WorldWideScience

Sample records for current water supply

  1. Analysis of (unsustainability of the current water: Supply strategy in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmanović Petar B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planned construction of more than 30 dams, lake-reservoirs and regional water-supply systems, are the basis of long-term water-supply strategy of the Republic of Serbia. The strategy was adopted in the 1970s and some experiences so far indicate the necessity of revision and rationalization, because of the following: - Quantity and effects of realized works are far lower than planned. The main reasons is the lack of finance as well as some systemic weaknesses shown in the processes of construction and management of the water systems. - Forecasted demographic growth as well as water consumption rates, dating back to 1970s-80s, are significantly oversized. -Global and domestic experiences in the field of construction and management of artificial lake- reservoirs indicate numerous techno-economic and environmental risks and negative consequences. - So far results of hydrogeological researches and groundwater capturing in Serbia show that this resource is a very good basis for municipal water-supply in the most part of the territory. - Water pipe lines are, on average, in very poor condition. Water supply deficits are recorded frequently because of enormous losses in distribution. The rationalization means an approach suited to the real water-supply need as well as to the financial and organizational capabilities. Orientation to the available groundwater resources is the basic guideline. One of the priorities is repairing of water pipe networks. This approach allows: - Much faster solving of water-supply problems - Big financial savings in the construction of dams, reservoirs, regional pipelines, raw water treatment plants as well as in the space adaptation and maintenance of regional water-supply systems.

  2. Sectoral Vulnerabilities to Changing Water Resources: Current and Future Tradeoffs between Supply and Demand in the Conterminous U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, J.; Averyt, K.; Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; Huber-lee, A. T.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the sustainability of human activities depends, in part, on the availability of water supplies to meet the demands of those activities. Thermoelectric cooling, agriculture, and municipal uses all compete for water supplies, but each sector differs in its characteristic ratio of water consumption versus withdrawals. This creates different implications for contributing to water supply stress and, conversely, vulnerabilities within each sector to changing water supplies. In this study, we use two measures of water stress, relating to water withdrawals and to water consumption, and calculate the role of each of these three sectors in contributing to the two different measures. We estimate water stress with an enhanced version of the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI), calculating the ratio of water demand to water supply at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) scale (Sun et al. 2008, 2011; Caldwell et al. 2011). Current water supplies are based on an integrated water balance and flow routing model of the conterminous United States, which accounts for surface water supply, groundwater supply, and major return flows. Future supplies are based on simulated regional changes in streamflow in 2050 from an ensemble of 12 climate models (Milly et al. 2005). We estimate water demands separately for agriculture, municipal uses, and thermoelectric cooling, with the first two based on Kenny et al. (2005) and the last on the approach of Averyt et al. (2011). We find substantial regional variation not only in the overall WaSSI for withdrawals and consumption but also in contribution of the three water use sectors to that total. Results suggest that the relative vulnerabilities of different sectors of human activity to water supply stress vary spatially and that policies for alleviating that stress must consider the specific, regional context of the tradeoffs between competing water demands. Ref's: Averyt, K., Fisher, J., Huber-Lee, A., Lewis, A., Macknick, J., Madden, N

  3. Drinking water quality in household supply infrastructure--A survey of the current situation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    As a result of the amendment to the German Drinking Water Ordinance in 2001, local public health authorities are obliged to monitor the water supply in installations providing water for public use (Section 18 German Drinking Water Ordinance). With a systematic and nationwide survey of locally available data relating to hygienic drinking water quality and the existing drinking water infrastructure in buildings, the extent of microbial contamination of in-building distribution systems in Germany is intended to be assessed. To gain an overview of the microbial contamination of drinking water in public buildings all 419 local public health authorities in Germany were contacted in 2007. In a detailed study with a representative cooperation level of 5% of these local public health authorities, the available data relating to microbiological, chemical, physical and technical parameters gained from in-building distribution systems were collected. Drinking water parameters were combined with regard to the total number of analyses and the absolute number as well as the percentage of limit compliance failures (n=108,288). Limits exceeded were classified as the failure to comply with the German Drinking Water Ordinance, DVGW technical regulations and Federal Environment Agency recommended limits. The highest rates of samples exceeding these limits were found for the parameter Legionella sp. which contaminated 12.8% of all samples (n=22,786; limit: 100 CFU/100ml), followed by heterotrophic plate count at 36 degrees C (3.5%, n=10,928; limit: 100 CFU/1 ml) and Pseudomonas sp. (2.9%, n=3468; limit: 0 CFU/100ml). Legionella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. pose a direct health risk to immunosuppressed users. Additionally, for some chemical parameters, such as nickel, iron and lead, a potential risk for the health of consumers was detected. Further data analysis may reveal whether this contamination is related to stagnation where there is only sporadic use or whether other factors are

  4. Water uptake and water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The water uptake and the water supply do not directly affect the mineral absorption of plants. However, many connections exist between the management of minerals and water. The most evident of those connections are following

  5. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  6. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  7. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  8. Technical review and evaluation of the economics of water desalination: Current and future challenges for better water supply sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination capacity has rapidly increased in the last decade because of the increase in water demand and a significant reduction in desalination cost as a result of significant technological advances, especially in the reverse osmosis process. The cost of desalinated seawater has fallen below US$0.50/m3 for a large scale seawater reverse osmosis plant at a specific location and conditions while in other locations the cost is 50% higher (US$1.00/m3) for a similar facility. In addition to capital and operating costs, other parameters such as local incentives or subsidies may also contribute to the large difference in desalted water cost between regions and facilities. Plant suppliers and consultants have their own cost calculation methodologies, but they are confidential and provide water costs with different accuracies. The few existing costing methodologies and software packages such as WTCost© and DEEP provide an estimated cost with different accuracies and their applications are limited to specific conditions. Most of the available cost estimation tools are of the black box type, which provide few details concerning the parameters and methodologies applied for local conditions. Many desalination plants built recently have greater desalinated water delivery costs caused by special circumstances, such as plant remediation or upgrades, local variation in energy costs, and site-specific issues in raw materials costs (e.g., tariffs and transportation). Therefore, the availability of a more transparent and unique methodology for estimating the cost will help in selecting an appropriate desalination technology suitable for specific locations with consideration of all the parameters influencing the cost. A techno-economic evaluation and review of the costing aspects and the main parameters influencing the total water cost produced by different desalination technologies are herein presented in detail. Some recent developments, such as the increase of unit capacity

  9. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess the potent......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  10. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  11. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  12. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  13. Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Water Supply Planning for Landscape Irrigation in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Adrienne Janel LaBranche

    2009-01-01

    A water supply plan approach was used to investigate irrigation application on landscaped areas in Virginia with a focus on turfgrass. The economically-important turfgrass industry in Virginia should be proactive in conserving drinking water supplies to meet human consumption needs, especially in drought times. This thesis investigates current irrigation water supplies, water supply sustainability, and alternative water sources to meet irrigation demands and offers an insight on how potable w...

  15. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  16. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  17. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish...... going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment....

  18. Using Water Transfers to Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.

    2007-12-01

    Most cities currently rely on water supplies with sufficient capacity to meet demand under almost all conditions. However, the rising costs of water supply development make the maintenance of infrequently used excess capacity increasingly expensive, and more utilities are considering the use of water transfers as a means of more cost effectively meeting demand under drought conditions. Transfers can take place between utilities, as well as different user groups (e.g., municipal and agricultural), and can involve both treated and untreated water. In cases where both the "buyer" and "seller" draw water from the same supply, contractual agreements alone can facilitate a transfer, but in other cases new infrastructure (e.g., pipelines) will be required. Developing and valuing transfer agreements and/or infrastructure investments requires probabilistic supply/demand analyses that incorporate elements of both hydrology and economics. The complexity of these analyses increases as more sophisticated types of agreements (e. g., options) are considered, and as utilities begin to consider how to integrate transfers into long-term planning efforts involving a more diversified portfolio of supply assets. This discussion will revolve around the methods used to develop minimum (expected) cost portfolios of supply assets that meet specified reliability goals. Two different case studies, one in both the eastern and western U.S., will be described with attention to: the role that transfers can play in reducing average supply costs; tradeoffs between costs and supply reliability, and; the effects of different transfer agreement types on the infrastructure capacity required to complete the transfers. Results will provide insights into the cost savings potential of more flexible water supply strategies.

  19. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  20. Removal of Pollutant Compounds From Water Supplies Using Ozone, Ultraviolet Light, and a Counter Current Packed Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Wesley Eckenfelder , Jr., Industrial Water Pollutuion Control, 2nd ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989), 136. Bibliography Bellamy, William D., Hickman...WPCF, Vol. 63, no. 2 (mar/Apr 1991): 120-28. Eckenfelder , W. Wesley, Industrial Water Pollutuion Control, 2nd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989. Freeman

  1. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Santos Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The actions planning to minimize risks and ensure the effectiveness of water supply systems requires the use of appropriate forecasting models. In fact, forecasting the behavior and analysis of future scenarios can be supported with the use of techniques and simulation models. In this article, we propose a procedure to simulate the actions of decision-makers in planning the operation of this system type in order to obtain an operating and financial prognosis that consider dynamic influences. The applicability of the proposed procedure is demonstrated through an urban systems planning problem of water supply. As a result we obtained a system costs distribution odds, which improves decision making in the context of the analyzed system. Additionally, the proposed procedure is applicable to other types of complex systems subject to dynamic influences.

  2. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  3. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  4. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  5. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  6. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  7. Canada - gas supply, demand and current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the trends in natural gas supply and demand during the decade since deregulation, and provides an assessment of the degree to which the goals of the deregulation agreement have been met. The author then turns to a discussion of current issues in the natural gas industry as seen from a regulator`s perspective. The issues discussed include: excess deliverability and price; pipeline integrity; the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; new pipeline certification; pipeline jurisdiction; export licensing; financial regulation; and electronic information exchange. (Author)

  8. Water supply assessment 2003 : St. Johns River Water Management District

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report identifies future water supply needs, and areas where those needs cannot be met by the water supply plans of major water users without unacceptable impacts to water resources and related natural systems (which are priority water resource caution areas). (186pp.)

  9. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  10. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  11. Wildfire and the future of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, Kevin D; Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Stone, Micheal

    2014-08-19

    In many parts of the world, forests provide high quality water for domestic, agricultural, industrial, and ecological needs, with water supplies in those regions inextricably linked to forest health. Wildfires have the potential to have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and community drinking water supply through impacts on water quantity and quality. In recent decades, a combination of fuel load accumulation, climate change, extensive droughts, and increased human presence in forests have resulted in increases in area burned and wildfire severity-a trend predicted to continue. Thus, the implications of wildfire for many downstream water uses are increasingly concerning, particularly the provision of safe drinking water, which may require additional treatment infrastructure and increased operations and maintenance costs in communities downstream of impacted landscapes. A better understanding of the effects of wildfire on water is needed to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to protect globally critical water supplies originating in forested environments.

  12. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  13. Chemical contamination of water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

  14. Selected Works in Water Supply, Water Conservation and Water Quality Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Reuse of water (unspecified) 3. Flushinb toilet with greywater 4. Reduce amount of water used per shower and/or bath 5. Reduce frequency of showers and/or...government, and has held training seminars on water supply and water conservation planning and on water reuse . A water supply and conservation...Planning 9 Water Reuse 9 Water Demand Forecast and Analysis 9 Drought Management 10 Water Conservation in Water Supply Planning 10 Urban Water Supply 11

  15. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water-line crossover connections to join all sections of the home. The crossover design requirements are located in, and must be designed in accordance with, § 3280.609 of this chapter. (b) Maximum...

  16. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    - & stormwater harvesting as the most environmentally friendly technology followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction. The least favorable case is desalination of seawater. Rain- & stormwater harvesting and desalination have markedly lower environmental impacts in the use stage compared to the base...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle...... to the grave. The first aim of this PhD thesis was to assess the environmental impacts of water supply technologies. For this LCA was used to compare the impacts of Copenhagen’s water supply technology of today with relevant cases considered for implementation in future water supply. The importance of placing...

  17. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  18. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    for the specific membrane ; b. For technologies employing membrane ultrafiltration and/or membrane microfiltration , identification of the...interesting challenges. Source water temperatures must remain below 35 oC (95 oF) during test conduct to prevent damage to the RO membranes . If employing a...below 35 °C (95 °F) during test conduct to prevent damage to the RO membranes . Due to the extended storage requirement for this test procedure, a

  19. Quantifying the Army Supply Chain Water Bootprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ways to economize. For example, in its effort to enhance its corporate water stewardship, Coca - Cola undertook a study to determine how much fresh...water is actually used (directly at the bottling facility and indirectly through the supply chain) to produce Coca - Cola in a 0.5 liter polyethylene...tial demands on the water resource as do those of Coca - Cola , Walmart, Ford, General Motors, and other large corporations that manufacture, purchase, or

  20. Estimating a municipal water supply reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Okeola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability and adequacy of water in a river basin determine the design of water resources projects such as water supply. There is a further need to regularly appraise availability of such resource for municipality at a distant future to help in articulating contingent plan to handle its vulnerability. This paper attempts to empirically determine the reliability of water resource for a municipal water supply. An approach was first developed to estimate municipality water demand that lack socioeconometric data using a purpose-specific model. Hydrological assessment of river Oyun basin was carried out using Markov model and sequent peak analysis to determine the reliability extent for the future demand need. The two models were then applied to Offa municipality in Kwara state, Nigeria. The finding revealed the reliability and adequacy of the resource up till year 2020. The need to start exploring a well-coordinated conjunctive use of resources is recommended. The study can serve as an organized baseline for future work that will consider physiographic characteristics of the basin and climatic dynamics. The findings can be a vital input into the demand management process for long-term sustainable water supply of the town and by extension to urban township with similar characteristic.

  1. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  2. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  3. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...

  4. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  5. A Template to Enhance Regional Water Supply Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ieuter, Toby C

    2004-01-01

    Regional water supply planning can be performed in a variety of ways and the impetus behind the creation of a regional water supply plan is as diverse as the constituents the plan serves. Formal water supply planning has been occurring for the last fifty years and a review of recent literature suggests that trends in water supply planning are leading to regional, integrated planning. Integrated regional water supply planning includes aspects of land use, population growth, environmental imp...

  6. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are...

  7. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake...

  8. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  9. Scheduling Future Water Supply Investments Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertain hydrological impacts of climate change, population growth and institutional changes pose a major challenge to planning of water supply systems. Planners seek optimal portfolios of supply and demand management schemes but also when to activate assets whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Incorporation of scheduling into the planning under uncertainty problem strongly increases its complexity. We investigate some approaches to scheduling with many-objective heuristic search. We apply a multi-scenario many-objective scheduling approach to the Thames River basin water supply system planning problem in the UK. Decisions include which new supply and demand schemes to implement, at what capacity and when. The impact of different system uncertainties on scheme implementation schedules are explored, i.e. how the choice of future scenarios affects the search process and its outcomes. The activation of schemes is influenced by the occurrence of extreme hydrological events in the ensemble of plausible scenarios and other factors. The approach and results are compared with a previous study where only the portfolio problem is addressed (without scheduling).

  10. Installation of potable water supply and heat supply at base of subsoil water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla Evseevna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of groundwater with further use of it for potable water supply and heat supply with the use of heat pump is an important problem. A new revolutionary approach to the decision of energy and water saving that provides rational accommodation of groundwater boreholes ensuring the required flow rate of water through the heat pump evaporator with simultaneously high intensity of heat exchange process is proposed. The method of calculation which allows determining the necessary depth of borehole, quantity of boreholes, in consideration of flow rate and temperature of subsoil water determining capacity of heat pump installation is worked out.

  11. Installation of potable water supply and heat supply at base of subsoil water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla Evseevna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of groundwater with further use of it for potable water supply and heat supply with the use of heat pump is an important problem. A new revolutionary approach to the decision of energy and water saving that provides rational accommodation of groundwater boreholes ensuring the required flow rate of water through the heat pump evaporator with simultaneously high intensity of heat exchange process is proposed. The method of calculation which allows determining the necessary depth of borehole, quantity of boreholes, in consideration of flow rate and temperature of subsoil water determining capacity of heat pump installation is worked out.

  12. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  13. Efficient dynamic scarcity pricing in urban water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien J.; Escriva-Bou, Alvar

    2017-04-01

    Water pricing is a key instrument for water demand management. Despite the variety of existing strategies for urban water pricing, urban water rates are often far from reflecting the real value of the resource, which increases with water scarcity. Current water rates do not bring any incentive to reduce water use in water scarcity periods, since they do not send any signal to the users of water scarcity. In California, the recent drought has spurred the implementation of drought surcharges and penalties to reduce residential water use, although it is not a common practice yet. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive calls for the implementation of new pricing policies that assure the contribution of water users to the recovery of the cost of water services (financial instrument) while providing adequate incentives for an efficient use of water (economic instrument). Not only financial costs should be recovered but also environmental and resource (opportunity) costs. A dynamic pricing policy is efficient if the prices charged correspond to the marginal economic value of water, which increases with water scarcity and is determined by the value of water for all alternative uses in the basin. Therefore, in the absence of efficient water markets, measuring the opportunity costs of scarce water can only be achieved through an integrated basin-wide hydroeconomic simulation approach. The objective of this work is to design a dynamic water rate for urban water supply accounting for the seasonal marginal value of water in the basin, related to water scarcity. The dynamic pricing policy would send to the users a signal of the economic value of the resource when water is scarce, therefore promoting more efficient water use. The water rate is also designed to simultaneously meet the expected basic requirements for water tariffs: revenue sufficiency (cost recovery) and neutrality, equity and affordability, simplicity and efficiency. A dynamic increasing block rate (IBR

  14. Balancing supply and demand of fresh water under increasing drought and salinisation in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuken, A.; Beek, E. van; Duinen, R.; Veen, van der, M.Q.; Bocalon, A.; Delsman, J.; Pauw, P.S.; Oude Essink, G.; Zee, van der, KG Kristoffer; Stofberg, S.F.; Zuurbier, K.; Stuyfzand, P.; Appelman, W.; Creusen, R.; Paalman, M.

    2012-01-01

    The latest climate impact assessments show that climate change will cause an increasing mismatch between demand and supply of fresh water in many densely populated deltas around the world. Recent studies for the Netherlands show that the current water supply strategy is not climate proof in the long-run. Therefore, a future ‘climate proof’ fresh water supply is national priority on the Dutch water policy agenda

  15. Public Perception of Potable Water Supply in Abeokuta South west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception of residents towards the supply of potable water to Abeokuta was ... water related diseases as a result of the consumption of drinking water ... who relied on water from alternative sources subjected the water to treatment before ...

  16. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon. ... out in March 2007 among 1400 households with respect to the water supply, sanitation and ... The companies present in the quarters discharge their wastewater in the drains.

  17. A global perspective on changing sustainable urban water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrel Jenerette, G.; Larsen, Larissa

    2006-04-01

    Ensuring the sustainable supply of water for the world's largest cities has been and is a current challenge. Future trends in urban water consumption patterns will be determined by changes in population concentration, per-capita water use, climate, and the proportion of water retained for the production of instream ecosystem services. The objective of our research was to identify patterns of renewable water availability and urban consumption throughout the globe between the years 2000 and 2015. To better understand the interactions between urban consumption and regional availability of renewable water we used a modified ecological footprint (EF) approach. Urban water footprint areas were differentially sensitive to changes in consumption and changes in water availability; our results suggest climate induced reductions in water availability may be more of a concern than population growth or increased per-capita for securing continued supplies of water to large cities. Our results provide a comprehensive description of global urban water demand and highlight the variation between consumption and availability relationships for the 524 largest cities.

  18. Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Scott A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, including private wells and cisterns, rests with their owners. However, there are reports that Canadians test these water supplies intermittently and that treatment of such water is uncommon. An estimated 45% of all waterborne outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems. An understanding of the perceptions and needs of Canadians served by private water supplies is essential, as it would enable public health professionals to better target public education and drinking water policy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water supplies in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada, with the intent of informing public education and outreach strategies within the population. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information. Results Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two

  19. Current status and future of Mo-99 supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). AIPES Reactors and Isotopes Working Group

    2016-01-15

    The global supply of Mo-99 relies on a limited number of research reactors and processing facilities. Its production is essential as medical diagnostic imaging techniques using Tc-99m account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures worldwide. The short half-life's of the radioisotopes requires a continuous supply. Several severe disruptions have been experienced over the past decade. Fortunately, the situation encouraged the industry to develop new projects and new production routes. The current status of Mo-99 supply is described and the efforts made to achieve a reliable Tc-99m availability for nuclear medicine is summarized.

  20. Urban Water Supply Industry Marketization of China in View of Public Water Service and Water Resource Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yining

    2010-01-01

    Started with the discussions on the value orientation of urban water supply industry marketization,the article points out that the current urban water supply industry marketization reform is inconsistent with the goal of public water service equalization to some extent.The article also analyzes the problems emerged in urban water supply industry marketization reform and various reasons in view of efficiency and fairness.An efficiency and fairness oriented management model is built in this article to illustrate how the government should conciliate interests of various communities involved in the process of marketization reform of the urban water supply industry so as to actualize the coordination of efficiency and fairness.At the end,an assumption on urban water price is put forward to help achieve the public water service equalization.

  1. Artesian water supply control system in transient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Олегович Буравченко

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an artesian water supply control system in the transition mode. The control system searches for the optimal performance trajectory of the water supply on the basis of a maximum return with a view to the fastest mode of stabilization. The analysis of artesian water supply control systems in transition mode and methods of improvement was conducted

  2. Consumer's Perception of the Quality of Municipal Water Supplies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is everywhere but potable water that is safe and suitable for drinking ... The major alternative sources of water were from boreholes, wells and groundwater. ... Serious attention should be paid to the treatment of water supplies in Owerri ...

  3. Restructuring the Water Supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nonis, M

    1999-01-01

    The CERN water network is the result of continuous extensions made to meet the different needs of the experiments and accelerators. Several studies concerning the current water consumption and the foreseen needs for the running of the new accelerators show a need to optimize the network and, where possible, reduce the consumption. Site construction works will begin in February 1999 and will continue until 2003; important modification works on the water network will only be possible during the shutdown for the dismantling of LEP. This paper will present the technical outlines and will report the status of the project. ST Division is involved in reorganizing the demineralized and primary cooling water circuits for the accelerators while Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) will be responsible for the works on pumping stations and on water networks.

  4. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used in ...

  5. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  6. Balancing supply and demand of fresh water under increasing drought and salinisation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, A.; Beek, E.; Duinen, R.; Veen, van der A.; Bocalon, A.; Delsman, J.; Pauw, P.S.; Oude Essink, G.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Stofberg, S.F.; Zuurbier, K.; Stuyfzand, P.; Appelman, W.; Creusen, R.; Paalman, M.; Katschnig, D.; Rozema, J.; Mens, M.; Kwakkel, J.; Thissen, W.; Veraart, J.A.; Tolk, L.; Vries, de A.

    2012-01-01

    The latest climate impact assessments show that climate change will cause an increasing mismatch between demand and supply of fresh water in many densely populated deltas around the world. Recent studies for the Netherlands show that the current water supply strategy is not climate proof in the long

  7. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... determine if changes to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply may be warranted, and what... allocation of storage has been made for M&I. The Water Supply Act of 1958 provides the Assistant Secretary of... to St. Louis, MO. In contemplating an allocation of storage to M&I to meet needs in the basin,...

  8. Water Current Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tidal, river and ocean current observations collected by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Period of record is late 1800s to mid-1980s.

  9. Tidal power harnessing energy from water currents

    CERN Document Server

    Lyatkher, Victor

    2014-01-01

    As the global supply of conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, dwindles and becomes more and more expensive, unconventional and renewable sources of energy, such as power generation from water sources, is becoming more and more important.  Hydropower has been around for decades, but this book suggests new methods that are more cost-effective and less intrusive to the environment for creating power sources from rivers, the tides, and other sources of water.   The energy available from water currents is potentially much greater than society's needs.  Presenting a detailed discussi

  10. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  11. Watershed management for water supply in developing world city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 杨凯; 吕永鹏; 张宏伟; 吴健; 杨永川

    2009-01-01

    The water supply system in Shanghai provides about 2.55×109 m3/a,of which more than 50% is derived from the Upper Huangpu River Watershed. During the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization,the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources is emphasized in Shanghai. This paper proposes an integrated watershed management (IWM) approach in the context of the current pressures and problems of source water protection at the Upper Huangpu River Watershed in Shanghai. Based on data sets of land use,water quality and regional development,multi-criteria analysis and system dynamics techniques were used to evaluate effectiveness and improve decision-making of source water protection at a watershed scale. Different scenarios for potential source water quality changing from 2008 to 2020 were predicted,based on a systematic analysis and system dynamics modeling,a watershed management approach integrating land use prioritization and stakeholder involvement was designed to conserve the source water quality. The integrated watershed management (IWM) approach may help local authorities better understand and address the complex source water system,and develop improved safe drinking water strategies to better balance urban expansion and source water protection.

  12. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  13. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  14. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    still find it increasingly difficult to get adequate water for consumption, cooking washing ... supply of water to both rural and urban centres of Nigeria is extremely poor .... The constant power supply, to the state made Ero dam has ... The consumption of unhygenic water throws a lot of challenges on the health status of the ...

  15. The Savonius Water Current Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-11-03

    the author visited the David Taylor Model Basin for the purpose of calibrating five (5) Savonius water current ,meter rotors in the range of .1 to 1...Iastitution of Oceanography. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the water current meter and its associated equipment. The details of the Savonius rotor are...an amplifier. The Savonius rotor functions as a salt water switch which varies the r-. coupling of the transformer thus it awplitude modulates the 100

  16. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  17. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    For the period 1998 through 2001, the total water used at Los Alamos from all sources ranged from 1325 million gallons (Mg) in 1999 to 1515 Mg in 2000. Groundwater production ranged from 1323 Mg in 1999 to 1506 Mg in 2000 from the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields. Nonpotable surface water used from Los Alamos reservoir ranged from zero gallons in 2001 to 9.3 Mg in 2000. For years 1998 through 2001, over 99% of all water used at Los Alamos was groundwater. Water use by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) between 1998 and 2001 ranged from 379 Mg in 2000 to 461 Mg in 1998. The LANL water use in 2001 was 393 Mg or 27% of the total water use at Los Alamos. Water use by Los Alamos County ranged from 872 Mg in 1999 to 1137 Mg in 2000, and averaged 1006 Mg/yr. Four new replacement wells in the Guaje field (G-2A, G-3A, G-4A, and G-5A) were drilled in 1998 and began production in 1999; with existing well G-1A, the Guaje field currently has five producing wells. Five of the old Guaje wells (G-1, G-2, G-4, G-5, and G-6) were plugged and abandoned in 1999, and one well (G-3) was abandoned but remains as an observation well for the Guaje field. The long-term water level observations in production and observation (test) wells at Los Alamos are consistent with the formation of a cone of depression in response to water production. The water level decline is gradual and at most has been about 0.7 to 2 ft per year for production wells and from 0.4 to 0.9 ft/yr for observation (test) wells. The largest water level declines have been in the Guaje field where nonpumping water levels were about 91 ft lower in 2001 than in 1951. The initial water levels of the Guaje replacement wells were 32 to 57 ft lower than the initial water levels of adjacent original Guaje wells. When production wells are taken off-line for pump replacement or repair, water levels have returned to within about 25 ft of initial static levels within 6 to 12 months. Thus, the water-level trends suggest no adverse

  18. Water supply and tree growth. Part I. Water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1982-02-01

    Water supply is the most important environmental factor determining distribution, species composition and growth of forests. Net annual primary production of forests varies from as much as 3000 g/m/sub 2/ in wet regions to negligible amounts in dry regions. The water balance of trees has been characterized by visible wilting, tissue moisture content, relative water content, saturation deficit, and water potential. Water deficits develop readily in forest trees, even in trees growing in wet soil, because of excess transpiration over absorption of water. Water deficits adversely affect seed germination and cause shrinkage of leaves, stems, roots, fruits, and cones. Some of the decrease in photosynthesis during drought is the result of increased resistance to diffusion of CO/sub 2/ to chloroplasts and some to decrease in photosynthetic capacity. Water deficits inhibit shoot growth, wood production, and root growth. Yield of fruits and seeds can be inhibited at various stages of reproductive growth such as flower bud initiation, anthesis, pollination, fertilization, embryo growth, and fruit and seed enlargement. Water deficits may also induce leaf scorching and abscission, dieback of twigs and branches, and drought cracks. Severe water deficits often kill trees. Drought tolerance of trees may reflect desiccation avoidance or desiccation tolerance, with the former much more important. Among the most important of these are reduction in number and size of leaves; small, few, and sunken stomata; rapid stomatal closure; abundant leaf waxes; leaf shedding during droughts; extensive root development; capacity for twig and stem photosynthesis; living wood fibers; and strong development of palisade mesophyll.

  19. Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy system. ... This paper presents a fuzzy system to control the pressure in a water distribution network, by using valves and controlling the rotor speed of the ... Article Metrics.

  20. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... collected and subjected to physical, chemical and microbial analysis to determine their ... that the surface and borehole/well Water sources are microbiologically polluted.

  1. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  2. Groundwater potential for water supply during droughts in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y.; Cha, E.; Moon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts have been receiving much attention in Korea because severe droughts occurred in recent years, causing significant social, economic and environmental damages in some regions. Residents in agricultural area, most of all, were most damaged by droughts with lack of available water supplies to meet crop water demands. In order to mitigate drought damages, we present a strategy to keep from agricultural droughts by using groundwater to meet water supply as a potential water resource in agricultural areas. In this study, we analyze drought severity and the groundwater potential to mitigate social and environmental damages caused by droughts in Korea. We evaluate drought severity by analyzing spatial and temporal meteorological and hydrological data such as rainfall, water supply and demand. For drought severity, we use effective drought index along with the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized runoff index(SRI). Water deficit during the drought period is also quantified to consider social and environmental impact of droughts. Then we assess the feasibility of using groundwater as a potential source for groundwater impact mitigation. Results show that the agricultural areas are more vulnerable to droughts and use of groundwater as an emergency water resource is feasible in some regions. For a case study, we select Jeong-Sun area located in Kangwon providence having well-developed Karst aquifers and surrounded by mountains. For Jeong-Sun area, we quantify groundwater potential use, design the method of water supply by using groundwater, and assess its economic benefit. Results show that water supply system with groundwater abstraction can be a good strategy when droughts are severe for an emergency water supply in Jeong-Sun area, and groundwater can also be used not only for a dry season water supply resource, but for everyday water supply system. This case study results can further be applicable to some regions with no sufficient water

  3. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  4. Development of city water supply net information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJing; GUOShiquan; LUJun

    2003-01-01

    Through analyzing the present conditions of water supply networks technical administration files in Chongqing, this paper points out the significance and urgency for exploiting advanced water supply networks information system. It also gives the concept of GIS and some suggestions for the exploitation.

  5. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...

  6. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. STATE OF WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE SUBCARPATHIAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIETRUCHA-URBANIK

    Full Text Available The characteristics of equipping the Subcarpathian province cities with water supply infrastructure was made on the basis of data collected from the Provincial Office, Statistical Office, reports submitted by water companies regarding the functioning of water supply infrastructure and literature data. The indicators characterizing water supply infrastructure were determined for the years 1995-2014. In the paper the indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems were presented. Also water consumption and changes in the length of the water supply network in the cities of the Subcarpathian Province were examined. The analysis shows that the water consumption for the years 1995-2014 decreased by almost 6 m3∙year-1 per capita. The reason for such situation was the increasing price of water and the ecological awareness of the inhabitants of the Subcarpathian region. In the last year of the analysis the water supply system in urban areas of the Subcarpathian province was used by 95% of the population and, for comparison, in rural areas by 77% of the population. In the paper also changes in prices for water in the Subcarpathian region were shown, on the basis of data from the water tariffs in individual water companies. The important element of urban development is the technical infrastructure which reduces the investment costs. The determined indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems show an upward trend in the development of technical infrastructure. Based on the operational data from the water companies the failure rates in selected water supply networks were determined.

  8. Dynamic operating rules for water supply reservoirs in La Paz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, M J; Hranisavljevic, D; Bernardin, R; Bianchi, R

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic operating rules have been applied to the drought-prone Andean water supply reservoirs near La Paz, Bolivia. The water supply reservoirs are not using conventional reservoir operating rule curves. Instead, dynamic operating rules opportunistically supply surplus water for soft demands, and proactively adjust the water supply before a drought causes a water shortage. The conventional approach of forcing water levels to follow a set rule curve is replaced with notions of tradeoffs between long-term reliability and short-term supply opportunities. Operators can customise the dynamic rules based on their tolerance of shortages, and can choose to operate more aggressively during wet periods. In this way, the dynamic rules offer a flexible tool for making short-term decisions while managing medium and long-term performance goals. In the case of La Paz, it is possible to utilise the water sources more efficiently in the short-term without significantly reducing the long-term water supply reliability. The dynamic rules will reduce the severity of future water shortages (if they occur) by 60%, and provide opportunities to increase the firm water supply by up to 8% without affecting the long-term reliability.

  9. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  10. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water.

  11. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  12. Optimal Dispatching of Large-scale Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of optimal control techniques in large-scale water distribution networks. According to the network characteristics and actual state of the water supply system in China, the implicit model, which may be solved by utilizing the hierarchical optimization method, is established. In special, based on the analyses of the water supply system containing variable-speed pumps, a software tool has been developed successfully. The application of this model to the city of Shenyang (China) is compared to experiential strategy. The results of this study show that the developed model is a very promising optimization method to control the large-scale water supply systems.

  13. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  14. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  15. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... contaminated water source. 203.61 Section 203.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  16. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  17. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  18. The economic impact of restricted water supply: a computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrittella, Maria; Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Rehdanz, Katrin; Roson, Roberto; Tol, Richard S J

    2007-04-01

    Water problems are typically studied at the level of the river catchment. About 70% of all water is used for agriculture, and agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. The water embedded in commodities is called virtual water. Based on a general equilibrium model, we offer a method for investigating the role of water resources and water scarcity in the context of international trade. We run five alternative scenarios, analyzing the effects of water scarcity due to reduced availability of groundwater. This can be a consequence of physical constraints, and of policies curbing water demand. Four scenarios are based on a "market solution", where water owners can capitalize their water rent or taxes are recycled. In the fifth "non-market" scenario, this is not the case; supply restrictions imply productivity losses. Restrictions in water supply would shift trade patterns of agriculture and virtual water. These shifts are larger if the restriction is larger, and if the use of water in production is more rigid. Welfare losses are substantially larger in the non-market situation. Water-constrained agricultural producers lose, but unconstrained agricultural produces gain; industry gains as well. As a result, there are regional winners and losers from water supply constraints. Because of the current distortions of agricultural markets, water supply constraints could improve allocative efficiency; this welfare gain may more than offset the welfare losses due to the resource constraint.

  19. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  20. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  1. Indirect potable reuse: a sustainable water supply alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  2. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  3. Water Supply of Indian Wells Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    finite. Water pumipage and consuniptive water use exceeds (he natura rehre to the idale ’s griund-water supplN. In 1984 28.000 acre feet of’ water was...XEROPHY’TES ARTEMISiA PHREATOPHYTES SALTBRUSH PICKLEWEED WATER TABLE 𔃻A 60 ~50 SALTGRASS, ALKALI SACATONE, SAITBAUSH ~40 C-. z cc PASTURE ...limit on the amount of useful water stored in the Valley (Photo 12). MAIN GATE NWC B ONTI 2500 / MODERN ALLUVIUM "-, ~GOO’’- -0.S.5 -300 PPM _ Lu 2000

  4. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. 75.1107-7 Section 75.1107-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  5. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  6. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  7. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  8. Establishing an environmental profile of water supply in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available -losses in the supply system must receive attention, especially in the municipal-controlled part. Water quality impacts are also important, although through supporting processes, and specifically electricity generation. The boosting requirements attribute most...

  9. RADIOACTIVITY lN LAUTECH WATER SUPPLIES, NIGERIAA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-23

    Jul 23, 2006 ... minerals, nitrogenous wastes and respiratory attributed to the low concentrations in gases as ... surface water and groundwater supply which is .... calibration measurements in the energy .... the Food Chain, M.W. Carter (ed.).

  10. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  11. Cache County Water Demand/Supply Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Trevor C.; Norby, Gregory J.; Thyagarajan, Laxman

    1996-01-01

    This report descibes a municipal water demand forecasting model for use in areas of mixed rural and urban housing types. A series of residential demand functions were derived which forecast water demand based on the ype and density of housing and season. Micro sampling techniques were used to correlate water use data and explanatory variable data for low, medium, and high density housing. The demand functions were...

  12. Method of Distinguishing Hydrologic Drought for Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to design water supply system to adjust runoff. Thus it will not meet the practical needs if only the hydrologic drought in natural basin is studied. In practice the natural water balance and water deficits must be researched, i. e., the adjusting effects of the water supply system such as a reservoir should be considered, and the drought event be distinguished according to the special system. The problem of drought identification under adjusted runoff was investigated in this study. By considering water transfer during different periods, a method to distinguish hydrologic drought for the water supply system was developed, and a standard drought severity index SWDSI was proposed. The method has been applied in Pan Jiakou water supply system in China. From 1953 to 1997, a total of 14 hydrologic droughts were identified in the water supply system, among which there were 3 severe droughts, 6 moderate droughts and 5 light droughts. The results are in good agreement with the historic drought records.

  13. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  14. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from

  15. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.5 Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. Water supply outlook reports prepared by NRCS and its cooperators containing water supply forecasts and basic data are...

  16. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, de W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non‐perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi‐arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper‐Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  17. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, de W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  18. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  19. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non‐perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi‐arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper‐Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  20. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  1. Lesotho - Rural Water and Sanitation Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation design of the rural water intervention proposes two separate approaches so as to ensure a “defensive evaluation” that is, so that results can...

  2. Determinants of willingness to pay for improved water supply services in rural Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussupova, Kamshat

    2017-04-01

    The UN Sustainable development goals declare to provide water, sanitation and hygiene for all. The supply of affordable and safe water is a global priority and there is thus a requirement for a safe drinking water management and management of excreta disposal and wastewater. The current paper assesses the determinants of consumers' willingness to connect and pay (WTP) for the piped water in rural Kazakhstan. The results show that local villagers use water from different sources and at least three quarters of the respondents are willing to connect and use water from the piped water supply. The general defined determinants for WTP should be carefully considered among the different water users. Perceived water quality is a variable that is relevant for all water users. Other variables such as perceived reliability and the time-spent to collect water from the source, in-household treatment of water, and income perception are also significant but differently correlated with the WTP among different water users. Although, piped water is considered to be a safe system if properly managed, still some water users are reluctant to pay for the system and are satisfied with their current water supply and sanitation services. In this case, a proper management for the drinking water and wastewater and safe management of the excreta disposal should be supplied. It is recommended to include local water userś opinion as regard the willingness to connect and pay for the piped water system. The findings are of particular importance for policy-makers, water managers, engineers, and public health specialists.

  3. Development of water quality standards criteria. [for consumables (spacecrew supplies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were made of volatile organic compounds in water supplies collected at various stages of processing in the space station prototype vacuum compression distillation unit to evaluate the process and the product water. Additional evaluation was made of specific ingredients required to adequately enhance the taste of the reclaimed water. A concept for the in-flight addition of these ingredients was developed. Revisions to previously recommended potable water criteria and specifications are included.

  4. Drought risk and vulnerability in water supply systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrote de Marcos, Luis; Cubillo, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the challenges presented to the managers of water supply systems by drought and water scarcity. Risk assessment is an essential tool for the diagnostic of water scarcity in this type of systems. The evaluation of the risk of water shortage is performed with the use of complex mathematical models. Different alternatives to address the problem are presented, covering a range of methodological approaches. The actions adopted to prevent or mitigate the effects o...

  5. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-03-19

    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a

  6. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  7. Intermittent Water Supplies: Challenges and Opportunities for Residential Water Users in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, David E.; Talozi, Samer; Lund, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Intermittent access to improved urban water supplies is a large and expanding global problem. This paper describes 16 supply enhancement and 23 demand management actions available to urban residential water users in Jordan to cope with intermittent supplies. We characterize actions by implementation, costs, and water quantities and qualities acquired or conserved. This effort systematically identifies potential options prior to detailed study and shows that water users have significant capaci...

  8. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  9. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  10. Calculation of Water Supply to Hydraulic Jet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Krautsou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence for calculation of working fluid supply to water-air ejector is proposed. The de­pendence has been derived via analysis and processing of data being obtained by experimental research of water-jet devices.

  11. Advanced control of a water supply system: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  12. Indemnification of the quality of water supply in residential areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJing; GUOShiquan

    2003-01-01

    Most cities of our country now adopt the method of concentative pipe nets in water supply. In order to meet the users'' request of hydraulic pressure, some small residential areas or building groups have established water supply systems of secondary compression. Now most water supply enterprises do much work in purification processes of waterworks so as to improve the water quality; however, the secondary pollution because of water supply pipe nets is ignored. An investigation was done by special team of “security technology of water quality in residential areas” and they investigated water quality of waterworks and health and quarantine stations in big and middle cities of the whole country. The result indicates that secondary pollution of pipeline networks indeed exists. So, in order to resolve the question of secondary pollution and to provide people with clean and secure drinking water, the reason that secondary pollution came into being must be understood, moreover, concrete methods and measures aimed at each reason should be found out.

  13. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  14. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  15. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  16. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  17. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  18. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  19. An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical review of the physical impacts of decentralized water supply systems on existing centralized water infrastructures. This paper highlights the combination of centralized and decentralized systems, which is referred to as hybrid water supply systems. The system is hypothesized to generate more sustainable and resilient urban water systems. The basic concept is to use decentralized water supply options such as rainwater tanks, storm water harvesting and localized wastewater treatment and reuse in combination with centralized systems. Currently the impact of hybrid water supply technologies on the operational performance of the downstream infrastructure and existing treatment processes is yet to be known. The paper identifies a number of significant research gaps related to interactions between centralized and decentralized urban water services. It indicates that an improved understanding of the interaction between these systems is expected to provide a better integration of hybrid systems by improved sewerage and drainage design, as well as facilitate operation and maintenance planning. The paper also highlights the need for a framework to better understand the interaction between different components of hybrid water supply systems.

  20. Pollution of Municipal Water Supply System by Phthalates and Evaluation on Purification Effects of Current Water Treatment Process%邻苯二甲酸脂对城镇供水的污染及现行水处理工艺净化效果的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩关根; 吴平谷; 王惠华; 方跃强; 马冰洁; 赵莹

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand the pollution of municipal water supply system by phthalates and the purification effects of current water treatment process on phthalates were carried out.Methods The water samples of source water and finished water were determined for phthalate by comparative method.5 kinds of isomers of phthalate in water samples were detected by gas chromatography technique.Results In treated water samples the detectable rate and maximum contents in water samples were 100% and 76μg/L for di-n-butyl phthalate,50% and 17 μg/L for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate respectively.Di-methyl phthalate,di-ethyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were not found in water samples.There was no significant difference in geometric means of the contents of phthalates between source water (19.74μg/L) and finished water (18.35 μg/L),P>0.05.Conclusion The main pollutants of phthalates were di-nbulyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in municipal water supply system.The effectiveness of removing phthalates from drinking water by current water treatment process in city and town was not satisfied.The water treatment process special for removing phthatates from drinking water should be studied and explored in further.%目的了解邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物对城镇供水的污染情况以及现行水处理工艺对该类物质的净化效果。方法采用处理前、后对照的方法,对源水和出厂水进行检测。色谱分析测试邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物五只异构体。结果出厂水中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯检出率100%,最高含量达76 μg/L。邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯检出率50%,最高含量17μg/L;邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸丁基苄酯三只异构体均未测出。源水中邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的平均含量(G)为19.74 μ/L,出厂水18.35μ/L,两者差别无显著意义(P>0.05)。结论城镇供水中的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物污染以邻苯

  1. Public Water Supply, Red River Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    nigra ) willow oak (Quercus phellos), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and elms (Ulmus spp.). Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), silverbell...and consists of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), water oak (Quercus nigra ), post oak (Quercus stellata), mockernut hickory...Patridge Berry C,D,E 9 8 Mnium spp. Moss D 1 Morus rubra Red Mulberry D,E 2 Myrica cerifera Wax Myrtle C,E 97 49 Nyssa aquatica Tupelogum D,E 4 17 3 Nyssa

  2. Integrated Water Supply and Land Resource Management in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Croke, B. F.; Croke, B. F.; Dietrich, C. R.; Letcher, R. A.; Merritt, W.; Perez, P.

    2001-05-01

    Intensification of agricultural development has led to water supply conflicts and exacerbation of environmental problems in many developing countries. In Thailand, for example, issues of water access between upstream and downstream users and on-site erosion and off-site water quality are common in the Northern Highlands. The authors report on a framework which has been developed to assist improved land use planning and water allocation. It can be used to assess the water supply, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use, climate and government policy. This framework utilises the integration of catchment supply models, crop, water allocation and erosion models, as well as models of household decision making. For the Mae Chaem catchment in Thailand, the authors present details of the particular method of integration of these models and results for the individual model components. The effects of changes in land use and climate variations on the distribution of water supply, crop yields and erosion illustrate the types of tradeoffs that have to be made. Crucial to the effectiveness of such integrated tools is an understanding of the reliability of the integrated model's predictions of different outcomes. The authors present a relevant framework for analysing model uncertainty in order to appreciate the degree to which one can confidently differentiate among different model outcomes resulting from different land use changes.

  3. Sustainable urban water supply in south India: Desalination, efficiency improvement, or rainwater harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence

    2010-10-01

    Indian megacities face severe water supply problems owing to factors ranging from growing population to high municipal pipe leakage rates; no Indian city provides 24/7 water supply. Current approaches to addressing the problem have been "utility centric," overlooking the significance of decentralized activities by consumers, groundwater extraction via private wells, and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We propose a framework that makes it possible to evaluate a wider range of centralized and decentralized policies than previously considered. The framework was used to simulate water supply and demand in a simulation model of Chennai, India. Three very different policies, supply augmentation, efficiency improvement, and rainwater harvesting, were evaluated using the model. The model results showed that none of the three policies perfectly satisfied our criteria of efficiency, reliability, equity, financial viability, and revenue generation. Instead, a combination of rainwater harvesting and efficiency improvement best meets these criteria.

  4. Application of a risk management framework to a drinking water supply augmented by stormwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzalm, J L; Page, D W; Dillon, P J

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Lake is an important water resource for the city of Mount Gambier and the surrounding region, primarily as the drinking water supply source, but also as a tourist attraction. Mount Gambier's stormwater is discharged directly via drainage wells into the unconfined, karstic Gambier Limestone aquifer, which in turn provides the majority of recharge to Blue Lake. Discharge of urban runoff to the aquifer commenced in the 1800s as a means of stormwater management, but is now recognised as contributing to the drinking water supply in Blue Lake. Recently, guidelines for managing the risks associated with water recycling and augmenting drinking water supplies have been developed. This paper examines the organic chemical hazards associated with a stormwater to potable recycling scheme as an example of the current risk management framework.

  5. [Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements.

  6. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is imp

  7. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is imp

  8. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Gao; Connor, Jeffery D.; Peter Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing de...

  9. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    reduction in water use may be helpful for determination of effectiveness of public education campaigns. 42 Bruner , J. M. 1969. An Analysis of...place in social evolution. A- 58 Gilbert, Jerome B. 1978. The California Drought--out of Disaster, I r Better Water Management. Journal of the American...California. 12 Gilbert, Jerome B. and Associates. 1977. Water Conservation Reuse and Supply--San Francisco Bay Region. Report prepared for the

  10. Measurement of H!gh Power Current-Stabilized Power Supply with High Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanHuaihai; FengXiuming; BaiZhen; ZhouZhongzu

    2003-01-01

    The DC power supply system of HIRFL has been upgraded since 1999, these new power supplies are used mainly as high frequency ZVS soft-switching converters or thyristor phase-controlled rectifiers. Each power supply is strictly tested before being put into operation, especially for long-term current stability, current ripple, efficiency, repeatability, EMI and so on. The tested results indicated that performances of power supplies satisfy requirement of HIRFL.

  11. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    As of the date of this report (August 1945), the major water users in the Ypsilanti area are: (1) the city of Ypsilanti, (2) the Willow Run bomber plant, built by the Federal Government and operated by the Ford Motor Co., and (3) the war housing project of the Federal Public Housing Authority, designated in this report the Willow Run Townsite. The city, bomber plant, and townsite have required large quantities of water for domestic and industrial uses, and the necessary water supplies have been developed from wells. The Federal Works Agency had the responsibility of deciding whether the existing water facilities were adequate to meet the expected demands and determining the character of any additional public water-supply facilities that might be constructed with Federal assistance. In order to appraise the ground-water resources of the area the Federal Works Agency requested the Geological Survey to investigate the adequacy of the existing supplies and the availability of additional water. The present report is the result of the investigation, which was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey Division.The water supplies of the three major users are obtained from wells penetrating glacial and associated sands and gravels. Supplies for the city of Ypsilanti and the Willow Run bomber plant are obtained from wells in the valley of the Huron River; the supply for the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from wells penetrating glacial gravels underlying the upland northeast of the valley. The bedrock formations of the area either yield little water to wells or yield water that is too highly mineralized for most uses.The water supply for the bomber plant is obtained from three closely spaced, highly productive wells at the northern edge of the Huron River, a little more than 3 miles southeast of Ypsilanti. The water receives complete treatment in a modern treatment plant. River water also can be treated and has been used occasionally in the winter and spring

  12. Inter-basin water transfer-supply model and risk analysis with consideration of rainfall forecast information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new inter-basin water transfer-supply and risk assessment model with consideration of rainfall forecast information. Firstly, based on the current state of reservoir and rainfall forecast information from the global forecast system (GFS), the actual diversion amount can be determined according to the inter-basin water transfer rules with the decision tree method; secondly, the reservoir supply operation system is used to distribute water resource of the inter-basin water transfer reservoir; finally, the integrated risk assessment model is built by selecting the reliability of water transfer, the reliability (water shortage risk), the resiliency and the vulnerability of water supply as risk analysis indexes. The case study shows that the inter-basin water transfer-supply model with rainfall forecast information considered can reduce the comprehensive risk and improve the utilization efficiency of water resource, as compared with conventional and optimal water distribution models.

  13. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  14. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  15. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  16. Linking global water demand and supply using remote sensing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, A.; Thanh Ha, L.; Phuong Vu, N.; Saah, D. S.; Cutter, P. G.; Troy, A.; Ganz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Due to increasing pressures on water resources and changing population dynamics, there is a need to monitor regional water resource availability in a spatially and temporally explicit manner. However, for many parts of the world, there is insufficient data to quantify stream flow in river basins or potential ground water infiltration rates. Often water resource managers use sophistic hydrology models that require complex data sets to generate estimations, but the results of these efforts lack confidence due to the absence of accurate input data or validation methods. Global open access remote sensing derived data products offer exciting new opportunities to study spatial-temporal water dynamics in a way directly relevant to managers. We present the results of an elegant pixel-based water balance formulation to partition rainfall into evapotranspiration, surface water runoff and potential ground water. The method provides a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective solution to mapping water resource availability in basins with no gauges or monitoring infrastructure. The presented method provides important new insights into the spatial and temporal water supply and demand dynamics. The preliminary result of an application of the model build for the Mekong region will be presented, where quantitative water supply estimations are linked with demand patterns. It will be demonstrated that global freely available remote sensing products can be used to produce significant and operational results for water resource managers. We demonstrate that space based technologies and their applications play a key role to optimize the planning, implementation, and monitoring of projects.

  17. A Modeling Tool for Evaluating Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, L.; Tung, C.; Liu, T.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change may exacerbate short-term climate variability and more extreme hydrological events, and then may impact on human society and natural environment. Socioeconomic development is dependent on adequate water resources, but climate change may impact on such supply system, including available streamflow, groundwater, irrigation water demand. The purpose of this study is to apply an integrated modeling tool to assess the climate change impacts on regional water supply systems and then to propose response strategies to strengthen adaptive capacity to achieve sustainable water uses. The modeling tool integrates the functions of downscaling, weather generation, hydrological modeling, and an interface for linking system dynamics models. The Touchien river basin in Taiwan is chosen as a study area, which has a high-tech industry park. The vulnerability of the water supply system was evaluated for present and future conditions. The results demonstrated that the water supply system could meet current water demand, but might be subjected to serious water shortage due to future climate change and increasing water demand. At last, this study provides suggestions to government agency to develop better water resources management strategies to mitigate the impacts of changing climate.

  18. Relative magnitudes of sources of uncertainty in assessing climate change impacts on water supply security for the southern Adelaide water supply system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paton, F. L; Maier, H. R; Dandy, G. C

    2013-01-01

    .... Furthermore, runoff cannot be used as a surrogate for water supply security when studying the impacts of climate change due to the nonlinear transformations in modeling water supply and the effects...

  19. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  20. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.6 Application for water supply forecast service. Requests for obtaining water supply forecasts...

  1. Supply-demand 3D dynamic model in water resources evaluation: taking Lebanon as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong; Hou, Zhimin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, supply-demand 3D dynamic model is adopted to create a measurement of a region’s capacity to provide available water to meet the needs of its population. First of all, we draw a diagram between supply and demand. Then taking the main dynamic factors into account, we establish an index to evaluate the balance of supply and demand. The three dimension vector reflects the scarcity of industrial, agricultural and residential water. Lebanon is chosen as the object of case study, and we do quantitative analysis of its current situation. After data collecting and processing, we calculate the 3D vector in 2012, which reveals that agriculture is susceptible to water scarcity. Water resources of Lebanon are “physical rich” but “economic scarcity” according to the correlation chart and other statistical analysis.

  2. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  3. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  4. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  5. Monitoring water supply systems for anomaly detection and response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Lapikas, T.; Tangena, B.H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Water supply systems are vulnerable to damage caused by unintended or intended human actions, or due to aging of the system. In order to minimize the damages and the inconvenience for the customers, a software tool was developed to detect anomalies at an early stage, and to support the responsible s

  6. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-04

    Jul 4, 2005 ... managing urban water supply systems, for example, a shortage of resources available to ... which can be used according to the type of problem, such as choice-based, ranking- .... g(b) and g(a)), in other words, size of larger scale, where max corresponds to the ... ing that a dominance hypothesis is justified.

  7. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    Available water supply across the contiguous 48 states was estimated as precipitation minus evapotranspiration using data for the period 1953-1994. Precipitation estimates were taken from the Parameter- Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Evapotranspiration was estimated using two models, the Advection-Aridity model and the Zhang model. The...

  8. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  9. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  10. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  11. Capacity expansion modelling to aid water supply investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, S

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population, economic development, and environmental changes imply that maintaining the water supply-demand balance will remain a top priority. Water resource systems may need to be expanded in order to respond to demand growth. Capacity expansion studies can be used to answer the question of what the optimal expansion size, timing and location of new infrastructure should be. This thesis develops and applies capacity expansion optimisation modelling approaches. We begin with the 'E...

  12. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Eslick, Patrick J.

    2015-10-27

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2013. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are also shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented.

  13. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay

  14. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay fo

  15. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies.

  16. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  17. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  18. Addressing stakeholder conflicts in rural South Africa using a water supply model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Hont, F.M.; Clifford-Holmes, J.K.; Slinger, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A system dynamics modelling approach is adopted to deepen understanding of the effects of operational management on the performance of the Greater Kirkwood water supply system in South Africa. Currently, the interrupted operation of the system has led to perceptions of systemic social injustice on t

  19. Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edoardo Bertone; Rodney A. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household) urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand ...

  20. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  1. Development of Capacitor Charging Supply Based on Constant Current Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jing-he; ZHANG; Li-feng; YANG; Sheng; TONG; Xun-hua; YU; Guo-long

    2013-01-01

    As the pulse power supply in electron linear accelerator,the line-type pulse modulator is used to produce the high voltage pulse which come into being when the pulse forming net(PFN)is discharged.The frequency and stability is related to the PFN charging system.The breakthrough in high power switch devices makes it possible that applying switch devices are into pulse power field.In line-type high voltage

  2. A Data Mining Approach to Modelling of Water Supply Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babovic, V.; Drecourt, J.; Keijzer, M.

    2002-01-01

    supply assets are mainly situated underground, and therefore not visible and under the influence of various highly unpredictable forces. This paper proposes the use of advanced data mining methods in order to determine the risks of pipe bursts. For example, analysis of the database of already occurred...... with the choice of pipes to be replaced, the outlined approach opens completely new avenues in asset modelling. The condition of an asset such as a water supply network deteriorates with age. With reliable risk models, addressing the evolution of risk with aging asset, it is now possible to plan optimal...

  3. Importance of pressure reducing valves (PRVs) in water supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoreti, R. O. S.; Camargo, R. Z.; Canno, L. M.; Pires, M. S. G.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    Challenged with the high rate of leakage from water supply systems, these managers are committed to identify control mechanisms. In order to standardize and control the pressure Pressure Reducing Valves (VRP) are installed in the supply network, shown to be more effective and provide a faster return for the actual loss control measures. It is known that the control pressure is while controlling the occurrence of leakage. Usually the network is sectored in areas defined by pressure levels according to its topography, once inserted the VRP in the same system will limit the downstream pressure. This work aims to show the importance of VRP as loss reduction for tool.

  4. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  5. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the cooperative snow survey and water supply forecast program, NRCS: (a) Establishes, maintains, and operates...

  6. Dublin Ireland: a city addressing challenging water supply, management, and governance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kelly-Quinn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of Dublin City and its suburbs currently stands at 1.3 million and is projected to reach 2.1 million by 2022. There is pressure on its water supply system (inadequate catchment sources, ageing infrastructure including treatment facilities, and distribution network with little or no spare capacity despite Ireland's relatively high rainfall that is well distributed throughout the year; albeit the greatest rainfall occurs in the west and southwest and at some remove from Dublin. The current governance approach to addressing the projected water supply deficit relies heavily on a combination of identifying new supply sources to secure the long-term water supply needs of the city together with an intense drive toward achieving "demand-side" reduced usage and conservation targets in accordance with EU benchmarks for various individual and sectoral users. This potentially emerging crisis of water scarcity in Dublin, with drivers including population growth, greater industrial and institutional demands, migration, and climate change, has generated one of the most significant public water works projects proposed in Irish history, which is to abstract raw water from the Shannon River Basin in the midland region and, following treatment, pump it to a storage reservoir in a cut-away bog before piping to the Greater Dublin Area. The preparations for this scheme have brought to the forefront some longstanding Irish water resources governance issues and challenges. This provides a unique opportunity and imperative at this time to take a more comprehensive look at the decision-making process in this regard, one done in the context of new European and national policies requiring incorporation of integrated planning to sustain ecosystem services, water resources management, water services management, and flood defense principles, and one taking account of the current unprecedented state of flux in which water resources management institutions in

  7. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual de...... if they enable the deferment of requirements for new mains water infrastructure.......The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual...... depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard...

  8. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  9. Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Tarawneh, Tarek; Abdel-Khaleq, Rania; Lund, Jay R.

    2007-07-01

    We apply systems analysis to estimate household water use in an intermittent supply system considering numerous interdependent water user behaviors. Some 39 household actions include conservation; improving local storage or water quality; and accessing sources having variable costs, availabilities, reliabilities, and qualities. A stochastic optimization program with recourse decisions identifies the infrastructure investments and short-term coping actions a customer can adopt to cost-effectively respond to a probability distribution of piped water availability. Monte Carlo simulations show effects for a population of customers. Model calibration reproduces the distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration for conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, and finance conservation.

  10. Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Wendy; Reed, Victoria; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-02-01

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study determined the protozoan risk of municipal surface source waters in Nova Scotia, through the use of a pre-screening risk analysis of water supplies, followed by subsequent water quality analysis of the seven highest risk supplies. The water supplies were monitored monthly for 1 year to obtain baseline data that could be used for a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The QMRA model outcomes were compared to the Health Canada health target of 10(-6) disability-adjusted life years/person/year. QMRA modeling shows that the treatment facilities meet the required log reductions and disability-adjusted life year target standards under current conditions. Furthermore, based on the results of this work, Nova Scotia should maintain the current 3-log reduction standard for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The results of this study show that a pre-screening step can help to inform water sources that are particularly vulnerable to protozoan contamination, which can lead to more focused, cost-effective sampling, and monitoring programs.

  11. Uncertainty Categorization, Modeling, and Management for Regional Water Supply Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K. M.; AlSaati, A.; Alhassan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from growing demands, variability in supply and a changing climate. Short-term variation in water availability and demand; long-term uncertainty in climate, groundwater storage, and sectoral competition for water; and varying stakeholder perspectives on the impacts of water shortages make it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they are the result of stochastic variation or epistemic uncertainty, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are deep uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. We develop a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, sensitivity analysis for deep uncertainty and Bayesian decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. We apply this framework to two contrasting case studies - drought preparedness in Melbourne, Australia and fossil groundwater depletion in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - to assess the impacts of different types of uncertainty on infrastructure decisions. Melbourne's water supply system relies on surface water, which is impacted by natural variation in rainfall, and a market-based system for managing water rights. Our results show that small, flexible investment increases can mitigate shortage risk considerably at reduced cost. Riyadh, by contrast, relies primarily on desalination for municipal use and fossil groundwater for agriculture, and a centralized planner makes allocation decisions. Poor regional groundwater measurement makes it difficult to know when groundwater pumping will become uneconomical, resulting in epistemic uncertainty. However, collecting more data can reduce the uncertainty, suggesting the need for different uncertainty modeling and management strategies in Riyadh than in Melbourne. We will categorize the two systems and propose appropriate

  12. Defining regulatory requirements for water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors offer their suggestions for improving the reliability of the standardization requirements for water supply facilities in Vietnam, as an analog of building regulations of Russia 31.13330.2012. In Russia and other advanced countries the reliability of the designed water supply systems is usual to assess quantitatively. Guidelines on the reliability assessment of water supply systems and facilities have been offered by many researchers, but these proposals are not officially approved. Some methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities are informally used in practice when describing their quality. These evaluation methods are simple and useful. However, the given estimations defy common sense and regulatory requirements used by all the organizations, ministries and departments, for example, of Russia, in the process of allowances for restoration and repair of water supply facilities. Inadequacy of the water supply facilities assessment is shown on the example of assessing the reliability of pipeline system. If we take MTBF of specific length of the pipeline as reliability index for a pipeline system, for example, 5 km, a pipeline of the similar gauge, material and working conditions with the length of 5 m, according to the estimation on the basis of non-official approach, must have a value of MTBF 1000 times greater than with the length of 5 km. This conclusion runs counter to common sense, for the reason that all the pipes in the area of 5 km are identical, have the same load and rate of wear (corrosion, fouling, deformation, etc.. It was theoretically and practically proved that products of the same type in the same operating conditions (excluding determined impact of a person, work as an entity, which MTBF is equal to the average lifetime. It is proposed to take the average service life as a reliability indicator of a pipeline. Durability, but not failsafety of the pipe guarantees pipeline functioning

  13. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer; Restrepo-Osorio, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2015. Gallons per capita per day is calculated using self-reported information in the “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” and “Part C: Population, Service Connections, and Water Rates” sections of the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources' (DWR) annual municipal water use report (see appendixes at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds964 for an example of a municipal water use report form.) Percent unaccounted for water is calculated using self-reported information in “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” of the DWR’s municipal water-use report. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2011–2014) are also shown with the 2015 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. Derivative statistics of 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 5-year averages for gallons per capita per day (gpcd) are also provided by the Kansas Water Authority's 14 regional planning areas, and the DWR regions used for analysis of per capita water use in Kansas. An overall Kansas average (yearly and 5-year average) is also calculated. Kansas state average per capita municipal water use in 2015 was 105 gpcd.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF WAYS OF FRUIT TREES WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gegechkori B. S.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fruit trees are subjected to influence of abiotic stress-factors. The reaction of fruit plants on the influence of media plays an important role. Experiments were conducted in two (Northern and Central fruit zones of the Krasnodar region since 2013 to 2015, there was shown the possibility of application of hydroabsorbents as a stable source of water supply of fruit trees in specific natural conditions of the South of Russia in the conditions of field experiment. There were shown the peculiarities of technological ways of water supply of fruit trees in specific natural conditions of the south of Russia. There was determined that the necessity in watering of a garden’s plots with the use of hydroabsorbents Ecogel-1 and Ecogel-2 with the supporting of soil’s moisture in 80% in Northern zone in the end of May, in central fruit zone in the middle of May. There was proven that the application of hydroabsorbents Ecogel-1 and Ecogel-2 guarantees the stable water supply in limits of 75-80% from NV since planting in apple-trees of varieties of Renet Simirenko and Golden Delicious grafted on the stock M9 and planted on the scheme 4,0 х 1,0 м during three years. The work of the system of “soil-roots-leaves” independently on weather and soil conditions is provided

  15. Robust optimization methodologies for water supply systems design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems (WSSs are vital infrastructures for the well-being of people today. To achieve good customer satisfaction the water supply service must always be able to meet people's needs, in terms of both quantity and quality. But unpredictable extreme conditions can cause severe damage to WSSs and lead to poorer levels of service or even to their failure. Operators dealing with a system's day-to-day operation know that events like burst water mains can compromise the functioning of all or part of a system. To increase a system's reliability, therefore, designs should take into account operating conditions other than normal ones. Recent approaches based on robust optimization can be used to solve optimization problems which involve uncertainty and can find designs which are able to cope with a range of operating conditions. This paper presents a robust optimization model for the optimal design of water supply systems operating under different circumstances. The model presented here uses a hydraulic simulator linked to an optimizer based on a simulated annealing heuristic. The results show that robustness can be included in several ways for varying levels reliability and that it leads to more reliable designs for only small cost increases.

  16. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Low δ18Ocalcite values are thereby accompanied by low water yields and vice versa. Based on the paleoclimatic interpretation of the δ18Ocalcite records, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. High drip water supply caused by high precipitation rates supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleoclimate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated precipitation rates.

  17. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contaminated small drinking water supplies and risk of infectious intestinal disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Risebro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify whether elevated risk of infectious intestinal disease (IID exists in contaminated small water supply consumers compared with consumers drinking from small supplies complying with current standards and whether this effect is modified by age. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective cohort study of 611 individuals receiving small supplies in England was conducted. Water supplies received sanitary inspection and examination for indicator bacteria and participants maintained a daily record of IID. Regression modeling with generalized estimating equations that included interaction terms between age and indicators of fecal pollution was performed. Crude IID prevalence was 9 · 3 days with symptoms/1000 person days (95%CI: 8 · 4, 10 · 1 and incidence was 3 · 2 episodes/1000 person days (95%CI, 2 · 7, 3 · 7 or 1 · 2 episodes per person year. Although there was no overall association between IID risk and indicator presence, there was strong interaction between age and indicator presence. In children under ten, relative risk (RR of IID in those drinking from enterococci contaminated supplies was 4.8 (95%CI: 1.5, 15.3 for incidence and 8.9 (95%CI: 2.8, 27.5 for prevalence. In those aged 10 to 59, IID risk was lower but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Contaminated small water supplies pose a substantial risk of IID to young children who live in homes reliant on these supplies. By contrast older children and adults do not appear to be at increased risk. Health care professionals with responsibility for children living in homes provided by very small water supplies should make parents aware of the risk.

  19. A new high current laboratory and pulsed homopolar generator power supply at the University of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, J. E.; Aanstoos, T. A.

    1984-03-01

    The University of Texas at Austin is constructing a facility for research in pulse power technology for the Center for Electromechanics at the Balcones Research Center. The facility, designed to support high-current experiments, will be powered by six homopolar generators, each rated at 10 MJ and arranged to allow matching the requirements of resistive and inductive loads at various voltage and current combinations. Topics covered include the high bay, the power supply configuration and parameters, the speed and field control, and the magnetic circuit. Also considered are the removable air-cooled brushes, the water-cooled field coils, the hydraulic motor sizing and direct coupling, the low-impedance removable field coils, and the hydrostatic bearing design.

  20. Design of the power supply system for the plasma current modulation on J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.; Shao, J.; Ma, S.X., E-mail: mashaoxiang@hust.edu.cn; Liang, X.; Yu, K.X.; Pan, Y.

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A modification scheme of heating field power supply system for plasma current modulation. • High-power fast control power supply with multilevel cascade circuit. • Restraining circulating current with coupled inductors in cyclic symmetric structure. - Abstract: In order to further study the influence of current modulation parameters on suppressing tearing instability, the plasma current should be modulated in a wider range. So a modification scheme is designed to improve the performance of ohmic heating power supply system on J-TEXT tokamak. A multilevel cascade circuit with carrier phase-shifted PWM technique has been proposed. Coupled inductors are connected in the form of cyclic symmetry to restrain the circulating current caused by multiple paralleled branches. The simulation proves this proposed current modulation power supply system matches output requirement and achieves good current sharing effect. Finally, a prototype is designed, and the experiment results can verify the correctness of the simulation model well.

  1. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  2. AUTOMATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM PUMPING STATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Kulia

    2016-01-01

    Essence of process of water-supply of apartment dwelling house is considered. The existent state over of automation of the pumping stations is brought. The task of development of the effective system of automatic control is put by them. Possibility of decision of task is shown by the use in the system of frequency transformer that feeds the electrodrives of pumps, and also due to perfection of algorithms of the pumps rotation frequency adjusting and logical management of their switching a seq...

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF WAYS OF FRUIT TREES WATER SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Gegechkori B. S.; Chumakov S. S.; Orlenko S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, fruit trees are subjected to influence of abiotic stress-factors. The reaction of fruit plants on the influence of media plays an important role. Experiments were conducted in two (Northern and Central) fruit zones of the Krasnodar region since 2013 to 2015, there was shown the possibility of application of hydroabsorbents as a stable source of water supply of fruit trees in specific natural conditions of the South of Russia in the conditions of field experiment. There were shown th...

  4. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  5. Rhode Island Water Supply System Management Plan Database (WSSMP-Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    In Rhode Island, the availability of water of sufficient quality and quantity to meet current and future environmental and economic needs is vital to life and the State's economy. Water suppliers, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB), and other State agencies responsible for water resources in Rhode Island need information about available resources, the water-supply infrastructure, and water use patterns. These decision makers need historical, current, and future water-resource information. In 1997, the State of Rhode Island formalized a system of Water Supply System Management Plans (WSSMPs) to characterize and document relevant water-supply information. All major water suppliers (those that obtain, transport, purchase, or sell more than 50 million gallons of water per year) are required to prepare, maintain, and carry out WSSMPs. An electronic database for this WSSMP information has been deemed necessary by the RIWRB for water suppliers and State agencies to consistently document, maintain, and interpret the information in these plans. Availability of WSSMP data in standard formats will allow water suppliers and State agencies to improve the understanding of water-supply systems and to plan for future needs or water-supply emergencies. In 2002, however, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a law that classifies some of the WSSMP information as confidential to protect the water-supply infrastructure from potential terrorist threats. Therefore the WSSMP database was designed for an implementation method that will balance security concerns with the information needs of the RIWRB, suppliers, other State agencies, and the public. A WSSMP database was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the RIWRB. The database was designed to catalog WSSMP information in a format that would accommodate synthesis of current and future information about Rhode Island's water-supply infrastructure. This report documents the design and implementation of

  6. Understanding the influence of climate change on the embodied energy of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Haiying; Jacobs, Jennifer M

    2016-05-15

    The current study aims to advance understandings on how and to what degree climate change will affect the life cycle chemical and energy uses of drinking water supply. A dynamic life cycle assessment was performed to quantify historical monthly operational embodied energy of a selected water supply system located in northeast US. Comprehensive multivariate and regression analyses were then performed to understand the statistical correlation among monthly life cycle energy consumptions, three water quality indicators (UV254, pH, and water temperature), and five climate indicators (monthly mean temperature, monthly mean maximum/minimum temperatures, total precipitation, and total snow fall). Thirdly, a calculation was performed to understand how volumetric and total life cycle energy consumptions will change under two selected IPCC emission scenarios (A2 and B1). It was found that volumetric life cycle energy consumptions are highest in winter months mainly due to the higher uses of natural gas in the case study system, but total monthly life cycle energy consumptions peak in both July and January because of the increasing water demand in summer months. Most of the variations in chemical and energy uses can be interpreted by water quality and climate variations except for the use of soda ash. It was also found that climate change might lead to an average decrease of 3-6% in the volumetric energy use of the case study system by the end of the century. This result combined with conclusions reached by previous climate versus water supply studies indicates that effects of climate change on drinking water supply might be highly dependent on the geographical location and treatment process of individual water supply systems.

  7. Future Water-Supply Scenarios, Cape May County, New Jersey, 2003-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.; Pope, Daryll A.; Rice, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Stewards of the water supply in New Jersey are interested in developing a plan to supply potable and non-potable water to residents and businesses of Cape May County until at least 2050. The ideal plan would meet projected demands and minimize adverse effects on currently used sources of potable, non-potable, and ecological water supplies. This report documents past and projected potable, non-potable, and ecological water-supply demands. Past and ongoing adverse effects to production and domestic wells caused by withdrawals include saltwater intrusion and water-level declines in the freshwater aquifers. Adverse effects on the ecological water supplies caused by groundwater withdrawals include premature drying of seasonal wetlands, delayed recovery of water levels in the water-table aquifer, and reduced streamflow. To predict the effects of future actions on the water supplies, three baseline and six future scenarios were created and simulated. Baseline Scenarios 1, 2, and 3 represent withdrawals using existing wells projected until 2050. Baseline Scenario 1 represents average 1998-2003 withdrawals, and Scenario 2 represents New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) full allocation withdrawals. These withdrawals do not meet projected future water demands. Baseline Scenario 3 represents the estimated full build-out water demands. Results of simulations of the three baseline scenarios indicate that saltwater would intrude into the Cohansey aquifer as much as 7,100 feet (ft) to adversely affect production wells used by Lower Township and the Wildwoods, as well as some other near-shore domestic wells; water-level altitudes in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand would decline to -156 ft; base flow in streams would be depleted by 0 to 26 percent; and water levels in the water-table aquifer would decline as much as 0.7ft. [Specific water-level altitudes, land-surface altitudes, and present sea level when used in this report are referenced to the North American

  8. Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bertone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand levels, water treatment, low chemical and energy use and economic viability (i.e., capital and operating costs per kL of supply aspects need to be considered against derived potable water savings. The review underpinned the design of a framework to enhance the schemes supply-demand balance and reduce the unit cost of alternative source supplies. Detailed scenario and sensitivity analysis identified the possibility of a refined scheme design, whereby the A+ recycled water supply would be reticulated to the cold water input tap to the washing machine, and the rain tank that originally supplied this end use be removed from future constructed households. The refined scheme design enhances the present recycled plant utilisation rate and reduces the cost to home owners when building their dwelling due to the removed requirement to install a rain tank to indoor end uses; such actions reduce the overall unit cost of the scheme.

  9. The Financing of Water Supply and Sewerage Services in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florentina CUCOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply and sewerage services represent utilities that must be provided to all users, both the urban and the rural. The responsibility to ensure these services in terms of non-discrimination and affordability belongs to the local authorities, which in the spirit of decentralization have exclusive jurisdiction on their establishment, organization and operation. Regardless of the chosen management, the funding of water supply and sewerage services, is accomplished by means of the prices and tariffs paid by the users. Their quantum, specific to some social services, covers the costs without allowing the accumulation of consistent profit margins, which would ensure the development of the specific infrastructure from the operators' own funds. It is therefore necessary that funding for the creation and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems to be provided from other sources than the budgets of operators, such as: budgetary allocations of local public authorities, government or European funding programs. This paper is of interest because it captures just how the prices and tariffs for these services are composed, and the entire procedure for foundation, adjustment and modification that follows different rules from those of pricing in the market economy, and it provides a review of the types of programs through which the development of the specific technical-urban infrastructure and the significant increase in the number of users in the past 25 years.

  10. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  11. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  12. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  13. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  14. WaterWatch -- Current Water Resources Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — WaterWatch (http://waterwatch.usgs.gov) is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Wide Web site that displays maps, graphs, and tables describing real-time, recent,...

  15. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  16. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief.

  17. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  18. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  19. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  20. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  1. The NC Power Supply Design of Large Current and Wide Frequency Pulse in SEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of ways to achieve large current pulse power supply, and the more common way is to adopt the inverter switching circuit to achieve pulse power supply. The core of the NC power supply design of large current and wide frequency pulse in SEAM is using two-stage modulation. Combined with inverter technology, DC chopper technology and NC technology, it not only can achieve the adjustability of the output pulse amplitude, but also can realize continuous adjustment of the output pulses and the duty cycle. The front stage of power supply uses DC/DC transformation circuit with the UC3879 integrated control chip as the core. With the microcontroller as the control core, the backward stage uses DC chopper circuit to achieve the NC power supply of multi-parameter adjustable output large current pulse.

  2. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions and after implementation of two storage capacity measures. These measures are heightening the spillway of the ‘Mnyabezi 27’ dam and constructing a sand storage dam in the alluvial aquifer of the Mnyabezi River. The upper-Mnyabezi catchment covers approximately 22 km 2 and is a tributary of the Thuli River in southern Zimbabwe. Three coupled models are used to simulate the hydrological processes in the Mnyabezi catchment. The first is a rainfall-runoff model, based on the SCS-method. The second is a spreadsheet-based model of the water balance of the reservoir. The third is the finite difference groundwater model MODFLOW used to simulate the water balance of the alluvial aquifer. The potential water supply in the Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions ranges from 2107 m 3 (5.7 months) in a dry year to 3162 m 3 (8.7 months) in a wet year. The maximum period of water supply after implementation of the storage capacity measures in a dry year is 2776 m 3 (8.4 months) and in a wet year the amount is 3617 m 3 (10.8 months). The sand storage dam can only be used as an additional water resource, because the storage capacity of the alluvial aquifer is small. However, when an ephemeral river is underlain by a larger alluvial aquifer, a sand storage dam is a promising way of water supply for smallholder farmers in southern Zimbabwe.

  3. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP.

  4. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  5. Analysis of the Impacts of Rainfall Variability on Public Water Supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Impacts of Rainfall Variability on Public Water Supply in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science ... out revealed the variability and the percentage changes in rainfall and water supply over time in Ilorin.

  6. Norovirus contamination of a drinking water supply at a hotel resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Susan; Bell, Derek; Hewitt, Joanne

    2013-12-13

    To investigate a waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak and consider wider environmental contamination concerns. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak was investigated through interviews, analysis of faecal samples, drinking water and environmental water samples. A total of 53 cases reported an illness of acute gastroenteritis following stays and/or dining at a hotel or neighbouring resort in southern New Zealand over a 1-month period in early spring 2012. The consumption of table or tap water was strongly associated with the illness. Faecal samples were positive for norovirus (NoV) genogroup I and II (GI and GII). Drinking tap water samples were positive for NoV GI and GII but negative for Escherichia coli (E. coli). Wider environmental water testing at local drinking water sources, around the sewage disposal field and at the nearby river showed the presence of NoV GI and GII. Voluntary boil water notices were issued and implemented with no further cases following this action. Additional treatment of drinking water supplies has been implemented and sewerage disposal concerns referred to local government. Investigation of this gastroenteritis outbreak revealed contamination of both drinking water and the wider environment with NoV. Bacterial indicators do not adequately cover contamination by viruses but due to costs, frequent virus monitoring programmes are currently impractical. A strategy to decrease environmental contamination of drinking water supplies in this busy tourist location through improved management of sewage disposal and drinking water is urgently required.

  7. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  8. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  9. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  10. Calculation of available water supply in crop root zone and the water balance of crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Jan; Svoboda, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Determination of the water supply available in soils for crops is important for both the calculation of water balance and the prediction of water stress. An approach to calculations of available water content in layers of the root zone, depletion of water during growth, and water balance, with limited access to data on farms, is presented. Soil water retention was calculated with simple pedotransfer functions from the texture of soil layers, root depth, and depletion function were derived from observed data; and the potential evapotranspiration was calculated from the temperature. A comparison of the calculated and experimental soil water contents showed a reasonable fit.

  11. A new concept for the water supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    1998-01-01

    The present state of the station Le Vengeron (the main pumping station supplying CERN with drinking water), and also to comply with the new Swiss standards impose a thorough consolidation and upgrade of this station which is shared with the Services Industriels de Genève (SIG). The total cost of the works (around 62 MCHF) would be shared proportionally to the nominal flow-rate demand which, at present, is of 2/3 for CERN and 1/3 for SIG. An alternative to the above is a complete review of CERN's water consumption, reducing our needs by half, thus allowing savings in both investment and operation. This reduction in investment cost would be diverted towards much needed consolidation works for the existing facilities within CERN. This paper also reviews the planning and possible ways for the execution of the works and the future responsibilities of operation of the water distribution systems (drinking and machine) inside CERN's sites.

  12. Water supply pipe dimensioning using hydraulic power dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemathy, J. R.; Rashmi, G.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Proper sizing of the pipe component of water distribution networks play an important role in the overall design of the any water supply system. Several approaches have been applied for the design of networks from an economical point of view. Traditional optimization techniques and population based stochastic algorithms are widely used to optimize the networks. But the use of these approaches is mostly found to be limited to the research level due to difficulties in understanding by the practicing engineers, design engineers and consulting firms. More over due to non-availability of commercial software related to the optimal design of water distribution system,it forces the practicing engineers to adopt either trial and error or experience-based design. This paper presents a simple approach based on power dissipation in each pipeline as a parameter to design the network economically, but not to the level of global minimum cost.

  13. Flood risk assessment of fresh water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a common hazard causing damages to people, buildings and infrastructures. Often located in low-lying areas or nearby rivers, water utilities are particularly vulnerable to flooding. Water and debris can inundate the facility, thereby damaging equipment and causing power outages. Such impacts can lead to costly repairs, disruptions of service, hazardous situations for personnel and public health advisories. While flood damage evaluation to buildings and their contents is becoming increasingly available, the quantification of impact on critical infrastructures is less common. In this work, we present the flood risk assessment of a fresh water supply system considering the hazard of a riverine flooding and exposure and vulnerability of the system components (i.e. pipes, junctions, lifting stations etc.). The evaluation of flood impact on the aqueduct network is carried out for flood scenarios with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to determine their residual functionality. Above a selected threshold, the affected elements are considered as failed. The water distribution piping system is modelled through a model based on EPANET designed so as to implement Pressure-Driven Demand (PDD), which is more appropriate when modelling water distribution networks with a high number of offline nodes. Results of piping system model affected by the flood are then compared in a QGIS environment with flood depth to identify the location of service outages and potential risk of contamination. The application to the water supply system of the city of Florence (Italy), serving approximately 385000 inhabitants through 900 km of piping is presented and discussed.

  14. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial...

  15. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  16. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  17. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  18. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  19. AUTOMATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM PUMPING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kulia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essence of process of water-supply of apartment dwelling house is considered. The existent state over of automation of the pumping stations is brought. The task of development of the effective system of automatic control is put by them. Possibility of decision of task is shown by the use in the system of frequency transformer that feeds the electrodrives of pumps, and also due to perfection of algorithms of the pumps rotation frequency adjusting and logical management of their switching a sequence. The practical value of the use of the system is to increase dynamic.

  20. New Design of a Low Cost Analogue Current Supply for Power LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Bogdan Dragomir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes an innovative and inductive ballast-based power LED supply. This new design LED powering solution is a cost-efficient alternative to high-end switching mode power supply (SMPS used to feed LED clusters. The current supply circuit topology will be explained. The AC component of the LED current is analysed both from the ballast inductance and the value of the DC filtering capacitor standpoint. The PSIM and MATLAB tools have been used to simulate the circuit output when different ballast voltage conditions will be applied. Transitory and steady-state driver performances have been taken into account.

  1. Urinary arsenic profiles reveal exposures to inorganic arsenic from private drinking water supplies in Cornwall, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D. R. S.; Watts, M. J.; Hamilton, E. M.; Ander, E. L.; Close, R. M.; Exley, K. S.; Crabbe, H.; Leonardi, G. S.; Fletcher, T.; Polya, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, South West England exceeded the current WHO guidance value and UK prescribed concentration or value (PCV) for arsenic of 10 μg/L in 5% of properties surveyed (n = 497). In this follow-up study, the first of its kind in the UK, volunteers (n = 207) from 127 households who used their PWS for drinking, provided urine and drinking water samples for total As determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary As speciation by high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L were found in the PWS of 10% of the volunteers. Unadjusted total urinary As concentrations were poorly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36 (P private water supplies as the dominant source of inorganic As exposure in the study population of PWS users.

  2. Public water supplies in Gloucester County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, William F.

    1963-01-01

    . The average per capita public water supply consumption in 1959 was approximately 75 gallons per day. This report includes a summary of the history of the present installations, groundwater conditions, quality and availability of water, and potential future yield for the 2 public water systems in Gloucester County.

  3. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    sanitary rules and regulations by the most of indicators of general health and specific indices. 19.0% of total water supply systems fail to meet the sanitary norms and regulations, in particular: 14.2% for the lack of sanitary protection zones; 1.9% because of unavailability of the necessary integrated treatment facilities, and 7.6% by the reason of absence of disinfecting plants. Possible ways of avoiding the depletion of water bodies are preventive water protection measures aimed at preventing or limiting pollution, water contamination and depletion; besides, it is necessary to educate people explaning them the current state and possible consequences of thoughtless water consumption.

  4. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. P. Mens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Droughts will likely become more frequent, of greater magnitude and of longer duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functioning. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  5. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  6. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Stigter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  7. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Monteiro, J. P.; Nunes, L. M.; Vieira, J.; Cunha, M. C.; Ribeiro, L.; Nascimento, J.; Lucas, H.

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells. For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s-1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand), requiring only disinfection (900 l s-1) or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make the water supply system extremely vulnerable, with a high

  8. Long-term dynamics of dissolved organic carbon: implications for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Köhler, Stephan J; Futter, Martyn N

    2012-08-15

    Surface waters are the main source of drinking water in many regions. Increasing organic carbon concentrations are a cause for concern in Nordic countries since both dissolved and particulate organic carbon can transport contaminants and adversely affect drinking water treatment processes. We present a long-term study of dynamics of total (particulate and dissolved) organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in the River Fyris. This river supplies drinking water to approximately 200000 people in Uppsala, Sweden. The River Fyris is a main tributary to Lake Mälaren, which supplies drinking water to approximately 2 million people in the greater Stockholm area. Utilities responsible for drinking water supply in both Uppsala and Stockholm have expressed concerns about possible increases in TOC. We evaluate organic carbon dynamics within the Fyris catchment by calculating areal mass exports using observed TOC concentrations and modeled flows and by modeling dissolved organic carbon (as a proxy for TOC) using the dynamic, process based INCA-C model. Exports of TOC from the catchment ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 g m(-2) year(-1) in the period 1995-2010. The variation in annual exports was related to climatic variability which influenced seasonality and amount of runoff. Exports and discharge uncoupled at the end of 2008. A dramatic increase in TOC concentrations was observed in 2009, which gradually declined in 2010-2011. INCA-C successfully reproduced the intra- and inter-annual variation in concentrations during 1996-2008 and 2010-2011 but failed to capture the anomalous increase in 2009. We evaluated a number of hypotheses to explain the anomaly in 2009 TOC values, ultimately none proved satisfactory. We draw two main conclusions: there is at least one unknown or unmeasured process controlling or influencing surface water TOC and INCA-C can be used as part of the decision-making process for current and future use of rivers for drinking water supply.

  9. Estimating Water Supply Arsenic Levels in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Lubin, Jay H.; Airola, Matthew S.; Baris, Dalsu; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Taylor, Anne; Paulu, Chris; Karagas, Margaret R.; Colt, Joanne; Ward, Mary H.; Huang, An-Tsun; Bress, William; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is recognized as a cause of bladder cancer when levels are relatively high (≥ 150 µg/L). The epidemiologic evidence is less clear at the low-to-moderate concentrations typically observed in the United States. Accurate retrospective exposure assessment over a long time period is a major challenge in conducting epidemiologic studies of environmental factors and diseases with long latency, such as cancer. Objective: We estimated arsenic concentrations in the water supplies of 2,611 participants in a population-based case–control study in northern New England. Methods: Estimates covered the lifetimes of most study participants and were based on a combination of arsenic measurements at the homes of the participants and statistical modeling of arsenic concentrations in the water supply of both past and current homes. We assigned a residential water supply arsenic concentration for 165,138 (95%) of the total 173,361 lifetime exposure years (EYs) and a workplace water supply arsenic level for 85,195 EYs (86% of reported occupational years). Results: Three methods accounted for 93% of the residential estimates of arsenic concentration: direct measurement of water samples (27%; median, 0.3 µg/L; range, 0.1–11.5), statistical models of water utility measurement data (49%; median, 0.4 µg/L; range, 0.3–3.3), and statistical models of arsenic concentrations in wells using aquifers in New England (17%; median, 1.6 µg/L; range, 0.6–22.4). Conclusions: We used a different validation procedure for each of the three methods, and found our estimated levels to be comparable with available measured concentrations. This methodology allowed us to calculate potential drinking water exposure over long periods. PMID:21421449

  10. Features of internal water supply and water disposal of shopping centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline from an external system should be inlet in the part of the building where a large number of water folding devices will be concentrated. As a rule, for shopping centers with a lot of water consumers it is necessary to make not less than three inputs, each of them should be connected to different areas of an external ring water supply system in order to make the work of the system more reliable.The places for water folding fittings in shopping centers are the following. The water folding devices: mixers are placed in sanitary cabins of shopping centers. Usually, for for water saving in buildings with a big pass-through capacity per hour it is reasonable to use contactless mixers, which are turned on upon raising a hand with a help of motion sensor or light sensor. Another important argument in favor of such mixers is prevention of infections spread for the reason that the consumer doesn't touch the device, so, the risk of bacteria transmission via the device decreases. Such mixer supplies water with a demanded expense and temperature. As a rule, water for such mixers moves from the centralized internal water supply system of hot water, mixing up with cold water. If there is no centralized hot water supply system, it is possible to use hot water storage heaters in case of a small number of visitors or to reject mixers at all in favor of the cranes giving water of only one temperature (cold, which is also practiced.For the branch of economic and household the water receivers are used, which are present in sanitary cabins in most cases by toilet bowls, wash basins, urinals.

  11. Contribution of Water Saving to a Stable Power Supply in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Otani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, the rapid expansion of cities is exceeding the supply capacity for water and electricity, and restrictions on water supply and blackouts occur on a daily basis. In this study, the authors examined whether water-saving equipment could solve these problems. This paper focused on toilet bowls that consumed a large amount of water, and on showers for which heat consumption was high. In Vietnam, the main heat source for showers is the electric water heater, typically having a power consumption of 2500–4500 W. Although the current diffusion rate of such water heaters is just 13%, their use will spread widely in the future. These heaters have already placed a peak load on electricity consumption in winter when a large amount of energy is consumed for heating water, and they will become a significant factor in blackout risks as their use becomes commonplace nationwide. It is clear that the introduction of water-saving showers will allow not only a more efficient use of water resources, but will also mitigate against the risk of blackouts.

  12. Ambient water quality in aquifers used for drinking-water supplies, Gem County, southwestern Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Hopkins, Candice B.

    2016-12-20

    In recent years, the rapid population growth in Gem County, Idaho, has been similar to other counties in southwestern Idaho, increasing about 54 percent from 1990 to 2015. Because the entire population of the study area depends on groundwater for drinking water supply (either from self-supplied domestic, community, or municipal-supply wells), this population growth, along with changes in land use (including potential petroleum exploration and development), indicated to the public and local officials the need to assess the quality of groundwater used for human consumption. To this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gem County and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, assessed the quality of groundwater from freshwater aquifers used for domestic supply in Gem County. A total of 47 domestic or municipal wells, 1 spring, and 2 surface-water sites on the Payette River were sampled during September 8–November 19, 2015. The sampled water was analyzed for a variety of constituents, including major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, radionuclides, dissolved gasses, stable isotopes of water and methane, and either volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or pesticides.To better understand analytical results, a conceptual hydrogeologic framework was developed in which three hydrogeologic units were described: Quaternary-Tertiary deposits (QTd), Tertiary Idaho Group rocks (Tig), and Tertiary-Cretaceous igneous rocks (TKi). Water levels were measured in 30 wells during sampling, and a groundwater-level altitude map was constructed for the QTd and Tig units showing groundwater flow toward the Emmett Valley and Payette River.Analytical results indicate that groundwater in Gem County is generally of good quality. Samples collected from two wells contained water with fluoride concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L), six wells contained arsenic at

  13. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5 µg/L. The maximum level was 14 µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  14. Trends in Rural Water Supply: Towards a Service Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2013-10-01

    The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water supply in developing countries: away from a de-facto focus on the provision of hardware for first-time access towards the proper use of installed hardware as the basis for universal access to rural water services. The outline of the main actions required to achieve this shift are becoming clearer. Chief amongst these are the professionalisation of community management and/or provision of direct support to community service providers; adoption of a wider range of service delivery models than community management alone; and addressing the sustainable financing of all costs with a particular focus on financing capital maintenance (asset management and direct support costs. This introductory paper provides an overview of these issues and a guide to the other articles, which demonstrate these points.

  15. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  16. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  17. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  18. The clinical endocrinology workforce: current status and future projections of supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigersky, Robert A; Fish, Lisa; Hogan, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Kutler, Stephanie; Ladenson, Paul W; McDermott, Michael; Hupart, Kenneth H

    2014-09-01

    Many changes in health care delivery, health legislation, and the physician workforce that affect the supply and demand for endocrinology services have occurred since the first published workforce study of adult endocrinologists in 2003. The objective of the study was to assess the current adult endocrinology workforce data and provide the first analysis of the pediatric endocrinology workforce and to project the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025. A workforce model was developed from an analysis of proprietary and publicly available databases, consultation with a technical expert panel, and the results of an online survey of board-certified endocrinologists. The Endocrine Society commissioned The Lewin Group to estimate current supply and to project gaps between supply and demand for endocrinologists. A technical expert panel of senior endocrinologists provided context, clinical information, and direction. The following were measured: 1) the current adult and pediatric endocrinology workforce and the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025 and 2) the number of additional entrants into the endocrinology work pool that would be required to close the gap between supply and demand. Currently there is a shortage of approximately 1500 adult and 100 pediatric full-time equivalent endocrinologists. The gap for adult endocrinologists will expand to 2700 without an increase in the number of fellows trained. An increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus further expands the demand for adult endocrinologists. The gap can be closed in 5 and 10 years by increasing the number of fellowship positions by 14.4% and 5.5% per year, respectively. The gap between supply and demand for pediatric endocrinologists will close by 2016, and thereafter an excess supply over demand will develop at the current rate of new entrants into the work force. There are insufficient adult endocrinologists to satisfy current and future demand. A number of proactive

  19. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  20. Piped-Water Supplies in Rural Areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: Water Quality and Household Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Gert-Jan Wilbers; Zita Sebesvari; Renaud, Fabrice G.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta (MD) in Vietnam, piped-water supply stations are being intensively built to reach the millennium development goal (MDG) to provide safe and clean drinking water resources to communities. However, studies focusing on the effectiveness of supply stations in reaching these goals are scarce to date. Water samples from 41 water supply stations in the MD were collected between June and October 2012. Water samples were analyzed for general parameters, salinity, nutrients, metal(l...

  1. Rainwater Harvesting Potential for Domestic Water Supply in Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Oni; Emmanuel Ege

    2008-01-01

    In the face of increasing scarcity of water resources, there is a need for communities to undertake audits of their current rainwater harvesting potential as a practical and promising alternative solution for water shortage. Despite the importance of rainwater harvest in socio-economic development of communities, very little information exists in the literature concerning it. This paper is an attempt to bridge this gap by examining the techniques and materials used for rainwater harvest with ...

  2. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure and paucity of fund. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  4. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure, paucity of fund etc. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  5. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  6. A Holistic ICT Solution to Improve Matching between Supply and Demand over the Water Supply Distribution Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anzaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While many water management tools exist, these systems are not usually interconnected and therefore cannot communicate between one another, preventing Integrated Water Resources Management to be fully achieved. This paper presents the solution proposed by WatERP project* where a novel solution enables better matching between water supply and demand from holistic perspective. Subsystems that control the production, management and consumption of water will be interconnected through both information architecture and intelligent infrastructure. The main outcome will consist of, a web-based Open Management Platform integrating near real-time knowledge on water supplies and demand, from sources to users, across geographic and organizational scales and supported by a knowledge base where information will be structured in water management ontology to ensure interoperability and maximize usability. WatERP will thus provide a major contribution to: 1 Improve coordination among actors, 2 Foster behavioural change, 3 Reduce water and energy consumption, 4 Optimize water accountability.

  7. Water supply patterns over Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A large ensemble of 24 bias-corrected and uncorrected regional climate model (RCM simulations is used to investigate climate change impacts on water supply patterns over Germany using the seasonal winter and summer Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI based on 6-month precipitation sums. The climate change signal is studied comparing SPI characteristics for the reference period 1971–2000 with those of the "near" (2036–2065 and the "far" (2071–2100 future. The spread of the climate change signal within the simulation ensemble of bias-corrected versus non-corrected data is discussed. Ensemble scenarios are evaluated against available observation-based data over the reference period 1971–2000. After correcting the model biases, the model ensemble underestimates the variability of the precipitation climatology in the reference period, but replicates the mean characteristics. Projections of water supply patterns based on the SPI for the time periods 2036–2065 and 2071–2100 show wetter winter months during both future time periods. As a result soil drying may be delayed to late spring extending into the summer period, which could have an important effect on sensible heat fluxes. While projections indicate wetting in summer during 2036–2065, drier summers are estimated towards the south-west of Germany for the end of the 21st century. The use of the bias correction intensifies the signal to wetter conditions for both seasons and time periods. The spread in the projection of future water supply patterns between the ensemble members is explored, resulting in high spatial differences that suggest a higher uncertainty of the climate change signal in the southern part of Germany. It is shown that the spread of the climate change signals between SPIs based on single ensemble members is twice as large as the difference between the mean climate change signal of SPIs based on bias-corrected and uncorrected precipitation. This implies that the

  8. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  9. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper...

  10. The Shanggongshan Tunnel Kunming Zhangjiuhe River Water Diversion and Water Supply Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. P. Kaegi; M. Bachmann; A. Colombi

    2004-01-01

    Kunming is the political and economical centre of the Yunnan Province in the south -west of China and one of the most beautiful historical and cultural cities in China. It is also one of the 14 cities in China that are severely short of water. In order to solve the supply problem and to allow for future development of the local society and economy, the "Kunming Zhangjiuhe River Water Diversion and Water Supply Project" was implemented. The total investment for the project is about USD 476 million.The objective is to establish a water supply system with a capacity of 0.6 million tons of water per day.Major parts of the project are:capacity by 0. 442 billion m3 and an annual water supply of 0. 245 billion m3;tunnels, but also some siphons);pacity of 0.4 million tons per day in the initial stage and 0.6 million tons per day once completed;length of 93.43 km;sons.Project completion is planned for the end of 2006.

  11. A High Voltage High Frequency Resonant Inverter for Supplying DBD Devices with Short Discharge Current Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnin, Xavier; Brandelero, Julio; Videau, Nicolas; Piquet, Hubert; Meynard, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, the merits of a high-frequency resonant converter for supplying dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) devices are established. It is shown that, thanks to its high-frequency operating condition, such a converter allows to supply DBD devices with short discharge current pulses, a high repetition rate, and to control the injected power. In addition, such a topology eliminates the matter of connecting a high-voltage transformer directly across the DBD device ...

  12. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  13. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) water quality criteria shall be based on the following: (i) For aquatic life criteria: The pollutant... quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and propagation of a... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and...

  14. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: pmedrano@isciii.es [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  15. Hydraulic analysis of water supply networks and controlling the leak using WATER GEMS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Motevalizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given that the discussion on water is strategic in terms of economic and social aspects as well as environmental impact, water leak in urban water-supply systems is very important, so, dealing with it is necessary and inevitable. Controlling and reducing water leak are of the main goals of water supplier organization due to limitations in terms of water resources, especially in dry lands which have few water resources. Pressure management is an efficient tool to reduce costs, enhance the operation of the network and therefore, it reduces the leak and increases the life of facilities and equipment and reduces the number of accidents. Smart pressure containment is a good way to prevent excess pressure in network to control undesirable phenomenon of leak which is directly related to pressure. In this study, Badamuiyeh water supply complex in Kerman City was selected to study on adjusting the pressure to control the leak of water and the hydraulic analysis was performed with demand-based method (DDSM, which is common technique and demand is constant, by Water GEMS software. For this end, the pressure reducing valves (prv were installed in critical point and they were timed to provide standard pressure in all nodes of the network and then, the impact of smart pressure management on water supply system has been investigated. Then its impact on the leak was examined and the results show that smart pressure control through pressure-reducing valve is a proper method for optimal management of water and reducing the leak significantly that with 45.15% reduction in average pressure, one can reduce the leak as much as 25.67% that as its result, 15380 m3 of water is annually saved in this region which is equal to 27.18% of consuming water.

  16. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management.

  17. IMPROVING CYANOBACTERIA AND CYANOTOXIN MONITORING IN SURFACE WATERS FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.

  18. Daphnia magna fitness during low food supply under different water temperature and brownification scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of our current knowledge about non-limiting dietary carbon supply for herbivorous zooplankton is based on experimental evidence and typically conducted at ~1 mg C L-1 and ~20°C. Here we ask how low supply of dietary carbon affects somatic growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna and test effects of higher water temperature (+3 °C relative to ambient and brownification (3X higher than natural water color; both predicted effects of climate change during fall cooling. We predicted that even at very low carbon supply (~5µg C L-1, higher water temperature and brownification will allow D. magna to increase its fitness. Neonates (<24 h old were incubated with lake seston for 4 weeks (October-November 2013 in experimental bottles submerged in outdoor mesocosms to explore effects of warmer and darker water. Higher temperature and brownification did not significantly affect food quality, as assessed by its fatty acid composition. Daphnia exposed to both increased temperature and brownification had highest somatic growth and were the only that reproduced, and higher temperature caused the highest Daphnia survival success. These results suggest that even under low temperature and thus lower physiological activity, low food quantity is more important than its quality for D. magna fitness.

  19. Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pozos-Estrada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP. Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline.

  20. More efficient optimization of long-term water supply portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Brian R.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    The use of temporary transfers, such as options and leases, has grown as utilities attempt to meet increases in demand while reducing dependence on the expansion of costly infrastructure capacity (e.g., reservoirs). Earlier work has been done to construct optimal portfolios comprising firm capacity and transfers, using decision rules that determine the timing and volume of transfers. However, such work has only focused on the short-term (e.g., 1-year scenarios), which limits the utility of these planning efforts. Developing multiyear portfolios can lead to the exploration of a wider range of alternatives but also increases the computational burden. This work utilizes a coupled hydrologic-economic model to simulate the long-term performance of a city's water supply portfolio. This stochastic model is linked with an optimization search algorithm that is designed to handle the high-frequency, low-amplitude noise inherent in many simulations, particularly those involving expected values. This noise is detrimental to the accuracy and precision of the optimized solution and has traditionally been controlled by investing greater computational effort in the simulation. However, the increased computational effort can be substantial. This work describes the integration of a variance reduction technique (control variate method) within the simulation/optimization as a means of more efficiently identifying minimum cost portfolios. Random variation in model output (i.e., noise) is moderated using knowledge of random variations in stochastic input variables (e.g., reservoir inflows, demand), thereby reducing the computing time by 50% or more. Using these efficiency gains, water supply portfolios are evaluated over a 10-year period in order to assess their ability to reduce costs and adapt to demand growth, while still meeting reliability goals. As a part of the evaluation, several multiyear option contract structures are explored and compared.

  1. FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION IN WATER AT THE AREA SUPPLIED BY THE WATER TREATMENT STATION OF BAURU, SP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Ramires, Irene; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru and classify the samples as acceptable or unacceptable according to the fluoride concentration. Material and methods: samples were collected from 30 areas at two periods, October 2002 and March 2003. The fluoride concentration in the samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion sensitive electrode (Orion 9609) connected to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720). Samples with fluoride concentration ranging from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L were considered acceptable, and those whose concentration was outside this range as unacceptable. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: the fluoride concentration of the water samples varied between 0.31 and 2.01 mg F/L. Nearly 56% of the samples were classified as acceptable. Conclusion: the variations in fluoride concentration at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station reinforce the need of constant monitoring for maintenance of adequate fluoride levels in the public water supply. PMID:19089059

  2. An Environmental Analysis of the Effect of Energy Saving, Production and Recovery Measures on Water Supply Systems under Scarcity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Puleo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the primary resources provided for maintaining quality of life and social status in urban areas. As potable water is considered to be a primary need, water service has usually been managed without examining the economic and environmental sustainability of supply processes. Currently, due to increases in energy costs and the growth of environment preservation policies, reducing water leakage, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG production have become primary objectives in reducing the environmental footprint of water service. The present paper suggests the implementation of some performance indicators that show the interdependence of water loss, energy consumption and GHG emission. These indicators are used to compare a few possible mitigation scenarios involving water loss reduction and increasing the system’s energy efficiency. The proposed indicators were applied to a complex urban water supply system serving the city of Palermo (Italy.

  3. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade.Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants.Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  4. The Current-voltage Characteristics Simulation of the Betavoltaic Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Urchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize betavoltaic power supply it was calculated the current-voltage characteristics when changing the depth of the upper p-layer and at changing doping levels structure areas. It is shown that an increase in the depth reduces the short-circuit current and thus reduces the open circuit voltage. It has been observed that the concentration of the lightly doped region more significantly influence on the current-voltage characteristics than the depth of the p-n-junction. The concentration of the n-region, equal to 1014 cm – 3, can be considered as during betavoltaic power supply design. It is shown that, by increasing the power supply activity the conversion efficiency of the structure increases, too.

  5. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  6. Strengthening Carrying Capacity of a Water Supply System under Climate Change with the Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Syujie; Liu, Tzuming; Li, Minghsu; Tung, Chingpin

    2016-04-01

    The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the maximal probable water supply amount under an acceptable risk which is related to the systematic combination of hydrology conditions, climatic conditions, and water infrastructures, for instance, reservoirs, weirs, and water treatment plants. Due to long-term imbalance of water supply and demand during the drought seasons, the carrying capacity of a water supply system may be affected gradually with more extreme climate events resulting from the climate change. To evaluate the carrying capacity of the water supply system under climate change, three major steps to build adaptation capacity under climate change are adopted, including problem identification and goal setting, current risk assessment, and future risk assessment. The carrying capacities for current climate condition and future climate condition were estimated respectively. The early warning system was taken as the effective measure to strengthen the carrying capacity for the uncertain changing climate. The water supply system of Chuoshui River basin in Taiwan is used as the case study. The system dynamics modeling software, Vensim, was used to build the water resources allocation model for Chuoshui River basin. To apply the seasonal climate forecasts released from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (CWB) on modeling, a weather generator is adopted to generate daily weather data for the input of the hydrological component of GWLF model, to project inflows with the lead time of three months. Consequently, the water shortages with and without a drought early warning system were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of a drought early warning system under climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Carrying capacity, Risk Assessment, Seasonal Climate Forecasts, Drought Early Warning System

  7. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  8. Forecast-Based Operations Support Tool for the New York City Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, G.; Porter, J.

    2012-12-01

    The NYC water supply system serves 9 million people with over 1 BGD of water drawn from 19 reservoirs. To support operation of the system to meet multiple objectives (e.g. supply reliability, water quality, environmental releases, hydropower, peak flow mitigation), the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) is developing an Operations Support Tool (OST), a forecast-based decision support system that provides a probabilistic foundation for water supply operations and planning. Key features of OST include: the ability to run both long-term simulations and short-term probabilistic simulations on the same model platform; automated processing of near-real-time (NRT) data sources; use of inflow forecasts to support look-ahead operational simulations; and water supply-water quality model linkage to account for feedback and tradeoffs between supply and quality objectives. OST supports two types of simulations. Long-term runs execute the system model over an extended historical record and are used to evaluate reservoir operating rules, infrastructure modifications, and climate change scenarios (with inflows derived from downscaled GCM data). Short-term runs for operational guidance consist of multiple (e.g. 80+) short (e.g. one year) runs, all starting from the same initial conditions (typically those of the current day). Ensemble reservoir inflow forecast traces are used to drive the model for the duration of the simulation period. The result of these runs is a distribution of potential future system states. DEP managers analyze the distributions for alternate scenarios and make operations decisions using risk-based metrics such as probability of refill or the likelihood of a water quality event. For operational simulations, the OST data system acquires NRT data from DEP internal sources (SCADA operations data, keypoint water quality, in-stream/in-reservoir water quality, meteorological and snowpack monitoring sites). OST acquires streamflow data from

  9. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  10. Climate change impacts on water supply: implications for reservoir management in Upper Sabor, northeast Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Monteiro, António T.; Azevedo, João; Nunes, João Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios project warmer temperatures and less precipitation in Mediterranean watersheds. This can aggravate drought conditions, with negative impacts on water supply. Here, reservoirs may play an important role to mitigate these impacts. However, the implications of climate change are not always considered in the reservoir planning and management. This study aimed to address this issue for the Upper Sabor watershed, northeast Portugal. This is a medium watershed (403km2), part of the Sabor river, a tributary of Douro (one of the major rivers in the Iberian Peninsula). It is a mountainous watershed (up to 1500m), characterized by humid Mediterranean climate, with three dry months in summer. Almost 52% of the area is occupied by shrubland and 18% agriculture. Water supply for about 33 000 people has been based almost exclusively in one reservoir, but constant problems of water supply in dry summers, which coincide with a doubling of population due to summer holidays, led to the construction of a new reservoir in 2015. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used for a climate change impact assessment, considering the current water supply regime (single reservoir) and the construction of the new reservoir. SWAT was calibrated and validated against daily-observed discharge and reservoir volume, with a good agreement between model predictions and observations. Results from four GCMs (General Circulation Models) for two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were statistically downscaled and bias-corrected with ground observations; climate scenarios for 2021-2040 and 2041-2060 were compared with a control period in 1981-2000. In the future, a general increase of temperatures is expected in the Upper Sabor watershed, especially in the maximum temperature under RCP 8.5 scenario for 2041-2060 (Tmax: +2.88°C). The change in precipitation is more uncertain, with larger differences according to the selected climate model. Annual precipitation would

  11. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M. R.; Mazrura, S.; Zurahanim Fasha, A.; Ahmad Rohi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems. PMID:21461348

  12. Determination of aluminium and physicochemical parameters in the palm oil estates water supply at Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M R; Mazrura, S; Zurahanim Fasha, A; Ahmad Rohi, G

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  13. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Siti Farizwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and residual chlorine in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S, the treatment plant outlet (TPO, and at the nearest houses (H1 and the furthest houses (H2 from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90. The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU. Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L. Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  14. The Value of Advanced Smart Metering in the Management of Urban Water Supply Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Cominola, A.; Arregui de la Cruz, F.; Escriva-Bou, A.; Soriano, J.; Pérez, J. J.; Castillo, J.; Barba, J.; González, V.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    This work intends to outline the experience of the implementation and further exploitation of an extensive network of smart meters (SM) in the city of Valencia by Aguas de Valencia, the water utility that offers water supply and sanitation services to the city of Valencia and its metropolitan area. Valencia has become the first large city in Europe fully equipped with a point-to-point fixed network of SM (currently with more than 430,000 units, about 90% of the meters of the city). The shift towards a water supply management system based on SM is a complex process that entails changes and impacts on different management areas of the water supply organization. A new data management and processing platform has been developed and is already proving notable benefits in the operation of the system. For example, a tool allows to automatically issue and manage work orders when abnormalities such as internal leaks (constant consumption) or meter alarms are detected. Another tool has been developed to reduce levels of non-revenue water by continuously balancing supply and demand in district metered areas. Improving leak detection and adjusting pressure levels has significantly increased the efficiency of the water distribution network. Finally, a service of post-meter leak detection has been also implemented. But the SM also contribute to improve demand management. The customers now receive detailed information on their water consumption, valuable for improving household water management and assessing the value of water conservation strategies. SM are also key tools for improving the level of understanding of demand patterns. Users have been categorized into different clusters depending in their consumption patterns characteristics. Within the EU SmartH2O project, a high resolution and frequency monitoring of residential uses has been conducted in a selected sample of households for a precise disaggregation of residential end-uses. The disaggregation of end-uses allows for

  15. Cities as Water Supply Catchments to deliver microclimate benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Coutts, A.; Loughnan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development extensively modifies the natural hydrology, biodiversity, carbon balance, air quality and climate of the local and regional environment mainly due to increased impervious surface area (roads, pavements, roofs, etc.). Impervious surface are a legacy of urban infrastructure planning based on a ‘drained city’ to minimise flood risk. The result is a modification of the microclimate around buildings and on a city scale results in the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect where the urban areas are much hotter than the surrounding rural areas. Such heating comes on top of 20th century human induced climate change, namely decreased rainfall and higher temperatures. Drought conditions have triggered water restrictions in many Australian cities that have dramatically reduced ‘irrigation’ in urban areas. Ironically the drying influence from climate change has now been compounded by the drying influence of water restrictions and the efficient removal of stormwater resulting in desert like climates during summer. This will be further exacerbated by the projected increases in hot days, extreme hot days, heat waves, etc. In turn this excessive heating will compromise the health and liveability of urban dwellers. Stormwater is a potential critical resource that could be used to keep water in the landscape to irrigate urban areas to improve urban micro-climates, sustain vegetation and provide other multiple benefits to create more liveable and resilient urban environments. In Australia's major cities, stormwater harvesting has the potential to provide a low cost, low energy, fit-for-purpose source of water to help secure city supplies. Stormwater reuse not only provides a potential mitigation tool for the UHI and global climate change but has multiple benefits to provide resilience such as 1) Improved human thermal comfort to reduce heat related stress and mortality, 2) Healthy and productive vegetation and increased carbon sequestration, 3) Decreased stormwater

  16. Contamination of the water supply to the town of Carolina, Mpumalanga, January 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence S. McCarthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage has become a serious environmental concern in South Africa, particularly for the long-term sustainability of the countrys fresh water supply. Such concerns were dramatically highlighted in January 2012 when water in the Boesmanspruit Dam, which supplies the town of Carolina with potable water, underwent rapid deterioration following a large rainstorm event. A sudden drop in pH to 3.7, accompanied by elevated levels of iron, aluminium, manganese and sulphate rendered the water toxic and unsuitable for use. The problem remained unresolved for 7 months, provoking community protests and eventually court action against the Department of Water Affairs. Although evidence pointed to coal mining as the source of contamination, it was unclear how the dam became polluted so rapidly. We investigated the events surrounding the contamination of Carolina's water supply, in an attempt to identify a possible cause and to assess whether the event has relevance for other dams in the Vaal River system. Chemical analyses of water samples revealed that the pollution originated from the Witrandspruit subcatchment where seepage from coal mines had accumulated in a wetland upstream of the dam. During an unusually heavy downpour, ponds holding polluted run-off from coal handling facilities overtopped and flushed the contents of the wetland into the Boesmanspruit Dam. While a recurrence of the event at Carolina is possible, major dams in the upper Vaal River catchment are unlikely to experience a similar catastrophic event. In the long term, pollution of these dams is likely to proceed gradually, as is currently occurring at the Middelburg and Witbank Dams.

  17. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system.

  18. RELIABILITY BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK FOR MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Malleswararao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of water supply and distribution is as old as the history of civilization. In the present society, water supply system has become an important and necessary element. It also gives an indication of level of advancement of society. Water Distribution Network (WDN is an important component of water supply system which contributes to nearly 70% of the total cost. Optimal design of water distribution network is the aim of any agency dealing with water supply distribution. Consideration of reliability in water istribution networks has been received increasing attention over the past few years. In the present research work, the main focus is onto develop a new parameter for assessing the overall network reliability using fuzzy logic concepts based on the excess pressures available at the demand nodes and to be incorporated in the optimal design and to incorporate this parameter in a two objective optimization model for design of water distribution network using the combination of Genetic Algorithms and EPANET tool kit in the MATLABenvironment.The best range of excess of minimum residual pressures is considered in the present study in such a way that the reliability of the network is maximum. The proposed methodology is applied on a two loop gravity network which is referred by most of the researchers. 54optimal solutions are identified for the network. The Network Reliability Parameter (NRP, Cost Reliability Ration (CRR and Cost per Unit Reliability and Unit Length (CURUL parameters are used to compare the results with the previous researchers. It is found that the present study shows better results of when comparing withthe results of the previous researchers.

  19. Qualilty, isotopes, and radiochemistry of water sampled from the Upper Moenkopi Village water-supply wells, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob; Beisner, Kimberly; Smith, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The Hopi Tribe Water Resources Program has granted contracts for studies to evaluate water supply conditions for the Moenkopi villages in Coconino County, Arizona. The Moenkopi villages include Upper Moenkopi Village and the village of Lower Moencopi, both on the Hopi Indian Reservation south of the Navajo community of Tuba City. These investigations have determined that water supplies are limited and vulnerable to several potential sources of contamination, including the Tuba City Landfill and a former uranium processing facility known as the Rare Metals Mill. Studies are ongoing to determine if uranium and other metals in groundwater beneath the landfill are greater than regional groundwater concentrations. The source of water supply for the Upper Moenkopi Village is three public-supply wells. The wells are referred to as MSW-1, MSW-2, and MSW-3 and all three wells obtain water from the regionally extensive N aquifer. The N aquifer is the principal aquifer in this region of northern Arizona and consists of thick beds of sandstone between less permeable layers of siltstone and mudstone. The relatively fine-grained character of the N aquifer inhibits rapid movement of water and large yields to wells. In recent years, water levels have declined in the three public-supply wells, causing concern that the current water supply will not be able to accommodate peak demand and allow for residential and economic growth. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, stable and radioactive isotopes, and radiochemistry were performed on the groundwater samples from the three public-supply wells to describe general water-quality conditions and groundwater ages in and immediately surrounding the Upper Moenkopi Village area. None of the water samples collected from the public-supply wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards. The ratios of the major dissolved ions from the samples collected from MSW-1 and MSW-2 indicate

  20. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  1. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  2. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  3. Evaluation of actions for better water supply and demand management in Fayoum, Egypt using RIBASIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie M. Omar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fayoum Governorate faces many water-related challenges being; compensating the water shortage and controlling the volumes of drainage water effluents into Quarun Lake. There are many actions, based on water resources management approach, which can help overcome these water-related challenges. These actions are classified to developing additional water resources (supply management, and properly using the existing water resources (demand management. This study investigates using the RIBASIM (RIver BAsin SIMulation model, the most suitable actions for the future. RIBASIM was used to simulate the current condition and evaluate various scenarios in 2017 based on different actions. Three scenarios were formulated being optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic which represent different implementation rates of the tested actions. RIBASIM results indicated a water shortage of 0.59, 1, and 1.85 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM/year, for the simulated scenarios, respectively. Since Fayoum is a miniature of Egypt with respect to both, the natural and water resources systems, the results of this study can be used as guidelines for optimization of the water resources system in Egypt.

  4. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  5. [Use od ozone for disinfection of ships' system of water supply contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Strikalenko, T V; Mokienko, A V; Stoianova, N V; Gutsel', Iu I

    1990-11-01

    Experimental substantiation is given of the use of ozone in doses, recommended for disinfection of water and ship water supply systems infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The positive effect of ozonation of water supply systems infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by results of field testing on ships of the Black sea marine steam-navigation.

  6. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  7. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00...

  8. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory...

  9. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's...

  10. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that...

  11. 75 FR 18190 - New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On March 17, 2009, the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (New Jersey WSA) filed an application... generation of about 628 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Edward Buss, P.E., New Jersey Water...

  12. Trihalomethane formation during water disinfection in four water supplies in the Somes river basin in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristoiu, Dumitru; von Gunten, Urs; Mocan, Aurel; Chira, Romeo; Siegfried, Barbara; Haydee Kovacs, Melinda; Vancea, Sidonia

    2009-08-01

    MDLs for CHCl(3), CHBrCl(2), CHBr(2)Cl and CHBr(3) were 0.3, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 microg/L, respectively. All kinetic laboratory studies were carried out only with water from the WTP Gilau. The experiments were conducted under two conditions: baseline conditions (pH 7, 21 degrees C, 2.5 mg/L Cl(2)) to gain information about the change of the organic matter in the raw water and seasonally variable conditions to simulate the actual process at the treatment plant and the distribution system. This study shows that the current chlorination practice in the investigated plants complies with the THM drinking water standards of the EU. The THM concentrations in all samples taken in the four treatment plants and distributions systems were below the EU drinking water standard for TTHMs of 100 microg/L. Due to the low bromide levels in the raw waters, the main THM formed in the investigated plants is chloroform. It could also be seen that the THM levels were typically lower in water supplies with groundwater as their water resource. In one plant (Dej) with a pre-ozonation step, a significantly lower (50%) THM formation during post-chlorination was observed. Laboratory chlorination experiments revealed a good correlation between chloroform formation and the consumed chlorine dose. Also, these experiments allowed a semi-quantative prediction of the chloroform formation in the distribution system of Cluj-Napoca. CHCl(3) was the most important trihalomethane species observed after the chlorination of water in all of the sampled months. However, TTHM concentrations did not exceed the maximum permissible value of 100 microg/L (EU). The THM formation rates in the distribution system of Cluj-Napoca have a high seasonal variability. Kinetic laboratory experiments could be used to predict chloroform formation in the Cluj-Napoca distribution system. Furthermore, an empirical model allowed an estimation of the chloroform formation in the Gilau water treatment plant.

  13. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  14. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  15. A battery-powered high-current power supply for superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Wake, M; Suda, K

    2002-01-01

    Since superconductors do not require voltages, a high-current power supply could run with low power if the voltage is sufficiently reduced. Even a battery-powered power supply could give as much as 2,000A for a superconductor. To demonstrate this hypothesis, a battery-powered 2,000A power supply was constructed. It uses an IGBT chopper and Schottky diode together with a specially arranged transformer to produce a high current with low voltage. Testing of 2,000A operation was performed for about 1.5 hr using 10 car batteries. Charging time for this operation was 8 hr. Ramping control was smooth and caused no trouble. Although the IGBT frequency ripple of 16.6 kHz was easily removed using a passive filter, spike noise remained in the output voltage. This ripple did not cause any trouble in operating a pancake-type inductive superconducting load. (author)

  16. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  17. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esrey, S A; Potash, J B; Roberts, L; Shiff, C

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma...

  18. Potential effects of landscape change on water supplies in the presence of reservoir storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Hamel, Perrine; Dennedy-Frank, P. James

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a set of methods to evaluate the potential effects of landscape changes on water supplies. Potential impacts are a function of the seasonality of precipitation, losses of water to evapotranspiration and deep recharge, the flow-regulating ability of watersheds, and the availability of reservoir storage. For a given reservoir capacity, simple reservoir simulations with daily precipitation and streamflow enable the determination of the maximum steady supply of water for both the existing watershed and a hypothetical counter-factual that has neither flow-regulating benefits nor any losses. These two supply values, representing land use end-members, create an envelope that defines the water-supply service and bounds the effect of landscape change on water supply. These bounds can be used to discriminate between water supplies that may be vulnerable to landscape change and those that are unlikely to be affected. Two indices of the water-supply service exhibit substantial variability across 593 watersheds in the continental United States. Rcross, the reservoir capacity at which landscape change is unlikely to have any detrimental effect on water supply has an interquartile range of 0.14-4% of mean-annual-streamflow. Steep, forested watersheds with seasonal climates tend to have greater service values, and the indices of water-supply service are positively correlated with runoff ratios during the months with lowest flows.

  19. Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urooj Q. Amjad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment are inconsistently used in implementing water supply projects. To clarify these terms we develop a framework based on Normalization Process Theory, and apply the framework to a hypothetical water supply project in schools. The resulting framework provides guidance on how these terms could be implemented and analyzed in water supply projects. We conclude that effective use of the terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment would focus on purpose, process, and perspective. This is the first known attempt to analyze the implementation of the three terms together in the context of water supply services.

  20. Reconciling Scale Mismatch in Water Governance, Hydro-climatic Processes and Infrastructure Systems of Water Supply in Las Vegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Alarcon, T.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water resource systems are a classic example of a common pool resource due to the high cost of exclusion and the subtractability of the resource; for common pool resources, the performance of governance systems primarily depends on how well matched the institutional arrangements and rules are to the biophysical conditions and social norms. Changes in water governance, hydro-climatic processes and infrastructure systems occur on disparate temporal and spatial scales. A key challenge is the gap between current climate change model resolution, and the spatial and temporal scale of urban water supply decisions. This gap will lead to inappropriate management policies if not mediated through a carefully crafted decision making process. Traditional decision support and planning methods (DSPM) such as classical decision analysis are not equipped to deal with a non-static climate. While emerging methods such as decision scaling, robust decision making and real options are designed to deal with a changing climate, governance systems have evolved under the assumption of a static climate and it is not clear if these methods are well suited to the existing governance regime. In our study, these questions are contextualized by examining an urban water utility that has made significant changes in policy to adapt to changing conditions: the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) which serves metropolitan Las Vegas. Like most desert cities, Las Vegas exists because of water; the artesian springs of the Las Vegas Valley once provided an ample water supply for Native Americans, ranchers and later a small railroad city. However, population growth has increased demands far beyond local supplies. The area now depends on the Colorado River for the majority of its water supply. Natural climate variability with periodic droughts has further challenged water providers; projected climate changes and further population growth will exacerbate these challenges. Las Vegas is selected as a case

  1. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  2. An assessment of global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources to sustain irrigation: rivers and reservoirs (1960–2000 and 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khajuria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependency of the supply of irrigation water from rivers, large reservoirs with a greater than 1.0 km3 storage capacity, medium-size reservoirs with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 Mm3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW, particularly taking into account variations in irrigation area during the period 1960–2000. We also estimated the future irrigation water requirements from water supply sources in addition to these four sources, using an irrigation area scenario. The net irrigation water requirements from various supply sources were assessed using the global H08 water resources model. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0°. We obtained net irrigation water from rivers and medium-size reservoirs, and determined that the NNBW increased continuously from 1960 to 1985, but the net irrigation water from large reservoirs increased only marginally. After 1985, the net irrigation water from rivers approached a critical limit with the continued expansion of the irrigation area. The irrigation water requirements from medium-size reservoirs and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of medium-size reservoirs. Under the irrigation area scenario without climate change, global net irrigation water requirements from additional water supply sources will account for 26% of the total requirements in the year 2050. We found that expansion of irrigation areas due to population growth will generate an enormous demand for irrigation water from additional resources.

  3. An assessment of global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources to sustain irrigation: rivers and reservoirs (1960-2000 and 2050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Yamada, H. G.; Hanasaki, N.; Khajuria, A.; Kanae, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependency of the supply of irrigation water from rivers, large reservoirs with a greater than 1.0 km3 storage capacity, medium-size reservoirs with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 Mm3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW), particularly taking into account variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2000. We also estimated the future irrigation water requirements from water supply sources in addition to these four sources, using an irrigation area scenario. The net irrigation water requirements from various supply sources were assessed using the global H08 water resources model. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0°. We obtained net irrigation water from rivers and medium-size reservoirs, and determined that the NNBW increased continuously from 1960 to 1985, but the net irrigation water from large reservoirs increased only marginally. After 1985, the net irrigation water from rivers approached a critical limit with the continued expansion of the irrigation area. The irrigation water requirements from medium-size reservoirs and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of medium-size reservoirs. Under the irrigation area scenario without climate change, global net irrigation water requirements from additional water supply sources will account for 26% of the total requirements in the year 2050. We found that expansion of irrigation areas due to population growth will generate an enormous demand for irrigation water from additional resources.

  4. A combined noise analysis and power supply current based testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Pulendra, Vani K.; Yellampalli, Siva

    2005-05-01

    A technique integrating the noise analysis based testing and the conventional power supply current testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits is presented for bridging type faults due to manufacturing defects. The circuit under test (CUT) is a CMOS amplifier designed for operation at +/- 2.5 V and implemented in 1.5 μm CMOS process. The faults simulating possible manufacturing defects have been introduced using the fault injection transistors. The amplifier circuit is analyzed and simulated in SPICE for its performance with and without fault injections. The faults in the CUT are identified by observing the variation in the equivalent noise voltage at the output of CUT. In power supply current testing, the current (IPS) through the power supply voltage, VDD is measured under the application of an AC input stimulus. The effect of parametric variation is taken into consideration by determining the tolerance limit using the Monte-Carlo analysis. The fault is identified if the power supply current, IPS lies outside the deviation given by Monte-Carlo analysis. Simulation results are in close agreement with the corresponding experimental values.

  5. Ensuring water availability in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia: evaluation of the water supply sub-project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Temitope D. Timothy

    2017-05-01

    The need and demand for water in the world are becoming acute with the growing population. This is mostly pressing in developing countries of which Mekelle City in Northern Ethiopia is not an exception. World Bank borehole-support sub-project was aimed at addressing this challenge. The evaluation of the intervention indicates that there is a significant increase in water supply in the city because of the sub-project. However, the increase in water supply has not been able to meet up with the already established and increasing demand. Coupled with this challenge are: the limited capacity of human capital and expertise that will ensure the proper management of borehole interventions; insufficient cost recovery for proper operation and maintenance of the projects; loss of land and farmlands and lack of compensations because of the projects which affect the livelihood.

  6. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  7. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  8. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  9. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, B.; Jørgensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields...... assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive...

  10. Enhancement of the power supply systems in RFX-mod towards 2 MA plasma current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, Luca, E-mail: luca.novello@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy); Zamengo, Andrea; Ferro, Alberto; Zanotto, Loris; Barp, Marco; Cavazzana, Roberto; Finotti, Claudio; Recchia, Mauro; Gaio, Elena [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The recent start-up improvements brought to RFX-mod have allowed increasing the plasma current in the range 1.7-1.9 MA, but still they proved to be not sufficient to routinely and reliably reach higher values of plasma current that would be very useful for the present studies on enhanced confinement. The need for higher poloidal flux variation together with the overabundant available toroidal flux has led to the study of a rearrangement of the power supply system with the aim of increasing the first at the expenses of the latter. Thanks to the flexibility of the power supply system, composed of modular thyristor converters, the rearrangement has been easily obtained and the resulting enhanced poloidal flux capability scenario described in the paper allows a two step plasma current ramp-up. In order to increase as much as possible the plasma current up to the nominal value of 2 MA it is necessary to fully exploit the thyristor converter power capability, in particular in the first ramp-up phase. In the paper a detailed verification of their maximum performance is presented. The first results obtained after power supply reconfiguration are very good, with plasma current kept constant at about 2 MA for 100 ms. The enabled operation at very high plasma current requires also an optimization of the magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) mode coil power supplies that are required to provide higher current values. Therefore a dedicated study of their control system has been worked out, which allowed understanding how to increase as much as possible the output current without losing the dynamic performance, so keeping the efficiency in the control of dominant and secondary modes, which is essential to obtain good and reproducible discharges.

  11. Multi-frequency proportional-resonant (MFPR) current controller for PWM VSC under unbalanced supply conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This letter presents a multi-frequency proportional-resonant (MFPR) current controller developed for PWM voltage source converter (VSC) under the unbalanced supply voltage conditions. The delta operator is used in place of the shift operator for the implementation of MFPR by using a low-cost fixed-point DSP. The experimental results with an alternative control strategy validated the feasibility of the proposed MFPR current controller for the PWM VSC during voltage unbalance.

  12. Performance of current measurement system in poloidal field power supply for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. M.; Li, J.; Wan, B. N.; Lu, Z.; Wang, L. S.; Jiang, L.; Lu, C. H.; Huang, J.

    2016-11-01

    As one of the core subsystems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), the poloidal field power system supplies energy to EAST's superconducting coils. To measure the converter current in the poloidal field power system, a current measurement system has been designed. The proposed measurement system is composed of a Rogowski coil and a newly designed integrator. The results of the resistor-inductor-capacitor discharge test and the converter equal current test show that the current measurement system provides good reliability and stability, and the maximum error of the proposed system is less than 1%.

  13. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  14. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  15. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  16. Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is essential to planners and designers of water supply schemes and those ... Particular emphasis is given to the evolution of the computer as an ... we now call the historical firm yield. ..... In their article, Strategic planning for water resources in.

  17. Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: quality and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Bilqis A; Hallman, Kelly; Levy, Jason; Bouis, Howarth; Ali, Nahid; Khan, Feroze; Khanam, Sufia; Kabir, Mamun; Hossain, Sanower; Shah Alam, Mohammad

    2006-09-01

    Access to safe drinking water has been an important national goal in Bangladesh and other developing countries. While Bangladesh has almost achieved accepted bacteriological drinking water standards for water supply, high rates of diarrheal disease morbidity indicate that pathogen transmission continues through water supply chain (and other modes). This paper investigates the association between water quality and selected management practices by users at both the supply and household levels in rural Bangladesh. Two hundred and seventy tube-well water samples and 300 water samples from household storage containers were tested for fecal coliform (FC) concentrations over three surveys (during different seasons). The tube-well water samples were tested for arsenic concentration during the first survey. Overall, the FC was low (the median value ranged from 0 to 4 cfu/100ml) in water at the supply point (tube-well water samples) but significantly higher in water samples stored in households. At the supply point, 61% of tube-well water samples met the Bangladesh and WHO standards of FC; however, only 37% of stored water samples met the standards during the first survey. When arsenic contamination was also taken into account, only 52% of the samples met both the minimum microbiological and arsenic content standards of safety. The contamination rate for water samples from covered household storage containers was significantly lower than that of uncovered containers. The rate of water contamination in storage containers was highest during the February-May period. It is shown that safe drinking water was achieved by a combination of a protected and high quality source at the initial point and maintaining quality from the initial supply (source) point through to final consumption. It is recommended that the government and other relevant actors in Bangladesh establish a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, handling and related educational

  18. Evaluation and optimization of secondary water supply system renovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Due to pollution in second water supply system (SWSS), nine renovation alternative plans were proposed and comprehensive evaluations of different plan based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were presented in this paper. Comparisons of advantages and disadvantages among the plans of SWSS renovations provided solid foundation for selecting the most appropriate plan for engineering projects. In addition, a mathematical model of the optimal combination of renovation plans has been set up and software Lingo was used to solve the model. As a case study, the paper analyzed 15 buildings in Tianjin City. After simulation of the SWSS renovation system, an optimal scheme was obtained, the result of which indicates that 10 out of those 15 buildings need be renovated in priority. The renovation plans selected for each building are the ones ranked higher in the comprehensive analysis. The analysis revealed that the optimal scheme, compared with two other randomly calculated ones, increased the percentage of service population by 19.6% and 13.6% respectively, which significantly improved social and economical benefits.

  19. Sandakan water supply extension scheme. Sandakan suido secchi kakucho koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kage, S.: Tsujimura, O.; Shimura, Y.; Shinomiya, H.; Ichise, Y. (Kasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Ozaki, F. (Katetsu Civil Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Waterworks facilities having a maximum supply capacity of 62000m{sup 3}/d were constructed in Sandakan, Saban, Malaysia in November of 1989 after a construction period close to three years. The scope of the work covered civil works for intaks facilities at a river bank, diversed contents of construction, areally scattered construction sites, the managenment of construction at a remote place, etc. over 90km from intake site to the distribution site. This construction included procurement of materials from 10 countries and a diversity of related subsidiary work such as the installment and commissioning of mechanical and electrical facilities. This paper mainly describes the technical features of this scheme. Steel pipe pile retaining walls for bank protection structure were successfully fabricated so as to match the conditions of the construction site. A 50t steel frame base was laid under the water and a network technique of process control was adopted for responding to unpredicted situations. Field technicians were educated positively in order to secure sufficient manpower. The construction required difficult managements because of its diversed processes and broad site. 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  1. A probabilistic framework for assessing vulnerability to climate variability and change: The case of the US water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a probabilistic framework for vulnerability analysis and use it to quantify current and future vulnerability of the US water supply system. We also determine the contributions of hydro-climatic and socio-economic drivers to the changes in projected vulnerability. For all scenarios and global climatemodels examined, the US Southwest including California and...

  2. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and control system for the real time installation, programmable logic controllers with basic functions communication systems, standard interfaces or dedicated ones with proximity sensors, electrical drive elements, measuring devices, etc. In this project it is proposed to develop the PLC & SCADA based water monitoring and theft prevention. Control System is further coupled to SCADA unit .This paper focuses particularly to a control system for controlling and monitoring within a Water Distribution System. Process automation system based upon utilization of an industrial PLC and PC systems including all the network components represents the best way to improve the water distribution technological process.

  3. Analysis and design of over-current limit control strategies applied in aeronautical power supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin-bing; HE Xiang-ning

    2007-01-01

    Some Over-Current Limit Control strategies are analyzed and designed to meet the demands of high reliability and rapid dynamic response in the aeronautical power supply applications. The control schemes are both effective in DC-DC converters and DC-AC converters. Controller models are set up, and the over-current limit operation principles of analogy and digital control are analyzed too. An 800VA aeronautical power supply has been constructed to verify the performance of the proposed control strategy in various cases such as the sudden load change and the constant load. The analysis and experiments confirm the advantages of the proposed over-current limit strategies as follows: simple,effective and reliable.

  4. Comparing risk of failure models in water supply networks using ROC curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debon, A., E-mail: andeau@eio.upv.e [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Carrion, A. [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabrera, E. [Dpto. De Ingenieria Hidraulica Y Medio Ambiente, Instituto Tecnologico del Agua, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Solano, H. [Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of predicting the failure of water mains has been considered from different perspectives and using several methodologies in engineering literature. Nowadays, it is important to be able to accurately calculate the failure probabilities of pipes over time, since water company profits and service quality for citizens depend on pipe survival; forecasting pipe failures could have important economic and social implications. Quantitative tools (such as managerial or statistical indicators and reliable databases) are required in order to assess the current and future state of networks. Companies managing these networks are trying to establish models for evaluating the risk of failure in order to develop a proactive approach to the renewal process, instead of using traditional reactive pipe substitution schemes. The main objective of this paper is to compare models for evaluating the risk of failure in water supply networks. Using real data from a water supply company, this study has identified which network characteristics affect the risk of failure and which models better fit data to predict service breakdown. The comparison using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) graph leads us to the conclusion that the best model is a generalized linear model. Also, we propose a procedure that can be applied to a pipe failure database, allowing the most appropriate decision rule to be chosen.

  5. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Supply: Application of the Contingent Valuation Method; Evidence from Jigjiga Town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Kebede Hundie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water problem in developing countries like Ethiopia is twofold: low coverage levels and poor quality that require urgent attention to reduce associated health and social consequences. Understanding this fact, the government and NGOs are currently carrying out several activities to improve the coverage and quality of water supply. To this end, willingness to pay of households that are expected to be benefited from the project should be analysed. The central objective of this study is, hence, to estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP of households for better-quality water service provision and identify its determinants by using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM in Jigjiga city. We estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP for better quality of water supply service on cross-sectional survey of households in Jigjiga city taking 210 sample households randomly drawn. The highest relative WTP for improved water supply service was found in the city with the highest percentage of respondents being unsatisfied with the current water supply both in terms of quality and quantity. Response to the hypothetical scenario shown that sampled households stated that their mean WTP of 94 cents per 20 litres. The results of logit model revealed that household income, family size, water source, age of the respondent and bid value have significant effects on WTP for improved water service provision. The implication is that it is better take into account the socio-economic characteristics of the households in planning and designing water supply projects, which may serve to set rigorous demand oriented projects that can sustain the service delivery.

  6. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322...

  7. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P

    2014-04-01

    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas.

  8. Status Quo of Twice Supplying Water for High Building and Antisepsis Effect of MF-2 Disinfector%高层建筑二次供水的现状及MF-2消毒剂的消毒效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆增; 王金兰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss status quo of twice supplying water for high building and validateantisepsis effect of MF - 2 disinfector. Methods By field test and searching reference, discussing thequestions of above - describe. According to state prescriptive method for disinfecting drinking water, vali-dating the antisepsis effect of disinfecting twice supplying water. Results Currently, establishment fortwice supplying water and the quality of the supplying water has some questions. According to the qualityof twice supplying water, acceding to some MF - 2 disinfector to disinfect, it will achieve the standard ofdrinking water. Conclusion Circumstance management department and sanitation supervise departmentshould smeliorate and manage the quality of twice supplying water, and insure the safety of using drinkingwater. So MF - 2 disinfector may replace contain chlorin disinfector to disinfect twice supplying water.

  9. An Assessment of Factors Having Impact on Water Quality in Water Supply Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auksė Amosenkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected from Vilnius drinking water distribution system fed by treated and different groundwater. Parameters related to bacterial growth have been measured considering these samples: temperature, concentration of free residual chlorine, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites. Results showed that treated groundwater was less susceptible to favour bacterial growth in the pipelines. The obtained results also showed that the potential growth induced by the distribution of treated water could be reduced if: ammonium levels were below 0.5 mg/l at the outlet of the water treatment plant; biological ammonium removal treatment implementation should reduce the levels of the nitrates and nitrites of the treated supplied water. Article in Lithuanian

  10. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  11. Increasing water productivity of irrigated crops under limited water supply at field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazifedoust, M.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.; Feizi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Borkhar district is located in an and to semi-arid region in Iran and regularly faces widespread drought. Given current water scarcity, the limited available water should be used as efficient and productive as possible. To explore on-farm strategies which result in higher economic gains and water pr

  12. Remaking Waste as Water: The Governance of Recycled Effluent for Potable Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Meehan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water managers increasingly rely on the indirect potable reuse (IPR of recycled effluent to augment potable water supplies in rapidly growing cities. At the same time, the presence of waste – as abject material – clearly remains an object of concern in IPR projects, spawning debate and opposition among the public. In this article, we identify the key governance factors of IPR schemes to examine how waste disrupts and stabilises existing practices and ideologies of water resources management. Specifically, we analyse and compare four prominent IPR projects from the United States and Australia, and identify the techno-scientific, legal, and socio-economic components necessary for successful implementation of IPR projects. This analysis demonstrates that successful IPR projects are characterised by large-scale, centralised infrastructure, state and techno-scientific control, and a political economy of water marked by supply augmentation and unchecked expansion. We argue that – despite advanced treatment – recycled effluent is a parallax object: a material force that disrupts the power geometries embedded in municipal water management. Consequently, successful IPR schemes must stabilise a particular mode of water governance, one in which recycled effluent is highly regulated and heavily policed. We conclude with insights about the future role of public participation in IPR projects.

  13. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  14. Optimal demand reponse to water pricing policies under limited water supply in irrigation: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießbach, Ulkrike; Stange, Peter; Schuetze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with the higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local stochastic water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. These functions take into account different soil types, crops, stochastically generated climate scenarios considering different economic conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed and applied for a case study in Saxony which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies on a regional level.

  15. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A Notice of Intent (NOI) to... http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov . A map of the Clarke County Water Supply proposed study sites will also...

  16. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mauritania : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The situation within the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Mauritania is somewhat contradictory: in spite of the weakness of the institutions in charge of the sector and the lack of financing for sanitation and, more recently, for the rural water supply (RWS) subsector, significant improvements have been made in the access rates since 1990. The institutional reform of the RWS sub...

  17. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management support to the Atlantis water supply scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS, Western Cape, South Africa) has been in operation for about 40 years as a means to supply and augment drinking water to the town of Atlantis via managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In this study, the numerical...

  18. A high-speed CMOS current op amp for very low supply voltage operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1994-01-01

    A CMOS implementation of a high-gain current mode operational amplifier (op amp) with a single-ended input and a differential output is described. This configuration is the current mode counterpart of the traditional voltage mode op amp. In order to exploit the inherent potential for high speed......, low voltage operation normally associated with current mode analog signal processing, the op amp has been designed to operate off a supply voltage of 1.5 V, and the signal path has been confined to N-channel transistors. With this design, a gain of 94 dB and a gain-bandwidth product of 65 MHz has been...

  19. Water Supply Intakes, water blowoff, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'water...

  20. Water Supply Intakes, water vlv, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'water...

  1. Arsenic occurrence in drinking water supply systems in ten municipalities in Vojvodina Region, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dragana; Jakovljević, Branko; Rašić-Milutinović, Zorica; Paunović, Katarina; Peković, Gordana; Knezević, Tanja

    2011-02-01

    Vojvodina, a northern region of Serbia, belongs to the Pannonian Basin, whose aquifers contain high concentrations of arsenic. This study represents arsenic levels in drinking water in ten municipalities in Serbia. Around 63% of all water samples exceeded Serbian and European standards for arsenic in drinking water. Large variations in arsenic were observed among supply systems. Arsenic concentrations in public water supply systems in Vojvodina were much higher than in other countries in the Pannonian Basin.

  2. A High Voltage Power Supply That Mitigates Current Reversals in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Ryan J.; Sarver, Scott A.; Sun, Liangliang; Brownell, Greg A.; Go, David B.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2017-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization typically employs two power supplies, one at each end of the capillary. One power supply is located at the proximal (injection) end of the capillary. The power supply located at the distal (detector) end of the capillary drives the electrospray. Electrophoresis is driven by the difference in potential between these power supplies. Separations that employ large capillary inner diameter, high conductivity background electrolyte, and high separation potentials generate higher current than that produced by the electrospray. Excess current flows through the electrospray power supply. Most power supplies are not designed to sink current, and the excess current will cause the electrospray voltage to deviate from its set point. We report a simple circuit to handle this excess current, allowing separations under a wide range of electrophoretic conditions.

  3. Drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance for safe water supply in Gangtok, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Gajanan K; Kalita, Morami; Pimpalkar, Sarika N; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2011-07-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied, water quality monitoring and surveillance was conducted in Gangtok city at various treatment stages, service reservoirs, distribution network, public standposts, and households. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/l in the sump water/finished water. Throughout the year (i.e., during summer, winter, and monsoon seasons), the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were ranged from nil to 7 CFU/100 ml and nil to 3 CFU/100 ml, respectively, in sump water of Selep and VIP complex water treatment plant; however, at consumer end, those were observed as nil to 210 CFU/100 ml and nil to 90 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These variations in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicates that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physicochemical characteristics.

  4. The Ambiguity of Community: Debating Alternatives to Private-Sector Provision of Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bakker

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of community has become increasingly important in debates over alternatives to privatisation, and is invoked by both proponents and opponents of private sector provision of water supply. This paper presents a critique of the concept of community water supply when it is invoked as an alternative to privatisation. The analysis presents a typology of proposals for community ownership and governance of water supply, and proceeds to critique some of the flawed assumptions in the concepts of community deployed in these proposals, together with references to more general debates about the viability of the 'commons' as enacted through community-controlled water supply systems. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the future evolution of the debate over 'community' alternatives to privatisation, focusing on water supply.

  5. Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) for estimating water availability during water scarcity conditions: rainfall-runoff modelling of the ungauged diversion inflows to the Ridracoli water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Ridracoli reservoir is the main drinking water supply reservoir serving the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy. Such water supply system has a crucial role in an area where the different characteristics of the communities to be served, their size, the mass tourism and the presence of food industries highlight strong differences in drinking water needs. Its operation allows high quality drinking water supply to a million resident customers, plus a few millions of tourists during the summer of people and it reduces the need for water pumping from underground sources, and this is particularly important since the coastal area is subject also to subsidence and saline ingression into aquifers. The system experienced water shortage conditions thrice in the last decade, in 2002, in 2007 and in autumn-winter 2011-2012, when the reservoir water storage fell below the attention and the pre-emergency thresholds, thus prompting the implementation of a set of mitigation measures, including limitations to the population's water consumption. The reservoir receives water not only from the headwater catchment, closed at the dam, but also from four diversion watersheds, linked to the reservoir through an underground water channel. Such withdrawals are currently undersized, abstracting only a part of the streamflow exceeding the established minimum flows, due to the design of the water intake structures; it is therefore crucial understanding how the reservoir water availability might be increased through a fuller exploitation of the existing diversion catchment area. Since one of the four diversion catchment is currently ungauged (at least at the fine temporal scale needed for keeping into account the minimum flow requirements downstream of the intakes), the study first presents the set up and parameterisation of a continuous rainfall-runoff model at hourly time-step for the three gauged diversion watersheds and for the headwater catchment: a regional parameterisation

  6. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  7. Optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 董东林; 石占华; 武雄; 孙卫东; 叶责钧; 李树文; 刘金韬

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China. Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins, and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water. All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality. This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply, which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system. Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy, society, ecology, environment, industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account. Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,

  8. Supply and demand analysis of the current and future US neurology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Storm, Michael V; Chakrabarti, Ritashree; Drogan, Oksana; Keran, Christopher M; Donofrio, Peter D; Henderson, Victor W; Kaminski, Henry J; Stevens, James C; Vidic, Thomas R

    2013-07-30

    This study estimates current and projects future neurologist supply and demand under alternative scenarios nationally and by state from 2012 through 2025. A microsimulation supply model simulates likely career choices of individual neurologists, taking into account the number of new neurologists trained each year and changing demographics of the neurology workforce. A microsimulation demand model simulates utilization of neurology services for each individual in a representative sample of the population in each state and for the United States as a whole. Demand projections reflect increased prevalence of neurologic conditions associated with population growth and aging, and expanded coverage under health care reform. The estimated active supply of 16,366 neurologists in 2012 is projected to increase to 18,060 by 2025. Long wait times for patients to see a neurologist, difficulty hiring new neurologists, and large numbers of neurologists who do not accept new Medicaid patients are consistent with a current national shortfall of neurologists. Demand for neurologists is projected to increase from ∼18,180 in 2012 (11% shortfall) to 21,440 by 2025 (19% shortfall). This includes an increased demand of 520 full-time equivalent neurologists starting in 2014 from expanded medical insurance coverage associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In the absence of efforts to increase the number of neurology professionals and retain the existing workforce, current national and geographic shortfalls of neurologists are likely to worsen, exacerbating long wait times and reducing access to care for Medicaid beneficiaries. Current geographic differences in adequacy of supply likely will persist into the future.

  9. Changes in the Iron and Manganese Content and Turbidity in the Vilnius City Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Ramunė Albrektienė

    2011-01-01

    The water of Vilnius boreholes contains excessive quantities of natural iron and manganese, the insoluble forms of which increase the turbidity of the water. Therefore, a ISC Vilniaus Vandenys installed water treatment equipment that remove iron and manganese from drinking water, and decrease the turbidity of the water. Water samples were taken at different points of the water supply network, total iron, manganese content, and turbidity analyses were carried out, and the changes in indicators...

  10. Energy-water nexus analysis of enhanced water supply scenarios: a regional comparison of Tampa Bay, Florida, and San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2014-05-20

    Increased water demand and scarce freshwater resources have forced communities to seek nontraditional water sources. These challenges are exacerbated in coastal communities, where population growth rates and densities in the United States are the highest. To understand the current management dilemma between constrained surface and groundwater sources and potential new water sources, Tampa Bay, Florida (TB), and San Diego, California (SD), were studied through 2030 accounting for changes in population, water demand, and electricity grid mix. These locations were chosen on the basis of their similar populations, land areas, economies, and water consumption characters as well as their coastal locations and rising contradictions between water demand and supply. Three scenarios were evaluated for each study area: (1) maximization of traditional supplies; (2) maximization of seawater desalination; and (3) maximization of nonpotable water reclamation. Three types of impacts were assessed: embodied energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and energy cost. SD was found to have higher embodied energy and energy cost but lower GHG emission than TB in most of its water infrastructure systems because of the differences between the electricity grid mixes and water resources of the two regions. Maximizing water reclamation was found to be better than increasing either traditional supplies or seawater desalination in both regions in terms of the three impact categories. The results further imply the importance of assessing the energy-water nexus when pursuing demand-side control targets or goals as well to ensure that the potentially most economical options are considered.

  11. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 21 September...Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Service Supply Chain , Services Acquisition, Service Lifecycle, Contract Management, Project Management, Program Management = = ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ

  12. Changes in the Iron and Manganese Content and Turbidity in the Vilnius City Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramunė Albrektienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The water of Vilnius boreholes contains excessive quantities of natural iron and manganese, the insoluble forms of which increase the turbidity of the water. Therefore, a ISC Vilniaus Vandenys installed water treatment equipment that remove iron and manganese from drinking water, and decrease the turbidity of the water. Water samples were taken at different points of the water supply network, total iron, manganese content, and turbidity analyses were carried out, and the changes in indicators mentioned above were observed in the water supply network. It was established that this indicators concentrations are changing at water supply networks, but do not exceed the norms allowed by HN 24:2003.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Development of Water Supply and Billing Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  14. Modelling Water Supply-Billing and Collection Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  15. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, Berit; Jørgensen, C.;

    2013-01-01

    the pressure on the primary and conventional groundwater based drinking water supply. Four alternative water resources for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3......) desalinated brackish water for all uses including drinking water and 4) local reclamation of rain and grey water for use in toilets and laundry. The project has been conducted by multiple stakeholders, including the municipality, landowners, the water utility, consultants, technology providers and research......Nordhavn, a former industrial harbour area is under development into an integrated part of Copenhagen City. All infrastructures will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. Our project assesses the potential for establishing a secondary water supply to relieve...

  16. Current Water Issues Faced with Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘柳

    2009-01-01

    Tianjin is the third biggest city in China,but currently facing a severe water shortage.Historically,due to Tianjin's geographic location it is a water rich city,but over the past 50 decades has become a water poor area.Over all both quality and quantity of Tianjin's water resource are declining.Recommendations arc made to resolve this water problem in different aspects.%天津作为中国的直辖市之一,目前面临着严重水资源短缺的问题.在历史上,因为它的地理位置,天津是水资源丰富的城市.然而近几十年来天津已经成为水资源极度匮乏地区.天津水资源的数量和质量都在急刷下降.在这篇文章中提出了一些建议来帮助解决这些水问题.

  17. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  18. Water supply in the long term: a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated water assessment studies are often confined to a study of physical aspects, considering the relation between surface and groundwater, water quantity and water quality, and between water, land and climate. The interaction between changes in the water system and socio-economic development i

  19. Thermal Impact Analysis of Circulating Current in High Power Modular Online Uninterruptible Power Supplies Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In modular uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), several DC/AC modules are required to work in parallel. This structure allows the system to be more reliable and flexible. These DC/AC modules share the same DC bus and AC critical bus. Module differences, such as filter inductor, filter capacitor......, control parameters, and so on, will make it possible for the potential zero sequence current to flow among the modules. This undesired type of circulating current will bring extra losses to the power semiconductor devices in the system, which should be paid special attention in high power application...

  20. Augmenting water supply by combined desalination/water recycling methods: an economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, Adam; Blandin, Gaetan; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Dry coastal communities increasingly need to consider non-traditional methods of augmenting their water supply. This study presents a preliminary economic comparison of three alternatives for increasing the water supply by 50% for a hypothetical baseline coastal scenario: increasing desalination (Scenario A), direct potable water reuse (DPWR) (Scenario B), and a novel retrofitted configuration of a hybrid forward osmosis-reverse osmosis (FO-RO) plant (Scenario C). The latter used the dilution of the seawater feed to increase the recovery and overall output water of the original RO step. To account for the time value of money, levelised cost (LC) was used as the primary economic metric. The hybrid FO-RO configuration had a comparable LC to DPWR (0.59 vs. 0.61 $ m(-3)) and was 12% cheaper than desalination (0.67 $ m(-3)). Furthermore, hybrid FO-RO was 7% more energy efficient than conventional desalination due to reduced intake and pretreatment flows. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that incremental reductions in LC were possible for increased FO membrane flux, including in pressure-assisted osmosis scenarios with applied pressure ranging from 2 to 6 bar. These findings validate the examination of hybrid FO-RO configurations that deviate from the energy-reduction paradigms typically studied.

  1. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  2. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Droogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply–demand imbalances in Ir

  3. Effect of Rainfall Variability on Water Supply in Ikeduru L.G.A. of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    water supply in the study area and the rainfall; and that there is a significant difference in the ... on water resources and freshwater ecosystems. The beneficial ... Services records, Imo State Water Corporation records, Imo State Water .... to Owerri urban area, and the presence of some cottage industries is responsible for ...

  4. Flow Down! Can managing forests help maintain water supplies in the face of climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie Laseter; Chelcy Miniat; James Vose

    2014-01-01

    Climate change can have a direct and indirect impacts on water resources. Direct impacts of climate change can be seen by the presence of more extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include things like heat waves and droughts. Droughts have a direct impact on water and water supply. The indirect impacts of climate change on water resources relate to temperature...

  5. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  6. An optimization framework for the integration of water management and shale gas supply chain design

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, O. J.; Calderon, A. J.; Papageorgiou, L. G.; Siirola, J. J.; Reklaitis, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementation of a comprehensive optimization framework for the assessment of shale gas resources. The framework simultaneously integrates water management and the design and planning of the shale gas supply chain, from the shale formation to final product demand centers and from fresh water supply for hydraulic fracturing to water injection and/or disposal. The framework also addresses some issues regarding wastewater quality, i.e., total...

  7. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply Sofonias Kifle Tsegaye Gadisa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    ABSTRACT. A cross-sectional study on drinking water quality in Jimma town was conducted from .... Unprotected spring: - a spring with out any construction and flow on the open field. Pipe water ..... Regular microbial assessment of all water ...

  8. A Rapid, Safe Drinking Water Supply Production Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-24

    water contaminated with E. coli as a demonstration of electrolytic water pui-ification. For this series of tests, water was collected from Frijoles ...electrolysis unit. The tank which corresponds to raw water intake - (Figure 4-1) was filled with 110 gallons of turbid Frijoles Creek water spiked 28 i~~i...chlorine-hypochlorite. This increased ozone satisfied the ozone demand due to organic material in the Frijoles Creek water more rapidly, which may

  9. Piped-Water Supplies in Rural Areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: Water Quality and Household Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Wilbers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Mekong Delta (MD in Vietnam, piped-water supply stations are being intensively built to reach the millennium development goal (MDG to provide safe and clean drinking water resources to communities. However, studies focusing on the effectiveness of supply stations in reaching these goals are scarce to date. Water samples from 41 water supply stations in the MD were collected between June and October 2012. Water samples were analyzed for general parameters, salinity, nutrients, metal(loids and microbial indicator bacteria and compared with World Health Organization (WHO and Vietnamese drinking water guidelines. In addition, 542 household interviews were conducted to investigate the connection rate to piped-water and people’s perceptions regarding piped-water supplies. The results show that water guidelines were exceeded for pH (min. 6.2, turbidity (max. 10 FTU, Cl (max. 1,576 mg·L−1, NH4 (max. 7.92 mg·L−1, Fe (431.1 µg·L−1, Hg (11.9 µg·L−1, and microbial indicator bacteria (max. total coliform 50,000 CFU 100 mL−1. Moreover, more than half of the interviewed households with access to a piped-water supply did not use this supply as a source of drinking water due to (i high connection fees; (ii preference for other water sources; and (iii perceived poor quality/quantity. Our study shows that the maintenance and distribution of water supply stations should significantly improve in order for piped-water to become a reliable drinking water source. Additionally, alternatives, such as rainwater harvesting and decentralized treatment facilities, should also be considered.

  10. Constraining uncertainties in water supply reliability in a tropical data scarce basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Rodriguez, Erasmo; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the water supply reliability in river basins is essential for adequate planning and development of irrigated agriculture and urban water systems. In many cases hydrological models are applied to determine the surface water availability in river basins. However, surface water availability and variability is often not appropriately quantified due to epistemic uncertainties, leading to water supply insecurity. The objective of this research is to determine the water supply reliability in order to support planning and development of irrigated agriculture in a tropical, data scarce environment. The approach proposed uses a simple hydrological model, but explicitly includes model parameter uncertainty. A transboundary river basin in the tropical region of Colombia and Venezuela with an approximately area of 2100 km² was selected as a case study. The Budyko hydrological framework was extended to consider climatological input variability and model parameter uncertainty, and through this the surface water reliability to satisfy the irrigation and urban demand was estimated. This provides a spatial estimate of the water supply reliability across the basin. For the middle basin the reliability was found to be less than 30% for most of the months when the water is extracted from an upstream source. Conversely, the monthly water supply reliability was high (r>98%) in the lower basin irrigation areas when water was withdrawn from a source located further downstream. Including model parameter uncertainty provides a complete estimate of the water supply reliability, but that estimate is influenced by the uncertainty in the model. Reducing the uncertainty in the model through improved data and perhaps improved model structure will improve the estimate of the water supply reliability allowing better planning of irrigated agriculture and dependable water allocation decisions.

  11. How much are households willing to contribute to the cost recovery of drinking water supply? Results from a household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tarfasa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources are crucial to improve existing urban drinking water supply in developing countries typically characterized by low cost recovery rates and high and rapidly growing demand for more reliable services. This study examines the willingness to pay for improved urban drinking water supply employing a choice model (CM in an urban context in Ethiopia, Hawassa, with a household survey of 170 respondents. The design of the choice model allows the estimation of the values of two attributes of urban drinking water service (extra day water delivery per week and safer water. The findings indicate that households are willing to pay up to 60% extra for improved levels of water supply over and above their current water bill. Especially those households living in the poorest part of the city with the lowest service levels demonstrate that they are willing to pay more despite significant income constraints they are facing. Women value the improvement of water quality most, while a significant effect is found for averting behavior and expenditures. The estimated economic values can be used in policy appraisals of investment decisions.

  12. New Current Control Method of DC Power Supply for Magnetic Perturbation Coils on J-TEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wubing; DING Yonghua; YI Bin; XU Hangyu; RAO Bo; ZHANG Ming; LIU Minghai

    2014-01-01

    In order to advance the research on suppressing tearing modes and driving plasma rotation,a DC power supply (PS) system has been developed for dynamic resonant magnetic perturbation (DRMP) coils and applied in the J-TEXT experiment.To enrich experimental phenomena in the J-TEXT tokamak,applying the circulating current four-quadrant operation mode in the DRMP DC PS system is proposed.By using the circulating current four-quadrant operation,DRMP coils can be smoothly controlled without the dead-time when the current polarity reverses.Essential circuit analysis,control optimization and simulation of desired scenarios have been performed for normal current.Relevant simulation and test results are also presented.

  13. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  14. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  15. Water quality of selected springs and public-supply wells, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota, 1992-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of a water-quality study for the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. The study was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Water Resources Department of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. Discharge and water-quality data were collected during 1992-97 for 14 contact springs located in the northwestern part of the Reservation. Data were collected to evaluate potential alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt, which currently obtains water of marginal quality from a well completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. During 1995-97, water-quality data also were collected for 44 public-supply wells that serve about one-half of the Reservation's population. Quality-assurance sampling was used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of environmental samples. Ten of the springs sampled contact the White River Group, and four contact the Pierre Shale. Springs contacting the White River Group range from calcium bicarbonate to sodium bicarbonate water types. Two springs contacting the Pierre Shale have water types similar to this; however, sulfate is the dominant anion for the other two springs. In general, springs contacting the White River Group are shown to have better potential as alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt than springs contacting the Pierre Shale. Nine of the springs with better water quality were sampled repeatedly; however, only minor variability in water quality was identified. Six of these nine springs, of which five contact the White River Group, probably have the best potential for use as water supplies. Discharge from any of these six springs probably would provide adequate water supply for Red Shirt during most periods, based on a limited number of discharge measurements collected. Concentrations of lead exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 15 ?g/L for three of these six springs. Five of these six springs also had arsenic

  16. Optimal operation of water supply systems with tanks based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ting-chao; ZHANG Tu-qiao; LI Xun

    2005-01-01

    In view of the poor water supply system's network properties, the system's complicated network hydraulic equations were replaced by macroscopic nodal pressure model and the model of relationship between supply flow and water source head. By using pump-station pressure head and initial tank water levels as decision variables, the model of optimal allocation of water supply between pump-sources was developed. Genetic algorithm was introduced to deal with the model of optimal allocation of water supply. Methods for handling each constraint condition were put forward, and overcome the shortcoming such as premature convergence of genetic algorithm;a solving method was brought forward in which genetic algorithm was combined with simulated annealing technology and self-adaptive crossover and mutation probabilities were adopted. An application example showed the feasibility of this algorithm.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  18. Feedback control of water supply in an NFT growing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Th.H.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Vries, de H.C.; Loef, P.

    2001-01-01

    The paper explores a concept of irrigation control, where the supply of nutrient solution is controlled without the use of predictive uptake models but rather by the use of a direct feedback of a drain flow measurement. This concept proves to be a viable approach. Results are presented, showing the

  19. A Data Mining Approach to Modelling of Water Supply Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babovic, V.; Drecourt, J.; Keijzer, M.

    2002-01-01

    supply assets are mainly situated underground, and therefore not visible and under the influence of various highly unpredictable forces. This paper proposes the use of advanced data mining methods in order to determine the risks of pipe bursts. For example, analysis of the database of already occurred...

  20. What is the Effect of Interannual Hydroclimatic Variability on Water Supply Reservoir Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Turner, S. W. D.

    2015-12-01

    Rather than deriving from a single distribution and uniform persistence structure, hydroclimatic data exhibit significant trends and shifts in their mean, variance, and lagged correlation through time. Consequentially, observed and reconstructed streamflow records are often characterized by features of interannual variability, including long-term persistence and prolonged droughts. This study examines the effect of these features on the operating performance of water supply reservoirs. We develop a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) model that can incorporate a regime-shifting climate variable. We then compare the performance of operating policies—designed with and without climate variable—to quantify the contribution of interannual variability to standard policy sub-optimality. The approach uses a discrete-time Markov chain to partition the reservoir inflow time series into small number of 'hidden' climate states. Each state defines a distinct set of inflow transition probability matrices, which are used by the SDP model to condition the release decisions on the reservoir storage, current-period inflow and hidden climate state. The experimental analysis is carried out on 99 hypothetical water supply reservoirs fed from pristine catchments in Australia—all impacted by the Millennium drought. Results show that interannual hydroclimatic variability is a major cause of sub-optimal hedging decisions. The practical import is that conventional optimization methods may misguide operators, particularly in regions susceptible to multi-year droughts.

  1. A framework for planning sustainable seawater desalination water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas.

  2. Bacteriological problems in water supply systems; Bakteriologische Probleme bei Wassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P.

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at bacteriological problems in hot-water distribution system and, in particular looks at the situation concerning legionella bacteria which thrive in standing water at temperatures often encountered in domestic hot water systems. The article is based on experience gained in the analysis of over 1500 hot-water systems. Diseases caused by the inhalation of water droplets emanating from domestic hot-water systems are discussed and showers are mentioned as being a problem zone. An ecological thermal protective system is described. Problems that can be encountered in ventilation and air-conditioning systems and other potential sources are also mentioned.

  3. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  4. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  5. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F.M.; Prather, K.; Cayan, D.

    2011-01-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  6. Water supply from the karst aquifers in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mircovski, Vojo; Spasovski, Orce

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the most important kast aquifers in the Republic of Macedonia whose water is used for the water supply in several municipalities. Ground waters from karst aquifers are important for the water supply of a number of large cites such as Skopje, Dojran, Kavadarci, Negotino, Gostivar, Ohrid, Kruševo, Prilep, Kićevo, Valandovo, Oslomej, Makedonski Brod etc. Investigations carried out so far indicate that the waters of karst aquifers have the most promising potential for w...

  7. Iron isotopes in bottom waters from the Bransfield Strait: Implications for deep water Fe supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichel, T.; Lough, A. J. M.; Homoky, W. B.; Connelly, D.; Klar, J. K.; Conway, T. M.; John, S.; Mills, R.

    2016-02-01

    Iron (Fe) is an important micro-nutrient in the global ocean. However, its low bioavailability due to poor solubility in oxygenated waters, leads to a strongly limiting character of this trace metal as a nutrient in areas of low Fe supply. The major sources of Fe into seawater are largely known (i.e. aeolian dust deposition, riverine and groundwater input, seawater-sediment interaction, and hydrothermal vents) but the relative contributions of these sources to the marine Fe supply are not yet well quantified. Areas with low atmospheric inputs, such as the Southern Ocean, are severely Fe-limited in surface waters. Here, strong upwelling and a deeply penetrating surface mixed layer fuel one of the largest biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the global ocean. Upwelling of deep waters containing larger amounts of Fe can be a likely source for surface waters. One significant pathway to enrich Fe in bottom waters is the benthic flux of trace metals from hydrothermal systems, where Fe can be stabilised in the water column by different dissolved species. Several benthic processes e.g. benthic fauna, may enhance transportation of dissolved trace metals from pore waters through oxic surface layers of sediments into the deep ocean. Concentrations of total dissolvable Fe (DFe) in these bottom waters have been reported to be significantly higher than surrounding seawater (Aquilina et al., 2014). Here we present DFe isotope composition of bottom water from the Hook Ridge, a shallow ( 1100m) sediment covered volcanic feature within a rifted margin in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. On the basis of Fe isotopes we will determine the processes involved that release Fe from sediments. This will help to evaluate whether benthic fluxes from hydrothermal fields can be a major source of bioavailable Fe to the deep Southern Ocean. References: Aquilina, A., Homoky, W.B., Hawkes, J. A., Lyons, T.W., Mills, R. a., 2014. GCA 137, 64-80. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.003

  8. High voltage power supplies for ITER RF heating and current drive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, T., E-mail: thibault.gassmann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arambhadiya, B.; Beaumont, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baruah, U.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonicelli, T. [Fusion For Energy, C/3 Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Darbos, C.; Purohit, D.; Decamps, H. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Albajar, F. [Fusion For Energy, C/3 Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gandini, F.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Omori, T. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Parmar, D.; Patel, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Rathi, D. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Singh, N.P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2011-10-15

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems to be installed for the ITER fusion machine are the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron (IC) and, although not in the first phase of the project, lower hybrid (LH). These systems require high voltage, high current power supplies (HVPS) in CW operation. These HVPS should deliver around 50 MW electrical power to each of the RF H and CD systems with stringent requirements in terms of accuracy, voltage ripple, response time, turn off time and fault energy. The PSM (Pulse Step Modulation) technology has demonstrated over the past 20 years its ability to fulfill these requirements in many industrial facilities and other fusion reactors and has therefore been chosen as reference design for the IC and EC HVPS systems. This paper describes the technical specifications, including interfaces, the resulting constraints on the design, the conceptual design proposed for ITER EC and IC HVPS systems and the current status.

  9. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  10. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Notice of Study Findings. Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    GRAND ISLE - PLAN 2 Seawater Desalinization 73 11 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 3 Brackish Water Desalinization 75 12 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 4 Recycle Wastewater 76 13...32 CAYERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 20 Import Water from Intracoastal Waterway 127 33 CAMERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 21 Brackish Water Desalinization 129 34...becomes salty and an alternate source, Bayou Black, must be used. However, Bayou Black is also connected to the GIWW so its use for fre~h water is

  11. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply...

  12. Yakima/Klickitat Production Preliminary Design Report, Appendix B: Water Supply Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bureau of Reclamation.

    1990-03-01

    From May 1988 to January 1990 the Bureau of Reclamation, under an interagency agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration, conducted the water supply analysis required by Task II of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) approval of predesign work on the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project. The purposes of the analysis were to (1) document the adequacy of water supplies (quantity and quality) for the proposed artificial production facilities, and for anadromous fish spawning, incubation, rearing, and migration in the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers and their tributaries; (2) determine the availability and quality of existing anadromous fish habitat in both basins; (3) document existing constraints to achieving anadromous fish production potentials in both basins; and (4) develop a listing of streams in both basins where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are adequate for anadromous fish production; where water supplies, access, and habitat would be adequate if improvements were made and agreements reached with existing water users; and where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are inadequate or unattainable in the near term (water supply analysis will be reviewed by project managers and a technical work group, and recommendations will be made to the Council for any changes needed in the location and/or design of the proposed production project facilities.

  13. Al Nahrwan Water Supply Project. Al Nahrwan, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    This contract was for the design and construction of water pipelines , connection of fifty houses to the new water pipeline, and removal of illegal...to change the length and diameter of the required water pipelines . This modification increased the total contract value from $163,035 to $289,980

  14. Mutagenicity of the drinking water supply in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusamran, Wannee R; Tanthasri, Nopsarun; Meesiripan, Nuntana; Tepsuwan, Anong

    2003-01-01

    Seventeen samples of tap water in Bangkok and 2 neighboring provinces were collected in winter and summer, concentrated and tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Preliminary results demonstrated that concentrated tap water exhibited clear mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA100 and YG1029, but not towards TA98 and YG1024, in the absence of S9 mix, and the addition of S9 mix markedly decreased the mutagenicity to both tester strains. Amberlite( ) XAD-2 resin, but not blue rayon, was able to adsorb mutagens from water at pH 2. Our data clearly demonstrated that all tap water samples prepared by chlorination of Chao Phraya River water were mutagenic to strain TA100 without S9 mix, inducing 3,351 + 741 and 2,216 + 770 revertants/l, in winter and summer, respectively. On the other hand, however, tap water samples prepared from ground water were not mutagenic. Furthermore, it was found that boiling for only 5 min and filtration through home purifying system containing activated charcoal and mixed resin units were very effective to abolish the mutagenicity of water. Storage of water also significantly decreased the mutagenicity, however, it took 2-3 weeks to totally abolish it. Additionally, we also found 1 out of 6 brands of commercially available bottled drinking water to be mutagenic, with about 26 % of the average mutagenicity of tap water. The results in the present study clearly demonstrated that chlorinated tap water in Bangkok and neighboring provinces contain direct-acting mutagens causing capable of causing base-pair substitution. Boiling and filtration of tap water through home purifying systems may be the most effective means to abolish the mutagenicity. Some brands of commercial bottled waters may also contain mutagens which may be derived from tap water.

  15. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with...

  16. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project...

  17. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko...

  18. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two...

  19. Estimated Public Supply Water Use of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a 100-meter cell resolution raster of estimated use of public supply water for the southwestern United States. The dataset was generated from...

  20. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... alternative that warrants a more detailed investigation through a feasibility study. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... address those needs through appraisal investigations and feasibility studies. ] Background The...

  1. Water Supply and Treatment Design in Rural Belize: A Participatory Approach to Engineering Action Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathryn Elizabeth Villars; Cara Magoon; Julie Evans; Brian Hickey; Ariel Sayre; Christopher Tutino; R J Swap

    2010-01-01

    As part of a long term engagement in a rural community in western Belize, students responded to community leaders' requests for an investigation of possible solutions to their water quality and supply problems...

  2. Water Supply Intakes, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Farmer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this...

  3. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed tha

  4. Back-Propagation Artificial Neural Networks for Water Supply Pipeline Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱东海; 张土乔; 毛根海

    2002-01-01

    Water supply pipelines are the lifelines of a city. When pipelines burst, the burst site is difficult to locate by traditional methods such as manual tools or only by watching. In this paper, the burst site was identified using back-propagation (BP) artificial neural networks (ANN). The study is based on an indoor urban water supply model experiment. The key to appling BP ANN is to optimize the ANN's topological structure and learning parameters. This paper presents the optimizing method for a 3-layer BP neural network's topological structure and its learning parameters-learning ratio and the momentum factor. The indoor water supply pipeline model experimental results show that BP ANNs can be used to locate the burst point in urban water supply systems. The topological structure and learning parameters were optimized using the experimental results.

  5. Washoe County : Regional water supply and quality study : Phase II final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major goal of this study was to help structure a solution to the fragmented responsibilities for conservation, resource management, water supply, wastewater,...

  6. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed tha

  7. Drought and Water Supply. Implications of the Massachusetts Experience for Municipal Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Clifford S.; And Others

    This book uses the 1962-66 Massachusetts drought data as a base of information to build a planning model of water resources that is of interest to students and professionals involved with water management. Using a demand-supply ratio to measure the relative inadequacy of a given water system, the authors then project demand into the drought period…

  8. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  9. Metabolic modelling to support long term strategic decisions on water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Felisa, Giada; Lauriola, Ilaria; Pomanti, Flavio; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are essential for the economic development and sustenance of anthropic activities belonging to the civil, agricultural and industrial sectors. Nevertheless, availability of water resources is not uniformly distributed in space and time. Moreover, the increasing water demand, mainly due to population growth and expansion of agricultural crops, may cause increasing water stress conditions, if combined with the effects of climate change. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to improve the resilience of water supply systems both in terms of infrastructures and environmental compliance. Metabolic modelling approaches represent a flexible tool able to provide support to decision making in the long term, based on sustainability criteria. These approaches mimic the water supply network through a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we adopt these concepts to analyze the water supply network of Reggio-Emilia (Italy) which is supported by water withdrawals from both surface water and groundwater bodies. We analyze different scenarios, including possible reduction of water withdrawals from one of the different sources as a consequence of a decrease in water availability under present and future scenarios. On these basis, we identify preventive strategies for a dynamic management of the water supply system.

  10. Geography in the Social Studies: High School Simulation on Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a ready-to-use simulation that has high school students portraying all of the key players that decide how water from the Colorado River will be allocated. Students act as judges, lobbyists, news analysts, and even protesters during a mock water conference. Water supply is promised beyond nature's delivery, so the problem is real and will…

  11. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  12. Prolonged exposure to arsenic in UK private water supplies: toenail, hair and drinking water concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D R S; Watts, M J; Hamilton, E M; Fletcher, T; Leonardi, G S; Close, R M; Exley, K S; Crabbe, H; Polya, D A

    2016-05-18

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is an established cause of cancer and other adverse health effects. Arsenic concentrations >10 μg L(-1) were previously measured in 5% of private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, UK. The present study investigated prolongued exposure to As by measuring biomarkers in hair and toenail samples from 212 volunteers and repeated measurements of As in drinking water from 127 households served by PWS. Strong positive Pearson correlations (rp = 0.95) indicated stability of water As concentrations over the time period investigated (up to 31 months). Drinking water As concentrations were positively correlated with toenail (rp = 0.53) and hair (rp = 0.38) As concentrations - indicative of prolonged exposure. Analysis of washing procedure solutions provided strong evidence of the effective removal of exogenous As from toenail samples. Significantly higher As concentrations were measured in hair samples from males and smokers and As concentrations in toenails were negatively associated with age. A positive association between seafood consumption and toenail As and a negative association between home-grown vegetable consumption and hair As was observed for volunteers exposed to hair biomarkers. Substantial variation in biomarker As concentrations remained unaccounted for, with soil and dust exposure as possible explanations.

  13. Iron isotopes in bottom waters from the Bransfield Strait: Implications for deep water Fe supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichel, Torben; Homoky, William; Connelly, Douglas; Klar, Jessica; Mills, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Iron (Fe) is an important micro-nutrient in the global ocean. However, its low bioavailability due to poor solubility in oxygenated waters, leads to a strongly limiting character of this trace metal as a nutrient. The major sources of Fe to seawater are largely known (i.e. aeolian dust deposition, riverine and groundwater input, seawater-sediment interaction, and hydrothermal vents) but the relative significance of these sources to the marine Fe supply are not yet well quantified. Areas with low atmospheric inputs, such as the Southern Ocean, are severely Fe limited in surface waters. Here, strong upwelling and a deeply penetrating surface mixed layer fuel one of the largest biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the global ocean. One significant pathway to bottom waters is the benthic flux of trace metals from hydrothermal systems, where Fe can be stabilised in the water column by different dissolved species. For example, benthic fauna, such as tube-worms, may enhance transportation of dissolved trace metals from pore waters through oxic surface layers of sediments into the deep ocean. Concentrations of total dissolvable Fe (DFe) in these bottom waters have been reported to be significantly higher than surrounding seawater (Aquilina et al., 2014). Here we present DFe isotope composition of bottom water from the Hook Ridge, a shallow (~1100m) sediment covered volcanic feature within a rifted margin. On the basis of Fe isotopes we will determine whether Fe is released by non-reductive dissolution from poorly oxygenated sediments via the presence of tubeworms Sclerolinum spec. This will help to evaluate whether benthic fluxes from hydrothermal fields can be a major source of bioavailable Fe to the deep Southern Ocean. References: Aquilina, A., Homoky, W.B., Hawkes, J. A., Lyons, T.W., Mills, R. a., 2014. Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 137, 64-80. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.003

  14. Safe drinking water: Experience with Water Safety Plans and assessment of risk factors in water supply

    OpenAIRE

    María J. Gunnarsdóttir 1947

    2012-01-01

    Access to adequate and clean drinking water is one of the fundamentals of a good and prosperous society. A comprehensive regulatory framework as well as institutional guidelines and procedures are necessary to secure this at any time. Iceland was one of the first countries to categorize drinking water as food in legislation passed in 1995. According to the legislation water utilities are obligated to implement systematic preventive management, Water Safety Plan (WSP), to ensure good quality w...

  15. Water supply and hydrosocial scarcity in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Ana Lucia; Johnsson, Rosa Maria Formiga; Carneiro,Paulo Roberto Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to analyse the water supply systems in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area in the light of the hydrosocial scarcity concept and the human right to water. It also assesses how bulk water availability may aggravate this situation. We argue that water access-related problems are directly related to several aspects: the way that water and sanitation services are managed, deficiencies in planning, technical choices, and the way in which existing systems are operated. In a...

  16. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: Impacts on electricity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availabilty for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flo...

  17. Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudu Rathnayaka; Hector Malano; Meenakshi Arora

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the pap...

  18. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  19. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  20. Improved Sustainability of Water Supply Options in Areas with Arsenic-Impacted Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. McBean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible through the use of a combination of water sources wherein rainwater harvesting is employed for a portion of the year. This can potentially reduce the duration of the year during which arsenic-contaminated groundwater is utilized. As demonstrated, a rainwater cistern volume of 0.5 m3 in the Jessore district area of Bangladesh can provide rainwater for periods averaging 266 days of the year, which allows groundwater at 184 µg/L arsenic to be used as a water supply for the remainder of the year. This dual supply approach provides the body burden equivalent to the interim drinking water guideline of arsenic concentration of 50 µg/L for 365 days of the year (assuming the water consumption rate is 4 L/cap/day for a family of five with a rainwater collection area of 15 m2. If the water use rate is 20 L/cap/day, the same cistern can provide water for 150 days of the year; however, although this is insufficient to supply water to meet the body burden equivalent guideline of 50 µg/L. Results are provided also for different rooftop areas, sizes of cisterns and alternative arsenic guidelines [World Health Organization (WHO and Bangladeshi]. These findings provide useful guidelines on supply options to meet sustainability targets of water supply. However, they also demonstrate that the use of cisterns cannot assist the meeting of the 10 µg/L WHO target arsenic body burden, if the arsenic contamination in the groundwater is high (e.g., at 100 µg/L.

  1. Water safety plans. Hazard study and risk assessment of a water supply system in Bizkaia. Application to the water catchment stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Astillero Pinilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The best way to guarantee a safe and high quality water supply is to establish a control and management plan for the water supply system that focuses on risk prevention. In this study, the methodology and analytical steps established in the Water Safety Plan Manual (WHO and the Guide to the Control and Management of Water Supply Systems (Autonomous Government of the Basque Country were used to carry out hazard and risk assessment in a water supply system in Bizkaia. Although the application has only been carried out in the water catchment stage, it has already provided information about the benefits, as well as the problems encountered. Therefore, from the results obtained, it can be seen that this methodology is clearly effective for determining risks that had passed unnoticed, and for establishing new control measures. It also demonstrates the importance of co-operation between the bodies not directly related to the operation of the water supply system.

  2. What works in water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries with EWB-USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Melissa J

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports some progress on the global problem of a lack of improved water and sanitation. Between 1990 and 2012, the number of people that gained improved access to improved drinking water reached 2.3 billion people, while the number of children that have died from diarrheal diseases has fallen from 1.5 million deaths to just above 600,000 deaths (1, 2). However, it is estimated that there are still 1.8 billion people using a fecally contaminated source of drinking water (3). In addition, 748 million people continue to lack clean water, 1 billion continue to practice open defecation, and 2.5 billion people still lack adequate sanitation (3). In response to this global issue, Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB-USA) began with a mission to build a better world through engineering projects that empower communities to meet their basic human needs and equip leaders to solve the world's most pressing challenges. Their 15,000+ members work with communities to find appropriate solutions to improve water supply, sanitation, energy, agriculture, civil works and structures. Their development approach is based on standard engineering methodology, including problem identification, assessment, alternatives analysis, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. EWB-USA began in 2002 and currently has members working in over 40 countries around the world. The majority of their work is focused in Latin America and Africa, but their programs are expanding to Asia and the Pacific Basin. Currently, EWB-USA members are working in 17 programs in six countries, including the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Fiji. Success in these programs is defined by measuring overall impact and learning from failure. Impact is measured through Standard Monitoring Indicators and learning is accomplished by documenting failures and lessons learned. Through this work, the organization has impacted 2.5 million lives through primarily water supply and

  3. Wildfire effects on water quality in forest catchments: A review with implications for water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh G.; Sheridan, Gary J.; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

    2011-01-01

    SummaryWildfires burn extensive forest areas around the world each year. In many locations, fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. Following wildfire, increased erosion rates and changes to runoff generation and pollutant sources may greatly increase fluxes of sediment, nutrients and other water quality constituents, potentially contaminating water supplies. Most research to date has focused on suspended sediment exports and concentrations after wildfire. Reported first year post-fire suspended sediment exports varied from 0.017 to 50 t ha -1 year -1 across a large range of catchment sizes (0.021-1655 km 2). This represented an estimated increase of 1-1459 times unburned exports. Maximum reported concentrations of total suspended solids in streams for the first year after fire ranged from 11 to ˜500,000 mg L -1. Similarly, there was a large range in first year post-fire stream exports of total N (1.1-27 kg ha -1 year -1) and total P (0.03-3.2 kg ha -1 year -1), representing a multiple change of 0.3-431 times unburned, while NO3- exports of 0.04-13.0 kg ha -1 year -1 (3-250 times unburned) have been reported. NO3-, NO2-, and NH 3/ NH4+ concentrations in streams and lakes or reservoirs may increase after wildfire but appear to present a generally low risk of exceeding drinking water guidelines. Few studies have examined post-fire exports of trace elements. The limited observations of trace element concentrations in streams after wildfire found high levels (well over guidelines) of Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above guideline values. Elevated Na +, Cl - and SO42- solute yields have been recorded soon after fire, while reports of concentrations of these constituents were mostly confined to coniferous forest areas in North America, where maximum sampled values were well

  4. [Variation of nitrogen during the high suspended sediments concentration water supply in an artificial shallow lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-yuan; Shen, Yu; Yang, Shi-ying

    2013-09-01

    The effect of water quality and suspended sediments in the process of water supply is of an increasing concern recently in an artificial shallow lake. The water supply from the Yellow River to Dongchang Lake happened on April 23rd to 25th, 2012. The synchronous monitoring of flow velocity, suspended sediment concentration, dissolved nitrogen and particulate nitrogen concentration was conducted during the three days in five monitoring sites of the longitudinal profile from inlet to outlet. The spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen and the relationship between nitrogen concentration and suspended sediment concentration was analyzed. Moreover, the analysis of different nitrogen forms in surface water and bottom sediment was also made in the whole lake before and after the water supply. Results showed that the process of water supplement had an obvious effect on flow velocities and suspended sediment concentrations around the inlet area. The influence area was a limited scope. The spatial distribution of nitrogen presented a certain concentration gradient along the flow direction. Around the water inlet, concentrations of all nitrogen forms in water and bottom sediment was higher than those in other lake zones. The amplitude of variation of all nitrogen concentrations in surface water, suspended sediments showed a decreasing trend from water inlet to outlet. And concentrations of total dissolved and particulate nitrogen increased at different ratios after water supply in the lake. Total particulate nitrogen concentration increase was higher. It revealed the water supply of the Yellow River had a great influence on lake water. The dissolved nitrogen was the main nitrogen form in water supply. The ratio of total dissolved nitrogen to particulate nitrogen was 7.3 : 1. Nitrate was the primary form in dissolved nitrogen, and ammonium was the primary form in particulate nitrogen, respectively. The correlation between concentration of suspended sediments and ammonium, total

  5. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix F. Structural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Influent Chamber L,C Filtered Water Clearwell L,C Backwash Water Holding Tank L,C Carbon Column Effluent Clearwell L,C Finished Water Clearwell C...in fiters and carbon columns, f. Clearwell levels, g. Chemical dosage rates, h. Filter and GAG backwash times, i. On-line turbidity and chlorine... Clearwell levels, b. Flows through each unit processes-recorded as gallons per 24 hours, c. Flow losses-through backwashing, sludge withdrawal, d

  6. Public law regulation of aqueducts and water supply in ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the sources of Roman law on construction and maintenance of public aqueducts and on the regulation of water usage. They show that in ancient Rome public aqueducts served public welfare (utilitas publica because their primary purpose was to supplying the urban population with free drinking water. Given that these ancient rules also contributed to the overall health of the population by securing drinking water and water for personal hygiene, they can also be regarded a significant environmental measures. Although contemporary engineering of water supply network and technology of water purification overcame the ancient Romans, in certain aspects this ancient example deserves to be followed. First, there could be free drinking water for general use. Second, private water usage could be controlled and rationalized. This could be achieved by installing separate water meters for each apartment in residual bundling.

  7. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Puhakainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T.; Ahosilta, P.; Tenhunen, J. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  8. How much should customers be compensated for interruptions in the drinking water supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2017-05-15

    Water supply interruptions directly affect customers, and customers should be compensated accordingly. However, few water regulators have applied compensation policies given the difficulty of estimating the economic value of compensation to customers. In this study, a pioneering approach based on the concept of shadow prices is proposed to determine the compensation that customers should receive for unplanned water interruptions. The Chilean water industry was selected as a case study because there is an ongoing policy discussion between the use of penalties or compensation as an incentive to prevent water supply interruptions. The estimated results indicate that for 2014, the value of compensation ranges between 2.4% and 35.4% of the fixed charge of the water tariff. The methodology and findings of this study are of great relevance to water regulators in defining incentives to prompt water companies to provide reliable water service. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing water supply and hydropower reservoir operation rule curves: An imperialist competitive algorithm approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Abbas; Emami Skardi, Mohammad J.; Masoumi, Fariborz

    2015-09-01

    Efficient reservoir management requires the implementation of generalized optimal operating policies that manage storage volumes and releases while optimizing a single objective or multiple objectives. Reservoir operating rules stipulate the actions that should be taken under the current state of the system. This study develops a set of piecewise linear operating rule curves for water supply and hydropower reservoirs, employing an imperialist competitive algorithm in a parameterization-simulation-optimization approach. The adaptive penalty method is used for constraint handling and proved to work efficiently in the proposed scheme. Its performance is tested deriving an operation rule for the Dez reservoir in Iran. The proposed modelling scheme converged to near-optimal solutions efficiently in the case examples. It was shown that the proposed optimum piecewise linear rule may perform quite well in reservoir operation optimization as the operating period extends from very short to fairly long periods.

  10. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, A A

    2005-07-01

    Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects.

  11. [Mercury in ASGM and its impact on water resources used for domestic water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Arriaga, Farith A

    2014-01-01

    In regions affected by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), the inhalation of mercury vapor and the ingestion of fish contaminated with this metal constitute the main sources of mercury contamination that affect human health. Nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization, another source of contamination is polluted water. Although mercury in freshwater is usually found in very low concentrations because it is swiftly consumed by aquatic microorganisms, evidence shows that under specific circumstances its concentration in water can reach high levels, even surpassing the 2.0 μg/L stipulated by Colombian legislation for use as a domestic water supply. Mercury concentrations above 3.0 μg/L have been found in some Colombian municipalities, and above 8.0 μg/L in other regions around the world. Even though mercury consumption via water is a minor concern, along with other alimentary sources this low mercury concentration contributes to the total burden that affects human health.

  12. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  13. White root tips supply plants with oxygen, water and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2016-01-01

    The main, most important function of roots belonging to horticultural crops is the uptake of water and nutrients. Healthy roots are essential for a healthy plant. After all, if the uptake of water and nutrients is not functioning properly, then other aspects also leave a lot to be desired

  14. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  15. Investigating Willingness to Pay to Improve Water Supply Services: Application of Contingent Valuation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamshat Tussupova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Safe water supply is one of the important Millennium Goals. For development of market water supply services, the willingness of consumers to pay is essential. The consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for piped water supply using the contingent valuation (CV method with different starting point bids was investigated for the Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan. The results showed that households with access to groundwater (well or borehole water users perceived this as of good quality. Consumers without access to groundwater used open-source, standpipe or delivered water for which they had to travel and spend time or to pay. Open source water and standpipe water quality was perceived as bad or satisfactory. More than 90% of the consumers were willing to pay for better water quality and regular water supply. The mean WTP was estimated to be about 1120 in bids and about 1590 KZT per household per month in open-ended question format (150 KZT is ~1 USD as of January 2012. The results can be used to better identify the proper technological choice and the level of service to be provided making rural water projects both sustainable and replicable at a larger scale.

  16. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  17. Isolation and molecular identification of biodegrading Mycobacteria from water supplies of Iranian hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Azadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some microorganisms, mainly members of two genera including Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium, were found to be capable of transforming and degrading of polluting agents. We herein report the isolation of a few mycobacteria with the ability to biodegrade organic and inorganic compounds from water supplies of Iranian hospitals.The water samples were collected from hospital water supplies. Isolation processes were done according to standard methods. The colonies were subcultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium to obtain a pure culture. The identification and characterization of the isolates were based on conventional and molecular methods including direct sequence analysis of almost full length of 16S rRNA gene.The almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the studied strains revealed that the isolates WP16, AW18-1 and AW18-3 were identified as M. fredriksbergense, AW18-2 as M. austroafricanum, AW27-2 as M. obuenseand AW27-6 as M. phocaicum.The relationship between our isolates and standard strains of Mycobacterium was supported by a phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene.In the current study we were able to isolate and characterize six mycobacteria with capability of transforming and degrading polluting agents from Iranian hospital environments. This is indeed the first report on isolation and characterization of mycobacteria with degrading capability of polluting agents from Iranian hospitals. It can be considered as a pioneer study to open up a new horizon in the study of microbial diversity in Iran with an objective-based and applied approach to tackle environmental challenges.

  18. Comparison of Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation of Water Supply and Flood Control Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. L.; Yang, P.; Bhushan, R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, streamflows are expected to become more fluctuating, with more frequent and intense floods and droughts. This complicates reservoir operation, which is highly sensitive to inflow variability. We make a comparative evaluation of three strategies for adapting reservoirs to climate-induced shifts in streamflow patterns. Specifically, we examine the effectiveness of (i) expanding the capacities of reservoirs by way of new off-stream reservoirs, (ii) introducing wastewater reclamation to augment supplies, and (iii) improving real-time streamflow forecasts for more optimal decision-making. The first two are hard strategies involving major infrastructure modifications, while the third a soft strategy entailing adjusting the system operation. A comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the three strategies is as yet lacking in the literature despite the many past studies investigating the strategies individually. To this end, we developed an adaptive forward-looking linear program that solves to yield the optimal decisions for the current time as a function of an ensemble forecast of future streamflows. Solving the model repeatedly on a rolling basis with regular updating of the streamflow forecast simulates the system behavior over the entire operating horizon. Results are generated for two hypothetical water supply and flood control reservoirs of differing inflows and demands. Preliminary findings suggest that of the three strategies, improving streamflow forecasts to be most effective in mitigating the effects of climate change. We also found that, in average terms, both additional reservoir capacity and wastewater reclamation have potential to reduce water shortage and downstream flooding. However, in the worst case, the potential of the former to reduce water shortage is limited, and similarly so the potential of the latter to reduce downstream flooding.

  19. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  20. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  1. Water supply as a constraint on transmission expansion planning in the Western interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Bailey, Michael; Zemlick, Katie M.; Moreland, Barbara D.

    2016-12-01

    Consideration of water supply in transmission expansion planning (TEP) provides a valuable means of managing impacts of thermoelectric generation on limited water resources. Toward this opportunity, thermoelectric water intensity factors and water supply availability (fresh and non-fresh sources) were incorporated into a recent TEP exercise conducted for the electric interconnection in the Western United States. The goal was to inform the placement of new thermoelectric generation so as to minimize issues related to water availability. Although freshwater availability is limited in the West, few instances across five TEP planning scenarios were encountered where water availability impacted the development of new generation. This unexpected result was related to planning decisions that favored the development of low water use generation that was geographically dispersed across the West. These planning decisions were not made because of their favorable influence on thermoelectric water demand; rather, on the basis of assumed future fuel and technology costs, policy drivers and the topology of electricity demand. Results also projected that interconnection-wide thermoelectric water consumption would increase by 31% under the business-as-usual case, while consumption would decrease by 42% under a scenario assuming a low-carbon future. Except in a few instances, new thermoelectric water consumption could be accommodated with less than 10% of the local available water supply; however, limited freshwater supplies and state-level policies could increase use of non-fresh water sources for new thermoelectric generation. Results could have been considerably different if scenarios favoring higher-intensity water use generation technology or potential impacts of climate change had been explored. Conduct of this exercise highlighted the importance of integrating water into all phases of TEP, particularly joint management of decisions that are both directly (e.g., water

  2. Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Đurin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.

  3. Mitigating Corporate Water Risk: Financial Market Tools and Supply Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

  4. Current regulators for I/SUP 2/L circuits to be operated from low-voltage power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Hansen, Ole

    1980-01-01

    A new bandgap current reference is described which can be used to control the injector current of I/SUP 2/L circuits for supply voltages down to about 1 V. For small currents the total injector current is obtained as a mirror of the reference current. For large injector currents the current control...... is performed by a series regulator which compares the injector current of one I/SUP 2/L gate to the reference current. The described reference current can be adjusted to give a variation with temperature of about 60 ppm/°C over the temperature range -10 to +70°C. However, in some applications a nonzero......, but well controlled temperature coefficient is desired. It is shown how a temperature stable ring oscillator with I/SUP 2/L gates can be constructed by tailoring the temperature dependence of the supply current appropriately....

  5. Combining scientific and societal challenges: a water supply case study from the Koster Islands, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Banzhaf, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Until now, groundwater in coastal areas has not received much attention in Sweden, neither from water authorities nor the research community. Extractable volumes from bedrock aquifers are too small for the public water supply of larger permanent settlements. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in attractive coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources during the summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. This situation is exacerbated as municipalities receive increasing applications to build summerhouses, or to convert existing ones into permanent residencies. In view of such rising demands, as well as the growing awareness of potential environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. However, the responsibility for private wells is left almost exclusively to their owners, and obligations in the water sector are distributed over a wide range of authorities which operate on local, regional, and national scales (1). Therefore, it remains unclear how to deal with and administer the related challenging questions which are of varying legal, social, economic, environmental, and hydrological natures. Here, we present intermediate results of an ongoing investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms an "in-a-nutshell" example of a coastal zone with such groundwater use. With around 300 annual permanent residents, but up to 6000 summer overnight guests in peak season, water supply, largely based on 800 private wells, is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and even the current operation is considered unsustainable, leaving the municipality to decide how to secure future supply. The municipality favors a "large scale technical solution" (either a pipeline from the mainland or a large desalination plant) while many locals prefer to keep the existing private wells. While

  6. How can countries achieve sustainable food supply in 2050: current knowledge and way forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Jalava, M.; Jägermeyr, J.; Pfister, S.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Varis, O.

    2016-12-01

    Growing population and climate change increase the pressure on already scarce land and water resources. To reach adequate future food supply, without increasing the pressure on these already scarce resources, various measures are suggested, including diet change, food loss reduction and closing the yield gap. Existing studies have highlighted the potential of these measures as solutions for future food security. However, these are either assessed on a global level or if spatially disaggregated, disconnected from each other. These studies illustrate well that the potential of each measure to increase food availability differs widely across the nations. Thus, spatially explicit information on these measures in a combined assessment is urgently needed to understand the leading resource-efficiency opportunities for each geographic area. By using the most recent datasets, we assess how much each country would potentially be able to increase food production with each measure alone and combining them all, at moderate and high levels of implementation. Globally these measures would increase food availability by 90 and 188%, respectively - enough to feed global population in 2050 even with moderate implementation level. Variability among countries is, however, large and several countries in Central America, Africa, Southeast Asian Islands would need high-level of implementation to reach adequate food supply by then and even then, few countries in MENA region would need to increase the trade from today's levels. Our objective was to bring together potential of various measures for increased food production, as shown in different studies. However, dynamic feedbacks between these quantifications were not included in these estimations. For example, the diet change scenarios would result in different production needs, and changes in land use would be required. This, in turn, might influence the potential improvements in food loss reduction and food production. There is thus

  7. Earthquake damage scenario simulation of a water supply system in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Hao; Chen, Walter W.

    2008-10-01

    Taiwan is located in the Circum-Pacific Belt and at the junction of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The island is squeezed over a long period of time, so the frequency of the occurrence of earthquakes is very high. Changes of terrain due to seismic forces such as fault ruptures and surface uplifts could cause extensive damage to water pipeline networks. The 921 Ji-Ji earthquake was one of the most serious disasters in recent years in Taiwan, and it indeed resulted in the most severe damage of water supply systems. The urban water supply network is very important for municipal water management in Taiwan. If the water supply systems break down, hospitals and fire stations will not have enough water to carry out the rescue work, and the results may worsen the disasters. This study took the water supply system of the West District in Taipei City as an example. First, the metro-Taipei area was split into three hundred and twenty-seven 1 km by 1 km cells. Second, the location of a simulated earthquake was determined. Third, the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value of each cell was calculated by an empirical formula. Fourth, the Repair Rate (RR) of each cell was calculated based on its PGA value. Fifth, using the GIRAFFE software developed by Cornell University, the Monte Carlo simulation method was used to simulate the possible damage to the water supply system. And finally, the EPANET program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was applied to compute the distribution of flow volumes and water pressures of the damaged water supply system. Results of the pipeline network under different scenarios of earthquake magnitudes are shown in this study, and they provide an evaluation basis to decision makers to improve the pipeline infrastructures for fire protection after major earthquakes.

  8. trace elements determination in municipal water supply in damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: Contamination, Trace elements, Toxic, underground water. INTRODUCTION ... prevent rot and increase longevity, such as penta- ... often contains arsenic that was in drugs administered to chickens .... could cause toxicity. Iron was ...

  9. The challenges of rural water supply: a case study of rural areas in Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothetha, M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available services provided by a water services institution are unable to meet the requirements of all its existing consumers, it must give preference to the provision of basic water supply and basic sanitation to them” (Van Der Linde and Ferries, 2010... (including sources and distribution systems) is an important step in ensuring the safety of drinking water (Khatri and Vairavamoorthy, 2007). However, in most cities worldwide, there has been years of neglected maintenance to water storage, treatment...

  10. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  11. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  12. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  13. Socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, K.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    A greenhouse warming would have major effects on water supplies and demands. A framework for examining the socioeconomic impacts associated with changes in the long-term availability of water is developed and applied to the hydrologic implications of the Canadian and British Hadley2 general circulation models (GCMs) for the 18 water resource regions in the conterminous United States. The climate projections of these two GCMs have very different implications for future water supplies and costs. The Canadian model suggests most of the nation would be much drier in the year 2030. Under the least-cost management scenario the drier climate could add nearly $105 billion to the estimated costs of balancing supplies and demands relative to the costs without climate change. Measures to protect instream flows and irrigation could result in significantly higher costs. In contrast, projections based on the Hadley model suggest water supplies would increase throughout much of the nation, reducing the costs of balancing water supplies with demands relative to the no-climate-change case.

  14. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  15. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  17. Multi-objective analysis of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in a multisource water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, João; da Conceição Cunha, Maria

    2017-04-01

    A multi-objective decision model has been developed to identify the Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives for the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater of a multisource urban water supply system. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, Borg MOEA, is used to solve the multi-objective decision model. The multiple solutions can be shown to stakeholders allowing them to choose their own solutions depending on their preferences. The multisource urban water supply system studied here is dependent on surface water and groundwater and located in the Algarve region, southernmost province of Portugal, with a typical warm Mediterranean climate. The rainfall is low, intermittent and concentrated in a short winter, followed by a long and dry period. A base population of 450 000 inhabitants and visits by more than 13 million tourists per year, mostly in summertime, turns water management critical and challenging. Previous studies on single objective optimization after aggregating multiple objectives together have already concluded that only an integrated and interannual water resources management perspective can be efficient for water resource allocation in this drought prone region. A simulation model of the multisource urban water supply system using mathematical functions to represent the water balance in the surface reservoirs, the groundwater flow in the aquifers, and the water transport in the distribution network with explicit representation of water quality is coupled with Borg MOEA. The multi-objective problem formulation includes five objectives. Two objective evaluate separately the water quantity and the water quality supplied for the urban use in a finite time horizon, one objective calculates the operating costs, and two objectives appraise the state of the two water sources - the storage in the surface reservoir and the piezometric levels in aquifer - at the end of the time horizon. The decision variables are the volume of withdrawals from

  18. The child health implications of privatizing Africa's urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosec, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Can private sector participation (PSP) in the piped water sector improve child health? I use child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986-2010 to show that PSP decreases diarrhea among urban-dwelling, under-five children by 2.6 percentage points, or 16% of its mean prevalence. Children from the poorest households benefit most. PSP is also associated with a 7.8 percentage point increase in school attendance of 7-17 year olds. Importantly, PSP increases usage of piped water by 9.7 percentage points, suggesting a possible causal channel explaining health improvements. To attribute causality, I exploit time-variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries' former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect respiratory illness, nor does it affect a control group of rural children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H

    1994-01-01

    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  20. Analysis and intervention plan of water resource supply and demand in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yuhang

    2017-04-01

    Firstly, this paper use Regression Analysis Prediction Method to analysis surface water, underground water and sewage treatment, so that we can predict the water supply capacity of North China in the next 15 years. After that, we test the trusting degree of this model to ensure the facticity by identifying the statistical significance of each data. Secondly, we adopt analytic hierarchy process (AHP method) to gain the factors mostly affecting sewage treatment capacity is the Chemical Oxygen Demand and ammoniac nitrogen content in sewage. So we can take measures to increase the amount of water supply in the region. Finally, we adjust the charging standard of living water and together with logistic regression, which can improve the water-saving awareness of local residents so as to effectively reduce the water consumption in the future.

  1. The interaction of mineral nutrition and water supply in the process of winter wheat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šhivra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments performed in 1972-1976 with winter wheat variety 'Ilyichovka' grown at three levels of increasing mineral nutrition and at different levels of water supply (70% and 40% of maximal water capacity an interaction was observed between mineral nutrition and water availability on the yield and some physiological characteristics of the plants. Water stress during heading stage reduced nearly by one half the grain yield per plant, mostly by decreasing the number of completely filled grains. The quicker leaf senescence and grain number reduction as well as the total grain yield due to water stress differed between the nutritional levels. The relations between leaf surface area and grain yields were nearly linear in treatments with optimal water supply, but were markedly changed by water stress.

  2. Model design for predicting extreme precipitation event impacts on water quality in a water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, M.; Jeznach, L. C.; Park, M. H.; Tobiason, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    -time for the reservoir model. This approach proved useful in probing a water supply's resilience to extreme events, and to inform management responses, particularly in a region such as the American Northeast where climate change is expected to bring such events with higher frequency and intensity than have occurred in the past.

  3. Proposal for a Model of Co-Management for the Small Community Water Supplies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual evolution of Community Based Monitoring (CBM from different approaches : social capital, common pool resources and co-management or collaborative management, and presents the main co-management strategies applied to water supply at small scale: local and community driven development (LCDD and sustainable services at scale (SSS. Supported by this theoretical background, and in order to improve access to drinking water in rural communities in Colombia, the authors propose a co-management model for small and community water supplies.

  4. Reducing energy consumption and leakage by active pressure control in a water supply system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Poznań, in the Midwest of Poland. For the optimal automatic pressure control of the clear water pumping station, nine pressure measuring points were installed in the distribution network, and an active pressure control model was

  5. Concerns in Water Supply and Pollution Control: Legal, Social, and Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D. Barlow, Jr.; And Others

    This bulletin contains three articles which focus on ground water's potential as a dependable supply source and some of the problems impeding the development of that potential. The authors' concerns are discussed from the vantage point of their areas of specialization: law, sociology, and economics. The first author states that water law abounds…

  6. Reducing energy consumption and leakage by active pressure control in a water supply system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Poznań, in the Midwest of Poland. For the optimal automatic pressure control of the clear water pumping station, nine pressure measuring points were installed in the distribution network, and an active pressure control model was develope

  7. Coordination in urban water supply networks using distributed model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leirens, S.; Zamora, C.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2010-01-01

    Urban water supply networks are large-scale systems that transport potable water over vast geographical areas to millions of consumers. A safe and efficient operation of these networks is crucial, as without it living in today’s cities would be impossible. To achieve an adequate operation, these net

  8. Intermittent Domestic Water Supply: A Critical Review and Analysis of Causal-Consequential Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Galaitsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Communities in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries, face obstacles in supplying continuous water to household consumers. Authorities often cite water scarcity as the cause, but we demonstrate that environmental constraints constitute only one aspect of a multi-dimensional problem. By asking what causes intermittent domestic water supply, this literature review (129 articles identifies 47 conditions of intermittent systems and the causal-consequential pathways between them that can reinforce intermittency. These pathways span several disciplines including engineering, government administration and anthropology, and when viewed together they (1 emphasize the human drivers of intermittency; (2 suggest generalized interventions; and (3 reveal a gap in the literature in terms of meaningful categorizations of the reliability of intermittent supplies. Based on the reliability of consumers’ water access, we propose three categories of intermittency—predictable, irregular, and unreliable—to facilitate comparisons between case studies and transfers of solutions.

  9. Assessing the relative effects of emissions, climate means, and variability on large water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whateley, Sarah; Brown, Casey

    2016-11-01

    Some of the greatest societal risks of climate change rise from the potential impacts to water supply. Yet prescribing adaptation policies in the near term is made difficult by the uncertainty in climate projections at relevant spatial scales and the conflating effects of uncertainties in emissions, model error, and internal variability. In this work, a new framework is implemented to explore the vulnerability of reservoir systems in the northeastern U.S. to climate change and attribute vulnerabilities to changes in mean climate, natural variability, or emission scenarios. Analysis of variance is used to explore the contributions of uncertainties to system performance. Diagnosing the relative risks to water supply will help water resource engineers better adapt to uncertain future conditions. The results indicate that uncertainty in water supply system performance can be attributed mostly to uncertainty in internal variability over policy-relevant planning horizons, and thus, adaptation efforts should focus on managing variability.

  10. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  11. Operational optimisation of water supply networks using a fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-16

    Jun 16, 2011 ... consumption of water distribution network pumping systems is the reduction of flows and .... distribution network for the design of fuzzy controllers are rarely found. .... variable ΔV is based on the concept: • If there is excessive ...

  12. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Global Water Partnership, c/o Drottninggatan 33, SE-111-51 Stockholm, ... from the standpoint of the GW-MATE experience in some World Bank-supported projects in eastern ..... basic pit latrine) and around 10% have no sanitation system.

  13. Water Quality and Supply Issues of Irrigated Agricultural Regions - Lessons from the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, C. J.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California covers 4 million hectares of farmland and produces $25 billion of agricultural products annually, but its average annual rainfall ranges from only 130 mm in the south to 330 mm in the north and nearly all occur in the winter. On the east side of the valley, irrigation water is mostly derived from the Sierra snow melt. On the west side, water is imported from the northern part of the state through the Sacramento Delta and a network of canals and aqueducts. Ground water is also used for both east and west sides of the valley to supplement surface water sources, especially during droughts. After years of intense irrigation, a number of water supply and water quality issues have emerged. They include groundwater overdraft, land subsidence, water contamination by agricultural drainage laden with selenium, salinity buildup in soil and water, nutrients contamination from fertilizers and livestock production, competition for water with megalopolis and environmental use and restoration. All these problems are intensified by the effect of climate change that has already taken place and other geological hazards, such as earthquakes that can bring the water supply system to a complete halt. In addition to scientific and technical considerations, solutions for these complex issues necessarily involve management planning, public policy and actions. Currently, they include furloughing marginally productive lands, groundwater recharge and banking, water reuse and recycle, salinity and nutrient management, integrated regional water management planning, and public education and outreach. New laws have been enacted to better monitor groundwater elevations, and new bond measures to improve storage, infrastructures, and reliability, have been placed on the public ballot. The presentation will discuss these complex water issues.

  14. [Preventive measures for improvement of suitability of water from individual water supply objects in the areas ravaged by war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to test the success of sanation of unsatisfactory individual water supply objects in the areas ravages of war. 198 individual water supply objects were consolidated in the area of Voćin, with hyperchlorination and pumping out of water, after which desinfection with chlorine preparation was carried out. Samples of drinking water taken for bacteriological analysis were analyzed on total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococci by method of membranous filtration, while the number of colonies of aerobic bacteria at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C were determined on triptosis-glucosis-yeast agar. Good samples, considering the Regulations on health suitability of drinking water, were 152, or 77%. In unfit samples, which were 46, or 23%, the most common isolates were fecal streptococci, with frequency of 30%. Although public waterworks represent the best way to supply people with good drinking water, it is possible to achieve a satisfactory degree of water quality from individual water supply objects with implementation of public health activities, if we execute them periodically and professionally.

  15. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): a database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  16. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  17. Hedging Rules for Water Supply Reservoir Based on the Model of Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a hedging rule model which is composed of a two-period reservior operation model considering the damage depth and hedging rule parameter optimization model. The former solves hedging rules based on a given poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target, while the latter optimization model is used to optimize the weighting factor and carryover storage target based on the hedging rules. The coupling model gives the optimal poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target to guide release. The conclusions achieved from this study as follows: (1 the water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target have a direct impact on the three elements of the hedging rule; (2 parameters can guide reservoirs to supply water reasonably after optimization of the simulation and optimization model; and (3 in order to verify the utility of the hedging rule, the Heiquan reservoir is used as a case study and particle swarm optimization algorithm with a simulation model is adopted for optimizing the parameter. The results show that the proposed hedging rule can improve the operation performances of the water supply reservoir.

  18. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China.

  19. Current issues in the transport and supply-chain environment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Kruger; Rose Luke

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Transport and Supply Chain Management at the University of Johannesburg proudly presents to you Volume 9, 2015, of the Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management (JTSCM), an accredited publication unique to South Africa.

  20. Use of the water supply system of special purpose in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available A water supply system of a special purpose is a necessary element in hot and cold shops of the industrial enterprises, office buildings and the medical centers, and also other rooms. The water supply systems of a special purpose, which give subsalty, sparkling water and water sated with oxygen, allow people to prevent, for example, strong dehydration of an organism, which is possible at big losses of water, especially in case of the people working in hot shops. Various elements of special drinking water supply system are given in the article, their main functions are described. Different types of the water folding devices pumping water to consumers, one of which is drinking fountain, are considered. Possible systems of water filtration, which can be established for quality improvement, are transferred. Among them the great role is played by membrane technologies and the return osmosis, which is widely applied now. Today there is a possibility of construction, both the centralized water supply system of a special purpose, and local. Besides, the least is a more preferable option taking into account capital expenditure for construction and operation, and also it can lead to solid resource-saving as a result of the electric energy saving going for water heating in heaters. Automatic machines of drinking water for a local water supply system of a special purpose have indisputable advantages. They are capable to carry out several functions at the same time, and also to distribute water to consumers. It allows placing all the necessary equipment, which will be well in harmony with the environment in their small and compact case, and will fit into any difficult interior of the room. Also they are very easily connected to the systems of an internal water supply system by means of a propylene tube that allows to change their sposition in space and to transfer to any place of the room with fast installation of equipment. Also the ecological effect was