT, (c) the need for training and professional development in AT, and (d) professionalization in AT. Implications of current…

  10. The second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China: preparing youth athletes to compete in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joao Brito,1 Sebastien Racinais,2 George P Nassis,1,3 1National Sports Medicine Programme, Excellence in Football Project, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 2Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece  All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: The second Summer Youth Olympic Games will take place August 16–28, 2014 in Nanjing, People's Republic of China during the peak of the summer. Nanjing has been reported as one of the hottest cities in the People's Republic of China, with temperatures reaching as high as 40°C. There is limited clinical evidence of the real risks that youth athletes face when training and competing in the heat, but some recommendations can be made. The estimated average wet bulb globe temperature for Nanjing in August is 32°C, which has been classified as a very high risk/stop play condition for heat illness and injury. Training and competing under extreme heat conditions could stress the thermoregulatory system and adversely affect health and performance. However, current guidelines appear to be inadequate or too conservative, and mostly focus on adult elite athletes. Therefore, proper preventive measures are warranted to reduce the risks of heat illness and injury. With proper heat acclimatization and monitoring, youth athletes can exercise reasonably well and safely in the heat. During the second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China, special attention should be devoted to athletes exposed to long and extensive sunny and hot conditions. Keywords: youth sports, heat acclimatization, thermoregulation

  11. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  12. Making meaning of traumatic events: youths' strategies for processing childhood sexual abuse are associated with psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice; Kobielski McElroy, Sarah

    2010-08-01

    The need to make meaning of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and often persists long after the abuse ends. Although believed to be essential for healthy recovery, there is a paucity of research on how youth process their CSA experiences. The current study identified individual differences in the ways youth process their CSA and examined associations with psychosocial adjustment. A sample of 108 youth with confirmed abuse histories enrolled in the study within 8 weeks of abuse discovery, when they were between 8 and 15 years old. Six years later, they participated in interviews about their CSA experiences, reactions, and perceived effects. Using a coding system developed for this study, youths' CSA narratives were reliably classified with one of three processing strategies: Constructive (13.9%), Absorbed (50%), or Avoidant (36.1%). Absorbed youth reported the highest levels of psychopathological symptoms, sexual problems, and abuse-specific stigmatization, whereas Constructive youth tended to report the fewest problems. Avoidant youth showed significantly more problems than Constructive youth in some but not all areas. Interventions that build healthy processing skills may promote positive recovery by providing tools for constructing adaptive meanings of the abuse, both in its immediate aftermath and over time.

  13. Friends' Knowledge of Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Adjustment: Accuracy, Bias, and the Influences of Gender, Grade, Positive Friendship Quality, and Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Lance P.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth's psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth.…

  14. Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care. Issue Brief 2: Financial Literacy and Asset Building Programs. OPRE Report No. 2014-69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Sara; Lowenstein, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This issue brief is one of three that focus on programs providing services to youth transitioning out of foster care in three common service domains: education, employment, and financial literacy and asset building. This brief highlights why financial literacy and asset building services are important to youth currently or formerly in foster care,…

  15. National Youth Survey US: Wave III (NYS-1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the third wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection, which includes data for youth interviewed in 1979 about events and...

  16. National Youth Survey US: Wave I (NYS-1976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains parent and youth data for the National Youth Survey. Youths and one of their parents or legal guardians were interviewed in early 1977 about...

  17. National Youth Survey US: Wave II (NYS-1977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the second wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave was conducted in 1976. Youths were interviewed in...

  18. Youth and Evaluation: Empowered Social-Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the chapters of this theme issue on youth participatory evaluation. The overarching theme from this collection is the shift from a focus on youth as defective to a view of youth as assets in community development. (SLD)

  19. Reaching Out to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Hinckley, Alissa

    2001-01-01

    Librarians can provide access to responsible Internet resources designed specifically for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Web sites described in this article include: for youth, by youth; national organizations; and references. (AEF)

  20. The Social Security Administration's Youth Transition Demonstration Projects: Interim Report on Colorado Youth WINS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This report presents first-year evaluation findings for the Colorado Youth WINS (Work Incentive Network of Supports) project, which served youth in four counties from August 2006 to December 2009. Using process analysis, the report found Youth WINS, as implemented, deviated from the program model in ways that may have reduced its potential to achieve certain critical objectives. However, Youth WINS participants were more likely to have used services to promote employment than the control group.

  1. Youth Conformity Regarding Institutions and Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on conformity was carried out. The participants were 95 youths. The scale “Conformity – Autonomy” from I. Karagiozov’s questionnaire for locus of control (1998 was also used. The results indicated the prevalence of youth conformity regarding institutions and media. The different types of conformity were related to each other. The subjects’ gender and the experimentators’ gender mediated the connections between the both types of conformity. The female youths conformed more with institutions than the male youths, but there were not any significant gender differences in their conform behavior regarding media (magazines. More male youths conformed for the magazines when the experimentator was a woman. More female youths conformed for the magazines when the experimentator was a man.

  2. Predicting support for restricting food marketing to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Amir; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-01-01

    To address the obesity crisis, public health experts recommend major reductions in the marketing of unhealthy food to youth. However, policies to restrict food marketing are not currently viewed as politically feasible. This paper examines attitudes and knowledge about food marketing and support for restricting unhealthy food marketing [corrected] among one group of constituents: parents. A survey of 807 parents found that those most likely to support food marketing restrictions were also more likely to have negative views of current food practices. [corrected] These findings suggest that increased public education about the harm caused by food marketing may increase public support for policy interventions.

  3. Relation between parent psychiatric symptoms and youth problems: moderation through family structure and youth gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleider, Jessica L; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R

    2014-02-01

    Links between parents' psychiatric symptoms and their children's behavioral and emotional problems have been widely documented in previous research, and the search for moderators of this association has begun. However, family structure (single versus dual-parent households) has received little attention as a potential moderator, despite indirect evidence that risk may be elevated in single-parent homes. Two other candidate moderators-youth gender and age-have been tested directly, but with inconsistent findings across studies, perhaps in part because studies have differed in whether they used youth clinical samples and in which informants (parents vs. youths) reported on youth problems. In the present study, we examined these three candidate moderators using a sample of exclusively clinic-referred youths (N = 333, 34 % girls, aged 7-14,) and assessing youth problems through both parent- and youth-reports. Both family structure and youth gender emerged as robust moderators across parent and youth informants. Parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing and externalizing problems in single-parent but not dual-parent homes; and parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing problems among boys, but not girls. The moderator findings suggest that the risks associated with parent psychopathology may not be uniform but may depend, in part, on family structure and youth gender.

  4. Substance Use among Youth Entering Texas Youth Commission Reception Facilities, 1989. First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, Eric V.; And Others

    This project is part of a multi-year program to gather detailed information about substance-use patterns among Texans. Investigators interviewed a total of 946 youths, age 10 to 17, as they entered Texas Youth Commission (TYC) reception facilities. Results show that 81% of TYC youth have used illicit substances--51% in their last month on the…

  5. Youth: Transition to Adulthood. Report of the Panel on Youth of the President's Science Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report focuses on the period of transition from child to adult, and on the institutions in which that transition takes place for youth in the United States. The first of four sections lays out a set of objectives that environments for youth should meet. Part Two examines a number of institutions and processes that affect youth, including…

  6. Advancing Positive Youth Development: Perspectives of Youth as Researchers and Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Shoffner, Anna; Johnson, Kendal; Knowles, Netti; Mills, Madison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the journey taken by a group of adolescents into the field and practice of youth-led research. The article gives voice to the growing number of youth participating in research and evaluation. The authors give authentic youth accounts of: (1) the process of becoming researchers and evaluators, (2) the benefits and challenges…

  7. Psychotropic Medication Use for Youth in Residential Treatment: A Comparison between Youth with Monopharmacy versus Polypharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Annette K.; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; Epstein, Michael H.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Pick, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At the time of entry into residential treatment, many youth have prescriptions for one or more psychotropic medications. It is not well understood why some youth are prescribed only one psychotropic medication while others may be prescribed more. We sought to determine if differences existed between youth entering residential treatment with…

  8. Anthropometric type of students of youth age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanishevskaya T.I.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic anatomic morphological features of structure of body of healthy youths-students are considered. The inspected contingent was made by 90 youths-volunteers. Age of students - from 17 to 21 years old. In an ethnic aspect most inspected Ukrainians which constantly live in the south-east regions of Ukraine. Among students it was selected three basic somatotype: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic. Morphofunctional the signs of organism of youths were characterized continuous individual changeability and discreteness.

  9. Engaging youth to combat urban inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Dyrholm, Louise; Lindholm Mikkelsen, Lise Marie

    2015-01-01

    This thesis seeks to answer the research question: What is the potential of youth clubs in improving the living conditions of young slum dwellers in Dhaka city? To answer this question the paper explores the social, political and economic circumstances in the slum amounting for the living conditions of young slums dwellers. In the study an analysis is conducted on how participation in a youth club can provide urban poor youth with the necessary education to act on their personal and collectiv...

  10. YouthCaN 2001 / Sirje Janikson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Janikson, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    Aprillis 2001 toimus keskkonnateemaline õpilaskonverents YouthCaN 2001 Ameerika Loodusajaloo Muuseumis New Yorkìs. 35 seminarist ühe viis läbi Tartu Noorte Loodusmaja geoloogia ja keskkonnaringi esindus, tutvustati loodusmaja keskkonnaprojekte ja räägiti keskkonnaalaste veebilehtede koostamise kogemustest. YouthCaN (Youth Communicating and Networking) on rahvusvaheline noorte organisatsioon, mis vahendab kogemusi ja uusi ideid elukeskkonnast huvitatud noorte hulgas

  11. YouthCaN 2001 / Sirje Janikson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Janikson, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    Aprillis 2001 toimus keskkonnateemaline õpilaskonverents YouthCaN 2001 Ameerika Loodusajaloo Muuseumis New Yorkìs. 35 seminarist ühe viis läbi Tartu Noorte Loodusmaja geoloogia ja keskkonnaringi esindus, tutvustati loodusmaja keskkonnaprojekte ja räägiti keskkonnaalaste veebilehtede koostamise kogemustest. YouthCaN (Youth Communicating and Networking) on rahvusvaheline noorte organisatsioon, mis vahendab kogemusi ja uusi ideid elukeskkonnast huvitatud noorte hulgas

  12. Arab satellite broadcasting, identity and arab youth

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis challenges a major theme found in Arab public discourse on youth, that the latter's consumption of television is passive in nature. Much discussion on Arab youth presupposes that the consequences of television for culture and identity are straight forward; that young people are merely passively absorbing materials that are offered. Contesting comments in Arab discourse on youth that to date have relied on unsystematic observation, this study adopts qualitative and quantitative res...

  13. Youth Exchanges Strengthen Ties with Foreign Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanzhou; Office; of; Overseas; Chinese; Affairs

    2016-01-01

    For communication between the youths of Quanzhou and those of foreign sister cities,we organized a number of large events,which included some"going out"and others"invited in".Youth international communication is not only important in peopleto-people diplomacy but is also meaningful in the country’s longterm strategic development.In recent years,steadily pushing forward the youth communication between friendly

  14. Youth Entrepreneurship in Visegrad Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Holienka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our paper is to analyse the entrepreneurial activity drivers of youth and young adults in Visegrad countries, considering the opportunity/necessity motivation dichotomy. Research Design & Methods: We employ the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for young individuals (18 to 34 years from V4 countries for years 2011 to 2013. We use the binomial logistic regression modelling with logit transformation. Separate models are constructed for youth and young adults, as well as for opportunity- and necessity-driven entrepreneurial activity. Findings: We found common drivers and distinctive attributes affecting involvement of young people in business start-up according to its motivation. Self-confidence and access to networks are universally important factors. In most examined cases, fear of failure and being a female reduces chance of business start-up. Especially among youth, being a student significantly inhibits involvement in enterprising efforts. Implications & Recommendations: In order to support youth entrepreneurship, an emphasis should be put on education and training to build skills and knowledge required to business start-up, together with capacity to spot opportunities, and reduce fear of failure.  Also, formal and informal networking plays an important role. Contribution & Value Added: Based on empirical analysis, our findings point out the key drivers of entrepreneurial activity among young people in V4 countries. We show directions for policy makers aiming to foster entrepreneurship within young generation as both way to exploit available business opportunities, as well as reaction to necessity situations.

  15. Health needs of incarcerated youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    From a health care point-of-view, the most needy adolescents in the United States are those who become incarcerated in the juvenile justice system. These youngsters have poor health care before incarceration is not much better. Their health problems range from the results of trauma to the consequences of sexual activity to severe psychological problems. Their health needs include: (1) prevention of health problems which contribute to behaviors for which youths are incarcerated; (2) comprehens...

  16. Smoking behavior and ethnicity in Jujuy, Argentina: evidence from a low-income youth sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Gregorich, Steven E; Mejía, Raúl; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2009-01-01

    Latin America is the world region with the highest rates of youth tobacco use and widest socioeconomic gaps, yet no data are available on smoking among Indigenous people, the largest disadvantaged group in the region. A self-administered survey of 3,131 8th grade youth enrolled in a random sample of 27 urban and rural schools was administered in 2004 in Jujuy, Argentina. Standard questions adapted from global surveys were used. Compared with youth of European background (11.4%; 95% CI 6.7-15.1), Indigenous (23.0%; 95% CI 21.0-25.0), and Mixed ethnicity (23%; 95% CI 18.9-27.1) youth had higher prevalence of current smoking. The odds of current smoking remained significantly elevated for Indigenous (OR 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1-3.3) and Mixed youth (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.4) after controlling for confounders. Other risk factors that were associated with current smoking included: having any friends who smoke, repeating a grade in school, depressive symptoms in previous year, drinking any alcohol in the previous week and thrill seeking orientation. These results underscore the importance of social and cultural diversity aspects of the global tobacco epidemic.

  17. Posttraumatic stress among youths in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derek; Thompson, Sanna J; Sanford, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 1.8 million juveniles were arrested in the United States for delinquency in 2009. Previous studies indicate high rates of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms for these youths. This study examined PTS in a sample of 170 youths in juvenile detention. The results of this study reveal higher rates of PTS symptoms (21%) compared to national rates (6%). The data also suggest youths suffering from more PTS symptoms also report higher depression, anxiety, anger, family relationship worries, thought problems, and attention problems. These factors provide a direction for continued practice targeting these youths.

  18. Election Media and Youth Political Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana Owen

    2009-01-01

    .... In fact, much traditional election media coverage of youth has emphasized their lack of interest and involvement, and thus works to discourage the development of activist political orientations...

  19. Moral voices of politically engaged urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between reflection and action is an enduring question for those interested in promoting moral development among young people. Educators struggle to find effective methods for helping youth reason carefully about moral problems and also to show moral commitment in their everyday lives. One place where reflection and action come together is in youth activism, where young people engage in social action campaigns to improve their schools and communities. What are the moral concerns that urban youth raise when given the opportunity? How do these concerns get translated into action? Drawing on original and secondary sources, this chapter discusses four social action campaigns organized by youth in the San Francisco Bay Area, in which youth combined critical moral judgments with social action. The chapter is not an empirical study, but instead an effort to bring attention to the moral and ethical perspectives that politically engaged youth raise. These social action projects suggest that for youth living in low-income neighborhoods with limited resources, the capacity for critical moral reflection about one's surroundings is an important dimension of healthy development. Helping youth assess and transform their local environments represents a promising direction for moral education and youth development.

  20. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.