WorldWideScience

Sample records for current technique tct

  1. Analytical model for Transient Current Technique (TCT) signal prediction and analysis for thin interface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronuzzi, J.; Mapelli, A.; Sallese, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    A silicon wafer bonding technique has been recently proposed for the fabrication of monolithic silicon radiation detectors. This new process would enable direct bonding of a read-out electronic chip wafer on a highly resistive silicon substrate wafer. Therefore, monolithic silicon detectors could be fabricated in this way which would allow the free choice of electronic chips and high resistive silicon bulk, even from different providers. Moreover, a monolithic detector with a high resistive bulk would also be available. Electrical properties of the bonded interface are then critical for this application. Indeed, mobile charges generated by radiation inside the bonded bulk are expected to transit through the interface to be collected by the read-out electronics. In order to characterize this interface, the concept of Transient Current Technique (TCT) has been explored by means of numerical simulations combined with a physics based analytical model. In this work, the analytical model giving insight into the physics behind the TCT dependence upon interface traps is validated using both TCAD simulations and experimental measurements.

  2. The edge transient-current technique (E-TCT) with high energy hadron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorišek, Andrej; Cindro, Vladimir; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandić, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Muškinja, Miha; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel way to investigate the properties of silicon and CVD diamond detectors for High Energy Physics experiments complementary to the already well-established E-TCT technique using laser beam. In the proposed setup the beam of high energy hadrons (MIPs) is used instead of laser beam. MIPs incident on the detector in the direction parallel to the readout electrode plane and perpendicular to the edge of the detector. Such experiment could prove very useful to study CVD diamond detectors that are almost inaccessible for the E-TCT measurements with laser due to large band-gap as well as to verify and complement the E-TCT measurements of silicon. The method proposed is being tested at CERN in a beam of 120 GeV hadrons using a reference telescope with track resolution at the DUT of few μm. The preliminary results of the measurements are presented.

  3. The edge transient-current technique (E-TCT) with high energy hadron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorišek, Andrej; Cindro, Vladimir; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandić, Igor [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muškinja, Miha; Zavrtanik, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-09-21

    We propose a novel way to investigate the properties of silicon and CVD diamond detectors for High Energy Physics experiments complementary to the already well-established E-TCT technique using laser beam. In the proposed setup the beam of high energy hadrons (MIPs) is used instead of laser beam. MIPs incident on the detector in the direction parallel to the readout electrode plane and perpendicular to the edge of the detector. Such experiment could prove very useful to study CVD diamond detectors that are almost inaccessible for the E-TCT measurements with laser due to large band-gap as well as to verify and complement the E-TCT measurements of silicon. The method proposed is being tested at CERN in a beam of 120 GeV hadrons using a reference telescope with track resolution at the DUT of few μm. The preliminary results of the measurements are presented.

  4. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of a depleted CMOS sensor using an edge Transient Current Technique based on the Two Photon Absorption process (TPA-eTCT)

    CERN Document Server

    García, Marcos Fernández; Echeverría, Richard Jaramillo; Moll, Michael; Santos, Raúl Montero; Moya, David; Pinto, Rogelio Palomo; Vila, Iván

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, the deep n-well (DNW) depletion space of a High Voltage CMOS sensor has been characterized using a Transient Current Technique based on the simultaneous absorption of two photons. This novel approach has allowed to resolve the DNW implant boundaries and therefore to accurately determine the real depleted volume and the effective doping concentration of the substrate. The unprecedented spatial resolution of this new method comes from the fact that measurable free carrier generation in two photon mode only occurs in a micrometric scale voxel around the focus of the beam. Real three-dimensional spatial resolution is achieved by scanning the beam focus within the sample.

  5. TCT and TFM measurements for ATLAS ITK

    CERN Document Server

    Dungs, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS ITK Pixel detector for the Phase-II upgrade of LHC is in a prototyping phase. The CERN ATLAS Pixel group is involved in different activities. One activity is the characterization of pixel sensors with an infrared Laser using a transient current technique (TCT) to measure the depletion depth and charge collection properties and compare it to effective field theory simulations. Another activity is the measurement of the Thermal Figure of Merit (TFM) of different stave prototypes using silicon heaters and an evaporative CO2 cooling system. This document describes the contributions to each of the two activities.

  6. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-07-11

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  7. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Low-temperature TCT characterization of heavily proton irradiated p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Luukka, P; Kassamakov, I; Autioniemi, M; Tuominen, E; Sane, P; Pusa, P; Räisänen, J; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Li, Z

    2007-01-01

    n+/p−/p+ pad detectors processed at the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology on boron-doped p-type high-resistivity magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) silicon substrates have been investigated by the transient current technique (TCT) measurements between 100 and 240 K. The detectors were irradiated by 9 MeV protons at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Helsinki up to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×1015 n/cm2. In some of the detectors the thermal donors (TD) were introduced by intentional heat treatment at 430 °C. Hole trapping time constants and full depletion voltage values were extracted from the TCT data. We observed that hole trapping times in the order of 10 ns were found in heavily (above 1×1015 neq/cm2) irradiated samples. These detectors could be fully depleted below 500 V in the temperature range of 140–180 K.

  9. TCT closure test in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Guthoff, Moritz; Huhtinen, Mika; Redaelli, Stefano; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    An end-of-ll MD was carried out on October 18 2016, where a standard physics ll was taken over close to the end. The vertical TCTs in front of the high-luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS were then closed by about 0.5 , in order to investigate if this would cause any increase in experimental background. The TCTs were left in the closer position for around 1.5 h, and then moved out again to the standard setting. A rst analysis shows no eect on the background in any of the experiments, which provides valuable inputs to the choice of operational TCT setting in the future and for the understanding of the importance of dierent background sources.

  10. The use of FTIR technique for determination of gas phase emissions from wood pellet manufacturing. Evaluation of the Time Correlated Tracer (TCT) method for assessment of diffuse terpene emissions from wood pellet production; Anvaendning av FTIR teknik foer bestaemning av gasformiga emissioner vid traepelletstillverkning. Utvaerdering av Time Correlated Tracer (TCT)-metoden foer bestaemning av diffusa terpenemissioner fraan pelletstillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Urban; Galle, Bo [Sundsvall Hospital (Sweden). Clinic of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2001-04-01

    In the original project proposal, quantification of the total emission of terpenes from wood pellet manufacturing with the novel TCT-method (Time Correlated Tracer) based on FTIR-technique (Fourier Transform Infrared) and tracer gas was suggested. The expected outcome was a general algorithm for the calculations of the emissions expressed as amount emitted per unit produced. This information would be useful when planning the location of new facilities in relation to domestic housing as well as to other industrial activities. Initial point sampling with an FTIR White cell was made in order to establish the locations of the sources of terpene emissions. The results showed that the dominating terpene emissions came from the smoke stacks gases and was not of such diffuse nature as originally believed. Neither in the pellet storage room, inside the main process facilities, outside the buildings, nor close to the wood chip storage piles, could terpene be detected with the FTIR point sampling cell. In the smoke stack gases terpenes, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetone, methanol, ethylene, acetylene, formaldehyde and methane was detected. The conclusions so far is that it is not economically or scientifically justifiable to continue the measurements with the proposed TCT method since, the terpene emissions are not of a diffuse nature. Instead it is concluded that terpene emission is best established by direct measurement in the smoke stack gases. In accordance with the intentions of the project, an algorithm for the terpene emission was established based on the measurements in the smoke stack gases. This algorithm shows an average emission of 255 grams of terpenes per produced ton of pellets. This gives an annual emission of 21,700 kg of gaseous terpenes from the investigated plant, based on an annual production of 85,000 tons pellets. When compared to other establishments processing wood, i.e. saw mills, this amount is not large. The results shed some light on other

  11. An edge-TCT setup for the investigation of radiation damaged silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feindt, Finn; Scharf, Christian; Garutti, Erika; Klanner, Robert [Institute for Experimental Physics, Hamburg University, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the electric field, drift velocity and charge collection of electrons and holes in radiation-damaged silicon strip sensors. For this purpose the edge Transient Current Technique (TCT) is employed. In contrast to conventional TCT, this method requires light from a sub-ns pulsed, infrared laser to be focused to a μm-size spot and scanned across the polished edge of a strip sensor. Thus electron-hole pairs are generated at a known depth in the sensor. Electrons and holes drift in the electric field and induce transient currents on the sensor electrodes. The current wave forms are analyzed as a function of the applied voltage and the position of the laser focus in order to determine the electric field, the drift velocities and the charge collection. In this talk the setup and the procedure for polishing the sensor edge are described, and first results, regarding the measurement of the laser light focus are presented.

  12. Study Guide for TCT in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gene

    This study guide was developed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in science. Content objectives of the test are listed and encompass: (1) scientific processes, research, and classification; (2) earth sciences; (3) characteristics and properties of matter, energy, and chemical change; (4) biology of life…

  13. Defect Measurements and Performance Testing of CZT Detectors Using I-DLTS, TCT, I-V, C-V and γ-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Rubi; Li, Zheng; Keeter, Kara; Rodriguez, Rene; James, Ralph

    2008-05-01

    Performance testing and the measurement of the defect levels of CZT detectors from different manufacturers are investigated by means of I-DLTS (Current Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy), TCT (Transient Charge Technique), I-V, C-V and γ-Ray Spectroscopy. Studies include measuring defects parameters such as energy levels in the band gap, carrier capture cross-section and defect density have been determined by using I-DLTS. The space charge density, induced current and collected charge were obtained by using TCT. Detector's electric characteristics and detection performance tests are carried out by using I-V, C-V and γ-Ray Spectroscopy. I-DLTS data is collected in the temperature range of 10-330 K. Different mid-band energy traps, ranging from Ec-0.01 eV to Ec-0.31 eV, mostly native acceptor defects, are identified. The TCT parameters are obtained by measuring laser induced current transients with 50-1100 V bias voltages across the detector. The maximum value of collected electrons and the typical measured space charge density, at 1100V is found of the order of 10^10. Resistivity, performance and depletion of the detectors are determined by I-V and γ-Ray Spectroscopy.

  14. Principle and modelling of Transient Current Technique for interface traps characterization in monolithic pixel detectors obtained by CMOS-compatible wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronuzzi, J.; Mapelli, A.; Moll, M.; Sallese, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of monolithic silicon radiation detectors, a fabrication process based on a recently developed silicon wafer bonding technique at low temperature was proposed. Ideally, this new process would enable direct bonding of a read-out electronic chip wafer on a highly resistive silicon substrate wafer, which is expected to present many advantages since it would combine high performance IC's with high sensitive ultra-low doped bulk silicon detectors. But electrical properties of the bonded interface are critical for this kind of application since the mobile charges generated by radiation inside the bonded bulk are expected to transit through the interface in order to be collected by the read-out electronics. In this work, we propose to explore and develop a model for the so-called Transient Current Technique (TCT) to identify the presence of deep traps at the bonded interface. For this purpose, we consider a simple PIN diode reversely biased where the ultra-low doped active region of interest is set in full depletion. In a first step, Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD is used to evaluate the soundness of this technique for interface traps characterization such as it may happen in bonded interfaces. Next, an analytical model is developed in details to give a better insight into the physics behind the TCT for interface layers. Further, this can be used as a simple tool to evidence what are the relevant parameters influencing the TCT signal and to set the basis for preliminary characterizations.

  15. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  16. Defect Measurements of CdZnTe Detectors Using I-DLTS, TCT, I-V and Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul,R.

    2008-08-11

    In this work we measured the crystal defect levels and tested the performance of CdZnTe detectors by diverse methodologies, viz., Current Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (I-DLTS), Transient Current Technique (TCT), Current and Capacitance versus Voltage measurements (I-V and C-V), and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Two important characteristics of I-DLTS technique for advancing this research are (1) it is applicable for high-resistivity materials (>10{sup 6} {Omega}-cm), and, (2) the minimum temperature for measurements can be as low as 10 K. Such low-temperature capability is excellent for obtaining measurements at shallow levels. We acquired CdZnTe crystals grown by different techniques from two different vendors and characterized them for point defects and their response to photons. I-DLTS studies encompassed measuring the parameters of the defects, such as the energy levels in the band gap, the carrier capture cross-sections and their densities. The current induced by the laser-generated carriers and the charge collected (or number of electrons collected) were obtained using TCT that also provides the transport properties, such as the carrier life time and mobility of the detectors under study. The detector's electrical characteristics were explored, and its performance tested using I-V, C-V and gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  17. Defect measurements of CdZnTe detectors using I-DLTS, TCT, I-V, C-V and γ-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, R.; Li, Z.; Rodriguez, R.; Keeter, K.; Bolotnikov, A.; James, R.

    2008-08-01

    In this work we measured the crystal defect levels and tested the performance of CdZnTe detectors by diverse methodologies, viz., Current Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (I-DLTS), Transient Current Technique (TCT), Current and Capacitance versus Voltage measurements (I-V and C-V), and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Two important characteristics of I-DLTS technique for advancing this research are (1) it is applicable for high-resistivity materials (>106 Ω-cm), and, (2) the minimum temperature for measurements can be as low as 10 K. Such low-temperature capability is excellent for obtaining measurements at shallow levels. We acquired CdZnTe crystals grown by different techniques from two different vendors and characterized them for point defects and their response to photons. I-DLTS studies encompassed measuring the parameters of the defects, such as the energy levels in the band gap, the carrier capture cross-sections and their densities. The current induced by the laser-generated carriers and the charge collected (or number of electrons collected) were obtained using TCT that also provides the transport properties, such as the carrier life time and mobility of the detectors under study. The detector's electrical characteristics were explored, and its performance tested using I-V, C-V and gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  18. Edge-TCT measurements on irradiated HV CMOS sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Weisser, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Passive $100 \\times 100 \\,\\mu$m test diodes in an unirradiated and an irradiated HV2FEI4v3 HV-CMOS silicon sensor were analysed using the edge TCT technique. To integrate the sensor into the setup a PCB was designed to extract the signals, a cooling mechanism was constructed and the system housed in a shielding box. The observed signal had fast and slow contributions, that were interpreted as drift and diffusion. The former peaked in a region, that was interpreted as the depletion region, while the latter peaked further in the bulk material. Raising the bias voltage increased the depth of the former region, while pushing the latter region further into the bulk. The irradiated sample lost signal strength mainly in its slow part compared to the unirradiated sample, while its quick signal remained largely unaffected. As only the signal interpreted as drift is fast enough to be useful in LHC operation the investigated sensors could be considered radiation hard for this purpose. This gives further promise to ...

  19. [Current techniques in tonsil surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coromina Isern, Jordi; Esteller Moré, Eduard

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, consolidation of tonsillar hypertrophy as the principal surgical procedure has led to the emergence of new techniques. Most aim to reduce volume (tonsillectomy or tonsil reduction). These techniques have considerably decreased intra- and postoperative hemorrhages and pain intensity. The present article describes the mechanisms and the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques, including electro-dissection using electrical scalpels, reduction using a microdebrider, ultrasonic scalpel, radiofrequency (with its different variations) and CO(2) laser. When techniques that reduce tonsil volume are used, the possibility of recurrence of the tonsillar hypertrophy is high if less than 85% of the tonsil is removed. There is also a considerable possibility of infection of the remaining tonsils, whichever technique is used, and therefore these techniques are not valid in the case of repetitive tonsillitis. Recently, alternatives to classical adenoidectomy using adenoid curette have also appeared. Bleeding can be minimized by using a microdebrider, radiofrequency or a blood coagulator. We also discuss the concept of partial adenoidectomy, which is preferred in patients at risk of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

  20. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobara H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  1. [Tomodensitometry: current technique and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J C

    1994-10-01

    The inventors of computed tomography were rewarded by the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1979. This apparatus, now used routinely, is based on the physical principle of attenuation of x-rays combined with computerised calculation to generate a tomographic image of the human body. This article describes the components of computed tomography, the mode of acquisition, calculation and image reconstruction and the criteria of image quality and artefacts. Continuous rotation of the x-ray tube, now available on the latest machines, allows rapid 3D acquisition of raw data, largely eliminating movement artefacts, particularly those related to respiration. It is also possible to reconstitute images in a different plane from the plane of acquisition and to obtain 3D representations of the volume studied. The advantages and disadvantages of this recent technique are discussed.

  2. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  3. Past and future of TCT in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    In this presentation different types of studies using TCT accomplished in The Netherlands are discussed. The main result: It seems that the safety of traffic situations can well be characterised by using traffic conflict parameters, but only in combination with behavioural and accident data.

  4. Gastrointestinal tract imaging in children: current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiorns, Melanie P. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in children continues to evolve, with new techniques, both radiological and non-radiological, being added to the repertoire. This article provides a summary of current imaging techniques of the GI tract (primarily the upper GI tract) and the relationship between those techniques. It covers the upper GI series and other contrast studies, US, CT and MRI. Note is also made of the contribution now made by capsule endoscopy (CE). Abdominal emergency imaging is not covered in this article. (orig.)

  5. Current and emerging techniques in gastrointestinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSweeney S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to current and emerging techniques in gastrointestinal (GI imaging. It is divided into three sections focusing on areas that are both interesting and challenging: imaging of the small bowel and appendix, imaging of the colon and rectum and finally liver and pancreas in the upper abdomen. The first section covers cross-sectional imaging of the small bowel using the techniques of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT (including CT enterography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The evaluation of mesenteric ischemia and GI tract bleeding using MDCT angiography is also reviewed. Current imaging practice in the evaluation of appendix is also reviewed and illustrated. The second section reviews CT and MR colonography and imaging of the rectum. It describes CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of the technique with discussion of the role of CTVC in screening. The intriguing topic of MR colonography (MRC is also reviewed. Imaging of the rectum with emphasis on imaging of rectal cancer is described with the roles of CT, MR, endoluminal ultrasound and positron emission tomography scanning discussed. The final section reviews current and emerging techniques in liver imaging with the role of ultrasound including contrast ultrasound, MDCT and MR (including contrast agents discussed. The new developments and applications of imaging of pancreatic disease are discussed with emphasis on the role of MDCT and MRI with gadolinium. This review highlights the current role and advancement of imaging techniques with new diagnostic and prognostic information pertinent to gastrointestinal disease continuing to emerge.

  6. Filtering Spam: Current Trends and Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geerthik S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview about latest trend and techniques in spam filtering. We analyzed the problems which is introduced by spam ,what spam actually do and how to measure the spam .This article mainly focuses on automated, non-interactive filters, with a broad review ranging from commercial implementations to ideas confined to current research papers. The solutions using both machine and non –machine learning approaches are reviewed and taxonomy of different approaches is presented. While a range of different techniques have and continue to be evaluated in academic research, heuristic and Bayesian filtering, along with its variants provide the greatest potential for future spam prevention.

  7. Current techniques for visualizing RNA in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannack, Lilith V.J.C.; Eising, Sebastian; Rentmeister, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Labeling RNA is of utmost interest, particularly in living cells, and thus RNA imaging is an emerging field. There are numerous methods relying on different concepts ranging from hybridization-based probes, over RNA-binding proteins to chemo-enzymatic modification of RNA. These methods have different benefits and limitations. This review aims to outline the current state-of-the-art techniques and point out their benefits and limitations. PMID:27158473

  8. Robotic partial nephrectomy: current technique and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lee, Benjamin R

    2013-09-01

    Over the past decade, management of the T1 renal mass has focused on nephron-sparing surgery. Robotic partial nephrectomy has played an increasing role in the technique of preserving renal function by decreasing warm ischemia time, as well as optimizing outcomes of hemorrhage and fistula. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy is designed to provide a minimally-invasive nephron-sparing surgical option utilizing reconstructive capability, decreasing intracorporeal suturing time, technical feasibility and safety. Ultimately, its benefits are resulting in its dissemination across institutions. Articulated instrumentation and three-dimensional vision facilitate resection, collecting system reconstruction and renorrhaphy, leading to decreased warm ischemia time while preserving oncological outcomes. The aim of the present review was to present our surgical sequence and technique, as well as review the current status of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

  9. Superresolution imaging: a survey of current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, G.; Gil, E.; Šroubek, F.; Flusser, J.; Miravet, C.; Rodríguez, F. B.

    2008-08-01

    Imaging plays a key role in many diverse areas of application, such as astronomy, remote sensing, microscopy, and tomography. Owing to imperfections of measuring devices (e.g., optical degradations, limited size of sensors) and instability of the observed scene (e.g., object motion, media turbulence), acquired images can be indistinct, noisy, and may exhibit insuffcient spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, several external effects blur images. Techniques for recovering the original image include blind deconvolution (to remove blur) and superresolution (SR). The stability of these methods depends on having more than one image of the same frame. Differences between images are necessary to provide new information, but they can be almost unperceivable. State-of-the-art SR techniques achieve remarkable results in resolution enhancement by estimating the subpixel shifts between images, but they lack any apparatus for calculating the blurs. In this paper, after introducing a review of current SR techniques we describe two recently developed SR methods by the authors. First, we introduce a variational method that minimizes a regularized energy function with respect to the high resolution image and blurs. In this way we establish a unifying way to simultaneously estimate the blurs and the high resolution image. By estimating blurs we automatically estimate shifts with subpixel accuracy, which is inherent for good SR performance. Second, an innovative learning-based algorithm using a neural architecture for SR is described. Comparative experiments on real data illustrate the robustness and utilization of both methods.

  10. Alternating Current Heating Technique of Hollow Rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Weisheng; Shi Tonghao

    1995-01-01

    @@ In recent years, wellbore heat tracing technique is widely used in development of high viscosity and high pour point crude oil. Theory and experiences show that wellbore heat tracing has obvious effect on increasing liquid yield of oil wells.

  11. Novel current monitoring techniques without shunt resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VODA Adriana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Current measurement for automotiveelectrical actuator applications (with motors or valvesis necessary for appropriate control in many cases anda safety requirement in all cases: the control algorithmmay be dependent on the data but safety relevantfunctions will use it to determine possible over-current,over-temperature or failure conditions. This paperproposes an alternative method of monitoring thecurrent, without using sensors or current shunts.Instead, measurements are made on the motor in thedevelopment stages and low/high frequency variationsin the supply line are monitored, through low/highpassfilters, by available AD channels in the system.This results in cost reduction for the final product, byreducing hardware complexity.

  12. [Our current technique for basic pterional craniotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Nobuyuki; Kurita, Hiroki; Hino, Ken; Nagayama, Kazuki; Tsubokawa, Tamiji; Tanaka, Naoko; Fujitsuka, Mitsuyuki; Nakamura, Masanao; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2005-09-01

    Pterional cnaniotomy is frequently used in neurosurgical practice, but still poses significant cosmetic and functional drawbacks. Here, we describe our modified technique to overcome such problems as the sterilization of the scalp without brush and razor, preemptive analgesia, preservation of the periostium for reconstruction, retrograde dissection of the temporal muscle, and complete sphenoidotomy using chisel or drills. The tips of our pterional craniotomy offer suitable size and depth of working field around the paraclinoidal regions, maintaining cosmetic satisfaction of the patients.

  13. Pediatric imaging: Current and emerging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy-Bhangle A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging has always been an important component of the clinical evaluation of pediatric patients. Rapid technological advances in imaging are making noninvasive evaluation of a wide range of pediatric diseases possible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are two imaging modalities that do not involve ionizing radiation and are preferred imaging modalities in the pediatric population. Computed tomography (CT remains the imaging modality with the highest increase in utilization in children due to its widespread availability and rapid image acquisition. Emerging imaging applications to be discussed include MR urography, voiding urosonography with use of ultrasound contrast agents, CT dose reduction techniques, MR enterography for inflammatory bowel disease, and MR cine airway imaging.

  14. The molecular signatures of Taxodiaceae / Cupressaceae / Taxaceae (TCT) leaf waxes in modern and ancient samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M.; Zinniker, D.; Green Nylen, N.; Moldowan, J. M.; Denisevich, P.

    2005-12-01

    Members of the Taxodiaceae/Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (TCT) complex of conifers originated sometime before the late Jurassic. Since that time the group has diverged to fill diverse ecological niches in desert, marsh, tundra, alpine, and coastal habitats and a variety of forest types. 175 species from 35 genera are now found across 6 continents. The aims of this research project are 1) to analyze and describe cuticular isoprenoid and acetogenic lipids from a diverse group of living members of the TCT complex and 2) to begin a search for these compounds and their diagenetic products in geological samples with known contributions from ancient TCT members. Hexane extracts of several hundred modern conifer specimens from more than 25 genera were studied in an attempt to find phylogenetic trends in the distribution and abundance of wax components. Diverse skeletal types of bicyclic, tricyclic, and tetracyclic diterpenes were found throughout the TCT complex. These compounds were found to have the highest absolute and relative abundance in several temperate rainforest and marsh endemics and the lowest relative abundance in desert adapted species. Large scale phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of individual diterpenes were not evident. Some species showed little intraspecific variation in diterpenes, while others showed considerable variability in diterpene products from one tree to another. The waxes of many members of the TCT complex are dominated by uniquely long-chain normal alkanes, with peak abundance at 33 and/or 35 carbons. This character is found within a phylogenetically distinct group of TCT -- including the genera Austrocedrus, Callitris, Calocedrus, Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Diselma, Fitzroya, Juniperus, Libocedrus, Platycladus, Taxodium, Tetraclinis, Thuja, and Thujopsis -- and is seen in plants from extremely different habitats. We postulate that this group within the TCT complex shares a conserved very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongase

  15. A Program Evaluation of the Lincoln School District Teacher Collaboration Time (TCT) Staff Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Many investigators have documented the need for valid and credible program evaluation research of teacher professional development programs. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive program evaluation of the Lincoln School District's Teacher Collaboration Time (TCT) staff development program. The study questions…

  16. 75 FR 37767 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Teachers for a Competitive Tomorrow (TCT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Teachers for a Competitive Tomorrow (TCT... Census Bureau poverty data. Eligibility of these particular LEAs will be determined on a case-by-case... teaching on waivers of State certification, both on a statewide basis and in high-poverty LEAs....

  17. Principle and modelling of Transient Current Technique for interface traps characterization in monolithic pixel detectors obtained by CMOS-compatible wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Bronuzzi, J.; Moll, M.; Sallese, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of monolithic silicon radiation detectors, a fabrication process based on a recently developed silicon wafer bonding technique at low temperature was proposed. Ideally, this new process would enable direct bonding of a read-out electronic chip wafer on a highly resistive silicon substrate wafer, which is expected to present many advantages since it would combine high performance IC's with high sensitive ultra-low doped bulk silicon detectors. But electrical properties of the bonded interface are critical for this kind of application since the mobile charges generated by radiation inside the bonded bulk are expected to transit through the interface in order to be collected by the read-out electronics. In this work, we propose to explore and develop a model for the so-called Transient Current Technique (TCT) to identify the presence of deep traps at the bonded interface. For this purpose, we consider a simple PIN diode reversely biased where the ultra-low doped active region of interest is set ...

  18. The Effectiveness of SCAMPER Technique on Creative Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodi OZYAPRAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current study assumes that SCAMPER is a convenient technique to develop creative thinking skills. In this respect it is aimed in the study to investigate the effect of SCAMPER on developing creative thinking skills. For this purpose, the main research question is: How much is SCAMPER effective in increasing sophomores’ Test for Creative Thinking - Drawing Production (TCT-DP scores? A one-group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. A total of 14 participants were assigned to receive the experimental training. A unique program developed by the researcher for the experimental group. The findings of the study reveal that SCAMPER training significantly increased TCT-DP scores.

  19. MPPT Technique Based on Current and Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreira Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT method based on the measurement of temperature and short-circuit current, in a simple and efficient approach. These measurements, which can precisely define the maximum power point (MPP, have not been used together in other existing techniques. The temperature is measured with a low cost sensor and the solar irradiance is estimated through the relationship of the measured short-circuit current and its reference. Fast tracking speed and stable steady-state operation are advantages of this technique, which presents higher performance when compared to other well-known techniques.

  20. A New PWM Modifying Technique for Reconstructing Three-phase Currents from DC Bus Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Shigehisa; Iwaji, Yoshitaka; Tobari, Kazuaki; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi

    Vector control is used to drive a DC brushless motor and generally needs current information. DC bus current detection is often adopted as a low cost method for reconstructing three-phase currents. PWM modifying techniques increase the DC pulse duration, thereby enabling easy detection of the DC bus current. However, these techniques have two problems: reducing a noise frequency and making the reconstructed current waveforms distorted by current ripple. In the techniques, modification signals are added to the three-phase voltage commands; the sum of the signals over a single cycle is zero. The authors examined several PWM modifying techniques from the points of view of noise and current distortion performance. One of the techniques had a good noise performance, and the frequency component of the noise was the same as the carrier frequency (fc). However, the reconstructed current waveforms were distorted. The total harmonic distortion (THD) varied from 1.7% to 4.1%. Another technique had a very poor noise performance, and the frequency component on the noise was one-fourth of fc. The authors developed a new PWM modifying method called “Half Pulse Shift”, which achieves the optimum noise and current distortion performance. The frequency component of the new method was two-thirds of fc, and the current waveforms were not distorted; the THD in the simulations and experiments was 0.5%-1.4% and 3.4%-3.6%, respectively.

  1. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  2. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Vázquez-Sánchez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  3. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  4. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged for decades. It is argued that this domain is ripe for a paradigm change that takes advantage of recent developments in statistical techniques and technology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  6. HPV、TCT 及阴道镜对宫颈癌筛查的意义%Significance of HPV、TCT and Colposcopy for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳芝英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of HPV ,TCT and colposcopy in screening of early cervical le-sions clinical .Methods 1 260 cases of cervical cancer were detected by liquid-based cytology ( liquid-based thinlayer cytology test,TCT) ,high-risk human papilloma virus ( human papilloma virus ,HPV) DNA testing and colposcopy positioned under cervi-cal biopsy ,and cervical biopsy results confirmed standard histopathological evaluation HPV ,TCT and joint detection for early diag-nosis of cervical cancer effect .Results Liquid-based cytology test ( TCT) showed that there was no intraepithelial lesion or ma-lignant cells,normal and benign inflammation 1 037 cases,accounting for 82.30%;the remaining 223 cases occurred without a clear sense of atypical squamous cells ( ASCUS) ,low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions ( LSIL) ,high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL),squamous cell carcinoma (SCC),TCT showed positive detection rate of 17.70%.HPV-DNA testing found that 659 patients had 1 or more of the HPV infection ,HPV-DNA positive rate was 52.30%;For TCT combined with the highest and HPV-DNA genotyping sensitivity ,all indicators showed 262 patients had a positive indictor ,compared with a single TCT and HPV-DNA genotyping,the detection rate was significantly higher ,χ2 values was 71.610,40.971,P values was 0.000, 0.000 ratio.Conclusion The clinical use of HPV-DNA, liquid-based cytology and colposcopy for early screening of cervical cancer,is an efficient and feasible solution ,and the combined detection of cervical precancerous lesions can improve the detection rate and reduce the rate of misdiagnosis .Early screening for cervical cancer is important .%目的:探讨HPV、TCT联合阴道镜在筛查早期宫颈病变中的临床意义。方法本研究选取在门诊初次就诊接受宫颈癌筛查的患者1260例,通过液基细胞学检查(liquid-based thinlayer cytology test ,TCT)、高危型人类乳头状瘤病毒( human papilloma

  7. Current techniques for assessing developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Ying TIAN; Xiaoming SHEN

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and Pyrethroids (PRY) have been widely used in agriculture and in the home as broad spectrum insecticides, but may produce considerable risk to human health, especially to children. Children are more susceptible to environmental exposure, and concern about the neurotoxic effects of pesticide exposure on children is increasing. There is a need for better understanding of the potential developmental neu-rotoxicity of pesticides. Techniques for assessing devel-opmental neurotoxicity of pesticides will continue to be developed, rendering a need for flexibility of testing para-digms. Current techniques used in evaluating the devel-opmental neurotoxicity of OPs and PRY are presented in this review. These include: (1) In vitro techniques (PC12 cells, C6 cells and other cell models); (2) Non-mammalian models (sea urchins, zebrafish and other non-mammalian models); and (3) In vivo mammalian models (morpho-logical techniques, neurobehavioral assessments and biomarkers).

  8. Biopsy of parotid masses:Review of current techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sananda Haldar; Joseph D Sinnott; Kemal M Tekeli; Samuel S Turner; David C Howlett

    2016-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of parotid gland masses is required optimal management planning and for prognosis. There is controversy over whether fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) or ultrasound guided core biopsy(USCB) should be the standard for obtaining a biopsy. The aim of this review is to assess the current evidence available to assess the benefits of each technique and also to assess the use of intra-operative frozen section(IOFS). Literature searches were performed using pubmed and google scholar. The literature has been reviewed and the evidence is presented. FNAC is an accepted and widely used technique. It has been shown to have variable diagnostic capabilities depending on centres and experience of staff. USCB has a highly consistent diagnostic accuracy and can help with tumour grading and staging. However, the technique is more invasive and there is a question regarding potential for seeding. Furthermore, USCB is less likely to be offered as part of a one-stop clinic. IOFS has no role as a first line diagnostic technique but may be reserved as an adjunct or for lesions not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. On balance, USCB seems to be the method of choice. The current evidence suggests it has superior diagnostic potential and is safe. With time, USCB is likely to supplant FNAC as the biopsy technique of choice, replicating that which has occurred already in other areas of medicine such a breast practice.

  9. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Helena; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Rodrigues Pereira Da; Jorge, Mario

    2013-01-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in th...

  10. Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.

  11. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  13. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  14. Nondestructive examination of PHWR pressure tube using eddy current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Jong; Choi, Sung Nam; Cho, Chan Hee; Yoo, Hyun Joo; Moon, Gyoon Young [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    A pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) core has 380 fuel channels contained and supported by a horizontal cylindrical vessel known as the calandria, whereas a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has only a single reactor vessel. The pressure tube, which is a pressure-retaining component, has a 103.4 mm inside diameter x 4.19 mm wall thickness, and is 6.36 m long, made of a zirconium alloy (Zr-2.5 wt% Nb). This provides support for the fuel while transporting the D2O heat-transfer fluid. The simple tubular geometry invites highly automated inspection, and good approach for all inspection. Similar to all nuclear heat-transfer pressure boundaries, the PHWR pressure tube requires a rigorous, periodic inspection to assess the reactor integrity in accordance with the Korea Nuclear Safety Committee law. Volumetric-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques utilizing ultrasonic and eddy current testing have been adopted for use in the periodic inspection of the fuel channel. The eddy current testing, as a supplemental NDE method to ultrasonic testing, is used to confirm the flaws primarily detected through ultrasonic testing, however, eddy current testing offers a significant advantage in that its ability to detect surface flaws is superior to that of ultrasonic testing. In this paper, effectiveness of flaw detection and the depth sizing capability by eddy current testing for the inside surface of a pressure tube, will be introduced. As a result of this examination, the ET technique is found to be useful only as a detection technique for defects because it can detect fine defects on the surface with high resolution. However, the ET technique is not recommended for use as a depth sizing method because it has a large degree of error for depth sizing.

  15. Current situation of endoscopic biliary cannulation and salvage techniques for difficult cases: Current strategies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Bhatia, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    In the pancreatobiliary session at Endoscopic Forum Japan (EFJ) 2015, current trends of routine biliary cannulation techniques and salvage techniques for difficult biliary cannulation cases were discussed. Endoscopists from nine Japanese high-volume centers along with two overseas centers participated in the questionnaires and discussion. It was concluded that, currently, in Western countries, the wire-guided cannulation (WGC) technique is favored during initial cannulation attempts. However, the conventional technique using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter with contrast medium injection is still used as first choice at most Japanese high-volume centers. The WGC technique is used as the second choice at some institutions only. After failed biliary cannulation attempts, the initial salvage option preferred in most centers includes pancreatic guidewire placement, followed by precut techniques as the second salvage choice. Among several precut techniques, the free-hand needle knife sphincterotomy with cutting upwards from the pancreatic duct is most popular. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided rendezvous technique is also carried out as a final salvage option at select institutions.

  16. [Current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Thomas; Weber, Markus

    2011-06-01

    Technical advances and focusing on subsets modified endocrine surgery in the last ten years tremendously. There is on one side a clear trend towards minimal invasive approaches, first of all in the surgery of the adrenal glands, where the transperitoneal or retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for tumors up to a size of 10 cm in diameter. But also in pancreatic endocrine surgery for small tumors localized in the pancreas tail and up to a certain extend in thyroid and parathyroid surgery, laparoscopic or video assisted techniques are used. On the other side more precise techniques allow a more complete and radical removal of endocrine tissue, especially in thyroid surgery. This article presents a summary of current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery.

  17. A resonant series counterpulse technique for high current opening switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, E. van [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. for Power Electronics and Electrical Machines; Gelder, P. van [TNO PML-Pulse Physics Lab., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A counterpulse technique for the controlled interruption of very high currents in inductive storage pulsed power systems is described and analyzed, and some simulation results of its performance are presented. The accompanying circuit comprises a pre-charged capacitor bank, connected in series with the inductive load, which has to be provided with a current pulse. Upon actuation, a resonant counterpulse current is created in the opening switch, connected in parallel with the current source and the load. In this way, the opening switch is opened at low current. A separate closing switch prevents closing of the opening switch at high voltage. Operation of the opening switch, often a mechanical switch, at low current and low voltage prevents arc erosion of the contacts. The advantage of this circuit compared to other counterpulse circuits is that the capacitor bank does not experience a voltage reversal. Electrolytic capacitors, which have a high energy density, are applied. The remaining energy of the capacitor bank after opening the opening switch, is transferred to the load. The required initial voltage of the capacitor bank is only a few hundred volts, whereas it may be above a kilovolt in other circuits. Another advantage of the method described here is that the load does not experience a pre-current, causing unwanted preheating of the load, before the resonant current is activated. At the moment, work is being performed at the Pulse Physics Laboratory to develop the resonant series counterpulse circuit for use with rail accelerators, which must be supplied with current pulses in the millisecond range up to the mega-ampere level.

  18. Novel analysis of Petri-net-based controllers by means of TCT implementation tool of supervisory control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Uzam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of discrete event systems (DES has been widely studied in the past two decades. Finite-state automata (FSA and Petri nets (PN are the two principal modelling formalisms for this study. Supervisory control theory (SCT, based on language and FSA concepts, is a well established framework for the study of discrete event control systems (DECS. PN-based approaches to the control design have been considered as an alternative framework. In the PN-based control of DES, given an uncontrolled PN model of a system and a set of specifications, a PN-based controller consisting of monitors (control places is synthesised to solve the problem. In general, forbidden-state specifications are considered. Another heavily studied specification is to obtain the live system behaviour (non-blockingness in SCT terminology for a given PN model by computing a PN-based controller. Unfortunately, PN-based analysis tools cannot deal with uncontrollable transitions. Therefore, to date there is no general technique for the correctness analysis of the computed PN-based controllers. This paper proposes a novel and general methodology to carry out the correctness analysis for the computed PN-based controllers by using the TCT implementation tool of SCT. Three examples are considered for illustration.

  19. Imaging fast calcium currents beyond the limitations of electrode techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari, Nadia; De Waard, Michel; Canepari, Marco

    2014-09-16

    The current understanding of Ca(2+) channel function is derived from the use of the patch-clamp technique. In particular, the measurement of fast cellular Ca(2+) currents is routinely achieved using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings. However, this experimental approach is not applicable to the study of local native Ca(2+) channels during physiological changes of membrane potential in complex cells, since the voltage-clamp configuration constrains the membrane potential to a given value. Here, we report for the first time to our knowledge that Ca(2+) currents from individual cells can be quantitatively measured beyond the limitations of the voltage-clamp approach using fast Ca(2+) imaging with low-affinity indicators. The optical measurement of the Ca(2+) current was correlated with the membrane potential, simultaneously measured with a voltage-sensitive dye to investigate the activation of Ca(2+) channels along the apical dendrite of the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neuron during the back-propagation of an action potential. To validate the method, we analyzed the voltage dependence of high- and low-voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In particular, we measured the Ca(2+) current component mediated by T-type channels, and we investigated the mechanisms of recovery from inactivation of these channels. This method is expected to become a reference approach to investigate Ca(2+) channels in their native physiological environment.

  20. High-accuracy current sensing circuit with current compensation technique for buck-boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuan; Deng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Jun-Kai

    2015-03-01

    A novel on-chip current sensing circuit with current compensation technique suitable for buck-boost converter is presented in this article. The proposed technique can sense the full-range inductor current with high accuracy and high speed. It is mainly based on matched current mirror and does not require a large proportion of aspect ratio between the powerFET and the senseFET, thus it reduces the complexity of circuit design and the layout mismatch issue without decreasing the power efficiency. The circuit is fabricated with TSMC 0.25 µm 2P5M mixed-signal process. Simulation results show that the buck-boost converter can be operated at 200 kHz to 4 MHz switching frequency with an input voltage from 2.8 to 4.7 V. The output voltage is 3.6 V, and the maximum accuracy for both high and low side sensing current reaches 99% within the load current ranging from 200 to 600 mA.

  1. Techniques and applications of endoscopic spine surgery. Part I:overview of current techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Xuan Liu; MD; PhD

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal pain is a serious health and social-economic problem. Endoscopic spine surgery as a treatment option for spinal pain has gained tremendous attention and growth in the past 2 decades, and a variety of endoscopic techniques have been invented to treat a wide range of spinal conditions. Purposes The purposes of this 2-part review article are to 1 ) overview the published techniques of endoscopic spine surgery, 2 ) summarize the applications of these techniques in treating various spinal conditions, and 3 ) evaluate the clinical evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these endoscopic techniques in treating some of the most common spinal conditions. The first part of the review article provides an overview of currently most commonly used techniques. Methods We searched the PubMed database for publications concerning endoscopic spine surgery and reviewed the relevant articles published in the English language. Results Discectomy and foraminotomy are the most common types of spine surgery that can currently be done endoscopically. Endoscopic techniques have been used to treat a wide range of spinal disorders located in the lumbar, cervical, as well as the thoracic regions of the spine.

  2. Design and construction of 2 transonic airfoil models for tests in the NASA Langley C.3-M TCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechterle, G.; Ludewig, K. H.; Stanewsky, E.; Ray, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a NASA/DFVLR cooperation program two transonic airfoils were tested in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT. Model design and construction was carried out by DFVLR. The models designed and constructed performed extremely well under cryogenic conditions. Essentially no permanent changes in surface quality and geometric dimensions occurred during the tests. The aerodynamic results from the TCT tests which demonstrate the large sensitivity of the airfoil CAST 10-Z/DOAZ to Reynolds number changes compared well with results from other facilities at ambient temperatures.

  3. An experimental AWTS process and comparisons of ONERA T2 and 0.3-m TCT AWTS data for the ONERA CAST-10 aerofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen; Jenkins, Renaldo

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS) process is described. Comparisons of the ONERA T2 and the 0.3-m TCT (transonic cryogenic tunnel) AWTS data for the ONERA CAST-10 airfoil are presented. Most of the 0.3-m TCT data is new and preliminary and no sidewall boundary layer control is involved. No conclusions are given.

  4. Study on TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening%careHPV 初筛及 TCT 分流法在新疆宫颈癌筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕提曼·米吉提; 唐努尔·阿布力米提; 古扎丽努尔·阿不力孜; 李华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening project.Methods Colposcopy and cervical biopsy were given to the women with positive result of the careHPV test and Thinprep test.Diagnostic evaluation was conducted to detect the sensitivity,specificity,predictive positive value and predictive negative value and the AUC.Diagnostic val-ue was compared by ROC curve and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software.Results It showed better value for the test of TCT split-flow for HPV positive result than HPV split-flow for TCT positive method,with their AUC 0.743 and 0.680 respectively.Conclusions Split-flow by TCT after screening by careHPV method showed high diagnostic value in Xinjiang cervical cancer screening.%果以careHPV 为初筛、薄层液基细胞学为分流的筛查方法 AUC 值为0.743,高于以细胞学初筛、HPV 分流法。结论careHPV 初筛、细胞学分流法在新疆农村地区妇女宫颈癌筛查中有较好的应用前景。

  5. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  6. Simple Augmented Current Controller with OHC Technique for grid current compensation in the Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajalingam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel control technique on four leg inverter with which the distribution grid is interconnected with the domestic houses. Most of the houses in the distribution side possess inverter for the usage of Electricity. With the advancement in Solar & wind, it will become easy to see houses, often with solar & a small Wind power system. The excess power generated can be exchanged with the Electricity Board for providing uninterruptible power supply. During this exchange there may be a deterioration in the quality of power, most often the grid current gets affected with a large harmonic distortion, and also there exists unbalanced grid currents. Thus, it is necessary to provide uninterruptible power supply with good quality of power. In spite of several controllers, the proposed augmented controller has its own reliability & quick response with Overall Harmonic Compensation (OHC technique which relies on DSP based filter. This Augmented based control technique with OHC is demonstrated extensively with MATLAB/Simulink simulation.

  7. Open partial nephrectomy: ancient art or currently available technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seveso, Mauro; Grizzi, Fabio; Bozzini, Giorgio; Mandressi, Alberto; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Taverna, Gianluigi

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3 % of adult solid tumors, with the highest incidence between 50 and 70 years of age. Nephron-sparing surgery was initially reserved to patients with small renal masses detected in anatomically or functionally solitary kidney or in the presence of multiple bilateral tumors or hereditary forms of RCC, which posed a high risk of developing a tumor in the contralateral kidney. Nowadays, partial nephrectomy (PN) has grown up to an established approach for the treatment of small renal masses. In patients with T1a-staged RCCs, PN has proven to be associated with better survival, long-term renal function preservation with lower dialysis need or renal transplantation. Currently, most of the kidney masses are incidentally detected, up to 40 %, with smaller size due to the widespread use of imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. Here we review the role of open PN in the management of small renal masses particularly focusing on indications, oncological outcomes and comparison with laparoscopic and robotic PN. Recent studies demonstrate that PN confers better survival, oncologic equivalence and lower risk of severe chronic kidney disease compared to radical nephrectomy becoming then the gold-standard surgical technique, even if increasingly challenged by laparoscopic and/or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy which in the hands of experts seems to achieve comparable outcome results albeit with slightly higher complication rate.

  8. Detection of localized damage by eddy currents technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoukili A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non destructive evaluation techniques based on eddy currents (EC are largely used for quality control of the castings in a lot of industries. The principle of detection by EC consists in using an adequate inductive coil to generate them by a variable magnetic field, and measuring their effects by using one or several sensors. These effects result from the interaction between the induced magnetic field and the excited conductive material. A local variation of the physical properties or geometry of the tested sample, due to a singularity or a flaw, causes a modification of the EC distribution, enabling thus detection. In order to optimize the capacity of defect revealing by means of EC based probes, an accurate modelling of the problem is essential. This can be used to perform simulation of the EC distribution under different circumstances and to analyze the EC sensitivity to the various implicated parameters. In this work, the modelling of EC is made by using the finite element method. Using a B-scan strategy was used, detection of a small defect having the shape of an open cavity is shown to be correctly indicated via monitoring variations of the induced voltage in the receiver coil.

  9. High-temperature strain measurement techniques: Current developments and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, a very substantial amount of R&D has been conducted in an attempt to develop reliable strain sensors for the measurements of structural strains during ground testing and hypersonic flight, at temperatures up to at least 2000 deg F. Much of the effort has been focused on requirements of the NASP Program. This presentation is limited to the current sensor development work and characterization studies carried out within that program. It is basically an assessment as to where we are now and what remains to be done in the way of technical accomplishments to meet the technical challenges posed by the requirements and constraints established for the NASP Program. The approach for meeting those requirements and constraints has been multi-disciplinary in nature. It was recognized early on that no one sensor could meet all these requirements and constraints, largely because of the large temperature range (cryogenic to at least 2000 deg F) and many other factors, including the most challenging requirement that the sensor system be capable of obtaining valid 'first cycle data'. Present candidate alloys for resistance-type strain gages include Fe-Cr-Al and Pd-Cr. Although they have superior properties regarding withstanding very high temperatures, they exhibit large apparent strains that must either be accounted for or cancelled out by various techniques, including the use of a dual-element, half-bridge dummy gage, or electrical compensation networks. A significant effort is being devoted to developing, refining, and evaluating the effectiveness of those techniques over a broad range in temperature and time. In the quest to obtain first-cycle data, ways must be found to eliminate the need to prestabilize or precondition the strain gage, before it is attached to the test article. It should be noted that present NASP constraints do not permit prestabilization of the sensor, in situ. Gages are currently being 'heat treated' during manufacture in both the wire- and foil

  10. Current Status of Gil-Vernet Trigonoplasty Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Simforoosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant controversy exists regarding vesicoureteral reflux (VUR management, due to lack of sufficient prospective studies. The rationale for surgical management is that VUR can cause recurrent episodes of pyelonephritis and long-term renal damage. Several surgical techniques have been introduced during the past decades. Open anti-reflux operations have high success rate, exceeding 95%, and long durability. The goal of this article is to review the Gil-Vernet trigonoplasty technique, which is a simple and highly successful technique but has not gained the attention it deserves. The mainstay of this technique is approximation of medial aspects of ureteral orifices to midline by one mattress suture. A unique advantage of Gil-Vernet trigonoplasty is its bilateral nature, which results in prevention from contralateral new reflux. Regarding not altering the normal course of the ureter in Gil-Vernet procedure, later catheterization of and retrograde access to the ureter can be performed normally. There is no report of ureterovesical junction obstruction following Gil-Vernet procedure. Gil-Vernet trigonoplasty can be performed without inserting a bladder catheter and drain on an outpatient setting. Several exclusive advantages of Gil-Vernet trigonoplasty make it necessary to reconsider the technique role in VUR management.

  11. SRG POSITION SENSORLESS TECHNIQUE WITH CURRENT CHOPPING MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuXuezhong; LiuDiji; GuiXiaojie; LiuChuang

    2002-01-01

    A onvel current chopping strategy for switched reluc-tance generator(SRG)-a full conducted current chopping(FCCC)scheme is presented,According to characteristics lf phase current wave of SRG generating operation,it can be generated under sensorless condition without an addi-tional circuit or a position signal algorithm.Simulational results show the feasibility of this scheme.Experimental results of a 6kW6/4configuration SRG show its simplic-ity and high reliability with little decrease in efficiency.Soit will be widely used.

  12. Make or Buy in a Mature Industry? Models of Clientsupplier Relationships under TCT and RBV Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the transaction cost theory [TCT] and the resource-based view [RBV] to discuss three propositions on the models of client-supplier relationships in mature industries. The two theories seem to advance different organizational forms of the client-supplier relationships, and in some instances are contradictory. How should firms organize to prosper and grow, namely in the international markets? Through the case study of three Portuguese packaging firms, with primary (interviews and secondary data, we discuss how the three firms deploy three distinct strategic organization models in a mature industry. One firm utilizes marketbased governance mechanisms, and concentrates its production in a few selected locations. Another firm vertically integrates almost the entire value chain of the product to provide full service to its clients. The third firm operates in a model of integrated outsourcing, with the installation wall to wall with its clients. The clientsupplier models adopted by these firms are based on efficient, stable, and trustworthy relationships that permit them to focus on their core competences and reduce transaction costs. The superior performance of firms requires a proper alignment of hierarchical and relational governance, taking the dimensions of their transactions into consideration.

  13. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  14. Bulbar urethroplasty using the dorsal approach: current techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Barbagli

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of flaps or grafts is mandatory in patients with longer and complex strictures. In 1995-96 we described a new dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. Over time, our original technique was better defined and changed. Now this procedure (also named Barbagli technique has been greeted with a fair amount of enthusiasm in Europe and in the United States. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The patient is placed in normal lithotomy position, and a midline perineo-scrotal incision is made. The bulbar urethra is then free from the bulbo-cavernous muscles, and is dissected from the corpora cavernosa. The urethra is completely mobilized from the corpora cavernosa, it is rotated 180 degrees, and is incised along its dorsal surface. The graft (preputial skin or buccal mucosa or the flap is fixed and quilted to the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies. The right mucosal margin of the opened urethra is sutured to the right side of the patch-graft. The urethra is rotated back into its original position. The left urethral margin is sutured to the left side of the patch graft and to the corporal bodies, and the grafted area is entirely covered by the urethral plate. The bulbo-cavernous muscles are approximated over the grafted area. A 16F silicone Foley catheter is left in place. COMMENTS: Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty is a versatile procedure that may be combined with various substitute materials like preputial skin, buccal mucosa grafts or pedicled flaps.

  15. Biomechanical Comparison of 3 Current Ankle Syndesmosis Repair Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Thomas O; Whitlow, Scott R; Williams, Brady T; Liechti, Daniel J; Backus, Jonathon D; Dornan, Grant J; Saroki, Adriana J; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-02-01

    Significant debate exists regarding optimal repair for unstable syndesmosis injuries. Techniques range from screw fixation, suture-button fixation, or a combination of the two. In this study, 3 common repairs were compared using a simulated weightbearing protocol with internal and external rotation of the foot. Twenty-four lower leg specimens with mean age 54 years (range, 38-68 years) were used for testing. Following creation of a complete syndesmotic injury (AITFL, ITFL, PITFL, interosseous membrane), specimens were repaired using 1 of 3 randomly assigned techniques: (1) one 3.5-mm syndesmotic screw, (2) 1 suture-button construct, and (3) 2 divergent suture-button constructs. Repairs were cycled for 500 cycles between 7.5 Nm of internal/external rotation torque under a constant 750 N axial compressive load in a neutral dorsiflexion position. At 0, 10, 100, and 500 cycles, torsional cyclic loading was interrupted to assess torsional resistance to rotation within a physiologic range of motion (15 degrees external rotation to 10 degrees internal rotation). Torque (Nm), rotational position (degrees), and 3-dimensional data were collected throughout the testing to characterize relative spatial relationships of the tibiofibular articulation. There were no significant differences between repair techniques in resistance to internal and external rotation with respect to the intact syndesmosis. Three-dimensional analysis revealed significant differences between repair techniques for sagittal fibular translation with external rotation of the foot. Screw fixation had the smallest magnitude of posterior sagittal translation (2.5 mm), and a single suture-button construct demonstrated the largest magnitude of posterior sagittal translation (4.6 mm). Screw fixation also allowed for significantly less anterior sagittal translation with internal rotation of the foot (0.1 mm) when compared to both 1 (2.7 mm) and 2 (2.9 mm) suture-button constructs. All repairs provided comparable

  16. Chest trauma in children: current imaging guidelines and techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Given the heterogeneous nature of pediatric chest trauma, the optimal imaging approach is tailored to the specific patient. Chest radiography remains the most important imaging modality for initial triage. The decision to perform a chest computed tomography scan should be based on the nature of the trauma, the child\\'s clinical condition, and the initial radiographic findings, taking the age-related pretest probabilities of serious injury into account. The principles of as low as reasonably achievable and Image Gently should be followed. The epidemiology and pathophysiology, imaging techniques, characteristic findings, and evidence-based algorithms for pediatric chest trauma are discussed.

  17. Magnetic force microscopy/current contrast imaging: A new technique for internal current probing of ICs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Dodd, B.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This invited paper describes recently reported work on the application of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image currents in IC conductors [1]. A computer model for MFM imaging of IC currents and experimental results demonstrating the ability to determine current direction and magnitude with a resolution of {approximately} 1 mA dc and {approximately} 1 {mu}A ac are presented. The physics of MFM signal generation and applications to current imaging and measurement are described.

  18. Chronic total occlusions — Current techniques and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Touma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic total occlusions (CTOs of coronary arteries represent a common and significant challenge to interventional cardiology. Medical therapy is often regarded as an adequate long term strategy in the management of these lesions with surgical intervention for refractory symptoms. Extensive collateralisation is used as a marker of distal coronary perfusion, further reinforcing non-invasive strategies. This together with relatively low percutaneous success rates outside of specialised centres has meant that rates of percutaneous intervention have remained low. Increasing evidence suggests that CTOs are not a benign entity. Further, symptom control and quality of life improve significantly with successful percutaneous revascularisation. Both factors have reignited interest in percutaneous modalities. The Japanese have been pioneers in the field of CTO intervention although their success rates have been difficult to replicate. New techniques and equipment developed in North America offer an alternative to the Japanese approach. These techniques focus on time, radiation and contrast minimisation. This review will assess the histopathology of CTO and shifting paradigms in CTO treatment strategies.

  19. Radiographic measurements of hallux angles: a review of current techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Chockalingam, N; El Fakhri, Tarek

    2010-03-01

    Radiographic angles are commonly used in patients with hallux valgus deformity to assess the severity, plan surgery, assess outcome and compare results. Many different manual methods have been used, but are prone to error. More recently computer-assisted methods using software have become available. To review the different methods that have been used to measure radiographic angles in hallux valgus. A general literature search using relevant key words was undertaken using databases such as Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Cochrane Library. REVIEW FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: The manual methods used are prone to errors. The reliability can be improved by using standardised radiographic technique and measurement technique using specific reference points. Computer-assisted methods using software, might improve reliability of measurements. Further studies are needed to assess if these methods are easy to use, and to compare different software's that are available. Specifically designed software for the foot might further improve the reliability of radiographic measurements in hallux valgus. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.

  1. Surgical treatment of scoliosis: a review of techniques currently applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Toru

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this review, basic knowledge and recent innovation of surgical treatment for scoliosis will be described. Surgical treatment for scoliosis is indicated, in general, for the curve exceeding 45 or 50 degrees by the Cobb's method on the ground that: 1 Curves larger than 50 degrees progress even after skeletal maturity. 2 Curves of greater magnitude cause loss of pulmonary function, and much larger curves cause respiratory failure. 3 Larger the curve progress, more difficult to treat with surgery. Posterior fusion with instrumentation has been a standard of the surgical treatment for scoliosis. In modern instrumentation systems, more anchors are used to connect the rod and the spine, resulting in better correction and less frequent implant failures. Segmental pedicle screw constructs or hybrid constructs using pedicle screws, hooks, and wires are the trend of today. Anterior instrumentation surgery had been a choice of treatment for the thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis because better correction can be obtained with shorter fusion levels. Recently, superiority of anterior surgery for the thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis has been lost. Initial enthusiasm for anterior instrumentation for the thoracic curve using video assisted thoracoscopic surgery technique has faded out. Various attempts are being made with use of fusionless surgery. To control growth, epiphysiodesis on the convex side of the deformity with or without instrumentation is a technique to provide gradual progressive correction and to arrest the deterioration of the curves. To avoid fusion for skeletally immature children with spinal cord injury or myelodysplasia, vertebral wedge ostetomies are performed for the treatment of progressive paralytic scoliosis. For right thoracic curve with idiopathic scoliosis, multiple vertebral wedge osteotomies without fusion are performed. To provide correction and maintain it during the growing years while allowing spinal growth for

  2. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  3. Osteomyelitis: a review of currently used imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammak, B.; Abd El Bagi, M; Al Shahed, M.; Al Nabulsi, J.; Youssef, B.; Al Thagafi, M. [Department of Radiology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Hamilton, D. [Department of Medical Physics, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-06-01

    Conventional radiographs remain the initial imaging modality involved in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy and its specific agents did not only eliminate the problems of inherent low sensitivity of conventional radiographs, but also increased the specificity to higher degrees. Spiral CT, on the other hand, has solved several diagnostic problems, such as osteomyelitis of the sterno-clavicular junction and hidden areas in the pelvic bones. Magnetic resonance imaging with its multiplanar capability, greater anatomic details and excellent soft tissue bone marrow contrast resolution has a significant role in surgical planning and limb preservation. Ultrasound and US-guided aspiration has recently been involved in the diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis with several advantages particularly in children. Our goal in this review is to outline the ability of various imaging techniques by comparing their strengths and weaknesses in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Finally, we suggest various imaging algorithms for specific clinical scenarios. Spondylitis and septic arthritis are not discussed in this review. (orig.) With 7 figs., 43 refs.

  4. Osteochondral tissue engineering with biphasic scaffold: current strategies and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kazunori; Moriguchi, Yu; Murawski, Christopher D; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2014-10-01

    The management of osteoarthritis (OA) remains challenging and controversial. Although several clinical options exist for the treatment of OA, regeneration of the damaged articular cartilage has proved difficult due to the limited healing capacity. With the advancements in tissue engineering and cell-based technologies over the past decade, new therapeutic options for patients with osteochondral lesions potentially exist. This review will focus on the feasibility of tissue-engineered biphasic scaffolds, which can mimic the native osteochondral complex, for osteochondral repair and highlight the recent development of these techniques toward tissue regeneration. Moreover, basic anatomy, strategy for osteochondral repair, the design and fabrication methods of scaffolds, as well as the choice of cells, growth factor, and materials will be discussed. Specifically, we focus on the latest preclinical animal studies using large animals and clinical trials with high clinical relevance. In turn, this will facilitate an understanding of the latest trends in osteochondral repair and contribute to the future application of such clinical therapies in patients with OA.

  5. Current cardiac imaging techniques for detection of left ventricular mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Aksuyek S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of left ventricular (LV mass has both prognostic and therapeutic value independent of traditional risk factors. Unfortunately, LV mass evaluation has been underestimated in clinical practice. Assessment of LV mass can be performed by a number of imaging modalities. Despite inherent limitations, conventional echocardiography has fundamentally been established as most widely used diagnostic tool. 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE is now feasible, fast and accurate for LV mass evaluation. 3DE is also superior to conventional echocardiography in terms of LV mass assessment, especially in patients with abnormal LV geometry. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT are currently performed for LV mass assessment and also do not depend on cardiac geometry and display 3-dimensional data, as well. Therefore, CMR is being increasingly employed and is at the present standard of reference in the clinical setting. Although each method demonstrates advantages over another, there are also disadvantages to receive attention. Diagnostic accuracy of methods will also be increased with the introduction of more advanced systems. It is also likely that in the coming years new and more accurate diagnostic tests will become available. In particular, CMR and CCT have been intersecting hot topic between cardiology and radiology clinics. Thus, good communication and collaboration between two specialties is required for selection of an appropriate test.

  6. Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O/2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine(TCT) a mild and selective system for nitration of phenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Firouzeh; Nemati; Hossein; Kiani

    2010-01-01

    Certain phenols and naphthols were nitrated regioselectively with Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O/TCT in acetonitrile as solvent at room temperature and short reaction time in good yields.The reaction condition was mild.TCT is a cheap and commercially available reagent.It performed as an acid catalyst in this transformation.

  7. Determination of confinement efficiency in tokamaks based on current independent flux loops technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    In this contribution we presented a current independent approximation of the combination of poloidal beta and internal inductance (confinement efficiency) only based on poloidal flux loops measurement in IR-T1 tokamak. The main advantage of this technique is that it based only on the one diagnostic (only flux loops and not need to plasma current measurement). Based on this method, two flux loops were designed, constructed, and installed on outer surface of the IR-T1 tokamak chamber and then the Shafranov parameter was measured from them. Also the result of this technique was compared with conventional magnetic probes technique and found in good agreement with each other.

  8. Hysteresis Current Control technique based on Space Vector Modulation for Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yun-liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hysteresis current control (HCC technique based on space vector modulation (SVM for shunt active power filter (APF is proposed. The switching control algorithms of the HCC based SVM manage to generate compensated current according to the reference current. Harmonics extraction is based on the instantaneous active and reactive power theorem in time domain by calculating the power compensation. A closed loop control system is carried out and the error current is the difference between the reference current which is obtained from the power compensation and the actual current needs to be injected back into the power grid. By implementing this control strategy, the APF manages to generate better compensated harmonics currents to the power grid. Keywords: active power filter, hysteresis current control, space vector modulation ,matlab/simulink

  9. Validity and usefulness of members reports of implementation progress in a quality improvement initiative: findings from the Team Check-up Tool (TCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsteller Jill A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Team-based interventions are effective for improving safety and quality of healthcare. However, contextual factors, such as team functioning, leadership, and organizational support, can vary significantly across teams and affect the level of implementation success. Yet, the science for measuring context is immature. The goal of this study is to validate measures from a short instrument tailored to track dynamic context and progress for a team-based quality improvement (QI intervention. Methods Design: Secondary cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of data from a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT of a team-based quality improvement intervention to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI rates in intensive care units (ICUs. Setting: Forty-six ICUs located within 35 faith-based, not-for-profit community hospitals across 12 states in the U.S. Population: Team members participating in an ICU-based QI intervention. Measures: The primary measure is the Team Check-up Tool (TCT, an original instrument that assesses context and progress of a team-based QI intervention. The TCT is administered monthly. Validation measures include CLABSI rate, Team Functioning Survey (TFS and Practice Environment Scale (PES from the Nursing Work Index. Analysis: Temporal stability, responsiveness and validity of the TCT. Results We found evidence supporting the temporal stability, construct validity, and responsiveness of TCT measures of intervention activities, perceived group-level behaviors, and barriers to team progress. Conclusions The TCT demonstrates good measurement reliability, validity, and responsiveness. By having more validated measures on implementation context, researchers can more readily conduct rigorous studies to identify contextual variables linked to key intervention and patient outcomes and strengthen the evidence base on successful spread of efficacious team-based interventions. QI teams

  10. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  11. A Review of Novel Leakage Current Suppression Techniques for Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Weiyang; GUO Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the transformerless PV inverters have been paid more attention due to cost and size reduction, as well as efficiency improvement compared with the conventional transformer ones. Leakage current suppression is one of the most important techniques for transformerless grid connected photovoltaic systems. The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the recently developed solution to the leakage current reduction. First of all, the common-mode model of the PV system is described to explain how the leakage current generates.

  12. Pulse-driven LED circuit with transformer-based current balance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, S.-S.

    2014-12-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been gradually used for backlight modules for liquid crystal display as a substitute for cold cathode fluorescent lamps. In most of LED applications, it is required to connect several LED strings in parallel to limit the dc voltage level to be applied to the single LED string. Due to considerable current variations through each LED string with inevitable parameter deviations as well as temperature and ageing effects, techniques to balance currents flowing through LED strings are required for LED drivers. This article proposes a pulse-driven LED circuit with transformer-based current balancing scheme, which can simply regulate currents through the LED strings. The transformers are placed in series with the LED strings in such a way that the LED currents are automatically balanced. Since the developed current sharing technique employs no dissipative resistors and no linear-mode transistors, the proposed driver has high efficiency, low power dissipation and reduced thermal problems. In addition, the presented driver with no additional semiconductor devices and no additional controllers can provide a simple and a cost-effective current balancing solution, compared to conventional approaches. Thus, the proposed LED driver can feature a simple, highly efficient, reliable and cost-effective method. The presented LED driver is verified with experimental results.

  13. Sub-Threshold Leakage Current Reduction Techniques In VLSI Circuits -A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sri Sai Harsha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for portable devices powered up by battery, this led the manufacturers of semiconductor technology to scale down the feature size which results in reduction in threshold voltage and enables the complex functionality on a single chip. By scaling down the feature size the dynamic power dissipation has no effect but the static power dissipation has become equal or more than that of Dynamic power dissipation. So in recent CMOS technologies static power dissipation i.e. power dissipation due to leakage current has become a challenging area for VLSI chip designers. In order to prolong the battery life and maintain reliability of circuit, leakage current reduction is the primary goal. A basic overview of techniques used for reduction of sub-threshold leakages is discussed in this paper. Based on the surveyed techniques, one would be able to choose required and apt leakage reduction technique.

  14. Design of Current Controller for Two Quadrant DC Motor Drive by Using Model Order Reduction Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ramesh, K; Nirmalkumar, A; Gurusamy, G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, design of current controller for a two quadrant DC motor drive was proposed with the help of model order reduction technique. The calculation of current controller gain with some approximations in the conventional design process is replaced by proposed model order reduction method. The model order reduction technique proposed in this paper gives the better controller gain value for the DC motor drive. The proposed model order reduction method is a mixed method, where the numerator polynomial of reduced order model is obtained by using stability equation method and the denominator polynomial is obtained by using some approximation technique preceded in this paper. The designed controllers responses were simulated with the help of MATLAB to show the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Leakage Current Optimization Techniques During Test Based on Don't Care Bits Assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Yu Hu; Yin-He Han; Xiao-Wei Li; You-Sheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that test power consumption may exceed that during functional operation. Leakage power dissipation caused by leakage current in Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) circuits during test has become a significant part of the total power dissipation. Hence, it is important to reduce leakage power to prolong battery life in portable systems which employ periodic self-test, to increase test reliability and to reduce test cost. This paper analyzes leakage current and presents a kind of leakage current simulator based on the transistor stacking effect.Using it, we propose techniques based on don't care bits (denoted by Xs) in test vectors to optimize leakage current in integrated circuit (IC) test by genetic algorithm. The techniques identify a set of don't care inputs in given test vectors and reassign specified logic values to the X inputs by the genetic algorithm to get minimum leakage vector (MLV).Experimental results indicate that the techniques can effectually optimize leakage current of combinational circuits and sequential circuits during test while maintaining high fault coverage.

  16. Automatic parameter extraction technique for gate leakage current modeling in double gate MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandy, Ghader; Gneiting, Thomas; Alius, Heidrun; Alvarado, Joaquín; Cerdeira, Antonio; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    Direct Tunneling (DT) and Trap Assisted Tunneling (TAT) gate leakage current parameters have been extracted and verified considering automatic parameter extraction approach. The industry standard package IC-CAP is used to extract our leakage current model parameters. The model is coded in Verilog-A and the comparison between the model and measured data allows to obtain the model parameter values and parameters correlations/relations. The model and parameter extraction techniques have been used to study the impact of parameters in the gate leakage current based on the extracted parameter values. It is shown that the gate leakage current depends on the interfacial barrier height more strongly than the barrier height of the dielectric layer. There is almost the same scenario with respect to the carrier effective masses into the interfacial layer and the dielectric layer. The comparison between the simulated results and available measured gate leakage current transistor characteristics of Trigate MOSFETs shows good agreement.

  17. A zero-voltage switching technique for minimizing the current-source power of implanted stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çilingiroğlu, Uğur; İpek, Sercan

    2013-08-01

    The current-source power of an implanted stimulator is reduced almost to the theoretical minimum by driving the electrodes directly from the secondary port of the inductive link with a dedicated zero-voltage switching power supply. A feedback loop confined to the secondary of the inductive link adjusts the timing and conduction angle of switching to provide just the right amount of supply voltage needed for keeping the current-source voltage constant at or slightly above the compliance limit. Since drive is based on current rather than voltage, and supply-voltage update is near real-time, the quality of the current pulses is high regardless of how the electrode impedance evolves during stimulation. By scaling the switching frequency according to power demand, the technique further improves overall power consumption of the stimulator. The technique is implemented with a very simple control circuitry comprising a comparator, a Schmitt trigger and a logic gate of seven devices in addition to an on-chip switch and an off-chip capacitor. The power consumed by the proposed supply circuit itself is no larger than what the linear regulator of a conventional supply typically consumes for the same stimulation current. Still, the sum of supply and current-source power is typically between 20% and 75% of the conventional source power alone. Functionality of the proposed driver is verified experimentally on a proof-of-concept prototype built with 3.3 V devices in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  18. Pulsed remote field eddy current technique applied to non-magnetic flat conductive plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhanbin

    2013-12-01

    Non-magnetic metal plates are widely used in aviation and industrial applications. The detection of cracks in thick plate structures, such as multilayered structures of aircraft fuselage, has been challenging in nondestructive evaluation societies. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has shown advantages of deep penetration and high sensitivity to deeply buried anomalies. However, the RFEC technique is mainly used to evaluate ferromagnetic tubes. There are many problems that should be fixed before the expansion and application of this technique for the inspection of non-magnetic conductive plates. In this article, the pulsed remote field eddy current (PRFEC) technique for the detection of defects in non-magnetic conducting plates was investigated. First, the principle of the PRFEC technique was analysed, followed by the analysis of the differences between the detection of defects in ferromagnetic and non-magnetic plain structures. Three different models of the PRFEC probe were simulated using ANSYS. The location of the transition zone, defect detection sensitivity and the ability to detect defects in thick plates using three probes were analysed and compared. The simulation results showed that the probe with a ferrite core had the highest detecting ability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study were also validated by conducting experiments.

  19. Maximum Bandwidth Enhancement of Current Mirror using Series-Resistor and Dynamic Body Bias Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niranjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new approach for enhancing the bandwidth of a low voltage CMOS current mirror. The proposed approach is based on utilizing body effect in a MOS transistor by connecting its gate and bulk terminals together for signal input. This results in boosting the effective transconductance of MOS transistor along with reduction of the threshold voltage. The proposed approach does not affect the DC gain of the current mirror. We demonstrate that the proposed approach features compatibility with widely used series-resistor technique for enhancing the current mirror bandwidth and both techniques have been employed simultaneously for maximum bandwidth enhancement. An important consequence of using both techniques simultaneously is the reduction of the series-resistor value for achieving the same bandwidth. This reduction in value is very attractive because a smaller resistor results in smaller chip area and less noise. PSpice simulation results using 180 nm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to prove the unique results. The proposed current mirror operates at 1Volt consuming only 102 µW and maximum bandwidth extension ratio of 1.85 has been obtained using the proposed approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with analytical predictions.

  20. Fault current reduction by SFCL in a distribution system with PV using fuzzy logic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounika, M.; Lingareddy, P.

    2017-07-01

    In the modern power system, as the utilization of electric power is very wide, there is a frequent occurring of any fault or disturbance in power system. It causes a high short circuit current. Due to this fault, high currents occurs results to large mechanical forces, these forces cause overheating of the equipment. If the large size equipment are used in power system then they need a large protection scheme for severe fault conditions. Generally, the maintenance of electrical power system reliability is more important. But the elimination of fault is not possible in power systems. So the only alternate solution is to minimize the fault currents. For this the Super Conducting Fault Current Limiter using fuzzy logic technique is the best electric equipment which is used for reducing the severe fault current levels. In this paper, we simulated the unsymmetrical and symmetrical faults with fuzzy based superconducting fault current limiter. In our analysis it is proved that, fuzzy logic based super conducting fault current limiter reduces fault current quickly to a lower value.

  1. Imaging Techniques in Psoriatic Arthritis: Update 2012-2014 on Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleo, Elena; Migone, Stefania; Prono, Valentina; Barbieri, Francesca; Garlaschi, Giacomo; Cimmino, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    By providing additional and more sensitive information over clinical examination, imaging techniques are useful in the assessment of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and have been increasingly used to obtain additional clues to its pathogenesis. This review describes the current status and future development of conventional radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and other novel techniques in the evaluation of PsA, with a focus on their use in diagnosing, monitoring, and predicting disease course and followup treatment response. The role and applications of ultrasonography are outside the scope and are reviewed elsewhere in these proceedings.

  2. Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusion Lesions: A Critical Appraisal of Current Devices and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) has been considered as one of the “final frontier” in interventional cardiology. Until recently, the patients with CTO are often managed surgically or medically due to lack of published evidence of clinical benefits and lower success rate of percutaneous recanalization of CTO. However, the introduction of enhanced guidewires, microcatheters combined with novel specialized devices and techniques reduce the number of unapproachable CTO. In this review article, current techniques and devices of percutaneous recanalization of CTO have been systematically summarized, which may help budding interventional cardiologists to theoretically understand these complex procedures and to deliver safe and effective percutaneous management of CTO to the patients. PMID:27790503

  3. Investigations of Tracking Phenomena in Silicone Rubber Using Moving Average Current Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sarathi; S. Chandrasekar

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, tracking phenomenon in Silicone rubber material has been studied under AC and DC voltage, with ammonium chloride as a contaminant. It is observed that the tracking is more severe under the DC voltages. The tracking time is less under negative DC compared to the positive DC voltage. The tracking mechanism is explained in detail. The leakage current during the tracking studies was as measured and the moving average technique was adopted to understand the trend in current flow. The leakage current magnitude is high with thermally aged specimens compared to the virgin specimen, irrespective of the type of applied voltage. It is realized that the tracking time and the leakage current magnitude shows an inverse relationship.

  4. A novel biphasic-current-pulse calibration technique for electrical neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maohua Ren; Jinyong Zhang; Lei Wang; Zhenyu Wang

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenge in neural prosthetic device design is to ensure charge-balanced stimulation. This paper presents a new calibration technique to minimize the mismatch between anodic and cathodic current amplitudes. The proposed circuit mainly consists of a digital and an analog calibration, where a successive approximation register (SAR) logic and a comparator are used in digital calibration while a source follower is adopted in analog calibration. With a 0.18 μm high voltage CMOS process, the simulation shows that the maximum current mismatch is 45 nA (<0.05%).

  5. New Approach to Low-Power & Leakage Current Reduction Technique for CMOS Circuit Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Prajapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leakage power dissipation has become major portion of total power consumption in the integrated device and is expected to grow exponentially in the next decade as per International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (IRTS. This directly affects the battery operated devices as it has long idle times. Thus by scaling down the threshold voltage has tremendously increased the sub threshold leakage current thereby making the static power dissipation very high. To overcome this problem several techniques has been proposed to overcome this high leakage power dissipation. A comprehensive survey and analysis of various leakage power minimization techniques is presented in this paper. Of the available techniques, eight techniques are considered for the analysis namely, Multi Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS, Super Cut-off CMOS (SCCMOS, Forced Transistor Stacking (FTS and Sleepy Stack (SS, Sleepy keeper (SK, Dual Stack (OS, and LECTOR. From the results, it is observed that Lector techniques produces lower power dissipation than the other techniques due to the ability of power gating.

  6. Development of fiber-optic current sensing technique and its applications in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the development and applications of a fiber-optic electric current sensing technique with the stable properties and compact, simple, and flexible structure of the sensing device. The special characteristics of the sensors were achieved by use of the special low birefringence fiber as the Faraday-effect sensing element and were also achieved with creation of sensing schemes which matched with the features of the fiber. Making use of the excellent features of the sensing technique, various current monitoring devices and systems were developed and applied practically for the control and maintenance in the electric power facility. In this paper, the design and performance of the sensing devices are introduced first. After that, examples of the application systems practically applied are also introduced, including fault section/point location systems for power transmission cable lines.

  7. Theory and signal processing of acoustic correlation techniques for current velocity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Weiqing; FENG Lei; WANG Changhong; WANG Yuling; QIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model and signal processing of acoustic correlation measurements to estimate current velocity are discussed. The sonar space-time correlation function of vol-ume reverberations within Fraunhofer zone is derived. The function, which is in exponential forms, is the theoretical model of acoustic correlation measurements. The characteristics of the correlation values around the maximum of the amplitude of the correlation function, where most information about current velocity is contained, are primarily analyzed. Localized Least Mean Squares (LLMS) criterion is put forward for velocity estimation. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is adopted as the optimization method. So the systematic sig-nal processing method of acoustic correlation techniques for current velocity measurement is established. A prototype acoustic correlation current profiler (ACCP) underwent several sea trials, the results show that theoretical model approximately coincides with experimental re-sults. Current profiles including the speed and direction from ACCP are compared with those from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The current profiles by both instruments agree reasonably well. Also, the standard deviation of velocity measurement by ACCP is statistically calculated and it is a little larger than predicted value.

  8. Current techniques for visualizing RNA in cells [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilith V.J.C. Mannack

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Labeling RNA is of utmost interest, particularly in living cells, and thus RNA imaging is an emerging field. There are numerous methods relying on different concepts ranging from hybridization-based probes, over RNA-binding proteins to chemo-enzymatic modification of RNA. These methods have different benefits and limitations. This review aims to outline the current state-of-the-art techniques and point out their benefits and limitations.

  9. Limiting current technique in the research of mass/heat transfer in nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, J.; Grosicki, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper the authors focused on the application of the electrochemical limiting diffusion current technique to the study of mass transfer in nanofluid flow. As mass and heat transfer are analogical phenomena, analysing mass transfer helps understand heat transfer processes in nanofluids. The paper begins with a short review of the available literature on the subject followed by the authors' results of mass transfer coefficient measurements and the conclusions concerning mass/heat transfer enhancement in nanofluids.

  10. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient. PMID:28335399

  11. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A

    2017-03-13

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  12. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhuji Rifai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the eddy current technique (ECT for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM. The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  13. Implementations of artificial neural networks using current-mode pulse width modulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, E I; Yang, H K; Yakout, M A

    1997-01-01

    The use of a current-mode pulse width modulation (CM-PWM) technique to implement analog artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. This technique can be used to efficiently implement the weighted summation operation (WSO) that are required in the realization of a general ANN. The sigmoidal transformation is inherently performed by the nonlinear transconductance amplifier, which is a key component in the current integrator used in the realization of WSO. The CM-PWM implementation results in a minimum silicon area, and therefore is suitable for very large scale neural systems. Other pronounced features of the CM-PWM implementation are its easy programmability, electronically adjustable gains of neurons, and modular structures. In this paper, all the current-mode CMOS circuits (building blocks) required for the realization of CM-PWM ANNs are presented and simulated. Four modules for modular design of ANNs are introduced. Also, it is shown that the CM-PWM technique is an efficient method for implementing discrete-time cellular neural networks (DT-CNNs). Two application examples are given: a winner-take-all circuit and a connected component detector.

  14. A new circuit technique for reduced leakage current in Deep Submicron CMOS technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern CMOS processes in the Deep Submicron regime are restricted to supply voltages below 2 volts and further to account for the transistors' field strength limitations and to reduce the power per logic gate. To maintain the high switching performance, the threshold voltage must be scaled according with the supply voltage. However, this leads to an increased subthreshold current of the transistors in standby mode (VGS=0. Another source of leakage is gate current, which becomes significant for gate oxides of 3nm and below. We propose a Self-Biasing Virtual Rails (SBVR - CMOS technique which acts like an adaptive local supply voltage in case of standby mode. Most important sources of leakage currents are reduced by this technique. Moreover, SBVR-CMOS is capable of conserving stored information in sleep mode, which is vital for memory circuits. Memories are exposed to radiation causing soft errors. This well-known problem becomes even worse in standby mode of typical SRAMs, that have low driving performance to withstand alpha particle hits. In this paper, a 16-transistor SRAM cell is proposed, which combines the advantage of extremely low leakage currents with a very high soft error stability.

  15. High impulse voltage and current measurement techniques fundamentals, measuring instruments, measuring methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schon, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Equipment to be installed in electric power-transmission and distribution systems must pass acceptance tests with standardized high-voltage or high-current test impulses which simulate the stress on the insulation caused by external lightning discharges and switching operations in the grid. High impulse voltages and currents are also used in many other fields of science and engineering for various applications. Therefore, precise impulse-measurement techniques are necessary, either to prevent an over- or understressing of the insulation or to guarantee the effectiveness and quality of the application. The book deals with: principal generator circuits for generating high-voltage and high-current impulses measuring systems and their calibration according to IEC 60060 and IEC 62475 methods of estimating uncertainties of measurement mathematical and experimental basis for characterizing the transfer behavior of spatially extended systems used for measuring fast transients. This book is intended for engineers and ...

  16. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  17. Cerebral blood flow and autoregulation: current measurement techniques and prospects for noninvasive optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Sassaroli, Angelo; Tgavalekos, Kristen T; Kornbluth, Joshua

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral autoregulation (CA) are critically important to maintain proper brain perfusion and supply the brain with the necessary oxygen and energy substrates. Adequate brain perfusion is required to support normal brain function, to achieve successful aging, and to navigate acute and chronic medical conditions. We review the general principles of CBF measurements and the current techniques to measure CBF based on direct intravascular measurements, nuclear medicine, X-ray imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound techniques, thermal diffusion, and optical methods. We also review techniques for arterial blood pressure measurements as well as theoretical and experimental methods for the assessment of CA, including recent approaches based on optical techniques. The assessment of cerebral perfusion in the clinical practice is also presented. The comprehensive description of principles, methods, and clinical requirements of CBF and CA measurements highlights the potentially important role that noninvasive optical methods can play in the assessment of neurovascular health. In fact, optical techniques have the ability to provide a noninvasive, quantitative, and continuous monitor of CBF and autoregulation.

  18. Smart Technique for Induction Motors Diagnosis by Monitoring the Power Factor Using Only the Measured Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnibha, R. A.; Albarabar, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper is concerned with accurate, early and reliable induction motor IM fault detection and diagnosis using an enhanced power parameter measurement technique. IM protection devices typically monitor the motor current and/or voltage to provide the motor protection from e.g. current overload, over/under voltage, etc. One of the interesting parameters to monitor is the operating power factor (PF) of the IM which provides better under-load protection compared to the motor current based approaches. The PF of the motor is determined by the level of the current and voltage that are drawn, and offers non-intrusive monitoring. Traditionally, PF estimation would require both voltage and the current measurements to apply the displacement method. This paper will use a method of determining the operating PF of the IM using only the measured current and the manufacturer data that are typically available from the nameplate and/or datasheet for IM monitoring. The novelty of this work lies in detecting very low phase imbalance related faults and misalignment. Much of the previous work has dealt with detecting phase imbalance faults at higher degrees of severity, i.e. voltage drops of 10% or more. The technique was tested by empirical measurements on test rig comprised a 1.1 kW variable speed three phase induction motor with varying output load (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load). One common faults was introduced; imbalance in one phase as the electrical fault The experimental results demonstrate that the PF can be successfully applied for IM fault diagnosis and the present study shows that severity fault detection using PF is promising. The proposed method offers a potentially reliable, non-intrusive, and inexpensive CM tool which can be implemented with real-time monitoring systems

  19. Design automation techniques for high-resolution current folding and interpolating CMOS A/D converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, D.

    2007-05-01

    The design and testing of a 12-bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter, in current mode, arranged in an 8-bit LSB and a 4- bit MSB architecture together with the integration of specialized test building blocks on chip allows the set up of a design automation technique for current folding and interpolation CMOS A/D converter architectures. The presented design methodology focuses on the automation for CMOS A/D building blocks in a flexible target current folding and interpolating architecture for a downscaling technology and for different quality specifications. The comprehensive understanding of all sources of mismatching in the crucial building blocks and the use of physical based mismatch modeling in the prediction of mismatch errors, more adequate and realistic sizing of all transistors will result in an overall area reduction of the A/D converter. In this design the folding degree is 16, the number of folders is 64 and the interpolation level is 4. The number of folders is reduced by creating intermediate folding signals with a 4-level interpolator based on current division techniques. Current comparators detect the zero-crossing between the differential folder output currents. The outputs of the comparators deliver a cyclic thermometer code. The digital synthesis part for decoding and error correction building blocks is a standardized digital standard cell design. The basic building blocks in the target architecture were designed in 0.35μ CMOS technology; they are suitable for topological reuse and are in an automated way downscaled into a 0.18μ CMOS technology.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE RUSSIAN CURRENT TECHNIQUE ON THE TRICEPS SURAE MUSCLE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VERTICAL JUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Aline Fernandes; Unioeste; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Unioeste; Lara, Ellis Regina Medeiros de; Unioeste; Amaro, Fernanda Lucasynski; Unioeste; Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo de; Unioeste; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscle electric stimulation is a technique for muscle strengthening based on electric stimulation of the intramuscle branches of motor-neurons that induce muscular contraction. Authors do not agree on functional gains by employing the Russian current technique. Current analysis evaluates the effect of electro-stimulation with the Russian current technique on the triceps surae muscle on the power and resistance of the vertical jump. Assay comprised 16 volunteers who were divided into a co...

  1. The Clinical Significance of HPV Combine TCT in the Physical Examination of Female%HPV联合TCT检查在女性体检中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新萍; 兰红勤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨HPV-DAN检测联合TCT在女性筛查宫颈病变体检中的临床意义。方法:HPV-DNA的检测采用美国Digene公司推出的第二代杂交捕获(Hybrid CtureZ,HC-Ⅱ)试验,宫颈脱落细胞病变程度检测采用薄层细胞学检测系统(TCT),宫颈组织病理活检采用经典方法。结果:在受检者中,随着细胞诊断级别的升高,HPV的感染率亦随之上升, ASCUS、ASC-H、LSIL、HSIL的HPV感染率分别为41.30%、55.73%、80.42%、88.50%,TCT、HPV单项检出率分别为32.0%和38.4%,而两者联合检出率为49.2%;HPV和TCT均阳性的患者中,CINⅢ及以上的病变检出率最高,HPV和TCT均阴性的患者中,无一例CINⅢ及以上的病变,P<0.01,差异有统计学意义。结论:TCT和HPV-DNA联合检测可提高宫颈病变的诊出率,两者互补,降低单一检查所造成的假阴性率,从而更利于体检时早期发现宫颈病变,积极治疗并防止恶变。%Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of HPV-DAN combine TCT in the screening of cervical lesions of women. Methods: HPV-DNA was detected by he second generation Hybrid Capture (Hybrid CtureZ, HC-Ⅱ) test launched by Digene in the United States , cervical cell lesions was detected by thin-layer cytology system (TCT), cervical tissue biopsy using the classical methods. Results: In all the subjects, along with elevated levels of cell diagnosis, the rates of HPV infection also rise, respectively were 41.30%, 55.73%, 80.42%, 88.50%in the group of ASCUS, ASC-H, LSIL and HSIL, the individual detection rates of TCT and HPV were 32.0%and 38.4%, while the combination of the two was 49.2%;the patients which HPV and TCT were both positive have the highest detection rate of CINⅢ and , no case was CINⅢ and higher level in the patients which HPV and TCT were both negative, P<0.01, the difference has statistically significant. Conclusion:TCT and HPV-DNA detection can be combined to improve

  2. Reviewing current knowledge in snatch performance and technique: the need for future directions in applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lester K W; Lorenzen, Christian; Wilson, Cameron J; Saunders, John E; Williams, Morgan D

    2014-02-01

    This is a review of current research trends in weightlifting literature relating to the understanding of technique and its role in successful snatch performance. Reference to the world records in the snatch from the 1960s onwards indicates little progress across all weight categories. With such mediocre advances in performance at the International level, there is a need to better understand how snatch technique can improve performance even if only by a small margin. Methods of data acquisition for technical analysis of the snatch have involved mostly 2-dimensional barbell and joint kinematics. Although key variables which play a role in the successful outcome of a snatch lift have been heavily investigated, few studies have combined variables relating both the barbell and the weightlifter in their analyses. This suggests the need for a more detailed approach integrating both barbell-related and weightlifter-related data to enhance understanding of the mechanics of a successful lift. Currently, with the aid of technical advances in motion analysis, data acquisition, and methods of analysis, a more accurate representation of the movement can be provided. Better ways of understanding the key characteristics of technique in the snatch could provide the opportunity for more effective individualized feedback from the coach to the athlete, which should in turn lead to improved performance in competition.

  3. A 540-[Formula: see text] Duty Controlled RSSI With Current Reusing Technique for Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaeeun; Lee, Yongsu; Cho, Hyunwoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-low-power duty controlled received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is implemented for human body communication (HBC) in 180 nm CMOS technology under 1.5 V supply. The proposed RSSI adopted 3 following key features for low-power consumption; 1) current reusing technique (CR-RSSI) with replica bias circuit and calibration unit, 2) duty controller, and 3) reconfigurable gm-boosting LNA. The CR-RSSI utilizes stacked amplifier-rectifier-cell (AR-cell) to reuse the supply current of each blocks. As a result, the power consumption becomes 540 [Formula: see text] with +/-2 dB accuracy and 75 dB dynamic range. The replica bias circuit and calibration unit are adopted to increase the reliability of CR-RSSI. In addition, the duty controller turns off the RSSI when it is not required, and this function leads 70% power reduction. At last, the gm-boosting reconfigurable LNA can adaptively vary its noise and linearity performance with respect to input signal strength. Fro current reusing technique m this feature, we achieve 62% power reduction in the LNA. Thanks to these schemes, compared to the previous works, we can save 70% of power in RSSI and LNA.

  4. An overview of MR arthrography with emphasis on the current technique and applicational hints and tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Guelden [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Samanpazari, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: gsahin@medicine.ankara.edu.tr; Demirtas, Mehmet [Department of Hand Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Samanpazari, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography has been investigated in every major peripheral joint of the body, and has been proven to be effective in determining the integrity of intraarticular ligamentous and fibrocartilaginous structures and in the detection or assessment of osteochondral lesions and loose bodies in selected cases. Several methods could be used to create arthrogram effect during MR imaging, however, direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent is the most commonly used technique and is the most reliable of all. MR arthrography is useful for demonstrating labrocapsular-ligamentous abnormalities and distinguishing partial thickness rotator cuff tears from focal full thickness tears in the shoulder, identifying or excluding recurrent tears following meniscal operations in the knee, demonstrating perforations of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and ligaments in the wrist, showing labral tears in the hip, diagnosing ligament tears in the ankle and identifying osteochondral lesions or loose bodies in any of the aforementioned joints. In this article, an overview of techniques of MR arthrography is provided with emphasis on direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent. The current applications of the technique in major peripheral joints are reviewed, with emphasis given to the shoulder joint where the role of this technique has become well established.

  5. Current techniques and strategies for anesthesia in patients undergoing peripheral bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, E; Dortangs, E; Buhre, W; Gramke, H F

    2014-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is an illness with a high prevalence in Europe and North America. The disease is associated with a significant impact on quality of life. Despite advanced medical and endovascular treatments, surgery is often indicated to prevent the consequences of ischemic injury. Usually, these patients do have significant comorbidities resulting in an increased risk for anesthesia-related complications. While general anesthesia is commonly used for the majority of the patients, local and regional anesthesia (RA) offer several possible advantages such as stable cardiovascular hemodynamic perioperative course, improved postoperative pain relief and prevention of chronic postsurgical pain syndromes. This review will discuss perioperative management, available evidence regarding general anesthesia and various regional anesthetic techniques for peripheral vascular surgery, and the current advises regarding anticoagulants and RA. No definitive conclusions can be drawn from the existing literature with respect to superiority of general or neuraxial anesthesia or even RA. Maybe the profits lie in the combination of techniques, a strategy, to overcome the risks of one and use the benefits of the other technique. From circumstantial evidence, it is most likely that the experience of the anesthetic and surgical team is one of the major determinants of perioperative complications independent from the individual anesthesia technique.

  6. Current techniques in acid-chloride corrosion control and monitoring at The Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtz, Paul; Buck, Cliff; Kunzman, Russell

    1991-01-01

    Acid chloride corrosion of geothermal well casings, production piping and power plant equipment has resulted in costly corrosion damage, frequent curtailments of power plants and the permanent shut-in of wells in certain areas of The Geysers. Techniques have been developed to mitigate these corrosion problems, allowing continued production of steam from high chloride wells with minimal impact on production and power generation facilities.The optimization of water and caustic steam scrubbing, steam/liquid separation and process fluid chemistry has led to effective and reliable corrosion mitigation systems currently in routine use at The Geysers. When properly operated, these systems can yield steam purities equal to or greater than those encountered in areas of The Geysers where chloride corrosion is not a problem. Developments in corrosion monitoring techniques, steam sampling and analytical methodologies for trace impurities, and computer modeling of the fluid chemistry has been instrumental in the success of this technology.

  7. Ultra-fast dynamic imaging: an overview of current techniques, their capabilities and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Marangos, J. P.

    2010-06-01

    In this review we attempt to sketch an overview of the various methods currently being used or under development to enable ultra-fast dynamic imaging of matter. We concentrate on those techniques which combine atomic scale spatial resolution and femtosecond or even sub-femtosecond temporal resolution. In part this review was inspired and informed by the material presented at the 'Ultrafast Dynamic Imaging II' workshop held in Ischia, Italy in April 2009, but we also have drawn on a wider background of material especially when discussing the emerging laser-based methods.

  8. Thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings using multifrequency eddy current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dejun; Yu, Yating; Lai, Chao; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-07-01

    To ensure the key structural performance in high-temperature and high-stress environments, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are often adopted in engineering. The thickness of these multi-layer conductive coatings is an important quality indicator. In order to measure the thickness of multi-layer conductive coatings, a new measurement approach is presented using eddy current testing techniques, and then, an inversion algorithm is proposed and proved efficient and applicable, of which the maximum experimental relative error is within 10%. Therefore, the new approach can be effectively applied to thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings such as TBCs.

  9. Investigation of drain current transient behavior in SLS TFTs with the DLTS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exarchos, M A [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Physics Section, Athens 15784 (Greece); Papaioannou, G J [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Physics Section, Athens 15784 (Greece); Kouvatsos, D N [N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Institute of Microelecronics, Athens 15310 (Greece); Voutsas, A T [L.C.D. Process Technology Laboratory, SHARP Labs of America, Inc., Washington 98607 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the study of drain current overshoot transients of thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by excimer laser sequential lateral solidification (ELA SLS) process is presented. Drain current transient behavior, is ascribed to carrier capture/emission processes within the transistors' Si body, and represents complex mechanisms differently responding at dark and under illumination conditions. Additionally, the thickness of the Si body film, which is an important parameter for the material structure evaluation, ranged from 30 nm to 100 nm. The results were stemmed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique and measurements were conducted within the temperature interval of 200 K to 400 K. The impact of illumination, contributes mainly at lower temperatures through electron-hole generation processes, compensating though carrier freeze-out phenomena.

  10. Investigation of drain current transient behavior in SLS TFTs with the DLTS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchos, M. A.; Papaioannou, G. J.; Kouvatsos, D. N.; Voutsas, A. T.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the study of drain current overshoot transients of thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by excimer laser sequential lateral solidification (ELA SLS) process is presented. Drain current transient behavior, is ascribed to carrier capture/emission processes within the transistors' Si body, and represents complex mechanisms differently responding at dark and under illumination conditions. Additionally, the thickness of the Si body film, which is an important parameter for the material structure evaluation, ranged from 30 nm to 100 nm. The results were stemmed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique and measurements were conducted within the temperature interval of 200 K to 400 K. The impact of illumination, contributes mainly at lower temperatures through electron-hole generation processes, compensating though carrier freeze-out phenomena.

  11. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, D.; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.

    2016-08-01

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  12. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchard, D., E-mail: mitcharddr@cardiff.ac.uk; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A. [Morgan-Botti Lightning Laboratory, Advanced High Voltage Research Centre, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-29

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  13. Modulated scattering technique in the terahertz domain enabled by current actuated vanadium dioxide switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, W. A.; Tamagnone, M.; Émond, N.; Le Drogoff, B.; Capdevila, S.; Skrivervik, A.; Chaker, M.; Mosig, J. R.; Ionescu, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The modulated scattering technique is based on the use of reconfigurable electromagnetic scatterers, structures able to scatter and modulate an impinging electromagnetic field in function of a control signal. The modulated scattering technique is used in a wide range of frequencies up to millimeter waves for various applications, such as field mapping of circuits or antennas, radio-frequency identification devices and imaging applications. However, its implementation in the terahertz domain remains challenging. Here, we describe the design and experimental demonstration of the modulated scattering technique at terahertz frequencies. We characterize a modulated scatterer consisting in a bowtie antenna loaded with a vanadium dioxide switch, actuated using a continuous current. The modulated scatterer behavior is demonstrated using a time domain terahertz spectroscopy setup and shows significant signal strength well above 0.5 THz, which makes this device a promising candidate for the development of fast and energy-efficient THz communication devices and imaging systems. Moreover, our experiments allowed us to verify the operation of a single micro-meter sized VO2 switch at terahertz frequencies, thanks to the coupling provided by the antenna.

  14. 液基非妇科细胞学尿TCT检测在健康体检中的作用%Observation and analysis of non-gynecology TCT (urine TCT) used in health examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍晓桃; 赵春香; 李振强; 贾静

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察尿超薄TCT检测在男性健康体检中的作用.方法 247例男性体检,送检新鲜尿液50ml,应用新柏氏薄层细胞学检测系统(Thinprep cytologic test,TCT)液基涂片进行检查,对结果进行分析.镜下所见包括:有无癌细胞或可疑瘤细胞、非典型细胞、炎性细胞、微生物.结果 247例健康男性TCT尿检均未发现瘤细胞.检出炎细胞及红细胞、微生物等共89例,占36%,其中检出炎性细胞77例,占31.1%,包括小于30岁1例,30-40岁6例,41-50岁36例,51-60岁34例,(77例包括检出真菌1例,球、杆菌10例,炎性细胞及乳头红细胞混合21例);检出红细胞10例,包括30-40岁2例,41-50岁4例,51-60岁4例;以及检出乳头状尿路上皮细胞2例,包括46岁1例,58岁1例;结论尿超薄细胞学检测TCT结果判读可及时预报受检者健康状态,对泌尿系统肿瘤、疾病做到早预警、早发现、早诊断、早治疗,给男性泌尿系统亚健康人群提供诊治依据.

  15. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  16. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m{sup 3} of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m{sup 3} of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both

  17. Un cuestionario para la evaluación psicológica de la ejecución deportiva: estudio complementario entre TCT y TRI

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la construcción y baremación de uncuestionario que tiene como objetivo la elaboración de un perfil de habilidades psicológicas de deportistas de distintas disciplinas. La importancia de este cuestionario radica, a nivel teórico, en la complementariedad de las tres teorías al uso en psicometría (Teoría Clásica de los Test -TCT-, Teoría de Respuesta al Item -TRI- y Teoría de la Generalizabilidad -TG-), y, a nivel aplicado, en la posibilidad de cons...

  18. Input current interharmonics in adjustable speed drives caused by fixed-frequency modulation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) based on double-stage conversion systems may inject interharmonics distortion into the grid, other than the well-known characteristic harmonic components. The problems created by interharmonics make it necessary to find their precise sources, and, to adopt an approp......Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) based on double-stage conversion systems may inject interharmonics distortion into the grid, other than the well-known characteristic harmonic components. The problems created by interharmonics make it necessary to find their precise sources, and, to adopt...... an appropriate strategy for minimizing their effects. This paper investigates the ASD's input current interharmonic sources caused by applying symmetrical regularly sampled fixed-frequency modulation techniques on the inverter. The interharmonics generation process is precisely formulated and comparative results...

  19. Evaluation of lung tumor response to therapy: Current and emerging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, E

    2016-10-01

    Lung tumor response to therapy may be evaluated in most instances by morphological criteria such as RECIST 1.1 on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, those criteria are limited because they are based on tumoral dimensional changes and do not take into account other morphologic criteria such as density evaluation, functional or metabolic changes that may occur following conventional or targeted chemotherapy. New techniques such as dual-energy CT, PET-CT, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI has to be considered into the new technical armamentarium for tumor response evaluation. Integration of all informations provided by the different imaging modalities has to be integrated and represents probably the future goal of tumor response evaluation. The aim of the present paper is to review the current and emerging imaging criteria used to evaluate the response of therapy in the field of lung cancer.

  20. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Materials and Methods: We searched the published English literature and the PubMed (TM for published series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′ (RPN using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Results: The search yielded 15 major selected series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s, as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. Conclusions: RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T 1 renal neoplasm(s. It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  1. Additive Manufacturing Techniques in Prosthodontics: Where Do We Currently Stand? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Nawal; Wismeijer, Daniel; Osman, Reham B

    The aim of this article was to critically review the current application of additive manufacturing (AM)/3D-printing techniques in prosthodontics and to highlight the influence of various technical factors involved in different AM technologies. A standard approach of searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases was followed. The following search terms were used: (Prosth* OR Restoration) AND (Prototype OR Additive Manufacture* OR Compute* OR 3D-print* OR CAD/CAM) AND (Dentistry OR Dental). Hand searching the reference lists of the included articles and personal connections revealed additional relevant articles. Selection criteria were any article written in English and reporting on the application of AM in prosthodontics from 1990 to February 2016. From a total of 4,290 articles identified, 33 were seen as relevant. Of these, 3 were narrative reviews, 18 were in vitro studies, and 12 were clinical in vivo studies. Different AM technologies are applied in prosthodontics, directly and indirectly for the fabrication of fixed metal copings, metal frameworks for removable partial dentures, and plastic mock-ups and resin patterns for further conventional metal castings. Technical factors involved in different AM techniques influence the overall quality, the mechanical properties of the printed parts, and the total cost and manufacturing time. AM is promising and offers new possibilities in the field of prosthodontics, though its application is still limited. An understanding of these limitations and of developments in material science is crucial prior to considering AM as an acceptable method for the fabrication of dental prostheses.

  2. Minimally invasive surgery of diabetic foot – review of current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Botezatu; D, Laptoiu

    2016-01-01

    The term diabetic foot is usually used to indicate advanced foot pathology (complex clinical situations correlating diabetic foot ulcers, diabetic foot infections, Charcot foot, and critical limb ischemia). The early recognition of the etiology of these foot lesions is essential for the therapeutic decision in order to achieve a good functional result. Several surgical procedures involving the foot have been developed in order to promote healing and avoid complications. Traditionally, surgery has been performed in an open way. The literature regarding the performance and efficacy of classical osteotomies and arthrodesis is inconsistent. This can be attributed to several variables, such as differences in patient clinical aspects and the panel of surgical techniques utilized. As with other surgical specialties, fluoroscopic imaging and minimally invasive tools are now being incorporated in these procedures. The use of high speed burrs associated with specialized osteosynthesis implants, offers several advantages over classical techniques. The ability to associate these gestures to complex protocols is beginning to be currently developed. The respect for the soft tissues is considered one of the first advantages. Despite the limited time since they were introduced in clinical practice, functional results seemed to be consistent, supporting the use of this technology. PMID:27974928

  3. Designs and Techniques That Improve the Pullout Strength of Pedicle Screws in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Shea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant’s trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device’s effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein.

  4. Designs and techniques that improve the pullout strength of pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas M; Laun, Jake; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A; Doulgeris, James J; Lee, William E; Aghayev, Kamran; Vrionis, Frank D

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion) is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant's trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device's effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein.

  5. Pediatric Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy: A Narrative Review of Current Indications, Techniques and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Haddadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus is a disorder in which excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collects in the brain. Possible managements for hydrocephalus contain CSF deviation through ventriculoperitoneal shunt assignment and endoscopic third ventriculostomy. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy has been in trend for the past two decades, as a tool in the field of the neurosurgery, for the management of hydrocephalus. Its utility has been confirmed consistently in congenital and acquired aqueductal stenosis, although the outcomes in communicating hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus secondary to other etiologies have not been impressive. It is a relatively harmless technique with the appropriate selection of patients with a low rate of enduring morbidity. Further studies in child should focus on the predictive factors that are specific to the older population. A combination of clinical, radiological, and intraoperative findings may be necessary to plan a clinical prediction rule suitable to this group of patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the current indications, management outcomes, techniques and complications of this method.

  6. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed.

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current knowledge on nucleic acid amplification techniques and serological diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eLoens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0% to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies.Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice.

  8. Non destructive technique for cracks detection by an eddy current in differential mode for steel frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harzalla, S., E-mail: harzallahozil@yahoo.fr; Chabaat, M., E-mail: mchabaat@yahoo.com [Built Environmental Research Laboratory, Civil Engineering Faculty, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32 El Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Belgacem, F. Bin Muhammad, E-mail: fbmbelgacem@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Basic Education, PAAET, Al-Aardhia (Kuwait)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, a nondestructive technique is used as a tool to control cracks and microcracks in materials. A simulation by a numerical approach such as the finite element method is employed to detect cracks and eventually; to study their propagation using a crucial parameter such as the stress intensity factor. This approach has been used in the aircraft industry to control cracks. Besides, it makes it possible to highlight the defects of parts while preserving the integrity of the controlled products. On the other side, it is proven that the reliability of the control of defects gives convincing results for the improvement of the quality and the safety of the material. Eddy current testing (ECT) is a standard technique in industry for the detection of surface breaking flaws in magnetic materials such as steels. In this context, simulation tools can be used to improve the understanding of experimental signals, optimize the design of sensors or evaluate the performance of ECT procedures. CEA-LIST has developed for many years semi-analytical models embedded into the simulation platform CIVA dedicated to non-destructive testing. The developments presented herein address the case of flaws located inside a planar and magnetic medium. Simulation results are obtained through the application of the Volume Integral Method (VIM). When considering the ECT of a single flaw, a system of two differential equations is derived from Maxwell equations. The numerical resolution of the system is carried out using the classical Galerkin variant of the Method of Moments. Besides, a probe response is calculated by application of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Finally, the approach itself as well as comparisons between simulation results and measured data are presented.

  9. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO) manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI) have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men's health for reproductive success.

  10. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh C Sikka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA, sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men′s health for reproductive success.

  11. Current knowledge and importance of dGEMRIC techniques in diagnosis of hip joint diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Ruediger; Bittersohl, Bernd [University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Tiderius, Carl Johann [Lund University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Accurate assessment of early hip joint cartilage alterations may help optimize patient selection and follow-up of hip joint preservation surgery. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is sensitive to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage that is lost early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the dGEMRIC technique holds promise for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, because of the location of the hip joint deep within the body and due to the fairly thin cartilage layers that require high spatial resolution, the diagnosis of early hip joint cartilage alterations may be problematic. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of dGEMRIC in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. A literature search was performed with PubMed, using the terms ''cartilage, osteoarthritis, hip joint, MRI, and dGEMRIC'', considering all levels of studies. This review revealed that dGEMRIC can be reliably used in the evaluation of early stage cartilage pathology in various hip joint disorders. Modifications in the technique, such as the operation of three-dimensional imaging and dGEMRIC after intra-articular contrast medium administration, have expanded the range of application. Notably, the studies differ considerably in patient selection and technical prerequisites. Furthermore, there is a need for multicenter prospective studies with the required technical conditions in place to establish outcome based dGEMRIC data to obtain, in conjunction with clinical data, reliable threshold values for normal and abnormal cartilage, and for hips that may benefit from conservative or surgical treatment. (orig.)

  12. 脉冲涡流测厚技术%Thickness Measurement Technique by Pulsed Eddy Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鑫; 李方奇; 石坤; 谢基龙; 李浩

    2009-01-01

    脉冲涡流检测技术具有频谱宽、信号穿透能力强以及精确度好等优点.对脉冲涡流测厚技术进行了仿真,即针对脉冲涡流测厚系统,建立了有限元分析模型,仿真分析了检测线圈上的电压的衰减规律,得到了检测线圈上的电压随被测体厚度的变化规律,确定了两者之间的定量关系.分析了提离距离、检测线圈参数和脉冲涡流频率对检测结果的影响.该研究为将来进行脉冲涡流测厚仪的研制提供了理论依据和数学模型.%Pulsed eddy current technique had quite a few advantages such as wide spectrum, strong penetration,high accuracy. The experiment was carried out to study the metal thickness measurement of PEC, and a finite element model for the system of the metal thickness measurement of PEC was established. Based on the finite element model established, this thesis analyzed the attenuation law of the voltage in receiving coil By changing the thickness of tested bodies, the relationship between the voltage of receiving coil and the thickness of the testedbodies was analyzed, and also the factors that affected the measuring results such as lift-off distance, parameters of testing coil and frequency of pulsed eddy current were analyzed in detail It provided a theoretical basis and mathematical models for the future development of the PEC gage.

  13. Optimization of RF power absorption by optimization techniques using the lower hybrid current drive of FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centioli, C. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Iannone, F. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Mazza, G. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Panella, M. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pangione, L. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: pangione@frascati.enea.it; Podda, S. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Tuccillo, A. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vitale, V. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    In this paper, we will report on the experimental results arising from the implementation of optimization techniques to maximize the RF power coupling versus the plasma conditions in the FTU experimental facility. These experiments are carried out by employing the open-source Linux-RTAI control system currently running on the FTU digital feedback loop. The RF power source under consideration is a lower hybrid system (LH) based on six gyrotrons with a nominal power output capability of 1.1 MW each. The optimization of the coupling level between the plasma and the emitting antenna reduces the reflected power, thus maximizing the heating effects in addition to avoiding danger to the emitter (equivalently, annoying safety shutdowns of the system). To this aim, the plasma displacement is modified by suitably adjusting the reference input to the stabilizing feedback, according to a steepest descent algorithm. It will be shown in the paper how this algorithm achieves a satisfactory level of robustness with respect to measurement errors and well performs both in simulation and in experimental tests, thus leading to an improved effectiveness of the RF heating system.

  14. Measuring the corrosion rate of steel in concrete – effect of measurement technique, polarisation time and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2012-01-01

    Both on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that different corrosion rates are obtained when different commercially available corrosion rate instruments are used. The different electrochemical techniques and the measurement parameters used, i.e. polarisation current and time......, are in some studies considered the main reasons for the variations. This paper presents an experimental study on the quantitative effect of polarisation time and current on the measured polarisation resistance – and thus the corrosion current density – of passively and actively corroding steel. Two...... electrochemical techniques often used in instruments for on-site corrosion rate measurements are investigated. On passively corroding reinforcement the measured polarisation resistance was for both techniques found to be highly affected by the polarisation time and current and no plateaus at either short or long...

  15. [Current status of mangrove germplasm resources and key techniques for mangrove seedling propagation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-You; Chen, Shun-Yang; Wang, Wen-Qing; Dong, Ke-Zuan; Lin, Guang-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Mangrove germplasm and nursery operation are the foundations of all mangrove ecological restoration projects. Based on the existing literatures and our own experiences, and by using cluster analysis and other methods, this paper assessed the current status of the mangrove germplasm resources and the key techniques for mangrove seedlings propagation in China. In China, the mangrove communities could be divided into 4 types, including low temperature tolerant widespread type, widespread type, thermophilic widespread type, and tropical type, and the mangrove distribution sites could be divided into 5 regions, i. e., eastern Hainan coast, Beibuwan Gulf coast, Pearl River estuary and eastern Guangdong coast, southern Fujian and Taiwan coast, and eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang coast. The mangroves in Beibuwan Gulf coast region took up 75.3% of the total mangrove germplasm resources in the country. At present, the percentage of the mangrove species applied for seedling propagation in China was estimated at 52.6%, most of which were of viviparous species. The six key steps in mangrove nursery operation included the selection of proper seedling propagation methods, the collection and storage of seeds or propagules, the ways of raising seedlings, the management of water and salinity, the control of diseases and pests, and the prevention of cold damage during winter. The structure, functions, and applieations of the present five types of mangrove nurseries, including dry land nursery, mangrove tidal nursery, mudflat nursery, Jiwei pond nursery, and Spartina mudflat nursery, were also analyzed, which could provide guidance for the integrated management of mangrove ecological restoration engineering.

  16. CA125、CYFRA21-1、HPV 联合检测 TCT 诊断宫颈癌的临床价值%Clinical value of CA125,CYFRA21-1,HPV detection combined with TCT in diagnosis of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟强; 杨艳梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of cytokeratin fragment antigen 21‐1(CYFRA21‐1) ,carbohydrate antigen‐125 (CA125) ,human papillomavirus (HPV ) detection with Thinprep cytologic test (TCT ) in the diagnosis of cervical cancer . Methods 70 patients with cervical cancer ,60 patients with benign cervical diseases and 70 healthy people were selected .CYFRA21‐1 ,CA125 ,HPV detection and TCT results were analyzed .Results The positive rates of HPV ,TCT ,CA125 and CYFRA21‐1 in cervical cancer group were significantly higher than those in cervical benign lesion group and the healthy group ,the difference were statistically significant (P TSGF>CEA>SIL‐2R .The specificity was CYFRA21‐1> TCT>CA125> HPV .In HPV ,TCT ,CA125 and CYFRA21‐1parallel diagnostic test ,the sensitivity was up to 100 .00% ,and in series diagnostic test ,the specificity was up to 98 .3% .Conclu‐sion HPV ,CA125 ,CYFRA21‐1 detection combined with TCT in diagnosis of cervical cancer has strong reliability ,it is worth u‐sing w idely in clinic .%目的:探讨细胞角蛋白21‐1(CYFRA21‐1)、糖类抗原‐125(CA125)、人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)检测联合新柏氏液基细胞学检查(TCT)在宫颈癌诊断的临床价值。方法选取宫颈癌患者70例,宫颈良性疾病60例和同期检查的健康者70例作为健康组,对3组人群CYFRA21‐1、CA125、HPV检测与TCT结果进行分析。结果 HPV、TCT、CA125与CYFRA21‐1在宫颈癌患者中检出阳性率明显高于宫颈良性病变组和健康组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);HPV、TCT、CA125与CYFRA21‐1诊断宫颈癌的敏感度从大到小依次为 TCT、CYFRA21‐1、CA125、HPV ,特异度从高到低分别是 CYFRA21‐1、TCT、CA125、HPV。 HPV、TCT、CA125与CYFRA21‐1进行并联诊断试验中敏感度高达100.00%,在串联诊断试验中特异度高达98.3%。结论 HPV、CA125、CYFRA21‐1检测与TCT联合诊断宫颈癌具有较强的可靠性

  17. Adaptation of a four-wall interference assessment/correction procedure for airfoil tests in the 0.3-m TCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbert, C. R.; Newman, P. A.; Kemp, W. B., Jr.; Adcock, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Based upon limited, initial observations of wall interference corrections obtained for one airfoil test, there is a need for assessing the upstream flow direction. If there is no direct measurement then a two-pass correction procedure similar to the one described here is required. Questions have arisen pertaining to the correct interpretation of the pressure coefficients measured on the slats of a slotted tunnel wall, the interpretation of just what the calculated equivalent body encompasses or should include, and what can or should be considered as quantitative criteria for data correctability. Further studies using this modified procedure will address these questions. Hopefully, a meaningful WIAC procedure can be validated for the airfoil tests in the 0.3-m TCT.

  18. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A. [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-02-07

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  19. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.

    2014-02-01

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  20. Ionic Current Mapping Techniques and Applications to Aluminum-Copper Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, H. S.; Jeffcoate, C. S.; Missert, N. A.; Barbour, J. C.

    1999-10-17

    Measurements have been made of the aluminum/metal galvanic couple. A wide range of geometries were investigated varying the areas of anodic and cathodic surfaces and employing specially designed galvanic cells with crevices. In situ ionic current density mapping was used to monitor galvanic corrosion and currents flowing between separated metals was measured.

  1. A comparison of two-dimensional techniques for converting magnetocardiogram maps into effective current source distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, K; Kandori, A; Miyashita, T; Sekihara, K; Tsukada, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for converting the pseudo two-dimensional current given by a current-arrow map (CAM) into the physical current. The physical current distribution is obtained by the optimal solution in a least mean square sense with Tikhonov regularization (LMSTR). In the current dipole simulation, the current pattern differences (ΔJ) between the results of the CAM and the LMSTR with several regularization parameters (α = 10(-1)-10(-15)) are calculated. In magnetocardiographic (MCG) analysis, the depth (z(d)) of a reconstruction plane is chosen by using the coordinates of the sinus node, which is estimated from MCG signals at the early p-wave. The ΔJs at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects are calculated. Furthermore, correlation coefficients and regression lines are also calculated from the current values of the CAM and the LMSTR during p-waves, QRS-complex, and T-waves of MCG signals. In the simulation, the ΔJs (α ≈ 10(-10)) had a minimal value. The ΔJs (α = 10(-10)) at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects also had minimal value. The correlation coefficients of the current values given by the CAM and the LMSTR (α = 10(-10)) were greater than 0.9. Furthermore, slopes (y) of the regression lines are correlated with the depth (z(d)) (r = -0.93). Consequently, the CAM value can be transformed into the LMSTR current value by multiplying it by the slope (y) obtained from the depth (z(d)). In conclusion, the result given by the CAM can be converted into an effective physical current distribution by using the depth (z(d)).

  2. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  3. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  4. Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy and Management of the Distal Ureter: A Review of Current Techniques and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viprakasit, Davis P.; Macejko, Amanda M.; Nadler, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) is becoming an increasingly common alternative treatment for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the renal pelvis and ureter due to decreased perioperative morbidity, shorter hospitalization, and comparable oncologic control with open nephroureterectomy (ONU). Mobilization of the kidney and proximal ureter may be performed through a transperitoneal, retroperitoneal, or hand-assisted approach. Each technique is associated with its own benefits and limitations, and the optimal approach is often dictated by surgeon preference. Our analysis of the literature reflects equivalent cancer control between LPN and OPN at intermediate follow-up with significantly improved perioperative morbidity following LPN. Several methods for bladder cuff excision have been advocated, however, no individual technique for management of the distal ureter proved superior. Overall, complete en-bloc resection with minimal disruption of the urinary tract should be optimized to maintain oncologic outcomes. Longer follow-up and prospective studies are needed to fully evaluate these techniques. PMID:19148293

  5. Is the trocar technique for tube thoracostomy safe in the current era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mohan; Razi, Syed; Sainathan, Sandeep; Stavropoulos, Christos

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was, 'in adult patients who require a tube thoracostomy, is the trocar technique comparable to blunt dissection in terms of rate of tube malposition or complications?' Altogether more than 258 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. The articles included two retrospective reviews, three prospective observational studies and two prospective randomized studies. Of these, four papers concluded that the trocar technique was associated with a significantly higher rate of tube malposition and complications. One retrospective review found that the rate of tube malposition was similar in both groups; however, the trocar technique was abandoned due to the occurrence of severe complications like lung and stomach injury. Another study found that blunt dissection into the pleural space followed by the use of a trocar to direct the chest tube was as safe as and even more effective than blunt dissection alone. A randomized prospective study in cadavers comparing blunt vs sharp tip trocars reported that the use of blunt tip trocars resulted in less complications. We conclude that the trocar technique for chest tube placement should be avoided in adult patients as it is associated with a higher incidence of malposition and complications. The blunt dissection technique with digital exploration of the pleural cavity prior to chest tube placement is the safest technique and should be considered standard practice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-12-01

    Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].

  7. Current status and prospects of nuclear physics research based on tracking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Alexandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavskiy, M. M.; Goncharova, L. A.; Gorbunov, S. A.; Kalinina, G. V.; Konovalova, N. S.; Okatyeva, N. M.; Pavlova, T. A.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymirov, M. S.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Results of nuclear physics research made using track detectors are briefly reviewed. Advantages and prospects of the track detection technique in particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and other fields are discussed on the example of the results of the search for direct origination of tau neutrino in a muon neutrino beam within the framework of the international experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) and works on search for superheavy nuclei in nature on base of their tracks in meteoritic olivine crystals. The spectra of superheavy elements in galactic cosmic rays are presented. Prospects of using the track detection technique in fundamental and applied research are reported.

  8. GATE REPLACEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING LEAKAGE CURRENT IN WALLACE TREE MULTIPLIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leakage power has become more significant in the power dissipation of today’s CMOS circuits. This affects the portable battery operated devices directly. The multipliers are the main key for designing an energy efficient processor, where the multiplier design decides the digital signal processors efficiency. In this study gate replacement technique is used to reduce the leakage power in 4×4 Wallace tree multiplier architecture which has been designed by using one bit full adders. This technique replaces the gate which is at worst leakage state by a library gate .In this technique the actual output logic state is maintained in active mode. The main objective of our study is to calculate leakage power in 4×4 Wallace tree multiplier by applied gate replacement technique and it is compared with 4×4 Wallace tree full adder multiplier. The proposed method reduces 43% of leakage power in 4×4 Wallace tree multiplier.

  9. Current status of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: surgical techniques and innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lü-nan; WU Hong; CHEN Zhe-yu; LIN Yi-xin

    2009-01-01

    @@ In response to critical organ shortage, transplant surgeons have utilized living donors in an attempt to decrease the mortality rate associated with waiting on the liver transplant list. Although the surgical techniques were first utilized clinically 15 years ago, the application of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been somewhat limited by the steep learning curve associated with developing a program.

  10. Current Evidence on the Socket-Shield Technique: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Amit Srikant; Bhatavadekar, Neel B

    2016-11-29

    The recently popularised socket shield technique involves intentional retention of a thin buccal section of the remnant root at the time of immediate implant placement to preserve the buccal crestal bone from resorption. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the literature available on the socket-shield technique and weigh its biological plausibility and long-term clinical prognosis. A Systematic Search was performed in PubMed-Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central for clinical/ animal studies up to May 2016 without restrictions of language, duration, and follow-up. The literature search revealed that 15 out of 16 articles available were case reports and series, with 12 out of 16 having less than 12 months duration. Animal histological evidence demonstrated the formation of PDL and/or cementum on the implant surfaces in contact with/ in proximity to the socket-shield. Some clinical reports indicated stable results at 12 months; however, a few studies also reported infection and resorption of the socket-shield and bone loss. It would be difficult to predict the long -term success of this technique until high-quality evidence becomes available. Given some negative results, clinicians are recommended to use this technique with caution.

  11. The role of ultrasound elastographic techniques in chronic liver disease: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscaglia, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.piscaglia@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Marinelli, Sara, E-mail: sara_marinelli@libero.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş”, Timişoara (Romania); Serra, Carla, E-mail: carla.serra@aosp.bo.it [Division of Medical Liver Transplant Care, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Venerandi, Laura, E-mail: laura.venerandi@gmail.com [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Leoni, Simona, E-mail: leonisimona@yahoo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Salvatore, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.salvatore@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This review illustrates the state of the art clinical applications and the future perspectives of ultrasound elastographic methods for the evaluation of chronic liver diseases, including the most widely used and validated technique, transient elastography, followed by shear wave elastography and strain imaging elastography. Liver ultrasound elastography allows the non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness, providing information regarding the stage of fibrosis, comparable to liver biopsy which is still considered the gold standard; in this way, it can help physicians in managing patients, including the decision as to when to start antiviral treatment. The characterization of focal liver lesions and the prognostic role of the elastographic technique in the prediction of complications of cirrhosis are still under investigation.

  12. Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques: The current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuelu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry is emerging as a frontier technology for direct analysis of sample that employs low-energy plasma as the ionization reagent. The versatile sources of ambient mass spectrometry (MS) can be classified according to the plasma formation approaches; namely, corona discharge, glow discharge, dielectric barrier discharge, and microwave-induced discharge. These techniques allow pretreatment-free detection of samples, ranging from biological materials (e.g., flies, bacteria, plants, tissues, peptides, metabolites, and lipids) to pharmaceuticals, food-stuffs, polymers, chemical warfare reagents, and daily-use chemicals. In most cases, plasma-based ambient MS performs well as a qualitative tool and as an analyzer for semi-quantitation. Herein, we provide an overview of the key concepts, mechanisms, and applications of plasma-based ambient MS techniques, and discuss the challenges and outlook.

  13. Average OH density in alternating current dielectric barrier discharge by laser-induced fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongliang; Feng, Chunlei; Gao, Liang; Ding, Hongbin

    2015-10-01

    The average OH density in atmospheric He-H2O(0.4%) needle-plate dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was measured by the asynchronous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique and the fluctuation of OH radical density was measured simultaneously to prove that the average OH density can be obtained by the asynchronous LIF technique. The evolution of the average OH density in four different discharge patterns, namely, negative barrier corona discharge, glow discharge, multi glow discharge, and streamer discharge, was studied, and it was found that the average OH density has an observable increase from corona discharge to streamer discharge. The main mechanism of OH production in the four different discharge patterns was analyzed. It was shown that the main mechanism of OH production in negative barrier corona discharge is electron direct collision dissociation, whereas in the other three discharge patterns the He metastable Penning ionization is the main process.

  14. Artificial chordae for degenerative mitral valve disease: critical analysis of current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Michael; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2012-01-01

    The surgical repair of degenerative mitral valve disease involves a number of technical points of importance. The use of artificial chordae for the repair of degenerative disease has increased as a part of the move from mitral valve replacement to repair of the mitral valve. The use of artificial chordae provides an alternative to the techniques pioneered by Carpentier (including the quadrangular resection, transfer of native chordae and papillary muscle shortening/plasty), which can be more technically difficult. Despite a growth in their uptake and the indications for their use, a number of challenges remain for the use of artificial chordae in mitral valve repair, particularly in the determination of the correct length to ensure optimal leaflet coaptation. Here, we analyse over 40 techniques described for artificial chordae mitral valve repair in the setting of degenerative disease. PMID:22962321

  15. Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Tankiewicz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants because of their stability, mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. Their presence in the environment is a particular danger. It is therefore crucial to monitor pesticide residues using all available analytical methods. The analysis of environmental samples for the presence of pesticides is very difficult: the processes involved in sample preparation are labor-intensive and time-consuming. To date, it has been standard practice to use large quantities of organic solvents in the sample preparation process; but as these solvents are themselves hazardous, solvent-less and solvent-minimized techniques are becoming popular. The application of Green Chemistry principles to sample preparation is primarily leading to the miniaturization of procedures and the use of solvent-less techniques, and these are discussed in the paper.

  16. DDoS Attack and Defense: Review of Some Traditional and Current Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir, Muhammad; ZAIDI, Mustafa Ali

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks exhaust victim's bandwidth or services. Traditional architecture of Internet is vulnerable to DDoS attacks and an ongoing cycle of attack & defense is observed. In this paper, different types and techniques of DDoS attacks and their countermeasures are reviewed. The significance of this paper is the coverage of many aspects of countering DDoS attacks including new research on the topic. We survey different papers describing methods of defense again...

  17. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort.

  18. Shoulder arthroplasty in osteoarthritis: current concepts in biomechanics and surgical technique

    OpenAIRE

    MEROLLA, GIOVANNI; Nastrucci, Guglielmo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty is a technically demanding procedure to restore shoulder function in patients with severe osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. The modern prosthetic system exploit the benefits of modularity and the availibility of additional sizes of the prosthetic components. In this paper we describe the biomechanics of shoulder arthroplasty and the technique for shoulder replacement including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) with all-polyethylene and metal-backed glenoid compon...

  19. Techniques of tumour bed boost irradiation in breast conserving therapy: Current evidence and suggested guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Singh, Suruchi; Budrukkar, Ashwini [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2007-10-15

    Breast conservation surgery followed by external beam radiotherapy to breast has become the standard of care in management of early carcinoma breast. A boost to the tumour bed after whole breast radiotherapy is employed in view of the pattern of tumour bed recurrences in the index quadrant and was particularly considered in patients with some adverse histopathological characteristics such as positive margins, extensive intraductal carcinoma (EIC), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), etc. There is however, now, a conclusive evidence of improvement in local control rates after a boost radiotherapy dose in patients even without such factors and for all age groups. The maximum absolute reduction of local recurrences by the addition of boost is especially seen in young premenopausal patients. At the same time, the addition of boost is associated with increased risk of worsening of cosmesis and no clear cut survival advantage. Radiological modalities such as fluoroscopy, ultrasound and CT scan have aided in accurate delineation of tumour bed with increasing efficacy. A widespread application of these techniques might ultimately translate into improved local control with minimal cosmetic deficit. The present article discusses the role of radiotherapy boost and the means to delineate and deliver the same, identify the high risk group, optimal technique and the doses and fractionations to be used. It also discusses the extent of adverse cosmetic outcome after boost delivery, means to minimise it and relevance of tumour bed in present day scenario of advanced radiotherapy delivery techniques like (IMRT)

  20. Elbow hemiarthroplasty for the management of distal humeral fractures: current technique, indications and results

    OpenAIRE

    Phadnis, Joideep; Adam C. Watts; Bain, Gregory I

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing recent interest in the use of elbow hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of distal humeral trauma in select patients. However, the current available evidence regarding outcome after elbow hemiarthroplasty is limited to case series and biomechanical data. Consequently, the procedure remains unfamiliar to many surgeons. The aim of the present review is to outline the evidence regarding elbow hemiarthroplasty and to use this, along with the author’s experience, to better d...

  1. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.

  2. A DEMO relevant fast wave current drive high harmonic antenna exploiting the high impedance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanesio, D., E-mail: daniele.milanesio@polito.it; Maggiora, R. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni (DET), Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.

  3. Neuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidland, August; Fazeli, Gholamreza; Klassen, André; Sebekova, Katarina; Hennemann, Hans; Bahner, Udo; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    Application of electricity for pain treatment dates back to thousands of years BC. The Ancient Egyptians and later the Greeks and Romans recognized that electrical fishes are capable of generating electric shocks for relief of pain. In the 18th and 19th centuries these natural producers of electricity were replaced by man-made electrical devices. This happened in following phases. The first was the application of static electrical currents (called Franklinism), which was produced by a friction generator. Christian Kratzenstein was the first to apply it medically, followed shortly by Benjamin Franklin. The second phase was Galvanism. This method applied a direct electrical current to the skin by chemical means, applied a direct and pulsed electrical current to the skin. In the third phase the electrical current was induced intermittently and in alternate directions (called Faradism). The fourth stage was the use of high frequency currents (called d'Arsonvalisation). The 19th century was the "golden age" of electrotherapy. It was used for countless dental, neurological, psychiatric and gynecological disturbances. However, at beginning of the 20th century electrotherapy fell from grace. It was dismissed as lacking a scientific basis and being used also by quacks and charlatans for unserious aims. Furthermore, the development of effective analgesic drugs decreased the interest in electricity. In the second half of the 20th century electrotherapy underwent a revival. Based on animal experiments and clinical investigations, its neurophysiological mechanisms were elucidated in more details. The pain relieving action of electricity was explained in particular by two main mechanisms: first, segmental inhibition of pain signals to the brain in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and second, activation of the descending inhibitory pathway with enhanced release of endogenous opioids and other neurochemical compounds (serotonin, noradrenaline, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA

  4. Endoscopic button gastrostomy: Comparing a sutured endoscopic approach to the current techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jessica; Daoud, Yahya; Fischer, Anne C; Barth, Bradley; Piper, Hannah G

    2016-01-01

    Button gastrostomy is the preferred feeding device in children and can be placed open or laparoscopically (LBG). Alternatively, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can be placed initially and exchanged for a button. Endoscopic-assisted button gastrostomy (EBG) combines both techniques, using only one incision and suturing the stomach to the abdominal wall. The long-term outcomes and potential costs for EBG were compared to other techniques. Children undergoing EBG, LBG, and PEG (2010-2013) were compared. Patient demographics, procedure duration/complications, and clinic and emergency room (ER) visits for an eight-week follow-up period were compared. Patient demographics were similar (32 patients/group). Mean procedure time (min) for EBG was 38 ± 9, compared to 58 ± 20 for LBG and 31 ± 10 for PEG (pbutton gastrostomy. EBG is safe and comparable to LBG and PEG in terms of complications. It has a shorter procedure time than LBG and does not require laparoscopy, device exchange, or subsequent fluoroscopic confirmation, potentially reducing costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced computer techniques for inverse modeling of electric current in cardiac tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Romero, L.A.; Diegert, C.F.

    1996-08-01

    For many years, ECG`s and vector cardiograms have been the tools of choice for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiac conduction problems, such as found in reentrant tachycardia or Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Through skillful analysis of these skin-surface measurements of cardiac generated electric currents, a physician can deduce the general location of heart conduction irregularities. Using a combination of high-fidelity geometry modeling, advanced mathematical algorithms and massively parallel computing, Sandia`s approach would provide much more accurate information and thus allow the physician to pinpoint the source of an arrhythmia or abnormal conduction pathway.

  6. Hysteresis current control technique of VSI for compensation of grid-connected unbalanced loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The global trends nowadays in the power generation industry are to supplement the electricity production using distributed generation (DG) technologies based on renewable energy resources such as photovoltaic, wind power, etc. However, failure to properly control the operation of distributed energy...... resources as they connect to the exiting power grid could provoke many power quality problems on the grid side. For this reason, due considerations must be given to power generation and safe running before DG units is actually integrated into the power grid. The main aim of this paper is to address the grid...... in the total harmonic distortion of grid currents. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg....

  7. Chosen Aspects Of Investigations Of Solar Cells With The Laser Beam Induced Current Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrobak Łukasz Bartłomiej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents maps of spatial distributions of the short circuit current Isc(x,y and the open circuit voltage Uoc(x,y of the investigated low cost solar cells. Visible differences in values of these parameters were explained by differences in the serial and shunt resistances determined for different points of solar cells from measurements of I–V characteristics. The spectral dependence of the photo voltage of solar cell is also shown, discussed and interpreted in the model of amorphous and crystal silicon.

  8. Current techniques in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullos, Peter D; Beaulieu, Christopher F

    2010-04-01

    The technical objective of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is to acquire high-quality computed tomography images of the cleansed, well-distended colon for polyp detection. In this article the authors provide an overview of the technical components of CTC, from preparation of the patient to acquisition of the imaging data and basic methods of interpretation. In each section, the best evidence for current practices and recommendations is reviewed. Each of the technical components must be optimized to achieve high sensitivity in polyp detection.

  9. Breast reconstruction with anatomical implants: A review of indications and techniques based on current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gardani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One important modality of breast cancer therapy is surgical treatment, which has become increasingly less mutilating over the last century. Breast reconstruction has become an integrated part of breast cancer treatment due to long-term psychosexual health factors and its importance for breast cancer survivors. Both autogenous tissue-based and implant-based reconstruction provides satisfactory reconstructive options due to better surgeon awareness of “the ideal breast size”, although each has its own advantages and disadvantages. An overview of the current options in breast reconstruction is presented in this article.

  10. Current techniques for high-resolution mapping of behavioral circuits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanantharajah, Lovesha; Zhang, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Understanding behavior requires unraveling the mysteries of neurons, glia, and their extensive connectivity. Drosophila has emerged as an excellent organism for studying the neural basis of behavior. This can be largely attributed to the extensive effort of the fly community to develop numerous sophisticated genetic tools for visualizing, mapping, and manipulating behavioral circuits. Here, we attempt to highlight some of the new reagents, techniques and approaches available for dissecting behavioral circuits in Drosophila. We focus on detailing intersectional strategies such as the Flippase-induced intersectional Gal80/Gal4 repression (FINGR), because of the tremendous potential they possess for mapping the minimal number of cells required for a particular behavior. The logic and strategies outlined in this review should have broad applications for other genetic model organisms.

  11. Current Methods to Assess Human Cutaneous Blood Flow: An Updated Focus on Laser-Based-Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracowski, Jean-Luc; Roustit, Matthieu

    2016-07-01

    Several noninvasive techniques have been developed using laser light interaction in the skin to explore the skin's microcirculation. Combined with laser Doppler or LSCI, reactivity tests are used to explore skin endothelial and neurovascular function in humans, including PORH, LTH, PIV, and iontophoresis of vasodilators. Recent advances in our comprehension of the physiological pathways underlying these reactivity tests have been possible through topical or intradermal delivery of drugs that produce elevated local concentrations. Skin microvascular function has also been proposed as a prognostic biomarker or for evaluating the effect of drugs. Comprehension of the physiological pathways, together with recent technological improvements in microcirculation imaging, has provided reliable and reproducible tools to study skin microcirculation.

  12. Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Techniques: A review and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Poddar, Raju; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Sen, Pratima

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex group of syndromes that have in common a disturbance in the body's use of glucose, resulting in an elevated blood sugar. Once detected, sugar diabetes can be controlled by an appropriate regimen that should include diet therapy, a weight reduction program for those persons who are overweight, a program of exercise and insulin injections or oral drugs to lower blood glucose. Blood glucose monitoring by the patient and the physician is an important aspect in the control of the devastating complications (heart disease, blindness, kidney failure or amputations) due to the disease. Intensive therapy and frequent glucose testing has numerous benefits. With ever improving advances in diagnostic technology, the race for the next generation of bloodless, painless, accurate glucose instruments has begun. In this paper, we reviewed various methods, techniques and approaches successfully demonstrated for measuring or monitoring blood glucose. Invasive, minimally invasive and noninvasive tec...

  13. Current and emerging techniques for contaminant mapping and data visualization at DNAPL sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wealthall, Gary; Durant, Neal; Grosen, Bernt

    Recent advances in the development of contaminant specific site investigation tools has significantly enhanced our ability to characterize the spatial architecture of DNAPL source zones in both sedimentary and fractured bedrock environments. The application of innovative site characterization...... methods will be discussed in the context of contaminant delineation, remediation design, technology verification and regulatory acceptance. We present a range of site investigation tools, based on the principle of combined lines of evidence and the premise that a single technique is not available to fully...... delineate DNAPL distribution in the subsurface. Key to this strategy is the selection of technologies with multiple scales of measurement and data quality, of which there are two main categories. The first category provides qualitative, dense spatial data, often with higher detection limits over a preset...

  14. A Generic Current Mode Design for Multifunction Grounded Capacitor Filters Employing Log-Domain Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic design (GD for realizing an nth order log-domain multifunction filter (MFF, which can yield four possible stable filter configurations, each offering simultaneously lowpass (LP, highpass (HP, and bandpass (BP frequency responses, is presented. The features of these filters are very simple, consisting of merely a few exponential transconductor cells and capacitors; all grounded elements, capable of absorbing the shunt parasitic capacitances, responses are electronically tuneable, and suitable for monolithic integration. Furthermore, being designed using log-domain technique, it offers all its advantages. As an example, 5th-order MFFs are designed in each case and their performances are evaluated through simulation. Lastly, a comparative study of the MFFs is also carried, which helps in selecting better high-order MFF for a given application.

  15. A review of current concepts in flexor tendon repair: physiology, biomechanics, surgical technique and rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the surgical treatment of flexor tendon injuries has always been associated with controversy. It was not until 1967, when the paper entitled Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man’s land was presented at the American Society of Hand Surgery, which reported excellent results and catalyzed the implementation of this technique into world-wide practice. We present an up to date literature review using PubMed and Google Scholar where the terms flexor tendon, repair and rehabilitation were used. Topics covered included functional anatomy, nutrition, biomechanics, suture repair, repair site gapping, and rehabilitation. This article aims to provide a comprehensive and complete overview of flexor tendon repairs.

  16. Optimization of brushless direct current motor design using an intelligent technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Alireza; Tousiwas, Armin Amini Poustchi; Pourmandi, Massoud; Khormali, Aminollah; Ataei, Abdolhay

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for the optimal design of a slotless permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor with surface mounted magnets using an improved bee algorithm (IBA). The characteristics of the motor are expressed as functions of motor geometries. The objective function is a combination of losses, volume and cost to be minimized simultaneously. This method is based on the capability of swarm-based algorithms in finding the optimal solution. One sample case is used to illustrate the performance of the design approach and optimization technique. The IBA has a better performance and speed of convergence compared with bee algorithm (BA). Simulation results show that the proposed method has a very high/efficient performance.

  17. Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Mosher, John C.; Espy, Michelle A.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.

    2009-08-11

    Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

  18. Unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperative techniques:Current status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation is a novel and challenging filed.Heterogeneous cooperative techniques can widen the application fields of unmanned air or ground vehicles,and enhance the effectiveness of implementing detection,search and rescue tasks.This paper mainly focused on the key issues in multiple unmanned air/ground vehicles heterogeneous cooperation,including heterogeneous flocking,formation control,formation stability,network control,and actual applications.The main problems and future directions in this field were also analyzed in detail.These innovative technologies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of implementing complicated tasks,which definitely provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future robot systems.

  19. Value of TCT Combined with Colposcopy in the Screening of Cervical Precancerous Lesions%TCT联合阴道镜在筛查宫颈癌前病变中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞军; 李祟健

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the value of liquid-based cytology test(TCT) combined with colposcopy in the screening of cervical precancerous lesions. [Methods] Totally 982 patients with cervical precancerous lesion receiving TCT and colposcopy screening in clinic service of our gynecology department in our hospital from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2012 were chosen. Multiple-site biopsy of cervixes of patients under colposcope was performed for pathological examination. The histopathology examination was used as the gold standard. The value of TCT and colposcopy in the diagnosis of cervical lesions was analyzed. [Results] Among the 982 females, 118 females were abnormal detected by using TCT. The specificity, sensitivity and missed diagnosis rate of TCT for the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) were 96. 51%, 58. 55% and 1. 02%, respectively. The 163 females were abnormal detected by using colposcopy, and the specificity, sensitivity and missed diagnosis rate for CIN were 97. 47%, 93. 42% and 1. 02%, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity, the sensitivity and missed diagnosis rate of the combination of TCT and colposcopy for CIN were 98. 80% , 96. 03% and 0. 71% , respectively. [Conclusion] TCT combined with colposcopy can increase the detection rate of cervical precancerous lesion, and earlier screen out cervical precancerous lesions. Thus it is helpful for early diagnosis and treatment, and can improve the survival rate of patients.%[目的]探讨宫颈液基薄层细胞学(TCT)联合阴道镜在筛查宫颈癌前病变中的诊断价值.[方法]选择2005年1月至2012年1月在本院妇科门诊采用TCT和阴道镜检查筛查宫颈癌前病变的患者982例,同时在阴道镜下对患者宫颈进行多位点活检送病理检查.以组织病理学检查为金标准,分析TCT和阴道镜在筛查宫颈癌前病变中的诊断价值.[结果]在982例妇女中,TCT细胞学检查出异常者有118例,对诊断宫颈上皮内瘤样变(CIN)的特异性为96

  20. Effect Observation on HPV, TCT and Vaginal Examination in Cervical Le-sions and Cervical Screening%宫颈病变和宫颈筛查应用HPV、TCT和阴道镜检查的效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伟蓉; 孔彩霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈病变和宫颈筛查应用HPV、TCT和阴道镜检查的效果。方法整群选取2013年5月—2015年5月于该院接受TCT及HPV检查的妇女1280例。对这些患者再进行阴道镜检查以及宫颈组织活检,然后将检验的结果与病理结果进行统计学的分析比对。结果 TCT检查的阳性检出率为9.61%(123/1280);HPV检查的阳性检出率为12.03%(154/1280)。结论临床上对宫颈病变结合筛查可联合CTC、HPV以及阴道镜检查,这样可提高宫颈病变的检出率,减少漏诊,对临床的及时治疗提供极大的帮助。%Objective To observe the effect of HPV, TCT and vaginal examination in cervical lesions and cervical screen-ing. Methods 1280 cases of women who received TCT and HPV examination in our hospital from May 2013 to May 2015 were selected and were given vaginal examination and cervical biopsy, the test results and the pathological results were compared and analyzed statistically. Results The positive detection rate of TCT was 9.61% (123/1280)and 12.03%(154/1280)of HPV. Conclusion HPV, TCT and vaginal examination in treatment of cervical lesions and cervical screening can improve the detection rate of cervical lesions, reduce missed diagnosis and offer great help to timely treatment clinically.

  1. The current state of intestine transplantation: indications, techniques, outcomes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, D

    2014-09-01

    Intestine transplantation is the least common form of organ transplantation in the United States and often deemed one of the most difficult. Patient and graft survival have historically trailed well behind other organ transplants. Over the past 5-10 years registry reports and single center series have demonstrated improvements to patient survival after intestinal transplantation that now match patient survival for those without life-threatening complications on parenteral nutrition. For various reasons including improvements in medical care of patients with intestinal failure and difficulty accessing transplant care, the actual number of intestine transplants has declined by 25% over the past 6 years. In light of the small numbers of intestine transplants, many physicians and the lay public are often unaware that this is a therapeutic option. The aim of this review is to describe the current indications, outcomes and advances in the field of intestine transplantation and to explore concerns over future access to this important and life-saving therapy.

  2. In vivo and in vitro starch digestion: are current in vitro techniques adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Lavau, Gautier Cesbron; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2010-12-13

    The time evolution of the size distributions of (fully branched and debranched) starch molecules during in vivo and in vitro digestion was analyzed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and compared. In vivo digesta were collected from the small intestine of pigs fed with raw normal maize starch; in vitro digestion was carried out on the same diet fed to the pigs using a method simulating digestion in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. A qualitative difference was observed between the in vitro and the in vivo digestion. The former showed a degradation of starch molecules to a more uniform size, whereas the in vivo digestion preserved the size distribution of native starch before producing a multimodal distribution, the heterogeneous nature of which current in vitro methods do not reproduce. The use of in vitro digestion to infer in vivo digestion patterns and, hence, potential nutrition benefits need to take account of this phenomenon.

  3. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: emerging role of multidetector CT angiography and review of current imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Christopher J; Tobias, Terrence; Rosenblum, David I; Banker, Wade L; Tseng, Lee; Tamarkin, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in the United States. The evaluation and treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding are complex and often require a multispecialty approach involving gastroenterologists, surgeons, internists, emergency physicians, and radiologists. The multitude of pathologic processes that can result in gastrointestinal bleeding, the length of the gastrointestinal tract, and the often intermittent nature of gastrointestinal bleeding further complicate patient evaluation. In addition, there are multiple imaging modalities and therapeutic interventions that are currently being used in the evaluation and treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Initial experience indicates that multidetector computed tomographic angiography is a promising first-line modality for the time-efficient, sensitive, and accurate diagnosis or exclusion of active gastrointestinal hemorrhage and may have a profound impact on the evaluation and subsequent treatment of patients who present with acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled M; Murphy, Michael M; Lawson, Heather E; Klemetti, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are: (1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting; (2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load-external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing; (3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration; (4) potential rib instability occurred when certain geological features prevailed-these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata; (5) 47% of the studied rib spall was classified as blocky-this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards; and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  5. Current technology and techniques in re-mineralization of white spot lesions: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podray, Susan S.

    White Spot lesions are a common iatrogenic occurrence on patients who are treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. There is a dynamic chemical interaction between enamel and saliva at the tooth surface that allow a lesion to have phase changes involving demineralization of enamel and reminerlization. This is due to calcium and phosphate dissolved in saliva that is deposited onto the tooth surface or removed depending on the surrounding pH. Caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is gaining popularity in dentistry as a way to increase the available level of calcium and phosphate in plaque and saliva to improve the chemical gradient so that if favors reminerlization. The aim of our investigation is to search the available current literature and formulate a recommendation for use of CPP-ACP in orthodontics. Publications from the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Searches from August 2010 to April 1st 2012 were performed under the terms "MI Paste OR Recaldent OR caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate OR CPP-ACP or tooth mousse". The searches yielded 155 articles, These were reviewed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles with inappropriate study design or no outcome measures at both baseline and end point were also excluded. 13 articles were deemed of relevance with a high quality study design and were included in this study for evaluation. The current literature suggests a preventative treatment regimen in which MI Paste Plus is used. It should be delivered once daily prior to bed after oral hygiene for 3 minutes in a fluoride tray, throughout orthodontic treatment. It should be recommended for high risk patients determined by poor oral hygiene, as seen by the inability to remove plaque from teeth and appliances. This protocol may prevent or assist in the remineralization of enamel white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

  6. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Khaled M.; Murphy Michael M.; Lawson Heather E.; Klemetti Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are:(1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting;(2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load—external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing;(3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration;(4) potential rib insta-bility occurred when certain geological features prevailed—these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata;(5) 47%of the stud-ied rib spall was classified as blocky—this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards;and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  7. Current radiological techniques used to evaluate unilateral partial ureteral obstruction: an experimental rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Mehmet; Celebi, Suleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Koçan, Hüseyin; Ayyıldız, Halil Suat; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Yapıcı, Oktay; Kefeli, Mehmet; Arıtürk, Ender

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional and prognostic benefits of Doppler ultrasonography (DU), diuretic renal scintigraphy (DRS), and magnetic resonance urography (MRU) during diagnosis and follow-up of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and to examine apoptosis rates caused by UPJO in an experimental rabbit model. Twenty-four rabbits were divided randomly into two groups. The left kidneys of 15 rabbits from the first group underwent Ulm-Miller surgery to create UPJO, whereas the left kidneys of nine rabbits from the second group underwent sham surgery. A pressure flow study (Whitaker's test) was done during postoperative week 6. Based on the Whitaker test, the DU, DRS, and MRU findings were compared. The number of apoptotic renal cells was counted after death. The Whitaker test run during postoperative week 6 revealed obstructions in 15 rabbits from group 1; the nine rabbits of the sham group had no obstructions. Sensitivity and specificity of DRS were 93.3 and 88.8 %, respectively, and those of MRU were 93.3 and 88.8 %, respectively. The postoperative mean RI values were significantly higher than the preoperative values, associated with sensitivity of 86.6 % and specificity of 77.5 % for detecting UPJO. DRS, MRU, and RI could not predict UPJO in one (8 %), one (8 %), and two (16 %) kidneys, respectively. Likelihood ratio (LR) was 8.4 for MRU and scintigraphy, while for RI, LR was 3.9. Pathology specimens revealed that all kidneys with UPJO underwent apoptosis, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher on the UPJO-created side than on the contralateral and in the sham group (p < 0.05). No test predicted all apoptosis related to UPJO. The RI, DRS, and DMRU results correlated with the pressure flow results for detecting UPJO. No single radiological technique predicted all initial UPJO-created kidneys that concluded with apoptosis. Further studies are required to seek with better methods for diagnosing an obstruction or to define a

  8. 3D cell culture: a review of current approaches and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, John W

    2011-01-01

    Cell culture in two dimensions has been routinely and diligently undertaken in thousands of laboratories worldwide for the past four decades. However, the culture of cells in two dimensions is arguably primitive and does not reproduce the anatomy or physiology of a tissue for informative or useful study. Creating a third dimension for cell culture is clearly more relevant, but requires a multidisciplinary approach and multidisciplinary expertise. When entering the third dimension, investigators need to consider the design of scaffolds for supporting the organisation of cells or the use of bioreactors for controlling nutrient and waste product exchange. As 3D culture systems become more mature and relevant to human and animal physiology, the ability to design and develop co-cultures becomes possible as does the ability to integrate stem cells. The primary objectives for developing 3D cell culture systems vary widely - and range from engineering tissues for clinical delivery through to the development of models for drug screening. The intention of this review is to provide a general overview of the common approaches and techniques for designing 3D culture models.

  9. Measurement of Bacterial Bioluminescence Intensity and Spectrum: Current Physical Techniques and Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Ionescu, Rodica Elena

    2016-01-01

    : Bioluminescence is light production by living organisms, which can be observed in numerous marine creatures and some terrestrial invertebrates. More specifically, bacterial bioluminescence is the "cold light" produced and emitted by bacterial cells, including both wild-type luminescent and genetically engineered bacteria. Because of the lively interplay of synthetic biology, microbiology, toxicology, and biophysics, different configurations of whole-cell biosensors based on bacterial bioluminescence have been designed and are widely used in different fields, such as ecotoxicology, food toxicity, and environmental pollution. This chapter first discusses the background of the bioluminescence phenomenon in terms of optical spectrum. Platforms for bacterial bioluminescence detection using various techniques are then introduced, such as a photomultiplier tube, charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) based integrated circuit. Furthermore, some typical biochemical methods to optimize the analytical performances of bacterial bioluminescent biosensors/assays are reviewed, followed by a presentation of author's recent work concerning the improved sensitivity of a bioluminescent assay for pesticides. Finally, bacterial bioluminescence as implemented in eukaryotic cells, bioluminescent imaging, and cancer cell therapies is discussed.

  10. Re: Current Standard Technique for Modern Flexible Ureteroscopy: Tips and Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Keskin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of urinary stone disease is increasing worldwide. The dissemination of the clinical use of ultrasound has improved the diagnosis of stones at an earlier stage. It has increased the expansion of the indications of flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS. With the advances in flexible ureteroscopy (FU, more successful outcomes are being reported. The most recent EAU guidelines state that for all stones smaller than 2 cm, fURS can be the first choice of treatment. Especially for lower pole stones, the stone free rate is better than that with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. For stones larger than 2 cm staged procedures may be necessary. This paper recommends a standardized technique for fURS to decrease the rate of possible complications, and increase the success rate. Endourological techniques are widely adopted by most of the urological surgeons, hence fURS is an expansion of our surgical armamentarium. In this paper, an experienced group recommends some tips and tricks for each step of the procedure. The authors recommend general anesthesia over spinal anesthesia for two reasons: larger tidal volume during spinal anesthesia may cause movement, which can make the procedure harder. Secondly, the duration of the spinal anesthesia may be too short for some cases. The placement of ureteral access sheath (UAS should be done under fluoroscopic guidance and proper force should be applied. Ideally, the distal tip of the UAS should be just below the ureteropelvic junction. For preventing functional deterioration of the FU, the tip of the laser probe should be out of the scope as far as one-quarter of the screen diameter. For preventing excessive prolonged deflections, the stones in the lower pole should be repositioned in order to allow a more straight working channel. Pulverization of the stone is preferred over fragmentation since it decreases the operation time and risk of injury during removal of fragments. A power setting of low

  11. Re: Current Standard Technique for Modern Flexible Ureteroscopy: Tips and Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Selçuk Keskin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT The prevalence of urinary stone disease is increasing worldwide. The dissemination of the clinical use of the ultrasound has increased the rate of diagnosis of stones at an earlier stage, thus, has increased the expansion of the indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS. With the advancements in flexible ureteroscopy (FU, more successful outcomes are being reported. The most recent EAU guidelines state that fURS can be the first choice of treatment for all stones smaller than 2 cm. Especially for the lower pole stones, the stone-free rate is better than that with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. For stones larger than 2 cm, staged procedures may be necessary. This paper recommends a standardized technique for fURS which is aimed to decrease the rate of possible complications and increase the success rate. Endourological techniques are widely adopted by most of the urological surgeons, hence fURS is an expansion of our surgical armamentarium. In this paper, an experienced group recommended some tips and tricks for each step of the procedure. The authors recommended general anesthesia over spinal anesthesia for two reasons: larger tidal volume during spinal anesthesia may cause movement, which can make the procedure harder. Secondly, the duration of the spinal anesthesia may be too short for some cases. Placement of ureteral access sheath (UAS should be done under fluoroscopic guidance and proper force should be applied. Ideally, the distal tip of the UAS should be just below the ureteropelvic junction. For preventing functional deterioration of the FU, the tip of the laser probe should be out of the scope as far as one-quarter of the screen diameter. For preventing excessive prolonged deflections, the stones in the lower pole should be repositioned in order to allow a more straight working channel. Pulverization of the stone is preferred over fragmentation since it decreases the operative time and risk of injury

  12. The issues of current rainfall estimation techniques in mountain natural multi-hazard investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei; Chen, Ningsheng; Wang, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Mountain hazards (e.g., landslides, debris flows, and floods) induced by rainfall are complex phenomena that require good knowledge of rainfall representation at different spatiotemporal scales. This study reveals rainfall estimation from gauges is rather unrepresentative over a large spatial area in mountain regions. As a result, the conventional practice of adopting the triggering threshold for hazard early warning purposes is insufficient. The main reason is because of the huge orographic influence on rainfall distribution. Modern rainfall estimation methods such as numerical weather prediction modelling and remote sensing utilising radar from the space or on land are able to provide spatially more representative rainfall information in mountain areas. But unlike rain gauges, they only indirectly provide rainfall measurements. Remote sensing suffers from many sources of errors such as weather conditions, attenuation and sampling methods, while numerical weather prediction models suffer from spatiotemporal and amplitude errors depending on the model physics, dynamics, and model configuration. A case study based on Sichuan, China is used to illustrate the significant difference among the three aforementioned rainfall estimation methods. We argue none of those methods can be relied on individually, and the challenge is on how to make the full utilisation of the three methods conjunctively because each of them only provides partial information. We propose that a data fusion approach should be adopted based on the Bayesian inference method. However such an approach requires the uncertainty information from all those estimation techniques which still need extensive research. We hope this study will raise the awareness of this important issue and highlight the knowledge gap that should be filled in so that such a challenging problem could be tackled collectively by the community.

  13. Techniques used for the screening of hemoglobin levels in blood donors: current insights and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rajendra Chaudhary,1 Anju Dubey,2 Atul Sonker3 1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Transfusion Medicine, T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Abstract: Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors’ health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients’ health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation. These include the anatomical source of blood sample, posture of the donor, timing of sample and several other biological factors. Qualitative copper sulfate gravimetric method has been the archaic time-tested method that is still used in resource-constrained settings. Portable hemoglobinometers are modern quantitative devices that have been further modified to reagent-free cuvettes. Furthermore, noninvasive spectrophotometry was introduced, mitigating pain to blood donor and eliminating risk of infection. Notwithstanding a tremendous evolution in terms of ease of operation, accuracy, mobility, rapidity and cost, a component of inherent variability persists, which may partly be attributed to pre-analytical variables. Hence, blood centers should pay due attention to validation of test methodology, competency of operating staff and regular proficiency testing of the outputs. In this article, we have reviewed various regulatory guidelines, described the variables that affect the measurements and compared the validated

  14. Current trends in pulp therapy: a survey analyzing pulpotomy techniques taught in pediatric dental residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Laquia A; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Williamson, C Andrew; Dean, Jeffrey A; Legan, Joseph J; Maupome, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The study's purpose was to survey directors of pediatric dental residency programs in order to evaluate the materials currently being taught and used for pulpotomy procedures for primary teeth in educational and clinical settings. A web-based survey was emailed to all graduate pediatric dental residency program directors in the United States. Seventy one emails were sent to program directors, 47 responded but only 39 respondents (55%) were included in the study. Results suggested a slight decrease in utilization of formocresol 1:5 dilution (Pformocresol (18% of respondents) were systemic health concerns and carcinogenicity, in addition to evidence-based literature. Even though 25% of respondents have begun to use MTA for primary pulpotomy procedures, the most common reason for utilization of other medicaments over MTA was its higher cost. With 82% of graduate pediatric dental residency programs still utilizing formocresol 1:5 dilution for pulpotomy procedures in primary teeth, there has been no major shift away from its clinical use, in spite of increased usage of newer medicaments over the last 5 years.

  15. Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuting

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of shallow crack. This paper studied a novel method which utilized the slope of voltage ratio-frequency curve to solve bottom crack depth by using a simple mathematic equation based on finite element analysis. It is found that voltage ratio varies linearly with frequency in the range of 5-15 Hz; this range is slightly higher than the equivalent frequency and lower than semi-permeable frequency. Simulation and experiment show that the novel method can measure the bottom crack depth accurately.

  16. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  17. Analysis and Minimization of Output Current Ripple for Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Techniques in Three-Phase Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Grandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the complete analysis of the output current ripple in three-phase voltage source inverters considering the different discontinuous pulse-width modulation (DPWM strategies. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically evaluated over the fundamental period and compared among the most used DPWMs, including positive and negative clamped (DPWM+ and DPWM−, and the four possible combinations between them, usually named as DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2, and DPWM3. The maximum and the average values of peak-to-peak current ripple are estimated, and a simple method to correlate the ripple envelope with the ripple rms is proposed and verified. Furthermore, all the results obtained by DPWMs are compared to the centered pulse-width modulation (CPWM, equivalent to the space vector modulation to identify the optimal pulse-width modulation (PWM strategy as a function of the modulation index, taking into account the different average switching frequency. In this way, the PWM technique providing for the minimum output current ripple is identified over the whole modulation range. The analytical developments and the main results are experimentally verified by current ripple measurements with a three-phase PWM inverter prototype supplying an induction motor load.

  18. Robust low frequency current ripple elimination algorithm for grid-connected fuel cell systems with power balancing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Choe, Gyu-Yeong; Lee, Byoung-Kuk [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Soo [R and D Center, Advanced Drive Technology (ADT) Company, 689-26 Geumjeong-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-862 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems is generated from dc-ac inverter operation, which generates 60 Hz fundamental component, and gives harmful effects on fuel cell stack itself, such as making cathode surface responses slower, causing an increase of more than 10% in the fuel consumption, creating oxygen starvation, causing a reduction in the operating lifetime, and incurring a nuisance tripping such as overload situation. With these reasons, low frequency current ripple makes fuel cell system unstable and lifetime of fuel cell stack itself short. This paper presents a fast and robust control algorithm to eliminate low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems. Compared with the conventional methods, in the proposed control algorithm, dc link voltage controller is shifted from dc-dc converter to dc-ac inverter, resulting that dc-ac inverter handles dc link voltage control and output current control simultaneously with help of power balancing technique. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only completely eliminate current ripple but also significantly reduce the overshoot or undershoot during transient states without any extra hardware. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulations and also by experiments with a 1 kW laboratory prototype. (author)

  19. Current state-of-the-art of contouring techniques in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1990-10-01

    A manager with a major automobile manufacturer once made the comment that " the best thing we ever did to improve quality was give the guys on the floor a caliper to measure the parts" . As the tolerances on manufacturing become tighter the need for accurate measurement has also increased. Hand fitting of parts to each other does not work in modem automated factories. Gages in the past have been built to provide a fixed set of measurements of a known part. This practice too has been changing due to the trend toward flexible manufacturing. Now the gages themselves must be flexible to accommodate the variety of parts made on a single line. This need has spurred a flurry of activity in the development of new three-dimensional (3-D) measurement tools. This paper will review the current state of the new optical based 3-D tools and discuss some of the applications being addressed. Background The need for three dimensional contouring has arisen from two primary areas of application. The first area of application has been in the area of robot guidance. ''4 Robots are used for their flexibility of motion. Applications may include loading of parts into machine tools stuffing printed circuit boards welding and cutting metal or simple assembly operations. In the simple applications the motion of the robot can be preprogrammed to follow a set trajectory. If the part not in the right location then the operation fails. In the case of painting robots this preprogrammed route can generally taken. As the task gets more complex and the positions become more critical guidance of the robot becomes important. If a robot welder misses the seam it may not only not make the weld but may also damage the surrounding material. This area of robot guidance has been one of the primary areas of growing interest. 58 The requirements for this type of application do not demand a great deal of contour measurement but does require three dimensional information. The range to the seam being welded as

  20. Current status and future challenges for controlling malaria with the sterile insect technique: technical and social perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Vreysen, Marc J B; Dupé, Sandrine; Lees, Rosemary S; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Gouagna, Louis-Clement; Chhem, Rethy

    2014-04-01

    The intolerable burden of malaria, when faced with high levels of drug resistance, increasing insecticide resistance and meagre resources at the national level, remains a great public health challenge to governments and the research/control community. Efficient control methods against the vectors of malaria are desperately needed. Control strategies for malaria that integrate the transfer of sterile sperm by released males to wild virgin females with other control tactics are currently being developed, and optimised mass-rearing, irradiation and release techniques are being validated in several field sites. However, the success of this strategy as part of wider pest control or health management programmes strongly depends on gaining public understanding and acceptance. Here we attempt to review what progress has been made and the remaining challenges surrounding the use of the sterile insect technique against malaria from technical and social perspectives. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From Research to Practice: Increasing Ability of Practitioners to Relate Family-of-Origin Communicative Techniques to Current Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kimberly

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown a connection between family-of-origin communicative techniques and later marital satisfaction. However, little has been done to see how this information can be incorporated in family life education settings. The purpose of this study is to make a connection between research and practice by testing the validity of easy-to-use measurements informing this relationship. The results of a survey from 649 married individuals about the communicative practices within their family-of-origin and in their current marriage support the ability of practitioners to understand techniques utilized in marriage by interpreting those used in childhood. By associating the literature between family-of-origin communication and marital dynamics in a practical way, practitioners and educators will be better able to assess and assist married couples in therapeutic or educational settings.

  2. Comparative analysis of HPV testing and TCT in screening of cervical can-cer%HPV检测与宫颈液基细胞学检查在宫颈癌筛查诊断价值对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆东

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比基于PCR的HPV检测与液基细胞学检查(TCT)在宫颈癌筛查中临床价值。方法选取该院2012年3月—2013年3月进行宫颈癌筛查的1209例女性为研究对象,其中932例患者采用HPV检测,277例患者采用TCT检测,对比两种检测方法灵敏度及特异度。结果HPV检测法HPV阳性率为56.0%,TCT检测法HPV阳性率为50.5%,两种检测方法阳性率差异无统计学意义(P=0.28)。但HPV检测法在敏感度为和准确度上均显著高于TCT检测法。结论 HPV检测具有快速、灵敏的检测优势,并可以对患者感染的HPV进行分型鉴定,有利于临床上及早诊断高危型HPV,从而准确确定检查对象宫颈癌发病风险。%Objective To compare and analysis HPV testing and TCT in screening of cervical cancer and diagnostic value. Meth-ods 1209 of women were detected by HPV testing or TCT for screening of cervical cancer in March 2012~March 2013. 932 cases were detected by HPV testing and 277 cases were detected by TCT. Sensitivity and specificity of two methods were compared. Results There were no significant difference in positive rate in HPV testing and TCT (56.0%and 50.5%respectively, P=0.28). But HPV testing displayed higher sensitivity and accuracy rate than TCT. Conclusions HPV testing was a fast and sensitive method in screening of cervical cancer. HPV testing could distinguish high risk and exactly evaluate the risk of cervical cancer.

  3. Long RE123 coated conductors with high critical current over 500 A/cm by IBAD/PLD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, K., E-mail: kkakimoto@fujikura.co.jp [Fujikura Ltd., 1440, Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan); Igarashi, M.; Hanyu, S.; Sutoh, Y.; Takemoto, T.; Hayashida, T.; Hanada, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Kikutake, R.; Kutami, H.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T. [Fujikura Ltd., 1440, Mutsuzaki, Sakura, Chiba 285-8550 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We have developed long RE123 coated conductors with large current capacity by IBAD and HW-PLD technique. We could fabricate an 8 m-long Gd123 coated wire with the I{sub c} of over 900 A/cm-w at 77 K, 0 T. We set the new world record of I{sub c} x L value as 374535 A m (= 609 A x 615 m). We have developed long RE{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-X} (RE123) coated conductors with large current capacity by the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and the pulsed laser deposition using hot wall heating (HW-PLD) technique. As a result, we could fabricate an 8 m-long Gd{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-X} (Gd123) coated wire with the minimum and maximum critical current (I{sub c}) of 951 A/cm-w and 1003 A/cm-w at 77 K, 0 T, respectively, measured in 0.7 m-long sections by the standard 4-probe technique. Furthermore, we succeeded in preparation of over 600 m-long Gd123 coated wire with the uniform I{sub c} distribution over 600 A/cm-w. It had average, maximum and minimum I{sub c} of 665, 698, 609 A/cm-w, respectively. The n-values of the sample showed the maximum I{sub c} and minimum I{sub c} were 40 and 36, respectively. As a result, we set the new world record of I{sub c} x L value as 374535 A m (= 609 A x 615 m). The in-field performance of this long wire was quite high as well; the minimum I{sub c} exceeded 50 A/cm-w at 77 K, 3 T.

  4. Current breathomics-a review on data pre-processing techniques and machine learning in metabolomics breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinska, A.; Hauschild, A. C.; Fijten, R. R. R.

    2014-01-01

    been extensively developed. Yet, the application of machine learning methods for fingerprinting VOC profiles in the breathomics is still in its infancy. Therefore, in this paper, we describe the current state of the art in data pre-processing and multivariate analysis of breathomics data. We start...... different conditions (e.g. disease stage, treatment). Independently of the utilized analytical method, the most important question, 'which VOCs are discriminatory?', remains the same. Answers can be given by several modern machine learning techniques (multivariate statistics) and, therefore, are the focus...

  5. TCT联合DNA定量细胞学检查对宫颈病变临床诊断价值研究%The study of TCT and DNA quantitive cytology in the diagnosis of cervical lesions.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂依; 黄艳美

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价宫颈细胞学配合DNA定量细胞学检查对子宫颈病变的诊断价值.方法 2006年2月至2007年12月间在我们中心对2 800例患者行液基薄层细胞学检查(TCT)及DNA定量细胞学检查.TCT或DNA定量细胞学检查异常者,3个月后复查.TCT未明确诊断意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞(ASCUS)异常者行阴道镜下多点活组织病理检查.结果 TCT异常者302例,占10.79%(302/2 800).ASCUS 194例,占6.93%;低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL)34例,占1.21%;高度鳞状上皮(HSIL)内病变18例,占0.64%(18/2 800);鳞癌(SCC)3例,占0.10%.经阴道镜下多点活组织病理检查,诊断符合率较高.结论 采用TCT配合细胞DNA定量分析,因取材方便无创伤,是进行阴道镜下活检前筛查宫颈癌和癌前病变的好方法,可以帮助早发现宫颈癌和宫颈病变.%Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of cervical cytology combined with DNA quantitive cytology for cervical lesions.Methods From February 2006 to December 2007, 2,800 patients were examined with liquid - based ThinPrep cytologic test ( TCT ) and DNA quantitative cytology. The patients with abnormal TCT or DNA quantitative cytology results were re - examined after three months. The patients with abnormal TCT results and atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance ( ASCUS ) were further examined by colposcopy and multi - site biopsy examinations. Results Abnormal TCT results were found in 302 patients ( 10.79% ), ASCUS, low - grade squamous intraepithelial lesions ( LSIL ), high - grade squamous intraepithelial lesion ( HSIL ) and squamous cell carcinoma ( SCC ) were found in 194 ( 6.93% ), 34 ( 1.21% ),18 ( 0.64% ) and 3 patients ( 0. 10% ), respectively. Pathological examination confirmed inflammation in 198 cases, accounting for 65.56%( 198/302 ) of abnormal TCT. The difference in TCT and human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection diagnosis was significant ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion The combined examinations of

  6. A new technique based on current measurement for nanoscale ferroelectricity assessment: Nano-positive up negative down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon; Baboux, Nicolas; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new procedure which aims at measuring the polarisation switching current at the nanoscale on ferroelectric thin films with the atomic force microscope tip used as a top electrode. Our technique is an adaptation of the so-called positive up negative down method commonly operated on large electrodes. The main obstacle that must be overcome to implement such measurement is the enhancement of the signal to noise ratio, in a context where the stray capacitance of the sample/tip/lever/lever holder system generates a dielectric displacement current several orders of magnitude higher than the current to be measured. This problem is solved by the subtraction of the displacement current through a reference capacitance. For the first time, we show an example of nanoscale positive up negative down measurement of the polarisation charge on a PbZrTiO3 thin film and compare the measured value with paraelectric samples. From the comparison with macroscopic measurement, we deduce the effective area of contact between the tip and the sample.

  7. Ocean current measurement techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_6.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Calculat_Water_Depth_Chart_Datum_1991_6.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  8. Estimation of breast dose saving potential using a breast positioning technique for organ-based tube current modulated CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sturgeon, Gregory; Agasthya, Greeshma; Segars, William Paul; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    In thoracic CT, organ-based tube current modulation (OTCM) reduces breast dose by lowering the tube current in the 120° anterior dose reduction zone of patients. However, in practice the breasts usually expand to an angle larger than the dose reduction zone. This work aims to simulate a breast positioning technique (BPT) to constrain the breast tissue to within the dose reduction zone for OTCM and to evaluate the corresponding potential reduction in breast dose. Thirteen female anthropomorphic computational phantoms were studied (age range: 27-65 y.o., weight range: 52-105.8 kg). Each phantom was modeled in the supine position with and without application of the BPT. Attenuation-based tube current (ATCM, reference mA) was generated by a ray-tracing program, taking into account the patient attenuation change in the longitudinal and angular plane (CAREDose4D, Siemens Healthcare). OTCM was generated by reducing the mA to 20% between +/- 60° anterior of the patient and increasing the mA in the remaining projections correspondingly (X-CARE, Siemens Healthcare) to maintain the mean tube current. Breast tissue dose was estimated using a validated Monte Carlo program for a commercial scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare). Compared to standard tube current modulation, breast dose was significantly reduced using OTCM by 19.8+/-4.7%. With the BPT, breast dose was reduced by an additional 20.4+/-6.5% to 37.1+/-6.9%, using the same CTDIvol. BPT was more effective for phantoms simulating women with larger breasts with the average breast dose reduction of 30.2%, 39.2%, and 49.2% from OTCMBP to ATCM, using the same CTDIvol for phantoms with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 kg breasts, respectively. This study shows that a specially designed BPT improves the effectiveness of OTCM.

  9. TCT-CSR 功率调节对控制绕组零序过流保护的影响%Impact of TCT-CSR Power Regulation on Zero-sequence Overcurrent Protection of Control Windings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬芬; 郑涛; 刘连光

    2016-01-01

    晶闸管控制变压器式可控并联电抗器(TCT‐CSR)具有功率大范围平滑可调、响应速度快等优势,在超/特高压电网中具有良好的应用前景。以 TCT‐CSR 低压物理模型为研究对象,针对TCT‐CSR 功率快速大幅度调节对本体保护的影响开展研究。根据 TCT‐CSR 结构及原理建立了其稳态运行及功率调节过程的简化数学模型,研究了 TCT‐CSR 功率调节的暂态特性及其对 TCT‐CSR 控制绕组零序过流保护的影响,仿真计算确定了与 TCT‐CSR 功率调节范围对应的控制绕组基波零序电流峰值和暂态持续时间两项指标。在此基础上,提出通过适当增大控制绕组电阻的方法防止本体保护误动,经过大量仿真试验的对比分析,研究确定了电阻阻值的取值范围及其防误动的效果,为 TCT‐CSR 本体参数的设计改进提供了重要参考。%Possessing such advantages as continuously adjustable reactive power and high operating speed , the thyristor controlled transformer‐type controllable shunt reactor ( TCT‐CSR) is preferred to reactive power control in extra/ultra‐high voltage transmission systems . This paper focuses on the impact of power regulation of TCT‐CSR on its protection system . Based on the structure and operating principles of TCT‐CSR , a simplified mathematical model for its operation in both the steady state and transient state during power regulation is proposed . The transient characteristics during power regulation and its influence on zero‐sequence overcurrent protection of control windings are analyzed . The fundamental zero‐sequence current peak value and the transient state duration after power regulation are determined according to simulation results . Based on this , an approach to increasing the resistance of control windings is proposed . The value of the resistor and its influence on the performance of zero‐sequence overcurrent protection

  10. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Yiqiang, Zhao; Shilin, Zhang; Hongliang, Zhao

    2011-04-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 × 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz.

  11. Quadrature laser interferometer for in-line thickness measurement of glass panels using a current modulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kang, Chu-Shik; Eom, Tae Bong; Jin, Jonghan; Suh, Ho Suhng; Kim, Jae Wan

    2014-07-10

    A thickness measurement system is proposed for in-line inspection of thickness variation of flat glass panels. Multi-reflection on the surfaces of glass panel generates an interference signal whose phase is proportional to the thickness of the glass panel. For accurate and stable calculation of the phase value, we obtain quadrature interference signals using a current modulation technique. The proposed system can measure a thickness profile with high speed and nanometric resolution, and obtain higher accuracy through real-time nonlinear error compensation. The thickness profile, measured by a transmissive-type experimental setup, coincided with a comparative result obtained using a contact-type thickness measurement system within the range of ±40  nm. The standard deviations of the measured thickness profiles and their waviness components were less than 3 nm with a scanning speed of 300  mm/s.

  12. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Shilin [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao Hongliang, E-mail: zhaoyq@tju.edu.cn [School of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 {mu}m{sup 2}. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 {mu}W with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Non-invasive imaging techniques in assessing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a current status of available methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăpădat, A M; Jianu, I R; Ungureanu, B S; Florescu, L M; Gheonea, D I; Sovaila, S; Gheonea, I A

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an ailment affecting and increasing a number of people worldwide diagnosed via non-invasive imaging techniques, at a time when a minimum harm caused by medical procedures is rightfully emphasized, more sought after, than ever before. Liver steatosis should not be taken lightly even if its evolution is largely benign as it has the potential to develop into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or even more concerning, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Traditionally, liver biopsy has been the standard for diagnosing this particular liver disease, but nowadays, a consistent number of imagistic methods are available for diagnosing hepatosteatosis and choosing the one appropriate to the clinical context is the key. Although different in sensitivity and specificity when it comes to determining the hepatic fat fraction (FF), these imaging techniques possessing a diverse availability, operating difficulty, cost, and reproducibility are invaluable to any modern physician. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), elastography, and spectroscopy will be discussed in order to lay out the advantages and disadvantages of their diagnostic potential and application. Although imagistics has given physicians a valuable insight into the means of managing NAFLD, the current methods are far from perfect, but given the time, they will surely be improved and the use of liver biopsy will be completely removed.

  14. Computation of currents induced by ELF electric fields in anisotropic human tissues using the Finite Integration Technique (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Motrescu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the task of estimating the currents induced within the human body by environmental electromagnetic fields has received increased attention from scientists around the world. While important progress was made in this direction, the unpredictable behaviour of living biological tissue made it difficult to quantify its reaction to electromagnetic fields and has kept the problem open. A successful alternative to the very difficult one of performing measurements is that of computing the fields within a human body model using numerical methods implemented in a software code. One of the difficulties is represented by the fact that some tissue types exhibit an anisotropic character with respect to their dielectric properties. Our work consists of computing currents induced by extremely low frequency (ELF electric fields in anisotropic muscle tissues using in this respect, a human body model extended with muscle fibre orientations as well as an extended version of the Finite Integration Technique (FIT able to compute fully anisotropic dielectric properties.

  15. Remote field eddy current technique for gap measurement of horizontal flux detector guide tube in pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Yang, Dong Ju; Cheong, Yong Moo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    The fuel channels including the pressure tube(PT) and the calandria tube(CT) are important components of the pressurized heavy water reactor(PHWR). A sagging of fuel channel increases by heat and radiation exposure with the increasing operation time. The contact of fuel channel to the Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube is needed for the power plant safety. In order to solve this safety issue, the electromagnetic technique was applied to measure the status of the guide tube. The Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube and the Calandria tube(CT) in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR) are cross-aligned horizontally. The remote field eddy current(RFEC) technology is applied for gap measurement between the HFD guide tube and the CT HFD guide tube can be detected by inserting the RFEC probe into pressure tube(PT) at the crossing point directly. The RFEC signals using the volume integral method(VIM) were simulated for obtaining the optimal inspection parameters. This paper shows that the simulated eddy current signals and the experimental results in variance with the CT/HFD gap.

  16. Application of Self Nulling Eddy Current Probe Technique to the Detection of Fatigue Crack Initiation and Control of Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, M.; Nath, S.; Wincheski, B.; Fulton, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    A major part of fracture mechanics is concerned with studying the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. This typically requires constant monitoring of crack growth during fatigue cycles and the knowledge of the precise location of the crack tip at any given time. One technique currently available for measuring fatigue crack length is the Potential Drop method. The method, however, may be inaccurate if the direction of crack growth deviates considerably from what was assumed initially or the curvature of the crack becomes significant. Another popular approach is to optically view the crack using a high magnification microscope, but this entails a person constantly monitoring it. The present proposed technique uses an automated scheme, in order to eliminate the need for a person to constantly monitor the experiment. Another technique under development elsewhere is to digitize an optical image of the test specimen surface and then apply a pattern recognition algorithm to locate the crack tip. A previous publication showed that the self nulling eddy current probe successfully tracked a simulated crack in an aluminum sample. This was the impetus to develop an online real time crack monitoring system. An automated system has been developed which includes a two axis scanner mounted on the tensile testing machine, the probe and its instrumentation and a personal computer (PC) to communicate and control all the parameters. The system software controls the testing parameters as well as monitoring the fatigue crack as it propagates. This paper will discuss the experimental setup in detail and demonstrate its capabilities. A three dimensional finite element model is utilized to model the magnetic field distribution due to the probe and how the probe voltage changes as it scans the crack. Experimental data of the probe for different samples under zero load, static load and high cycle fatigue load will be discussed. The final section summarizes the major accomplishments

  17. Tidal current turbine based on hydraulic transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-wei LIU; Wei LI; Yong-gang LIN; Shun MA

    2011-01-01

    Tidal current turbines (TCTs) are newly developed electricity generating devices.Aiming at the stabilization of the power output of TCTs,this paper introduces the hydraulic transmission technologies into TCTs.The hydrodynamics of the turbine was analyzed at first and its power output characteristics were predicted.A hydraulic power transmission system and a hydraulic pitch-controlled system were designed.Then related simulations were conducted.Finally,a TCT prototype was manufactured and tested in the workshop.The test results have confirmed the correctness of the current design and availability of installation of the hydraulic system in TCTs.

  18. Transient charge technique investigation of HgI/sub 2/ and CdSe nuclear detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M.; Burger, A.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.

    1987-02-01

    The use of the Transient Charge Technique (TCT) for the evaluation of high resistivity Mercuric Iodide and Cadmium Selenide nuclear radiation detectors is suggested. It has been shown that the real values of mobilities and trapping times of electrons and holes in HgI/sub 2/ can be easily obtained from the analysis of the voltage transient response to drift of charge carriers created by alpha particles. This allows one to evaluate the bulk transport properties of the material and, additionally, to estimate accurately the surface recombination velocity of the carriers. Preliminary results on the shape of voltage transients in CdSe are also reported, and the limitations of the use of the TCT for characterization of both materials are discussed.

  19. Study of semileptonic and leptonic neutral-current processes and of $\\mu$-polarization using counter techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .PP This experiment will study semileptonic neutral current neutrino interactions with nucleons, using principally the dichromatic neutrino beam N1 and will make measurements of the polarization of muons produced in the WA1 experiment by neutrino-nucleon interactions, using the horn-focused broad-band neutrino The main part of the apparatus is a fine-grained target calorimeter in which the energy and direction of the hadronic jet resulting from the neutrino scattering is measured by electronic techniques. It is supplemented by a muon detector and spectrometer. The fine-grained calorimeter is used as a polarimeter for muons produced in WA1. \\\\ \\\\ The calorimeter is composed of 13 modules, each 1.2 m long and 4~m x 4~m in cross section. A module consists of six 3 m x 3 m target plates made of 8 cm thick marble with 12 cm gaps for insertion of 20 scintillation counters of 15 cm width and 3 cm thickness, 128 proportional counters of 3~x~3~cm|2 cross-section and 4~m length, and 256 streamer tubes of 0.9~x~0.9~cm|2...

  20. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  1. 液基细胞学检测()TCTχ²在宫颈病变筛查中的应用%Liquid based cytology test (TCT) used in the screening of cervical lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀俭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of liquid based cytology diagnosis in screening of cervical lesions. Methods to ana-lyze the clinical data of patients in our hospital in 968 patients with clinically suspected cervical lesions were treated by liquid based cytology test, histopathological examination of implementation in patients with abnormal test results. Results of 968 specimens of TCT detection of cervical epithelial cells result positive was 10.95%(106/968), atypical squamous cells of 39 cases, 21 cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, height of 20 patients with squamous intraepithelial lesions not except for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (9 cases, 10 cases were squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma in 7 cases. Atypical squamous cells, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, except height squamous intraepithelial lesions and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and pathological coincidence rate were 92.31%, 76.19%, 85%, 66.67%. Squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma and pathological coincidence rate was 100%. Conclusion liquid based cytology detection technique in the diagnosis of cervical lesions with high ac-curacy, in the treatment of non-invasive detection, is an effective method for screening cervical lesion, worth clinical promotion.%目的:探讨液基细胞学检测在宫颈病变筛查中的诊断价值。方法分析了我院妇科对接诊968例临床怀疑宫颈病变的患者采用液基细胞学检测技术的临床资料,对检测结果异常患者实施病理组织学检查。结果968份标本TCT检测宫颈上皮细胞结果阳性占10.95%(106/968),其中不典型鳞状细胞39例,低度鳞状上皮内病变21例,高度鳞状上皮内病变20例,不除外高级别鳞状上皮内病变9例,鳞癌10例,腺癌7例。不典型鳞状细胞、低度鳞状上皮内病变、高度鳞状上皮内病变及除外高级别鳞状上皮内病变与病理符合率分别为92.31%,76.19%,85%,66.67%。鳞

  2. 液基薄层制片法在泌尿系统肿瘤诊断中的意义%The Significance of ThinPrep liquid based cytology test (TCT) in Diagnosis of tumor in urinary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 续薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较液基薄层制片法与传统涂片对尿液标本中肿瘤检出率的差异.方法 随机选取2010年4月至2010年12月吉林大学第一医院门诊及泌尿科住院患者尿液标本120例,采用新柏氏2000液基细胞自动制片机及传统涂片的方法 制片,巴氏染色后,显微镜下观察,比较两种方法 肿瘤细胞检出率的差异.结果 判读采用巴氏5级分类诊断标准,诊断结果 均与病理对照.结果 120例尿液标本共检出阳性例数为41例,其中液基薄层制片法检出阳性31例,灵敏度为75.6%,传统法检出阳性17例,灵敏度为41.5%,液基薄层制片灵敏度提高了34.1%,经χ2检验,P<0.05,有统计学意义,其诊断结果 与病理结果 基本一致.结论 液基薄层制片技术其阳性检出率及符合率均高于传统涂片,因此使用液基薄层制片技术可提高对泌尿系统肿瘤诊断的灵敏度.%Objective To make comparison of the detection rates of tumor in urine system between ThinPrcp liquid based cytology test (TCT) and conventional Pap smears. Methods 120 urine specimens of patients from out-patient clinics and urology in-patient department of the first hospital of Jilin University were randomly selected from April to December in 2010, Adopt ThinPrcp 2000 liquid-based Pap smear sampling devices and conventional cytology method to prepare smears respectively. After Pap staining,compare the detection rate of tumor between the two methods under a microscope. Five-category classification diagnosis criteria were used in diagnosis, test results compared with pathology diagnose. Results There were 41 postitivc result cases of 120 specimens, included 31 postitive result cases of TCT,of which the sensitivity was 75. 6% ,and 17 postitivc result cases of conventional cytology method,of which the sensitivity was 41.5% . The sensitivity of TCT improved 34. 1 %. Utilize chi-squarc test, P values <0. 05 , there was statistical sig-nificancc and the diagnosis was

  3. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements

  4. A new technique for measuring the leakage current in Silicon Drift Detector based X-ray spectrometer—implications for on-board calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, M.; Acharya, Y. B.; Vadawale, S. V.; Mazumdar, H. S.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we report a new technique of measuring the leakage current in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and propose to use this technique as a tool for on-board estimation of the radiation damage to the SDD employed in space-borne X-ray spectrometers. The leakage current of a silicon based detector varies with the detector operating temperature and increases with the radiation dose encountered by the detector in the space environment. The proposed technique to measure detector leakage current involves measurement of the reset frequency of the reset type charge sensitive pre-amplifier when the feedback capacitor is charged only due to the detector leakage current. Using this technique, the leakage current is measured for large samples of SDDs having two different active areas of 40 mm2 and 109 mm2 with 450 micron thick silicon. These measurements are carried out in the temperature range of -50°C to 20°C. At each step energy resolution is measured for all SDDs using Fe-55 X-ray source and shown that the energy resolution varies systematically with the leakage current irrespective of the difference among the detectors of the same as well as different sizes. Thus by measuring the leakage current on-board, it would be possible to estimate the time dependent performance degradation of the SDD based X-ray spectrometer. This can be particularly useful in case where large numbers of SDD are used.

  5. A non-invasive thermal drift compensation technique applied to a spin-valve magnetoresistive current sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez Moreno, Jaime; Ramírez Muñoz, Diego; Cardoso, Susana; Casans Berga, Silvia; Navarro Antón, Asunción Edith; Peixeiro de Freitas, Paulo Jorge

    2011-01-01

    .... Experimental results are shown using a microfabricated spin-valve MR current sensor. The temperature compensation has been solved in the interval from 0 °C to 70 °C measuring currents from -10 A to +10 A.

  6. Microstructures and properties of the nitrided layers fabricated on titanium substrate by direct current nitrogen arc melting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin; Ren Zhenan; Sun Daqian; Wang Li; Zhao Yunqiang

    2008-01-01

    The nitrided layers mainly containing TiN dendrites were fabricated by direct current nitrogen arc melting method. The test results show that the layers are harder and more resistant to wear than the titanium substrate. Arc traveling speeds and arc currents have an effect on both the microstructures and the properties of the layers. Decreasing the arc traveling speed or increasing the arc current can obviously enhance the hardness and the wear resistance of the nitrided layers.

  7. Reliability of clinical diagnosis and laboratory testing techniques currently used for identification of canine parvovirus enteritis in clinical settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAZ, Mirna; MARTÍNEZ, José Simón; QUIJANO-HERNÁNDEZ, Israel; FAJARDO, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the main etiological agent of viral enteritis in dogs. Actually in literature, CPV-2 has been reported with clinical signs that vary from the classical disease, and immunochromatography test and PCR technique have been introduced to veterinary hospitals to confirm CPV-2 diagnosis and other infections. However, the reliability of these techniques has been poorly analyzed. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of veterinary clinical diagnosis, immunochromatography test and PCR technique. Our data indicate that variations in the clinical signs of CPV-2 complicate the gathering of an appropriate diagnosis; and immunochromatography test and PCR technique do not have adequate sensitivity to diagnose positive cases. PMID:27818461

  8. 高危型HPV检测联合TCT在宫颈癌筛查中的应用%An application of high-risk HPV combined TCT testing in cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小平; 林美丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the application value of high-risk HPV testing combined TCT in cervical cancer screening.Methods378 cases married women in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 accepted cervical cytology examination of flakes were randomly selected as the research object, the object above received underwent TCT and second-generation hybrid capture gene (HC2) HPV DNA examination, the patients with any test results positive were taken multiple biopsies or endocervical curettage, all test results are histopathological examination results for diagnostic criteria.Results 378 cases of patients, the sensitivity of TCT detection and HPV testing were 61.1% and 94.4%, specificity of the two test results were 88.9% and 26.5%, sensitivity and specificity of both the joint inspection results were 97.2% and 91.5%.Conclusion Clinically relevant in screening of cervical cancer and pre-cancer lesions screening can be checked through TCT combined high-risk HPV, the joint inspection approach not only high sensitivity, high specificity, but high detection efficiency; Addition, HPV infection and cervical cancer or pre-cancer lesions has obvious relevance, therefore, the prevention and treatment of cervical HPV infection should focus on in high-risk patients.%目的:探讨和分析在宫颈癌筛查中应用高危型HPV检测联合TCT的价值。方法随机抽取2012年1月~2013年12月在我院行宫颈细胞学薄片检查的已婚妇女378例为研究对象,上述选取对象均行TCT和第二代基因杂交捕获法(HC2)HPV DNA检查,通过对任意一项检查结果显示为阳性的患者行多点活检或颈管内诊刮,所有检查结果均以病理组织检查结果为诊断标准。结果378例患者中,TCT检测和单纯HPV检测的灵敏度分别为61.1%和94.4%,两项检测结果的特异度分别为88.9%和26.5%,两者联合检查结果的灵敏度和特异度分别为97.2%和91.5%。结论临床上在筛选宫颈癌及相

  9. Ultralow-quiescent-current and wide-load-range low-dropout linear regulator with self-biasing technique for micropower battery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Toshihiro; Hirose, Tetsuya; Asano, Hiroki; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a 151 nA quiescent and 6.8 mA maximum-output-current low-dropout (LDO) linear regulator for micropower battery management. The LDO regulator employs self-biasing and multiple-stacked cascode techniques to achieve efficient, accurate, and high-voltage-input-tolerant operation. Measurement results demonstrated that the proposed LDO regulator operates with an ultralow quiescent current of 151 nA. The maximum output currents with a 4.16 V output were 1.0 and 6.8 mA when the input voltages were 4.25 and 5.0 V, respectively.

  10. Study of clinical application of HPV L1 capsid protein combined with HPV typing and TCT detec-tion in diagnosis and treatment of cervical lesion%HPV L1壳蛋白联合 HPV 分型、TCT 检测在宫颈病变诊治中的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈姚琴; 赖娟; 贺俊霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of human papilloma virus L1 (HPV L1)capsid protein in cervical lesions and different human papillomavirus ( HPV) subtypes, and to guide clinical triage management and best individual treatment.Methods Retrospective analysis of 2012 January to 2014 Janu-ary in Jiaxing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine gynecology clinic for HPV L1 protein combined with HPV type, and liquid-based cytology test ( TCT) of 176 patients data.Results The positive expression rate of HPV L1 protein with TCT examination in the negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy ( NILM) , atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance( ASCUS) , low-grade squamous intraepithe lial lesion ( LSIL) , atypical squamous cells not except high lesion ( ASC-H) , high-grade squamous intraep-ithelial lesion ( HSIL) , and squamous-cell carcinoma ( SCC) was 28.99%, 44.19%, 64.44%, 22.22%, 12.50%, and 0, respectively.No significant differences were found between the NILM and ASCUS groups ( P >0.05) .The positive expression rate of HPV L1 protein in LSIL group was the highest, and it was sta-tistically significantly different from ASC-H and HSIL groups (χ2 =3.88,5.50, P 0.05 ); and statistically significant difference was found between CIN Ⅰgroup and CINⅡ, CINⅢgroup (χ2 =4.53,5.56, P 0.05) .Conclusions Detection of HPV L1 protein is of clinical value to evaluate the risk of cervical lesions.HPV L1 protein combined with HPV type and TCT detection is helpful for traffic man-agement and personalized treatment, and benefit patients with cervical lesions.%目的:探讨人乳头瘤病毒L1(HPV L1)壳蛋白在不同宫颈病变及不同HPV亚型中的表达,以指导宫颈病变患者的个体化治疗及分流管理。方法回顾性分析本院妇科门诊行HPV L1壳蛋白联合HPV分型、液基薄层细胞学检测( TCT)的176例患者的临床资料。结果宫颈TCT结果中不同情况与HPV L1壳蛋白的阳性表达率分

  11. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria citH gene is expressed early in the infection process of tomato and is positively regulated by the TctDE two-component regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Rosenberg, Tally; Burdman, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. Previously, we have reported the adaptation of a recombinase- or resolvase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) approach to identify Xcv genes that are specifically induced during its interaction with tomato. Analysis of some of these genes revealed that a citH (citrate transporter) homologous gene contributes to Xcv virulence on tomato. Here, we demonstrate that the citH product indeed facilitates citrate uptake by showing the following: citH is specifically needed for Xcv growth in citrate, but not in other carbon sources; the citH promoter is specifically induced by citrate; and the concentration of citrate from tomato leaf apoplast is considerably reduced following growth of the wild-type and a citH-complemented strain, but not the citH mutant. We also show that, in the Xcv-tomato interaction, the promoter activity of the citH gene is induced as early as 2.5h after Xcv is syringe infiltrated into tomato leaves, and continues to be active for at least 96h after inoculation. We identified an operon containing a two-component regulatory system homologous to tctD/tctE influencing citH expression in Xcv, as well as its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The expression of hrp genes does not seem to be affected in the citH mutant, and this mutant cannot be complemented for growth in planta when co-inoculated with the wild-type strain, indicating that citrate uptake in the apoplast is important for the virulence of Xcv.

  12. A Technique to Estimate the Equivalent Loss Resistance of Grid-Tied Converters for Current Control Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous analysis and design of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs) requires an accurate modeling. The loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions. To consider such effect, converter losses should be included in the model, which can be done...... by means of an equivalent series resistance. This paper proposes a method to identify the VSC equivalent loss resistance for the proper tuning of the current control loop. It is based on analysis of the closed-loop transient response provided by a synchronous proportional-integral current controller......, according to the internal model principle. The method gives a set of loss resistance values linked to working conditions, which can be used to improve the tuning of the current controllers, either by online adaptation of the controller gains or by open-loop adaptive adjustment of them according to prestored...

  13. Benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler technique in patients with asthma and COPD: a study from the Central Development Region, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudel RS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramesh Sharma Poudel,1 Rano Mal Piryani,2 Shakti Shrestha,3 Aastha Prajapati1 1Hospital Pharmacy, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Pharmacy, Shree Medical and Technical College, Chitwan, Nepal Background: The majority of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been known to perform inhaler technique inadequately. We aimed to evaluate the benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler (Rotahaler® technique in such patients and the factors associated with the correct use. Methods: A pre–post interventional study was conducted at the outpatient pharmacy in a teaching hospital of the Central Development Region, Nepal, in patients with asthma and COPD currently using a Rotahaler device. Patients’ demographics and Rotahaler technique were assessed before intervention. Those who failed to demonstrate the correct technique were educated and trained by the pharmacist, and their technique was reassessed after 2 weeks of intervention. Descriptive statistics, including Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s correlations and Kruskal–Wallis test, were performed for statistical analysis. Results: Before intervention, only 5.7% (10 of 174 of the patients demonstrated the correct Rotahaler technique and the most common errors observed were failure to breathe out gently before inhalation (98.8% and failure to hold breath for about 10 seconds after inhalation (84.8%. After the intervention (n=164, 67.1% of the patients showed their technique correctly (p≤0.001 and failure to breathe out gently before inhalation was the most common error (27.44%. Age (p=0.003, previous instruction (p=0.007, patient’s education level (p=0.013 and source of instruction (p<0.001 were associated with an appropriate technique before intervention, while age (p=0.024, duration of therapy (p=0.010 and gender (p=0.008 were

  14. Radiative neutron capture as a counting technique at pulsed spallation neutron sources: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rhodes, N. J.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron scattering techniques are attracting an increasing interest from scientists in various research fields, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and archaeometry. The success of these neutron scattering applications is stimulated by the development of higher performance instrumentation. The development of new techniques and concepts, including radiative capture based neutron detection, is therefore a key issue to be addressed. Radiative capture based neutron detectors utilize the emission of prompt gamma rays after neutron absorption in a suitable isotope and the detection of those gammas by a photon counter. They can be used as simple counters in the thermal region and (simultaneously) as energy selector and counters for neutrons in the eV energy region. Several years of extensive development have made eV neutron spectrometers operating in the so-called resonance detector spectrometer (RDS) configuration outperform their conventional counterparts. In fact, the VESUVIO spectrometer, a flagship instrument at ISIS serving a continuous user programme for eV inelastic neutron spectroscopy measurements, is operating in the RDS configuration since 2007. In this review, we discuss the physical mechanism underlying the RDS configuration and the development of associated instrumentation. A few successful neutron scattering experiments that utilize the radiative capture counting techniques will be presented together with the potential of this technique for thermal neutron diffraction measurements. We also outline possible improvements and future perspectives for radiative capture based neutron detectors in neutron scattering application at pulsed neutron sources.

  15. Aquifer Storage and Recovery as a Viable Climate Change Adaptation Technique: Sustainable Development under the Current Regulatory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    A holistic investigation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) technique and application in the U.S. is being conducted as a part of the USEPA Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP). The research focus is to evaluate the potential of ASR application as a practical climate chan...

  16. Current status of the studies of biological objects by the time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aul' chenko, V.M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bukin, M.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vazina, A.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Gadzhiev, A.M. [Karaev Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, AzNas, 2, Sharifzade str., Baku, AZ1100 Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: agadzhiev@bakinter.net; Korneev, B.N. [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Sergienko, P.M. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Titov, V.M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tolochko, B.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sheromov, M.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    The methodological and technical aspects of the biological objects study by the time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique are described with reference to muscle contraction. The results of relevant investigations into the structural dynamics of a living muscle during its contraction are presented.

  17. Current pathology work-up of extremity soft tissue sarcomas, evaluation of the validity of different techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, P.; Witjes, H.; van Gorp, J.; Hennipman, A.; van Dalen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) a correct histopathological diagnosis is considered important before surgical treatment. We evaluated the preoperative use and sensitivity of the various pathology techniques. Methods: In a population-based study in patients operated

  18. Molecular and cellular approaches for the detection of protein-protein interactions: latest techniques and current limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Sylvie; Ehrhardt, David W; Loqué, Dominique; Chen, Jin; Rhee, Seung Y; Frommer, Wolf B

    2008-02-01

    Homotypic and heterotypic protein interactions are crucial for all levels of cellular function, including architecture, regulation, metabolism, and signaling. Therefore, protein interaction maps represent essential components of post-genomic toolkits needed for understanding biological processes at a systems level. Over the past decade, a wide variety of methods have been developed to detect, analyze, and quantify protein interactions, including surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, NMR, yeast two-hybrid screens, peptide tagging combined with mass spectrometry and fluorescence-based technologies. Fluorescence techniques range from co-localization of tags, which may be limited by the optical resolution of the microscope, to fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based methods that have molecular resolution and can also report on the dynamics and localization of the interactions within a cell. Proteins interact via highly evolved complementary surfaces with affinities that can vary over many orders of magnitude. Some of the techniques described in this review, such as surface plasmon resonance, provide detailed information on physical properties of these interactions, while others, such as two-hybrid techniques and mass spectrometry, are amenable to high-throughput analysis using robotics. In addition to providing an overview of these methods, this review emphasizes techniques that can be applied to determine interactions involving membrane proteins, including the split ubiquitin system and fluorescence-based technologies for characterizing hits obtained with high-throughput approaches. Mass spectrometry-based methods are covered by a review by Miernyk and Thelen (2008; this issue, pp. 597-609). In addition, we discuss the use of interaction data to construct interaction networks and as the basis for the exciting possibility of using to predict interaction surfaces.

  19. A Dual-Mode Step-up DC/DC Converter IC with Current-Limiting and EMI Reduction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Rone Liou; Chun-Ting Kuo; Mei-Ling Yeh; Ping-Hsing Chen; Marynelle L. Z. Rosales

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dual-mode step-up (boost) DC/DC converter. Pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) is used to improve the efficiency at light load. This converter can operate between pulse-width modulation (PWM) and pulse-frequency modulation. The converter will operate in PFM mode at light load and in PWM mode at heavy load. The maximum conversion efficiency of this converter is 96%. The conversion efficiency is greatly improved when load current is below 100 mA. Additionally, a soft-start circuit and a variable-sawtooth frequency circuit are proposed in this paper. The former is used to avoid the large switching current at the start up of the converter and the latter is utilized to reduce the EMI of the converter.

  20. Optimisation of sea surface current retrieval using a maximum cross correlation technique on modelled sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Céline; Eriksson, Leif; Carvajal, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Using sea surface temperature from satellite images to retrieve sea surface currents is not a new idea, but so far its operational near-real time implementation has not been possible. Validation studies are too region-specific or uncertain, due to the errors induced by the images themselves. Moreover, the sensitivity of the most common retrieval method, the maximum cross correlation, to the three parameters that have to be set is unknown. Using model outputs instead of satellite images, biases induced by this method are assessed here, for four different seas of Western Europe, and the best of nine settings and eight temporal resolutions are determined. For all regions, tracking a small 5 km pattern from the first image over a large 30 km region around its original location on a second image, separated from the first image by 6 to 9 hours returned the most accurate results. Moreover, for all regions, the problem is not inaccurate results but missing results, where the velocity is too low to be picked by the retrieval. The results are consistent both with limitations caused by ocean surface current dynamics and with the available satellite technology, indicating that automated sea surface current retrieval from sea surface temperature images is feasible now, for search and rescue operations, pollution confinement or even for more energy efficient and comfortable ship navigation.

  1. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed transfer followed immediately with ET (40%); [2] afterload transfer (30%); and [3] direct transfer without prior trial or afterload (27%). Embryos are discharged in the upper (66%) and middle thirds (29%) of the endometrial cavity and not closer than 1-1.5 cm from fundus (87%). Details of each step were reported and allowed the development of a "common" practice ET procedure. ET training and practices vary widely. Improved training and standardization based on outcomes data and best practices are warranted. A common practice procedure is suggested for validation by a systematic literature review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current status on the detailed design and development of fabrication techniques for the ITER blanket shield block in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duck-Hoi [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Yeoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kdwh@nfri.re.kr; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Eun-Seok; Jung, Ki Jung [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Yeoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Hyeong [ANST, Inc., 222-7 Guro3-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-848 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Recent activities and progress on the design and fabrication of the ITER blanket shield block in Korea are described in this paper. Hydraulic analyses, using a flow driver model for determining the gap between the radial cooling passages and flow drivers inside the shield block, were performed. The thermo-hydraulic analysis of half of a shield block was also conducted to investigate the uniformity of the flow stream in cooling passages and to evaluate the temperature distribution in the structure. The maximum temperature is below the allowable value, although hot spots occurred in the corner edge in the shield block. A manufacturing feasibility study for the development of the blanket shield block was performed in cooperation with KO industries. It was found that specific techniques would be required for the successful fabrication of an ITER blanket shield block, specifically electron-beam welding at a thickness up to 110 mm. The development of joining and drilling technologies for the thick shield block and lid joints is in progress. In addition, a full scale mock-up fabrication and the development of NDT techniques are planned in the near future.

  3. Situación actual de la radiofrecuencia en España Current status of radiofrequency techniques in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de Andrés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el tratamiento de procesos dolorosos agudos y crónicos puede ser todo un reto para el personal médico. Se han desarrollado numerosas técnicas farmacológicas e invasivas para tratar el dolor. Dentro de estas últimas se sitúan las técnicas de radiofrecuencia. La radiofrecuencia (RF es una técnica mínimamente invasiva cuyo uso se está implementando en las unidades del dolor, neurocirugía y traumatología de toda Europa. Objetivos: valorar la situación de la radiofrecuencia en el estado español. Material y métodos: se realizó una encuesta remitida a las unidades del dolor de España a lo largo de 2010. Población diana: Unidades del Dolor incluidas en el directorio de la Sociedad Española del Dolor (SED. Resultados: aunque de las 119 encuestas enviadas se recogieron tan solo 59 (49,57%, se sobreentiende que las 60 (50,43% restantes o no están interesadas por contestar la encuesta o no están realizando técnicas de RF. Teniendo en cuenta este posible sesgo de selección, se puede concluir que un 39,49% de las Unidades del Dolor del directorio de la SED realizan técnicas de RF. La media de pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de RF es de 23 al mes, con un máximo de 60 y un mínimo de 2. Las técnicas más frecuentemente realizadas son RF de Facetas Lumbares y RF de Nervios Periféricos. El 85% de los centros que realizan RF han recibido formación específica en estas técnicas. El 95% de los centros que realizan RF estarían interesados en recibir o mejorar esta formación.Introduction: the use of minimally invasive techniques to treat patients with pain is a common practice in the field of medicine. Multiple percutaneous and minimally invasive techniques to treat moderate to severe pain have been introduced recently. Radiofrequency is one of these minimally invasive techniques that has grown substantially over the past decade in pain units, orthopaedic surgery units, radiology units and neurosurgery units

  4. Investigation of chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors by X- ray micro-beam induced current and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Olivero, P; Vittone, E; Fizzotti, F; Paolini, C; Lo Giudice, A; Barrett, R; Tucoulou, R

    2004-01-01

    Tracking detectors have become an important ingredient in high-energy physics experiments. In order to survive the harsh detection environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), trackers need to have special properties. They must be radiation hard, provide fast collection of charge, be as thin as possible and remove heat from readout electronics. The unique properties of diamond allow it to fulfill these requirements. In this work we present an investigation of the charge transport and luminescence properties of "detector grade" artificial chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond devices developed within the CERN RD42 collaboration, performed by means of X-ray micro-beam induced current collection (XBICC) and X-ray micro- beam induced luminescence (XBIL) techniques. XBICC technique allows quantitative estimates of the transport parameters of the material to be evaluated and mapped with micrometric spatial resolution. In particular, the high resolution and sensitivity of the technique has allowed a quantitati...

  5. Reexamination and comparison of TCT-Positive cases using FSC-811%FSC-811法复查宫颈TCT检查阳性病例的结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱姝美; 王阳; 潘美华; 李洪言; 魏兆莲; 孟刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用FSC-811(简称FSC)检查法复查宫颈液基薄层细胞检查(thin-cytologic test,TCT)阳性病例的结果进行分析,比较两种方法的诊断结果及诊断时间.方法 选择TCT检查中诊断具有不典型宫颈细胞的病例,对其标本同时运用FSC检查法复查,两种方法均采用膜式制片法,前者行巴氏染色,中性树胶封固;后者用FSC试剂盒行酶标记,衬染试剂衬染,PVA封固.所有玻片由一名副高医师阅片,并隔周后无排序2次阅片,均分别登记诊断结果及阅片使用时间.结果 与巴氏染色相比,FSC染色较易寻找阳性细胞,阅片时间短,检测诊断结果的可重复性高.对不能明确意义的非典型鳞状上皮细胞(atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance,ASCUS)诊断率减少,低度鳞状上皮内病变(low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion,LSIL)阳性率明显升高,高度鳞状上皮内病变(high grade squamous intraethelial lesion,HSIL)及鳞状细胞癌(squamous cell carcinoma,SCC)阳性率持平.结论 FSC与TCT检查对于宫颈病变中HSIL及SCC的筛查的稳定性相同,前者对LSIL诊断的阳性率高,而对ASCUS的诊断率较后者略低.FSC较TCT-巴氏诊断所用的时间短,诊断的可重复性高,体现了在疾病筛查中的优势.同时对于因炎症、微生物或上皮萎缩等因素引起的细胞变异等容易筛除,减少患者不必要的忧虑.%Purpose To reexamine TCT-positive cases using FSC-811 method and to compare the diagnostic result and time course. Methods All the cervical samples were stored in FSC-811 preservative solution. 2 cervical specimans on glass slides were prepared from every sample using a TCT machine. One speciman was subjected to FSC-811 stain and the other was subjected to routine Pap stain simultaneously. All the specimans were estimated by a vice-senior professional physician, and then those were estimated again after a week in an out-of-order way, at the same time, recording the dianostic

  6. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requir- ing the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as goniosco-py that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. These specific techniques are referred to as diagnostic procedures in this article. A questionnaire containing information on demography and practice of these specific techniques was sent to all 213 KwaZulu-Natal registered optometrists who owned private practices. One hundred and thirty two completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 62%. One hundred and seventeen (55% of the questionnaires were included in the analysis of which 55% of the respondents were females and 45% were males. Sixty two optometrists (53% were certified in di-agnostic procedures but many procedures were not being practiced. These procedures and the percentage respondents were: Contact tonometry (60%, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination (60%, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (84% and gonioscopy (78%. Also, among these certified respondents (62 optometrists, a significant proportion (60% disagreed when asked if they were confident and proficient in performing the relevant diagnostic procedures. Many, (61% agreed that lack of incentives discouraged them from routinely performing the procedures. More than half (58%, agreed that chair time was an important factor in deciding whether or not to perform these diagnostic procedures. Of the total respondents (117, 86% agreed that they were confident about the accuracy of their referrals and less than half (45% disagreed that diagnostic procedures should be the sole responsibility of ophthalmologists. Less than

  7. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as gonioscopy that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. These specific techniques are referred to as diagnostic procedures in this article. A questionnaire containing information on demography and practice of these specific techniques was sent to all 213 KwaZulu-Natal registered optometrists who owned private practices. One hundred and thirty two completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 62%. One hundred and seventeen (55% of the questionnaires were included in the analysis of which 55% of the respondents were females and 45% were males. Sixty two optometrists (53% were certified in di-agnostic procedures but many procedures were not being practiced. These procedures and the percentage respondents were: Contact tonometry (60%, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination (60%, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (84% and gonioscopy (78%. Also, among these certified respondents (62 optometrists, a significant proportion (60% disagreed when asked if they were confident and proficient in performing the relevant diagnostic procedures. Many, (61% agreed that lack of incentives discouraged them from routinely performing the procedures. More than half (58%, agreed that chair time was an important factor in deciding whether or not to perform these diagnostic procedures. Of the total respondents (117, 86% agreed that they were confident about the accuracy of their referrals and less than half (45% disagreed that diagnostic procedures should be the sole responsibility of ophthalmologists. Less than

  8. 高危型HPV检查和TCT在宫颈癌及癌前病变的早期诊断临床研究%Clinical studies of high-risk HPV examination and TCT in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静; 倪爱军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of the high - risk types of human papillomavims ( HPV ) examination and thinprep cytologic test ( TCT ) in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods High - risk HPV and TCT examination results in 1248 women screened for cervical cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical diagnostic value of high - risk HPV and TCT examination and the combination of the two methods was compared. Results High - risk HPV infection rate and TCT - positive rate in cervical intraepithelial neo-plasia ( CIN )Ⅰ group, CIN Ⅱ group, CIN Ⅲ group, and cervical cancer group were significantly higher than those in normal and inflammatory group (all P <0. 05 ). The sensitivity, correct diagnosis index, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the combined detection improved to varying degrees and they were 92. 2% , 0.71, 99. 6% and 40. 2% , respectively. Conclusion The combined detection of high - risk HPV and TCT has important clinical significance for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer.%目的 研究高危型人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)检查及薄层液基细胞学技术(TCT)在宫颈癌与癌前病变的早期诊断的临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析高危型HPV检查及TCT对1 248例宫颈癌筛查对象的检查结果.比较两种方法及联合应用的临床诊断价值.结果 病理组织学CINⅠ期组、CINⅡ期组、CINⅢ期组、宫颈癌组高危型HPV感染率及TCT阳性率与正常及炎症组比较均有统计学差异(P<0.05);CINⅠ-Ⅲ期及宫颈癌组高危型HPV感染率、TCT阳性率均高于正常及炎症组;高危型HPV检测与TCT两种方法联合检测灵敏度(92.2%),正确诊断指数(0.71)、阴性预测值(99.6%)及阳性预测值(40.2%)均有不同程度的提高.结论 高危型HPV检测与TCT联合对宫颈癌早期发现、早期诊断有重要的临床意义.

  9. Addressing the current bottlenecks of metabolomics: Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis™, an isotopic-labeling technique for accurate biochemical profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Felice A; Beecher, Chris

    2012-09-01

    Metabolomics or biochemical profiling is a fast emerging science; however, there are still many associated bottlenecks to overcome before measurements will be considered robust. Advances in MS resolution and sensitivity, ultra pressure LC-MS, ESI, and isotopic approaches such as flux analysis and stable-isotope dilution, have made it easier to quantitate biochemicals. The digitization of mass spectrometers has simplified informatic aspects. However, issues of analytical variability, ion suppression and metabolite identification still plague metabolomics investigators. These hurdles need to be overcome for accurate metabolite quantitation not only for in vitro systems, but for complex matrices such as biofluids and tissues, before it is possible to routinely identify biomarkers that are associated with the early prediction and diagnosis of diseases. In this report, we describe a novel isotopic-labeling method that uses the creation of distinct biochemical signatures to eliminate current bottlenecks and enable accurate metabolic profiling.

  10. Multiphase soft switched DC/DC converter and active control technique for fuel cell ripple current elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA); Liu, Changrong (Sunnyvale, CA); Ridenour, Amy (Salem, VA)

    2009-04-14

    DC/DC converter has a transformer having primary coils connected to an input side and secondary coils connected to an output side. Each primary coil connects a full-bridge circuit comprising two switches on two legs, the primary coil being connected between the switches on each leg, each full-bridge circuit being connected in parallel wherein each leg is disposed parallel to one another, and the secondary coils connected to a rectifying circuit. An outer loop control circuit that reduces ripple in a voltage reference has a first resistor connected in series with a second resistor connected in series with a first capacitor which are connected in parallel with a second capacitor. An inner loop control circuit that reduces ripple in a current reference has a third resistor connected in series with a fourth resistor connected in series with a third capacitor which are connected in parallel with a fourth capacitor.

  11. A Dual-Mode Step-up DC/DC Converter IC with Current-Limiting and EMI Reduction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Rone Liou; Chun-Ting Kuo; Mei-Ling Yeh; Ping-Hsing Chen; Marynelle L. Z. Rosales

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dual-modestep-up (boost) DC/DC converter. Pulse-frequencymodulation (PFM) is used to improve the efficiency atlight load. This converter can operate betweenpulse-width modulation (PWM) and pulse-frequencymodulation. The converter will operate in PFM mode atlight load and in PWM mode at heavy load. Themaximum conversion efficiency of this converter is 96%.The conversion efficiency is greatly improved when loadcurrent is below 100 mA. Additionally, a soft-startcircuit and a variable-sawtooth frequency circuit areproposed in this paper. The former is used to avoid thelarge switching current at the start up of the converterand the latter is utilized to reduce the EMI of theconverter.

  12. Non-contact online thickness measurement system for metal films based on eddy current sensing with distance tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an online, non-contact metal film thickness measurement system based on eddy current sensing. The slope of the lift-off curve (LOC) is used for characterizing target thickness. Theoretical derivation was conducted to prove that the slope is independent of the lift-off variation. In practice, the measurement has some immunity to the lift-off, but not perfect. The slope of LOC is still affected at some extent by the lift-off. Hence, a height tracking system was also proposed, which could stabilize the distance between the sensor and the target and significantly reduce the lift-off effect. The height tracking system contains a specially designed probe, which could vibrate rapidly to obtain a fast measurement speed, and its height can be adjusted up and down continuously to stabilize the lift-off. The sensor coil in the thickness measurement system was also used as the height sensor in the height tracking system. Several experiments were conducted to test the system performances under static and dynamic conditions. This measurement system demonstrated significant advantages, such as simple and clear conversion between the slope of LOC and target thickness, high resolution and stability, and minimized effect of lift-off variation.

  13. Current status of full-endoscopic techniques in the surgical treatment of disk herniations and spinal canal stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruetten S; Komp M; Oezdemir S

    2014-01-01

    introduction of new technologies. On the basis of evidence-based medicine ( EBM ) criteria, it can be established that using the full-endoscopic techniques developed, adequate decompression is achieved in the deifned indications with reduced traumatization, improved visibility conditions and positive cost beneifts. Today, full-endoscopic operations may be regarded as an expansion and alternative within the overall concept of spinal surgery.

  14. 田鼠巴贝虫病的诊断技术研究进展%Current advances in detecting techniques for Babesia microti infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张加; 陈家旭

    2013-01-01

    田鼠巴贝虫是引起人兽共患巴贝虫病的主要病原体之一.在全球散发的人巴贝虫病例报道中时常诊断出该病原体的存在.因此,由该病原体引起的人巴贝虫病逐渐引起了人们的重视,促进了对田鼠巴贝虫病的诊断研究.本文就目前国内外关于田鼠巴贝虫病的病原、分子生物学和免疫学诊断技术的最新进展做一综述.%Babesia microti,which is one of the mainly causative agents o[zoonotic babesiosis,has constantly been diagnosed in the sporadic case reports around the world.Human babesiosis,due to this pathogen,is gaining increased attention that facilitates the research in the detection of Babesia microti infection.This review will presents the current advances in detecting techniques for Babesia microti infection,including etiological techniques,molecular biological techniques and immunological techniques.

  15. The effectiveness of a high output/short duration radiofrequency current application technique in segmental pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: Segmental pulmonary vein (PV) isolation by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has become a curative therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long procedure time limits the wide application of this procedure. The aim of the current study was to compare a novel ablation technique...... with a high power output and short application time vs. a conventional technique using a low power output and long application time. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 90 consecutive patients (age 53+/-10 years; 66 men). Segmental PV isolation was performed by irrigated RF catheter ablation in both...... groups. In the conventional group (Group 1, 45 patients), the power output was limited to 30 W with a target temperature of 50 degrees C and an RF preset duration of 120 s. In the novel group (Group 2, 45 patients), the maximum power output was preset to 45 W, with a target temperature of 55 degrees C...

  16. Technique current status and development trend of new energy bus%新能源客技术现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤君; 常青

    2012-01-01

    Aim at the technique current status of electric bus,series,parallel,series-parallel hybrid bus,analyse the development trend of new energy bus,point out the development priority of new energy bus.%针对纯电动客车,串联、并联、混联混合动力客车技术的现状,分析了新能源客车发展趋势,指出了新能源客车发展重点。

  17. TCT及阴道镜检查对宫颈病变诊断的临床价值%Clinic value of TCT and colposcope on the diagnosis and obstetrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凤飞

    2009-01-01

    为了探讨液基薄层细胞学技术(thin prep cytologic test,TCT)及阴道镜检查对子宫颈病变的诊断价值,收集6 521例患者及健康体检者,进行TCT检测,TCT阳性者行阴道镜检查及活检.TCT异常者688例(10.55%),TCT和阴道镜对低度鳞状上皮内瘤变(LSIL)的检出率分别为63.96%(158/247)和70.04%(173/247),高度鳞状上皮内瘤变(HSIL)为73.03%(65/89)和84.27%(75/89),宫颈浸润癌(CC)为81.82%(27/33)和96.97%(32/33).初步研究结果提示,TCT筛查是诊断宫颈病变的重要方法,配合阴道镜下活检,能提高子宫颈癌前病变和宫颈早期浸润癌检出率,具有重要的临床意义.中华肿瘤防治杂志,2009,16(10):789-790

  18. The Effects of Chemical Reaction, Hall, and Ion-Slip Currents on MHD Micropolar Fluid Flow with Thermal Diffusivity Using a Novel Numerical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of magnetomicropolar fluid flow, heat, and mass transfer with suction through a porous medium is numerically analyzed. The problem was studied under the effects of chemical reaction, Hall, ion-slip currents, and variable thermal diffusivity. The governing fundamental conservation equations of mass, momentum, angular momentum, energy, and concentration are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. The resulting system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations is the then solved using a fairly new technique known as the successive linearization method together with the Chebyshev collocation method. A parametric study illustrating the influence of the magnetic strength, Hall and ion-slip currents, Eckert number, chemical reaction and permeability on the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, skin friction coefficients, velocities, temperature, and concentration was carried out.

  19. Application of adjoint assimilation technique in simulating tides and tidal currents of the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yongcun; Lu Xianqing; Liu Yuguang; Xu Qing

    2007-01-01

    Considering the interaction of different tidal waves, an adjoint numerical model is developed to simulate M2, S2, K1 and O1 tidal waves in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea(B-Y-E) simultaneously. Compared with previous researches, by using the adjoint assimilation technique to inverse open boundary conditions and bottom friction coefficients based on altimetric data from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P)and tidal gauges data, the precision of the numerical simulation is significantly improved. Selecting 14 days of simulated results after t11e initial warming run to conduct harmonic analysis, the results can show the characteristics of M2, S2, K1 and O1 tidal wave systems perfectly in B-Y-E. Compared with 9 current stations, the calculated harmonic constants of tidal currents for M2 and K1 are in good agreement With the observed ones.

  20. A Power Interruption Technique for Investigation of Temperature Difference in Stabilized Low Direct-Current Arc Burning in Pure Argon on Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. Kuzmanovi(c); J. J. Savovi(c); D. P. Rankovi(c); M. Stoiljkovi(c); A. Anti(c)-Jovanovi(c); M.S. Pavlovi(c); M. Marinkovi(c)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plasma of argon stabilized arc column, in a current range 3-11 A, is investigated using emission spectrometric diagnostic techniques. Temperatures are evaluated using several methods: argon line to adjacent recombinational continuum intensity ratio, absolute emissivity of argon fine, measurement of electron number density, and power interruption. Electron number density is evaluated from absolute emissivity of recombinational continuum. The difference between electron Te and heavy particle Th temperature ranged from 4500 K for 3 A to 2300 K for 11 A arc current. By comparing the present with the previously obtained results, using the same arc device but with the introduction of water aerosol, it is concluded that water aerosol reduces the difference Te - Th and brings plasma closer to the partial thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  1. Introduction of a current waveform, waveshaping technique to limit conduction loss in high-frequency dc-dc converters suitable for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas P.

    1990-06-01

    Space power supply manufacturers have tried to increase power density and construct smaller, highly efficient power supplies by increasing switching frequency. Incorporation of a power MOSFET as a switching element alleviates switching loss. However, values of R sub DS(on) (drain-to-source resistance in the on-state) for MOSFET's are of such magnitude to produce greater on-state losses than an equivalent BJT operated in saturation. This research serves to introduce a design concept, pertinent to low-voltage relatively-high-current applications, that minimizes the peak current through the switching element in order to reduce average power loss. Basic waveforms produced by different PWM and resonant mode topologies were examined. Theoretical analysis reveals that a ramp-sine current waveform could cut conduction power loss by at least 18 percent over a conventional Buck switching converter. A 14V, 14W combination quasi-resonant Buck/ZCS, Quasi-Resonant Buck dc-dc converter with an unregulated input voltage of 28 V was built for simplicity to demonstrate one particular waveshaping technique. This converter represents a useful example of an actual circuit which is capable of producing the desired ramp-sine switch-current waveform. Final results confirm improvement in conduction loss enhancing existing power MOSFET technology for use in dc-dc power conversion.

  2. The Anderson impurity model out-of-equilibrium: Assessing the accuracy of simulation techniques with an exact current-occupation relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Segal, Dvira

    2017-08-01

    We study the interacting, symmetrically coupled single impurity Anderson model. By employing the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we reach an exact relationship between the steady-state charge current flowing through the impurity (dot) and its occupation. We argue that the steady-state current-occupation relation can be used to assess the consistency of simulation techniques and identify spurious transport phenomena. We test this relation in two different model variants: First, we study the Anderson-Holstein model in the strong electron-vibration coupling limit using the polaronic quantum master equation method. We find that the current-occupation relation is violated numerically in standard calculations, with simulations bringing up incorrect transport effects. Using a numerical procedure, we resolve the problem efficiently. Second, we simulate the Anderson model with electron-electron interaction on the dot using a deterministic numerically exact time-evolution scheme. Here, we observe that the current-occupation relation is satisfied in the steady-state limit—even before results converge to the exact limit.

  3. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods: Bio-oil Analytical Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge TN USA; Stankovikj, Filip [Washington State University (WSU), Pullman WA USA; Meier, Dietrich [Thünen Institute of Wood Research (TI), Hamburg Germany; Paasikallio, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), Espoo Finland

    2016-07-05

    In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

  4. Current treatment status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques%中医药在辅助生殖技术中的治疗现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖娟; 程玲

    2012-01-01

    中医药近年在以体外受精-胚胎移植为代表的辅助生殖技术中常有报道,本文从体外受精-胚胎移植前治疗、移植周期中治疗、对子宫内膜容受性的调节、对并发症卵巢过度刺激综合征的调节、针刺治疗和食疗等方面综述了中医药在辅助生殖技术中的应用现状,从而认为祖国医学与现代辅助生殖技术相结合,可有效地提高不孕不育症治疗的成功率,减少并发症.%In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has been frequently reported in assisted reproductive techniques, especially in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation. This paper reviewed the current application status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques from treatment before in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation, treatment during transplantation cycle, regulation of endometrial receptivity, regulation of concurrent ovarian hyperstimula-tion syndrome, acupuncture treatment, diet therapy and another aspects, thus concluding that the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and modern assisted reproductive techniques can effective improve the success rate of infertility disease treatment and reduce complications.

  5. TCT联合阴道镜宫颈活检和LEEP诊治宫颈病变200例临床分析%Clinical analysis on 200 cases with cervical lesions diagnosed and treated by TCT combined with cervical biopsy under colposcope and LEEP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敦兰; 雷燕; 周丽敏

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨TCT联合阴道镜检查诊断官颈病变的准确率和LEEP术诊治官颈病变的效果.方法:对TCT联合阴道镜宫颈活检初步诊断为官颈疾病者200例采用LEEP术治疗,切除组织行病理检查.结果:TCT联合阴道镜官颈活检结果与LEEP术后病理结果的诊断符合率为97.00%,两者无显著性差异;LEEP术并发症发生率为8.9%.结论:TCT联合阴道镜宫颈活检与LEEP术后病理诊断无显著性差异,是宫颈上皮内瘤变及癌前病变筛查的较好方法;LEEP术是一种较好的确诊和治疗官颈病变的方法.%Objective: To explore the accurate rate of TCT combined with colposcopy for diagnosis of cervical lesions and the effi-cacy of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) for diagnosis and treatment of cervical lesions. Methods; 200 cases who were diag-nosed as cervical lesions by TCT combined with cervical biopsy under colposcope were treated with LEEP, then the excised tissue samples were collected for pathological examination. Results: The diagnostic accordance rate of TCT combined with cervical biopsy under colposcope and pathological examination after LEEP was 97.00% , there was no significant difference between the two methods; the incidence of compli-cations after LEEP was 8. 9%. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the accurate rate for diagnosis of cervical lesions between TCT combined with cervical biopsy under colposcope and pathological examination after LEEP, TCT combined with cervical biopsy under col-poscope is a good method to screen cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and precancerous lesion of cervix; LEEP is a good method for definite di-agnosis and treatment of cervical lesions.

  6. Technical Note: Phantom study to evaluate the dose and image quality effects of a computed tomography organ-based tube current modulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat, E-mail: taly.gilat-schmidt@marquette.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Crotty, Dominic J.; Stevens, Grant M. [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: This technical note quantifies the dose and image quality performance of a clinically available organ-dose-based tube current modulation (ODM) technique, using experimental and simulation phantom studies. The investigated ODM implementation reduces the tube current for the anterior source positions, without increasing current for posterior positions, although such an approach was also evaluated for comparison. Methods: Axial CT scans at 120 kV were performed on head and chest phantoms on an ODM-equipped scanner (Optima CT660, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, England). Dosimeters quantified dose to breast, lung, heart, spine, eye lens, and brain regions for ODM and 3D-modulation (SmartmA) settings. Monte Carlo simulations, validated with experimental data, were performed on 28 voxelized head phantoms and 10 chest phantoms to quantify organ dose and noise standard deviation. The dose and noise effects of increasing the posterior tube current were also investigated. Results: ODM reduced the dose for all experimental dosimeters with respect to SmartmA, with average dose reductions across dosimeters of 31% (breast), 21% (lung), 24% (heart), 6% (spine), 19% (eye lens), and 11% (brain), with similar results for the simulation validation study. In the phantom library study, the average dose reduction across all phantoms was 34% (breast), 20% (lung), 8% (spine), 20% (eye lens), and 8% (brain). ODM increased the noise standard deviation in reconstructed images by 6%–20%, with generally greater noise increases in anterior regions. Increasing the posterior tube current provided similar dose reduction as ODM for breast and eye lens, increased dose to the spine, with noise effects ranging from 2% noise reduction to 16% noise increase. At noise equal to SmartmA, ODM increased the estimated effective dose by 4% and 8% for chest and head scans, respectively. Increasing the posterior tube current further increased the effective dose by 15% (chest) and 18% (head

  7. The Current Situation and the Utilization Technique of Rare Earth in China%我国稀土废料回收利用技术与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚卫星; 李艳荣

    2013-01-01

    论述了我国稀土资源的回收利用现状,从磁性材料、发光材料及催化剂等可回收的稀土废料方面,说明我国回收稀土废料的利用技术仍处于攻坚阶段。如何回收稀土废料中有用的稀土元素,有待进一步研究。%This paper describes the current situation of recycling the rare earth in China. It proves that the utilization technique of rare earth in China is still in the crucial stage based on the recycling situation of rare earth from magnetic materials, luminescence materials and catalyst, etc,. It needs to be further studied on how to recycle the valuable rare earth elements from the rare earth waste.

  8. TCT联合宫颈活检在早期宫颈癌诊断中的作用探讨%Study on Effect of TCT Combined with Cervical Biopsy in Diagnosis of Early Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷杏花

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨TCT联合宫颈活检在早期宫颈癌诊断中的作用.方法 整群选取2013年1月—2014年1月在该院妇科门诊收诊的2303例宫颈检查患者,行宫颈薄层液基细胞学(TCT)检查,再对阳性患者进行宫颈活检组织病理检查,结合病检报告分析结果并作出诊断,其标准采用TBS分类系统.结果 在2303例妇女中,未见上皮内病变/恶性细胞(NILM)2217例(96.27%),阳性86例(3.73%),其中ASCUS 48例,LSIL 22例,HSIL 14例,SCC 2例.宫颈活检86例,其中宫颈黏膜慢性炎25例,CINⅠ30例,CINⅡ19例,CINⅢ9例,SCC 3例.结论 TCT联合宫颈活检不仅可显著提高宫颈癌的诊断率,更是早期宫颈癌诊断行之有效的可靠检查方法,具有广阔的临床应用前景.

  9. Current use and possible future applications of the magnetization transfer technique in neuroradiology; Aktuelle Anwendungen und moegliche zukuenftige Applikationen der Magnetisierungstransfer-Technik in der Neuroradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, S.; Jost, G.; Sartor, K. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany); Knauth, M. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging is a special MR technique used for selective suppression of the MR signal of protons bound on macromolecules. The most important applications in neuroradiology are (1) detection of subtle changes in otherwise normal-appearing cerebral white matter, for instance in multiple sclerosis (MS), Wallerian degeneration, and hydrocephalus, (2) differentiation of white matter lesions with high signal on T{sub 2}-weighted MR-images, like MS plaques, brain infarctions, and brain edema, (3) follow-up of cerebral white matter diseases using volumetric MT techniques, and (4) improvement in delineating of contrast enhancing brain lesions, such as cerebral metastases. We describe the physical rationale of the MT technique and present the most important current and possible future applications of MT imaging to answer clinical and scientific questions in neuroradiology. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetisierungstransfer-(MT)-Technik ist ein spezielles MRT-Verfahren, mit dem selektiv das MR-Signal der an Makromolekuele gebundenen Protonen unterdrueckt werden kann. Die wichtigsten Anwendungen dieser Technik in der Neuroradiologie sind der Nachweis von subtilen Veraenderungen in ansonsten normal erscheinender weisser Hirnsubstanz, wie z.B. bei Multipler Sklerose (MS), Waller'scher Degeneration und Hydrozephalus, die Differenzierung von Laesionen der weissen Substanz, die durchgaengig hohes Signal auf T{sub 2}-gewichteten MRT-Aufnahmen zeigen, wie z.B. MS-Plaques, Hirninfarkte oder Hirnoedem, die Verlaufskontrolle von Erkrankungen der weissen Substanz mit der volumetrischen MT-Technik, und die Verbesserung der Abgrenzbarkeit kontrasmittelaufnehmender Hirnlaesionen wie Hirnmetastasen. Wir beschreiben die MR-physikalischen Grundlagen der MT-Technik und stellen die wesentlichen aktuellen und moeglichen zukuenftigen Anwendungen zur Beantwortung klinischer und wissenschaftlicher Fragestellungen in der Neuroradiologie vor. (orig.)

  10. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  11. The Relationship Between Multi-Frequency and Pulsed Eddy Current Testing Techniques%浅析多频涡流与脉冲涡流检测技术间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊明

    2012-01-01

    对多频涡流与脉冲涡流两种不同的电磁无损检测技术的基本原理分别进行了介绍,进而从脉冲涡流的傅里叶展开式中分析了两者间的关系。指出脉冲涡流检测技术本质上等同于一种衰减型的多频涡流检测技术,而多频涡流可以认为是高频加权的脉冲涡流形式。对这两种涡流检测技术在实际生产中的应用进行了简单介绍。随着涡流检测理论的深入研究,电子技术与计算机技术的迅速发展,多频涡流和脉冲涡流检测技术将成为涡流检测的重要组成部分。%The basic principles of two different eddy current testing techniques, the multi-frequency eddy current and pulsed eddy current testing techniques, are introduced and the relationship between them is presented from the Fourier series of the pulsed input signal. It is indicated that the pulsed eddy current testing technique is equal an attenuation type of multi-frequency eddy current testing in nature. Whereas the multi-frequency eddy current testing could be regard as a high frequency weighted pulsed eddy current testing. Some industry applications of these two eddy current testing techniques are shown. With the developments of eddy current theories and the electronic and computer techniques, the multi-frequency eddy current and pulsed eddy current testing techniques will play more and more important roles in eddy current testing.

  12. Current endoscopic techniques in the treatment of obesity Técnicas endoscópicas actuales en el tratamiento de la obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espinet-Coll

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: in recent years new endoscopic strategies and techniques for the treatment of obesity have emerged and developed. Aim of the study: in this article we will review and analyze the current state of the following techniques and the basic differential characteristics between each of them: balloons and prosthesis, injection of substances, systems of sutures, malabsorptives techniques and others currently in research. Methods: we will evaluate the endoscopic technique and their main indications, results, tolerances, complications and adverse effects observed, reporting our personal experience and in relation with an extensive literature review. Results: comparatively with the most widespread technique of the Bioenterics balloon, the Spatz balloon can provide greater weight loss but with worse tolerance and more complications and the Heliosphere Bag gets a similar weight loss but with greater technical difficulty. Other balloons and prosthesis (Ullorex, Semistationary, Silimed, Endogast still require technical improvements and higher studies. The injection of botulinum toxin, although secure, seems to offer a smaller and more transient efficacy. Suture systems (TOGa, Endoluminal vertical gastroplasty and POSE appear to be effective but are technically more laborious. Malabsorptives procedures (Endobarrier, ValenTX are somewhat laborious but effective, particularly indicated in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: the development of new endoscopic techniques and improvement in existing designs, suggest an increasingly important role of the endoscopist in the treatment of obesity. We consider it important to individually select and use the endoscopic technique, depending on the desirable outcomes (efficacy, tolerance, safety, adverse effects and risks and the experience of each hospital. We believe that these techniques should be applied by specifically trained endoscopists in specialized hospitals.Antecedentes: en los

  13. J-R Curve Determination for Disk-shaped Compact Specimens Based on the Normalization Method and Direct Current Potential Drop Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Material ductile fracture toughness can be described by J-integral versus crack extension relationship (J-R curve). As a conventional J-R curve measurement method, unloading compliance (UC) becomes impractical in elevated temperature testing due to relaxation of the material and a friction induced back-up shape of the J-R curve. In addition, the UC method may underpredict the crack extension for standard disk-shaped compact (DC(T)) specimens. In order to address these issues, the normalization method and direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique were applied for determining J-R curves at 24 C and 500 C for 0.18T DC(T) specimens made from type 316L stainless steel. For comparison purchase, the UC method was also applied in 24 C tests. The normalization method was able to yield valid J-R curves in all tests. The J-R curves from the DCPD technique need adjustment to account for the potential drop induced by plastic deformation, crack blunting, etc. and after applying a newly-developed DCPD adjustment procedure, the post-adjusted DCPD J-R curves essentially matched J-R curves from the normalization method. In contrast, the UC method underpredicted the crack extension in all tests resulting in substantial deviation in the derived J-R curves manifested by high Jq values than the normalization or DCPD method. Only for tests where the UC method underpredicted the crack extension by a very small value, J-R curves determined by the UC method were similar to those determined by the normalization or DCPD method.

  14. Clinical value of TCT combined with HPV-DNA detection in cervical cancer screening%液基薄层细胞学联合 HPV-DNA检测对宫颈癌患者筛查的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore clinical value ThinPrep cytology test ( TCT) and HPV detection in cervical cancer screen-ing. Methods:The clinical data of the patients in the screening of cervical precancerous lesions were collected. Each patient was given TCT combined with HPV detection. Finally, after colposcopy cervical biopsy, the sensitivity, accuracy and false positive rate of single TCT, single HPV and TCT combined with HPV in the diagnosis of chronic cervical inflammation, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer were compared. Results:The cervical cancer and precancerous lesions screening under colposcopy biopsy was done in 360 patients. Among the 3 screening methods, the combined application of TCT and HPV had the highest sensitivity and specificity, and could be used for diagnosing severe atypical hyperplasia ( CIN-III) and cervical carcinoma without missed diagnosis;however, it might miss some moderate dysplasia ( CIN-II) and mild atypical hyperplasia ( CIN-I) patients. Conclusions:The TCT combined with HPV-DNA detection can be used actively in the cervical precancerous lesions screening, and improve the accuracy of clinical diagno-sis. Moreover, combined with colposcopy biopsy of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, it can provide a diagnostic basis for the clinical treatment, and is worthy of clinical application.%目的::探讨液基薄层细胞学与HPV检测联合应用后在宫颈癌患者筛查中的临床应用价值。方法:分析行宫颈癌前病变筛查的患者共360例临床资料,每位患者给予薄层液基细胞学联合HPV检测,最后经阴道镜下宫颈活检,比较单独TCT检查、单独HPV检查及两种检查联合检测在诊断患者宫颈慢性炎症、宫颈癌前病变及宫颈癌的敏感程度、准确性和假阳性率。结果:宫颈癌及癌前病变筛查患者,行阴道镜下活检的患者360例。3种筛选方法中,联合应用TCT及HPV的敏感性、特异性最

  15. Critical current density and ac harmonic voltage generation in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films by the screening technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Israel O., E-mail: iperez@mda.cinvestav.m [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Km 6 Ant., Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73, C.P. 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Gamboa, Fidel; Sosa, Victor [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Km 6 Ant., Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73, C.P. 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The temperature and field dependence of harmonics in voltage V{sub n}=V{sub n}{sup '}-iV{sub n}{sup ''} using the screening technique have been measured for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconducting thin films. Using the Sun model we obtained the curves for the temperature-dependent critical current density J{sub c}(T). In addition, we applied the criterion proposed by Acosta et al. to compute J{sub c}(T). Also, we made used of the empirical law J{sub c{proportional_to}}(1-T/T{sub c}){sup n} as an input in our calculations to reproduce experimental harmonic generation up to the fifth harmonic. We found that most models fit well the fundamental voltage but higher harmonics are poorly reproduced. Such behavior suggests the idea that higher harmonics contain information concerning complex processes like flux creep or thermally assisted flux flow.

  16. Correlated analysis of 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals using photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yaxu; Jie, Wanqi; Rong, Caicai; Wang, Yuhan; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong; Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao; Du, Guanghua; Fu, Xu; Guo, Na; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Radiation damage induced by 2 MeV protons in CdZnTe crystals has been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques. A notable quenching of PL intensity is observed in the regions irradiated with a fluence of 6 × 1013 p/cm2, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak Dcomplex centered at 1.48 eV dominates in the PL spectrum obtained from irradiated regions, ascribed to the increase of interstitial dislocation loops and A centers. The intensity of TSC spectra in irradiated regions decreases compared to the virgin regions, resulting from the charge collection inefficiency caused by proton-induced recombination centers. By comparing the intensity of identified traps obtained from numerical fitting using simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method, it suggests that proton irradiation under such dose can introduce high density of dislocation and A-centers in CdZnTe crystals, consistent with PL results.

  17. Direct observation of hopping induced spin polarization current in oxygen deficient Co-doped ZnO by Andreev reflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kung-Shang; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Dwivedi, G. D.; Lin, Lu-Kuei; Lee, Shang-Fan; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chou, Hsiung

    2017-07-01

    Oxygen vacancy induced ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) semiconductors have been reported in several studies, but technologically more crucial spin-polarized current (SPC) is still under-developed in DMOs. Few studies have claimed that VRH mechanism can originate the SPC, but, how VRH mechanism associated with percolation path, is not clearly understood. We used Point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) technique to probe the SPC in Co-doped ZnO (CZO) films. Since the high resistance samples cause broadening in conductance(G)-voltage(V) curves, which may result in an unreliable evaluation of spin polarization, we include two extra parameters, (i) effective temperature and (ii) spreading resistance, for the simulation to avoid the uncertainty in extracting spin polarization. The effective G-V curves and higher spin polarization can be obtained above a certain oxygen vacancy concentration. The number of completed and fragmentary percolation paths is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. For low oxygen vacancy samples, the Pb-tip has a higher probability of covering fragmentary percolation paths than the complete ones, due to its small contact size. The completed paths may remain independent of one another and get polarized in different directions, resulting in lower spin-polarization value. High oxygen vacancy samples provide a high density of completed path, most of them link to one another by crossing over, and gives rise to high spin-polarization value.

  18. TCT配合阴道镜在宫颈癌前病变筛查中的应用价值%Clinical Value of Thinprepcytologic Test(TCT) Combined with Vaginoscope in Screening of Cervical Precanoerou Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灼英; 谢芳; 李珍

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨新柏氏液基薄层细胞学检测(TCT)配合阴道镜在宫颈病变筛查中的应用价值.方法 2005年7月至2006年12月妇科门诊2311例进行TCT检查.结果 异常者344例,宫颈病变检出率 14.88%.宫颈上皮内病变及鳞癌共221例(9.56%),其中包括ASCUS 162例(7.00%)、LSIL 23例(0.99%)、HSIL34例(1.47%)、鳞癌2例(0.082%);HPV感染38例细胞检出率1.64%;良性病变85例,其中滴虫性阴道炎56例(2.42%)、霉菌性阴道炎29例(1.25%).LSIL、HSIL、ASCUS在30~39岁组中发生率最高,40~49岁组为第二个高发阶段.对161例ASCUS及以上病变者进行阴道镜检查及活检,结果TCT细胞学与病理组织学诊断LSIL以上宫颈上皮内病变符合率为89.8%.结论 TCT技术能明显提高异常细胞的检出率,因取材方便及无创,可作为宫颈癌前病变筛查的参考指标,阴道镜可确定宫颈病变的部位,提高宫颈活检的阳性率,故TCT配合阴道镜可作为宫颈癌前病变及早期癌筛查的可靠早期诊断方法.

  19. 降水测量技术现状与展望%Current and Prospective Development of the Precipitation Measuring Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高太长

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is any of the forms of water particles, whether liquid or solid, those fall from the atmosphere and reach the ground, measurement of precipitation is important for the weather forecast, climate analysis, monitoring and prediction of flood, landslide, debris flow, and etc. At present, rainfall and rainrate is measured by rain gauge, tipping bucket pluviometer and weighing pluviometer, which are the operational instruments in domestic meteorological observation operation; several overseas scientific instruments have come up, which can measure the particle size distribution, the shape and terminal velocity of particles, and etc. However relative domestic scientific research and weather service only rely on the import instrument. Aim at the development of the manufacturing tech- niques about the precipitation measurement; the principle, method and current status of advanced precipitation measuring scientific instrument in existence are discussed; and relative key techniques are analyzed based on the development of modem photoelectric techniques and digital processing techniques. To prompt the precipitation measurement at home, more attempts should focus on the combination of the photoelectric techniques and the de- mand of precipitation measurement, the combination of the principal innovation and the prompt of instruments performance, the combination of the information extraction and the data application.%降水现象是指云中液态水或固态水向地面降落的一种天气现象,准确测量降水对于天气预报、气候分析以及洪涝、山体滑坡、泥石流等自然灾害的监测与预警有着重要的意义。目前国内降水测量的常规业务仪器主要有雨量筒、翻斗式雨量计、称重式雨量计,只能测量雨量和雨强;国外已经出现能够测量降水谱分布、粒子形状、速度等特征的科学仪器,国内的相关科研和气象服务只能依赖进口仪器。为了突破现有技术水平

  20. Ferromagnetic Tubes Testing Based Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current Technique%基于脉冲远场涡流的管道内检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 王赓; 高松巍

    2012-01-01

    针对传统远场涡流检测方法对铁磁性管道内外壁缺陷灵敏度相同,无法有效区分缺陷在管道内壁还是管道外表面的问题,提出了采用具有丰富频率成分的脉冲激励信号取代传统的远场涡流中正弦信号激励的方法.采用小波去噪方法滤除检测数据中的信号噪声;研究了将检测线圈分别置于近场区、过渡区和远场区时的信号时域特性与管壁伤的关系;进行了针对管道管壁内外相同宽度不同深度缺陷的检测试验,结果表明采用脉冲激励作为激励源并综合运用过渡区的检测信号的幅值和过零时间特征能够有效地区分管壁内外全周向的缺陷.%In view of the traditional remote field eddy current technique for ferromagnetic tube having the same sensitivity of inner and outside walls defect,unable to distinguish the defects in the inner wall or in the outer surface,this paper adopt with abundant frequency components of the pulse signal to replace the traditional remote field eddy current sinusoidal excitation signal. Using the methods of wavelet denoising to filter acquired signal and process the data. This paper studied the relationship between the tube wall defects and signal time-domain characteristics when the detector coil was placed in the direct zone, transition zone and remote field zone. Conduct experiments to acquire data about different depth defects in the inside or outside of the walls, the results show that using the pulse signal as excitation source and characteristics about the detect signal amplitude and zero-crossing time can effectively distinguish between the inner and outer circumferential direction tube wall defects.

  1. Clinical Value of TCT, HPV Test, Colposcopy Biopsy and LEEP in Cervical Cancer and Precancerous Lesions%TCT、HPV检测、阴道镜活检及LEEP在宫颈癌及癌前病变中的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷冀晖; 刘毅; 冯文; 戚挺; 王颖; 张阳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of TCT, HPV, colposcopic cervical biopsy and LEEP in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.Methods From September 2011 to January 2015, 2 146 patients were treated in the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang. TCT was performed routinely before operation. 338 patients underwent colposcopic cervical biopsy, which suggested that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,the line ring electrosurgical treatment, specimen pathology.Results (1) 2 146 cases of TCT examination, 308 cases of abnormal accounted for 14.35%, of which 97 cases of ASCUS accounted for 31.49%, 153 cases of LSIL accounted for 49.68%, 49 cases of HSIL accounted for 15.91%, 9 cases of SCC accounted for 2.92%.(2) Comparing the postoperative pathological results of TCT and LEEP, CIN and cervical cancer detection rate was 83.12% in the TCT-positive report. The coincidence rate of LSIL and HSIL was 62.75% and 85.71%, respectively. The difference between the coincidence rate of LSIL and HSIL was signiifcant (χ2 = 5.82,P<0.05). (3) Results of the HPV detection combined with TCT test: the detection rate of CIN was 93.53%, in which CINⅡ~Ⅲ detection rate was 50.86%. (4) The coincidence rate of histopathological and colposcopic biopsy was 66.56% in 338 cases.ConclusionTCT is the main method of cervical disease screening, HPV positive screening rate and pathological grade was positively correlated, TCT and HPV combined detection can improve the detection rate of cervical lesions, early detection of cervical cancer has a guiding signiifcance, cervical biopsy is not easy to check out cervical deep tissue and cervical lesions, LEEP surgery can effectively diagnose cervical lesions, while a therapeutic effect.%目的:探讨TCT检查、HPV检测、阴道镜宫颈活检、LEEP术在子宫颈上皮内瘤病变中临床意义。方法2011年9月~2015年1月在连云港市第一人民医院就诊的患者共2146例,术前常规行TCT检查,338例患者在阴道镜

  2. The Clinical Application of TCT,Colposcopy and LEEP in Cerical Intraepithelial Neoplasia%液基薄层细胞学、电子阴道镜和宫颈环形电切术在宫颈上皮内瘤变中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨液基薄层细胞学、电子阴道镜和宫颈环形电切术在子宫颈上皮内瘤病变诊断治疗中的临床应用价值。方法:回顾性分析2011年本院收治的经液基薄层细胞学与电子阴道镜宫颈病理活检确诊的106例宫颈上皮内瘤变患者的临床资料,其中103例患者行宫颈环形电切术(LEEP),3例CIN-Ⅲ级于LEEP术后追加筋膜外子宫全切除术,术后标本行病理学检查,比较分析TCT、阴道镜活检与LEEP术后病理结果的差异。结果:TCT与阴道镜活检结果符合率LSIL为81.25%,HSIL为89.66%。阴道镜下活检、病理与LEEP术后标本CIN-Ⅰ的符合率为59.18%,CIN-Ⅱ的符合率为79.31%,CIN-Ⅲ的符合率为82.14%,总体负荷率70.75%。结论:TCT与阴道镜下病理活检筛查上皮内瘤变主要方法、宫颈环形电切术是治疗CIN的有效技术,同时具有一定的诊断价值,对于临床减少宫颈上皮内瘤变漏诊、误诊率有一定价值。%Objective:To investigate the clinical value of TCT,colposcopic biopsies and LEEP in diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.Method:The clinical data of 106 patients with cerical intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosed with TCT and colposcopic biopsy in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed.All patients were treated with LEEP.Three cases of them with CIN- Ⅲreceived extra fascial hysterectomy resection besides LEEP.The postoperative specimens were detected pathological examination.The difference and consistence rates of the results of TCT,colposcopic multiple biopsies and LEEP were compared.Result:The coincidence rate of TCT and colposcopy biopsy results was LSIL 81.25%,HSIL 89.66%,respectively.The overall consistence rate of pathology between colposcopic multiple biopsies and post-LEEP was 70.75%,and those of CIN-Ⅰ, CIN-Ⅱand CIN-Ⅲwere 59.18%,79.31%,82.14%,respectively(P<0.05).Conclusion:TCT and the

  3. The Development of Automated Detection Techniques for Passive Acoustic Monitoring as a Tool for Studying Beaked Whale Distribution and Habitat Preferences in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M.

    The objectives of this research were to test available automated detection methods for passive acoustic monitoring and integrate the best available method into standard marine mammal monitoring protocols for ship based surveys. The goal of the first chapter was to evaluate the performance and utility of PAMGUARD 1.0 Core software for use in automated detection of marine mammal acoustic signals during towed array surveys. Three different detector configurations of PAMGUARD were compared. These automated detection algorithms were evaluated by comparing them to the results of manual detections made by an experienced bio-acoustician (author TMY). This study provides the first detailed comparisons of PAMGUARD automated detection algorithms to manual detection methods. The results of these comparisons clearly illustrate the utility of automated detection methods for odontocete species. Results of this work showed that the majority of whistles and click events can be reliably detected using PAMGUARD software. The second chapter moves beyond automated detection to examine and test automated classification algorithms for beaked whale species. Beaked whales are notoriously elusive and difficult to study, especially using visual survey methods. The purpose of the second chapter was to test, validate, and compare algorithms for detection of beaked whales in acoustic line-transect survey data. Using data collected at sea from the PAMGUARD classifier developed in Chapter 2 it was possible to measure the clicks from visually verified Baird's beaked whale encounters and use this data to develop classifiers that could discriminate Baird's beaked whales from other beaked whale species in future work. Echolocation clicks from Baird's beaked whales, Berardius bairdii, were recorded during combined visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetacean populations in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and with autonomous, long-term recorders at four different sites in the Southern

  4. 宫颈液基细胞学与HPV-DNA在妇科普查中的作用%TCT and the combination of HPV-DNA in the census of women's diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗业红; 沈琳菲; 邓廷坤; 刘莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate combine of the liquid-based cytology test and HPV-DNA test in checking gynecological diseases. Methods: This paper has selected 500 samples in all of the gynecological diseases tests form April 2009 to July 2012 randomly to Comparing the detection sensitivity and positive coincidence rate about liquid-based cytology test and HPV-DNA test. This paper adopts TBS grading criteria to comparing the results. The patients who cytological examination result were above ASCUS and HPV positive performed biopsy. Results: Cervical liquid-based cytology diagnostic results show:Normal range and benign reactive cell changing 407 cases (81.4%), HPV - DNA positive cytology diagnosis 106 cases (21.2%), and the pathological diagnosis positive cell 81 cases (16.2%). They are 54 cases confirmed for CIN-I、19 cases for CINII - III and 9 cases for SCC by biopsy. The result show it have huge difference between combine the liquid-based cytology test and HPV-DNA test and any method used alone. The samples are statistically significant (p<0.05).Conclusion: The application of TCT test combine with Higher-risk HPV test and TBS diagnostic criteria can improve the detection rate of cervical lesions.%目的评价液基细胞学检测和HPV-DNA检测的联合应用在妇女病普查中的作用.方法选取2009年4月-2012年07月在我院进行妇女病普查随机抽查的500例当成本文的研究对象,比较液基细胞学检测和HPV检测两种方法的检出敏感性及阳性符合率.诊断应用TBS分级标准,并对细胞学检查诊断为ASCUS以上者和HPV阳性者活检.结果宫颈液基细胞学诊断结果正常范围及良性反应性细胞改变407例(占81.4%),HPV-DNA阳性细胞学诊断106例(占21.2%),病理诊断结果阳性细胞81例(16.2%);经活检证实有54例为CIN-I,CINI-I I 19例,SCC 9例.单用TCT或HPV-DNA检测结果与联合检测比较差异显著,且具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 TCT检测结合高危型HPV检测技术的应

  5. A review of percutaneous techniques for low back pain and neuralgia: current trends in epidural infiltrations, intervertebral disk and facet joint therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippiadis, Dimitrios K; Kelekis, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain and neuralgia due to spinal pathology are very common symptoms debilitating numerous patients with peak prevalence at ages between 45 and 60 years. Intervertebral discs and facet joints act as pain sources in the vast majority of the cases. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical examination and imaging studies. Therapeutic armamentarium for low back pain and neuralgia due to intervertebral discs and/or facet joints includes conservative therapy, injections, percutaneous therapeutic techniques and surgical options. Percutaneous, therapeutic techniques are imaging-guided, minimally invasive treatments which can be performed as outpatient procedures. In cases of facet joint syndrome, they include, apart from injections, neurolysis with radiofrequency/cryoablation, MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound and percutaneous fixation techniques. In case of discogenic pain, apart from infiltrations, therapeutic techniques can be classified in to two main categories: decompression (mechanical, thermal, chemical) techniques and biomaterials implantation/disc cell therapies. Strict sterility measures are a prerequisite and should include extensive local sterility and antibiotic prophylaxis. This article will report clinical and imaging findings for each pathology type and the association with treatment decision. In addition, we will describe in detail all possible treatment techniques for low back pain and neuralgia, and we will report recently published results of these techniques summarizing the data concerning safety and effectiveness as well as the level of evidence. Finally, we will try to provide a rational approach for the therapy of low back pain and neuralgia by means of minimally invasive imaging-guided percutaneous techniques.

  6. 液基薄层细胞学检测(TCT)联合阴道镜检查对宫颈病变的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of combined thinprep cytologic test with colposcopy for screening cervical lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松; 唐平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of combined use of thinprep cytology test( TCT ) with colposcopic biopsy in early screening of cervical lesions. Methods: A total of 5 211 TCT samples were collected from the Tongcheng Municipal People's Hospital and Hospital of TCM of Hexian County between Oct. 2008 and Dec. 2011. By the Bethesda System for reporting cytologic diagnosis, the cases with atypical cells of undetermined significance ( ASCUS ) or more severe cytology were considered positive results, in which 321 cases underwent colposcopic biopsies from multiple sites. Final diagnosis was dependent on histopathologic findings that were compared with the cytologic results. Results: TCT exhibited positive cytology in 396 cases( 7.60% ),ASCUS in 146( 2.80% ),atypical squamous cells( ASC-H ) in 19 ( 0. 36% ),low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion ( LGSIL or LSIL ) in 167 ( 3. 20% ),high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion ( HGSIL or HSIL ) in 56 ( 1.07% ), squamous cell carcinoma ( SCC ) in 4 ( 0. 08% ) and atypical glandular cells ( AGC ) in another 4( 0. 08% ). As compared with the histopathologic findings,the sensitivity of TCT was 64.49% ( 207/321 ),and the coincidence rate for LSIL,HSIL and SCC were 39. 19%( 58/148 ),83. 33% ( 19/24 ) and 100% ( 1/1 ), respectively. The statistical difference existed significantly concerning the results of detecting cervical intraepithelial ne-oplasia( CIN ) or more severe by combined TCT with colposcopic biopsy for pathological confirmation and simple ( x2 = 10.42 ,v = 4,P <0.01 ). Conclusion: TCT in combination with colposcopic punch biopsy can lead to accurate diagnosis and detectable lesions of cervix, for which is important to early detection and treatment of the cervical cancers as well as prophylaxis.%目的:探讨液基薄层细胞学检测(TCT)联合阴道镜检查在早期宫颈病变筛查中的价值.方法:选择安徽省桐城市人民医院、和县中医院2008年10月~2011年12月间妇科门诊及

  7. Radiofrequency current source (RFCS) drive and decoupling technique for parallel transmit arrays using a high-power metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonje; Boskamp, Eddy; Grist, Thomas; Kurpad, Krishna

    2009-07-01

    A radiofrequency current source (RFCS) design using a high-power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) that enables independent current control for parallel transmit applications is presented. The design of an RFCS integrated with a series tuned transmitting loop and its associated control circuitry is described. The current source is operated in a gated class AB push-pull configuration for linear operation at high efficiency. The pulsed RF current amplitude driven into the low impedance transmitting loop was found to be relatively insensitive to the various loaded loop impedances ranging from 0.4 to 10.3 ohms, confirming current mode operation. The suppression of current induced by a neighboring loop was quantified as a function of center-to-center loop distance, and was measured to be 17 dB for nonoverlapping, adjacent loops. Deterministic manipulation of the B(1) field pattern was demonstrated by the independent control of RF phase and amplitude in a head-sized two-channel volume transmit array. It was found that a high-voltage rated RF power MOSFET with a minimum load resistance, exhibits current source behavior, which aids in transmit array design.

  8. An overview of the causes of current practices in Pratinidhi Dravyas (substitution of drugs) in Ayurveda including newer techniques for their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pravin R; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J

    2012-10-01

    Many Pratinidhi Dravyas in Ayurvedic classics are mentioned and certainly are based on a methodical approach, which involves many aspects. These principles on which Pratinidhis were decided are quoted nowhere; so both to understand the established Pratinidhis and to find new ones a rational approach is the need of the hour. This article is an effort in the direction to study this concept meticulously in light of modern techniques for its better understanding and application. As there are very few established parameters, which help for selection and evaluation of Pratinidhi Dravyas. A rational technique like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy may be incorporated to set a new dimension. As most of the routine analytical techniques are separation based, overall component load cannot be predicted. Thus, it is prime necessity to compare the drugs with a whole aspect, which goes in hand by hand with a holistic approach of Ayurveda "Treat the man as Whole - Take the drug as whole."

  9. A Novel Technique for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic Based on Sensing of Array Current Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zoghby, Helmy M.; Bendary, Ahmed F.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is now widely used method in increasing the photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. The conventional MPPT methods have many problems concerning the accuracy, flexibility and efficiency. The MPP depends on the PV temperature and solar irradiation that randomly varied. In this paper an artificial intelligence based controller is presented through implementing of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to obtain maximum power from PV. The ANFIS inputs are the temperature and cell current, and the output is optimal voltage at maximum power. During operation the trained ANFIS senses the PV current using suitable sensor and also senses the temperature to determine the optimal operating voltage that corresponds to the current at MPP. This voltage is used to control the boost converter duty cycle. The MATLAB simulation results shows the effectiveness of the ANFIS with sensing the PV current in obtaining the MPPT from the PV.

  10. Application of Current Sharing Technique in Low Voltage High Current Switching Power Supply%均流技术在低压大电流开关电源中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴

    2016-01-01

    In the design of low-voltage high-current switching power supply, due to the relatively small output voltage, and large output current, in order to solve this problem, heterogeneous parallel is usually needed. In multiphase crisscross DC/DC converter, there is a problem of non-uniform current distribution, which will cause too large current in one phase causing damage and too small current in another phase failing to work normally. Aiming at this problem, the paper proposes using the HIP6303 HIP6602B and automatic flow technology, and the flow method is introduced in detail. Through theory and experiment, its current sharing effect is verified, thus the feasibility of the scheme is obtained.%在低压大电流开关电源的设计中,由于输出电压比较小,而输出电流又较大,为了解决此问题,通常需要多相并联,在多相交错的DC/DC变换器中,存在着电流分配不均匀的问题,电流分配不均匀,就会使得某相电流过大而损坏,某相电流过小而不能正常的工作。针对这个问题,文章提出了用HIP6303和HIP6602B进行自动均流的技术,并对这种均流方法进行了详细的论述,通过理论和实验,验证了其均流的效果,由此得出该方案的可行性。

  11. 一个新的适用于无刷直流电机驱动的单电流传感器技术%A Novel Current Sensor Technique for Brushless DC Motor Drives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭徽; 江建中; 汪信尧; 王勇

    2000-01-01

    The torque output in a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (BLDCM) is usually controlled by regulating the motor phase currents. In this paper, three kinds of PWM strategies together with some critical review on traditional current measurements in a BLDCM drive system are discussed. A novel method for assessing the PWM information and measuring the motor phase currents by a dc link current sensor is proposed. An attractive feature of the proposed method is the simplicity with the current sample processing because there is no need to incorporate the conduction information of the power switches or diodes. Only the single sided PWM or the double sided complementary PWM is needed with the proposed technique.

  12. Comparison of woody pellets, straw pellets, and delayed harvest system herbaceous biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus): analysis of current combustion techniques determining the value of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Since the energy consumption is growing fast, it is important to find alternative resources for the future generation energy supply. This study is going to compare the woody pellets, straw pellets and delayed harvest system biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus) from the combustion technique perspecti

  13. Comparison of woody pellets, straw pellets, and delayed harvest system herbaceous biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus): analysis of current combustion techniques determining the value of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hui, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Since the energy consumption is growing fast, it is important to find alternative resources for the future generation energy supply. This study is going to compare the woody pellets, straw pellets and delayed harvest system biomass (switchgrass and miscanthus) from the combustion technique

  14. Local measurement of conduction band offset for ZnCdS/ZnSSe nano-structure by Laplace current DLTS cooperated with AFM technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, Vladimir [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryazan State Radioengineering University, Gagarina 59/1, 390005 Ryazan (Russian Federation); Kozlovsky, Vladimir; Sannikov, Denis; Sviridov, Dmitry [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Milovanova, Oksana; Rybin, Nikolay [Ryazan State Radioengineering University, Gagarina 59/1, 390005 Ryazan (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-15

    ZnCdS/ZnSSe SQW structure were investigated by current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with Laplace transform cooperated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the first time. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements were carried out also. Basing on Laplace current DLTS with AFM and CL data we estimated the conduction band offset of the ZnCdS/ZnSSe interface in the different regions of the structure. Size of the investigated region was commensurable with the diameter of cantilever tip. We demonstrated that Laplace current DLTS-spectrometer switched in the circuit of an AFM cantilever may be used for an investigation of nanostructures. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. A simple method of fast extracellular solution exchange for the study of whole-cell or single channel currents using patch-clamp technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, S; Beech, D J; Bolton, T B

    1987-10-01

    A new concentration-jump technique was devised for the rapid application of drugs to single, isolated cells attached to the base of the experimental chamber while recording from them with patch-clamp technique. Cells were placed in a micro-drop (less than 0.1 microliter) in a small inner bath which was separated from an outer bath by a ring of "Sylgard" polymer. Stable whole-cell recordings were made in the micro-drop and rapid solution exchange took place when a much larger volume of test solution from the outer bath was flooded over the Sylgard ring and mixed with the micro-drop. Complete equilibration occurred within less than 10 ms.

  16. Inversion of X-band nautical radar data for sea-state monitoring: a new technique to estimate the surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafino, F.; Lugni, C.; Raffa, F.; Soldovieri, F.

    2009-04-01

    The inversion of X-band marine images sequences allows obtaining the sea state parameter estimation and the reconstruction of the wave height evolution [1-4]. This result is possible tanks to the fact that the backscattering from the sea is "visible", under some conditions, on the marine radar images. These radar signatures, that typically are suppressed because represent a noise (clutter) for the navigation, are the "useful signal" to be processed in order to achieve information about the sea state: peak wave length, period and direction, current speed and direction and the evolution of surface elevation. The backscattering phenomena is due to the Bragg resonance with ocean waves of wavelengths similar to those of the transmitted electromagnetic waves. In particular, the longer waves modulate the backscattering phenomenon and thus they become visible in the "radar" images. As a consequence, the radar image is not a direct representation of the sea state and thus a processing procedure is needed in order to reconstruct the sea state. After a Fourier Transform of the data, a spectral filter is used to erase all the undesired phenomenon via a dispersion relation. The use of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) allows the passage from the radar spectrum to sea spectrum; finally, the resulting spectrum is Fourier transformed to return to the space-time domain. A key step of the whole procedure is the generation of the spectral filter. To built the filter the surface currents have to be estimated, if they are not correctly determined the results of the overall inversion are quite poor. This drawback is further increased when the values of the surface current become high or the data are acquired by a moving vessel, since the problem of the determination of the current is quite complicated and particular attention needs the filtering procedure. This work presents an innovative procedure able to estimate the free-surface current values with high accuracy compared to the

  17. From four-parathyroid gland exploration to a minimally invasive technique. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy as a current approach in surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiela, Jarek; Łaski, Dariusz; Stróżyk, Aneta; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Łachiński, Andrzej J; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Complete surgical resection of hyperfunctioning parathyriod tissue is essential for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. During recent years, minimally invasive surgery has been successfully applied in neck exploration, because of significant developments of guidance by intraoperative scans, the use of quick, intraoperative PTH assay, and also preoperative imaging procedures such as high resolution ultrasonography and sestamibi scintigraphy. The results of operations which are performed with minimally invasive techniques are comparable to those of conventional surgery, and provide advantages with regard to cosmetic result, length of hospitalisation, and reduced post-operative pain.

  18. In-Plane Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Thin Films Based on the Alternating-Current Calorimetric Method Using an Optical Reflectivity Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正兴; 唐祯安; 许自强; 丁海涛; 顾毓沁

    2004-01-01

    An advanced ac calorimetric method to measure thermal diffusivity of a thin sample is developed by using an optical reflectivity technique. A modulated infrared laser is used to heat the front surface ofa foil specimen. The reflectivity of a continuous-wave He-Ne laser at the rear surface of the specimen is detected by a photoreceiver.According to the temperature dependence of reflectivity, the ac temperature response is obtained. Thermal diffusivity is deduced from a one-dimensional heat conduction equation. A stainless-steel foil and a copper foil are chosen as the samples. The present results agree well with the data in the literature.

  19. Research and implementation of direct measurement technique of current speed%直接式电流速度测量技术研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文强; 杨录

    2012-01-01

    There are some defects in the current speed measurement method by indirect type, such as circuit structure and measuring process are more complex, influencing factors of the measuring result are more. Meanwhile, in order to improve accuracy and reduce cost, a kind of current speed measurement method by direct type based on TDC technology was presented in this paper. At the same time, a kind of direct type current speed measurement system based on TDC-GP1 was also designed. The time measurement accuracy of the system is 125 ps, and the time measurement range of the system is from 3 ns to 200 ms. The measurement distance range is from 0.9 m to 60 000 km when the material of the transmission wire is copper. The current speed is 0.290 m/ns which is based on the direct current speed measurement method on a 2 m network cable, the speed is very close to the theoretical value that equals to about 0.3 m/ns.%间接式电流速度测量中存在电路结构和测量过程复杂,测量结果影响因素较多等问题,同时为提高精度、降低成本,提出一种基于TDC技术的直接式电流速度测量方法,同时设计出以TDC-GP1为核心的直接式电流速度测量系统.本系统时间测量精度为125 ps,测量范围为3 ns~200 ms,如果以铜质传输线为介质可直接测量距离为0.9 m~60 000 km.对2m长的普通网线进行实测,得到电流速度为0.290 m/ns,该值与约0.3 m/ns理论的值十分接近.

  20. L'intervention sous-marine : situation actuelle et perspectives d'avenir Underwater Operations and Techniques: Current Situation and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A. R. V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A l'occasion de la Conférence Internationale de Paris sur la Pénétration sous-marine(6-8 décembre 1982, cet article fait le point sur les différents moyens d'intervention sous-marine disponibles à ce jour (plongeurs, engins télécommandés, sous-marins à pression atmosphérique et sur un certain nombre de problèmes technologiques communs (matériaux, télémanipulation, navigation, sources d'énergie. Ce domaine est encore en pleine évolution et fait appel aux récentes innovations technologiques. Bien que les engins télécommandés semblent avoir actuellement la faveur des industriels, les autres moyens restent d'avenir prometteur, la complémentarité devant remplacer dans le futur la concurrence La résurrection de l'Argyronète qui doit devenir en 1985 un banc d'essais des nouvelles techniques est le témoignage de l'activité de ce secteur industriel. This article is based on the International Symposium in Paris on Underwater Operations and Techniques 6-9 December 1982. It reviews the different methods now available for underwater operations (divers, remote-controlled vehicles, atmospheric-pressure submarines and various technological problems common to all of them (materials, remote manipulation, navigating, power sources. This field is evolving rapidly and makes use of the most recent technological innovations. Although remote-controlled vehicles now seem to be favored by industrialists, the other methods still have a promising future, and the complementariness of these methods can be expected to replace rivalry among them. The resurrection of the Argyronète project, which should become a test bench for new techniques in 1985, is a good illustration of the activity going on in this industrial sector.

  1. Review of current status of buried-object detection techniques%掩埋小目标声探测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓鹏; 周利生

    2012-01-01

    探测和识别沉底、掩埋水雷等小目标在军事上显得愈来愈迫切.在介绍掩埋小目标探测声纳现状的基础上,剖析了掩埋小目标声探测的技术难点,总结了小目标声探测技术的发展趋势,主要包括探测频率向低频发展,重点发展合成孔径探测技术,积极探索时反探测和MIMO探测方法,小目标识别技术向联合利用图像特征和散射特征的方向发展等,对沉底/掩埋小目标声探测技术研究及其声纳设计有借鉴指导意义.%Detection and recognition of small objects, such as bottom-mine and buried-mine etc., becomes imminently and imminently in military application. Following an introduction of state-of-the-arts of small buried-objects detection, the paper intensively analyzes the technical difficulties of small buried-object detection and summarizes the developing trends of buried object detection by using acoustic techniques, which included: lowering the operation frequency, developing detection techniques of SAS (Synthesized Aperture Sonar), exploring time-reversal and MIMO detection methods, recognizing small-object jointly using image and scattering signatures, and so on. These are significant guiding technical research and relevant sonar design on small-object detection.

  2. 脉冲涡流无损检测提离效应研究%Study of Lift - Off Effects for Pulsed Eddy Current Nondestructive Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海霞; 王畅; 杨宾峰; 张军潮; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    In the course of pulsed eddy current testing, the incline of the probe or the roughness of the surface of the tested object will lead to the lift - off effects, which have a bad influence on the result of pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive testing.Based on the analysis of the operating principle of PEC, two different simulation models with the excitation coils of columniform and rectangle structures are established by ANSYS finite element simulation software and the simulations on the specimen of ferromagnetic and non -ferromagnetic materials are done respectively.Through the analysis of the eddy current and rotated magnetic field, the influence effect of response signal with the variation of the lift - off distance and the reason is given.Finally, the results of simulation are verified by experiment methods.The results of the experimental work confirm the correctness of simulation, which will lay the foundation for the elimination of lift - off effects.%在脉冲涡流检测过程中,由于探头倾斜或被测对象表面不光滑会产生提离效应,提离效应严重影响着脉冲涡流无损检测的结果.本文在分析脉冲涡流检测技术工作原理的基础上,采用ANSYS有限元仿真软件建立了激励线圈为圆柱形和矩形两种结构的模型,并分别针对有裂纹缺陷的铁磁性(钢)和非铁磁性(铝)试件进行了仿真研究,通过分析试件中感应涡流和扰动磁场的变化,给出了不同情况下检测信号随提离变化的规律,并从原理上给出了解释.最后,通过实验的方法对仿真结果进行了验证,实验结果表明了仿真结果的正确性,从而为进一步的消除提离效应提供了有价值的参考依据.

  3. Influence of the surface averaging procedure of the current density in assessing compliance with the ICNIRP low-frequency basic restrictions by means of numerical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppetti, N; Andreuccetti, D [IFAC-CNR (' Nello Carrara' Institute for Applied Physics of the Italian National Research Council), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: N.Zoppetti@ifac.cnr.it, E-mail: D.Andreuccetti@ifac.cnr.it

    2009-08-07

    Although the calculation of the surface average of the low-frequency current density distribution over a cross-section of 1 cm{sup 2} is required by ICNIRP guidelines, no reference averaging algorithm is indicated, neither in the ICNIRP guidelines nor in the Directive 2004/40/EC that is based on them. The lack of a general standard algorithm that fulfils the ICNIRP guidelines' requirements is particularly critical in the prospective of the 2004/40/EC Directive endorsement, since the compliance to normative limits refers to well-defined procedures. In this paper, two case studies are considered, in which the calculation of the surface average is performed using a simplified approach widely used in the literature and an original averaging procedure. This analysis, aimed at quantifying the expected differences and to single out their sources, shows that the choice of the averaging algorithm represents an important source of uncertainty in the application of the guideline requirements.

  4. Detecting Techniques of Harmful Currents in ThreePhase Balanced and Unbalanced Systems%三相平衡和不平衡系统中有害电流的检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦梅; 周林; 叶一麟

    2000-01-01

    有源电力滤波器是一种对有害电流进行动 态补偿的装置,其有害电流检测电路是决定补偿性能好坏的关键环节。对其补偿电流在三相 平衡和不平衡系统下的检测技术进行分析和比较。%Active power filter is a kind of device used for dynamic compensation of harmful current.Harmful currents detecting circuits are essential and indispensable parts of active power filters that determine their compensating characters.This paper analyses and compares detecting techniques of compensating currents in threephase balanced and unbalanced systems.

  5. Current status of surgical technique for uterine transplantation%子宫移植的外科应用技术现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海霞; 陈必良

    2013-01-01

    Uterine transplantation ( UTn) has been proposed as the only possible solution for women of uterine factor infertility ( AUFI). Uterus transplantation has been proven to be a feasible procedure in different experimentation animal models . There have already been two attempts of human uterus transplantation , of which one is failed and the other is successful for 12 menstrual cycles. These findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis for clinically application of uterine transplantation in the future . Recent advances in the field of experimental UTn provide a favorable and safe background for clinical UTn trial . The review summarized the newest advances of surgical technique of uterine transplantation.%对于不可治愈的永久性子宫不孕者而言,子宫移植被认为是其唯一解决的方法.目前,通过不同的实验动物模型研究已证明子宫移植应用于临床是具有可行性的.现已有2例人类子宫移植,第1例以失败告终,第2例至今已建立12个月经周期.这些发现毫无疑问地为子宫移植将来运用于临床打下了坚实的基础.在实验性子宫移植技术领域的最新进展为人类临床性子宫移植试验方案的进行提供了安全有效的依据和背景.该综述系统地总结了子宫移植外科技术的最新进展.

  6. High-frequency techniques for RCS prediction of plate geometries and a physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1 of this report continues the investigation, initiated in previous reports, of scattering from rectangular plates coated with lossy dielectrics. The hard polarization coefficients given in the last report are incorporated into a model, which includes second- and third-order diffractions, for the coated plate. Computed results from this model are examined and compared to measured data. A breakdown of the contribution of each of the higher-order terms to the total radar cross section (RCS) is given. The effectiveness of the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) model in accounting for the coating effect is investigated by examining a Physical Optics (PO) model which incorporates the equivalent surface impedance approximation used in the UTD model. The PO, UTD, and experimental results are compared. Part 2 of this report presents a RCS model, based on PO and the Method of Equivalent Currents (MEC), for a trihedral corner reflector. PO is used to account for the reflected fields, while MEC is used for the diffracted fields. Single, double, and triple reflections and first-order diffractions are included in the model. A detailed derivation of the E(sub theta)-polarization, monostatic RCS is included. Computed results are compared with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results for validation. The PO/MEC model of this report compares very well with the FDTD model, and it is a much faster model in terms of computational speed.

  7. Remote field Eddy Current Technique Development for Gap Measurement of Neighboring Tubes of Nuclear Fuel Channel in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. K.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Huh, H.; Cheong, Y. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-15

    Liquid Injection Nozzle(LIN) tube and Calandria tube(CT) in pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) are cross-aligned horizontally. These neighboring tubes can contact each other due to the sag of the calandria tube resulting from the irradiation creep and thermal creep, and fuel load, etc. In order to judge the contact which might be the safety concern, the remote field eddy current (RFEC) technology is applied for the gap measurement in this paper. LIN can be detected by inserting the RFEC probe into pressure tube (PT) at the crossing point directly. To obtain the optimal conditions of the RFEC inspection, the sensitivity, penetration and noise signals are considered simultaneously. The optimal frequency and coil spacing are 1kHz and 200mm respectively. Possible noises during LIN signal acquisition are caused by lift-off, PT thickness variation, and gap variation between PT and CT. The simulated noise signals were investigated by the Volume Integral Method(VIM). Signal analysis on the voltage plane describes the amplitude and shape of LIN and possible defects at several frequencies. All the RFEC measurements in the laboratory were done in variance with the CT/LIN gap and showed the relationship between the LIN gap and the signal parameters by analyzing the voltage plane signals

  8. Current Development of Breast-Speciifc Gamma Imaging (BSGI) Technique%乳腺专用伽玛显像(BSGI)技术的最新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙达; 陈伟君

    2015-01-01

    Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging(BSGI)is an improved and optimizing nuclear medicine breast imaging technique on the basis of traditional gamma camera. It uses a high resolution, smal field-of-view scintil a detector. The detector is designed with 3 073 individual detector crystals and 48 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The FOV of detector is 15 cm×20 cm, and optimal system resolution for breast imaging is 3 mm, can detect the diameter of only 2~3 mm smal lesions. BSGI has better sensitivity in detecting subcentimetre or nonpalpable breast cancer. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of breast cancer is high, not influenced by the density of the breast tissue, implants, architectural distortion or scars from prior surgery or radiation. So it is cal ed a high resolution, smal field-of-view breast-specific gamma camera.%乳腺专用伽玛显像(BSGI)是一种在传统伽玛照相机的基础上进行了优化的核医学显像技术,配置有高分辨率数字探测器,内置3072块晶体和48个光电倍增管。探测器的视野(FOV)为15 cm×20 cm,空间分辨率为3 mm,能探查到直径仅为2~3 mm的微小病灶,对亚厘米或不能触及的病灶有很高的应用价值,且不受乳腺致密组织、植入假体及术后瘢痕等因素的影响,对乳腺癌诊断的灵敏度较高。BSGI被称为小视野和高分辨率乳腺专用伽玛照相机。

  9. Current source and digital demodulation technique in EIT system based on FPGA%一种基于FPGA的EIT电流源和数字解调方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝会玲; 赵德春; 沙洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective A general experiment platform of electrical impedance tomography(EIT) based on field programmable gate array(FPGA) was designed to meet the requirements of EIT digital measurement.A digital current source and the research on digital demodulation method was completed.Methods For construction of the experiment platform,DDS module,D/A and A/D interface module,digital demodulation module and RS-232 communication module were all integrated in one FPGA chip.Results The source can provide multi-frequency excitation signals of 2 mA in the range of 6.1-390.6 kHz.The output impedance of the source was higher than 190 kΩ.Both the real and the virtual information of measured impedance could be extracted.Conclusion Measurements based on bioimpedance-equivalent circuit model verified the validity of the platform.The research results of this paper provides a foundation for the construction of a practical EIT system.%目的 依据数字化电阻抗断层成像(EIT)硬件系统的要求,构建了基于现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)的通用型EIT硬件实验平台,完成了直接数字频率合成(DDS)的电流源和数字解调方法研究.方法 实验平台以FPGA芯片为核心,集成了DDS模块、D/A及A/D接口模块、数字解调模块和RS-232数据通信等模块.结果 电流源可在6.1~390.6 kHz范围输出多频激励信号,输出阻抗大于190 kΩ,电流峰峰值为2 mA.数字解调模块可同时提取被测阻抗的实部和虚部信息.结论 采用生物组织等效模型进行的模拟测试验证了本研究系统工作的有效性,为实用化EIT系统的建立奠定了基础.

  10. Depth-dependent critical-current density of melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O discs determined by the third-harmonic technique: Surface barrier and intrinsic pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.-X.; He, T.-F.; Zhang, M.-J.; Wang, S.-S.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    The critical-current density Jc of three Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) discs, each cut from the upper section of a melt-processed single grain, has been determined as a function of the depth from the top (seeded) and bottom surfaces of the sample by a modified version of the inductive third-harmonic technique proposed originally by Mawatari et al. It is shown that local Jc in the vicinity of the bottom surface of the sample is lower than that in the vicinity of the top surface for thicker discs and there are reduced effect of surface barrier and intrinsic pinning and important surface damage. The technique employed is recommended as a tool for detecting the imperfection within superconducting structure in bulk YBCO.

  11. 基于坐标变换的永磁同步电机电流传感器容错控制∗%Current Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation Technique for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Axes Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雷; 陈宇航; 张云峰

    2016-01-01

    研究了在永磁同步电机矢量控制系统之下,电流传感器的故障诊断及容错控制。针对目前双电流传感器的矢量控制系统中可能出现的软故障,提出一种基于定子坐标变换的故障诊断及容错方法,通过控制器输出的电流值与实际反馈的电流值相比较,来判断故障类型并选择相应的容错方案。仿真结果表明:该方法能准确判断出一相或两相电流传感器故障,并选择相应的实际电流计算值来完成电流闭环控制,具有较高的可行性。%A technique for fault detection and isolation to make the traditional vector control of PMSM system drive fault tolerant against one or two phase current sensor soft failure were presented. Comparison between the output current value and the feedback value, the proposed current axes transformation were expected to determine the fault type and select the appropriate fault tolerance scheme. The simulation results showed that the control system could accurately judge the one or two phase current sensor faulty and select the corresponding current calculation value to complete the current closed-loop control, with a high feasibility.

  12. Current State and Progress of Coronary Angiography in Multi-slice Spiral Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques%多排螺旋CT在冠状动脉成像技术中的现状与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 徐文坚; 陈海松

    2012-01-01

    多层螺旋CT( mulil slice spiral CT,MSCT)技术的进步为无创性冠状动脉造影提供了广阔的前景,临床应用备受关注.特别是64层CT的出现,空间分辨率、时间分辨率大大提高,心电门控技术及三维后处理技术拓宽了CT在冠状动脉成像中的应用范围.本文阐述了CT在冠状动脉成像技术及影响因素,并对其现状及进展情况作综述.%Multi-detector row CT imaging techniques has great potential for development of noninvasive imaging of the coronary arteries. Coronary CT angiography in clinical utility field was paid highly attention to. Especially current computed tomography (64 slice CT) techniques combine high speed and spatial resolution with electrocardiography synchronization and three-dimensional post processing technology, the scope of coronary CT angiography was widen. This review article will describe the coronary angiography technology of multi-detector row CT and the factors as they relate to the current and future role of coronary CT angiography.

  13. Depth-dependent critical-current density of melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O discs determined by the third-harmonic technique: Surface barrier and intrinsic pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D-X, E-mail: duxingchen039@gmail.com [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); He, T-F; Zhang, M-J [School of Instrumentation Science and Opt-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Wang, S-S [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Shi, Y-H; Cardwell, D A [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Third harmonic technique is modified for measuring depth dependent Jc of bulk superconductor. • Surface damage and reduced effect of surface barrier and intrinsic pinning are found in melt-processed YBCO discs. • Experimental findings are explained by existing models. - Abstract: The critical-current density J{sub c} of three Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) discs, each cut from the upper section of a melt-processed single grain, has been determined as a function of the depth from the top (seeded) and bottom surfaces of the sample by a modified version of the inductive third-harmonic technique proposed originally by Mawatari et al. It is shown that local J{sub c} in the vicinity of the bottom surface of the sample is lower than that in the vicinity of the top surface for thicker discs and there are reduced effect of surface barrier and intrinsic pinning and important surface damage. The technique employed is recommended as a tool for detecting the imperfection within superconducting structure in bulk YBCO.

  14. Current seed orchard techniques and innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence K. Miller; Jeffrey DeBell

    2013-01-01

    As applied forest tree improvement programs in the US Northwest move forward into the third cycle, seed orchards remain as the primary source of genetically improved forest tree seed used for reforestation. The vast majority of seed orchards in this region are coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), consistent with the high economic importance of...

  15. Current tools and techniques in library science

    CERN Document Server

    Ralhan, Punit

    2009-01-01

    The book undertakes a comprehensive look at the trend of information explosion in library science throughout the ages with the aid of technology, and the contemporary tools in the field. The trend of library policy is clearly towards the ideal of making all information available without delay to all people. Because of technological progress, however, the difficulties of accomplishing this goal is formidable and growing.

  16. TCT联合TIS技术在中山市大规模宫颈癌筛查中的应用研究%Research on application of TCT combined with TIS technology in large-scale cervical cancer screening in Zhongshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米贤军; 王莹; 沈铿; 吴秋良; 肖琳; 陈昂; 徐秀梅; 孪峰; 钟守军

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of Thinprep liquid -based cytology test (TCT) combined with computer-assisted ThinPrep imaging system (TIS) in large - scale cervical cancer screening. Methods: The cervical cells of 10 000 cases were prepared for TCT, then cytopathological doctors read the smears for two times, the first cytological diagnosis was obtained by manually reading ThinPrep thinlayer cytology (TP) , then the second diagnosis was obtained after appropriate interval by TIS; the cytological results were compared and analyzed. The cases with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ( ASCUS) /atypical glandular cells (AGC) or a-bove lesions were designed as cytologically positive cases, colposcopic multipoint biopsy was conducted; the cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I or above lesions were designed as pathologically positive cases. The results of pathological examination were designed as gold standards; the cytological results and pathological results were compared and analyzed. Results: TP could screen 13. 8 pieces of smears every hour, but TIS could screen 29. 8 pieces of smears every hour, the work efficacy was improved by 115. 94%. Among 10 000 smears, 568 positive smears were detected by TP, the total detection rate was 5. 68% , including 151 smears of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) , 66 smears of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) , 3 smears of cervical cancer, 57 smears of atypical squamous cells -cannot exclude HSIL ( ASC -H) , 259 smears of ASCUS, and 32 smears of ACC; 621 positive smears were detected by TIS, the total detection rate was 6. 21% , including 162 smears of LSIL, 85 smears of HSIL, 3 smears of cervical cancer, 65 smears of ASC - H, 273 smears of ASCUS, and 33 smears of AGC. The positive detection rates of LSIL, HSIL, ASC - H, and ASCUS delected by TIS were higher than those detected by TP, increasing by 9. 33% , 7. 28% , 28. 79% , 14. 04% , and 5. 41

  17. 脉冲交变磁场测量技术缺陷识别与定量评估%Pulsed Alternating Current Field Measurement Technique for Defect Identification and Quantification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥超; 罗飞路; 何赟泽; 唐莺

    2011-01-01

    传统的交变磁场测量(Alternating current field measurement,ACFM)技术具有缺陷定量准确、无需接触等优点,但是不能检测深层缺陷;脉冲涡流检测技术(Pulsed eddy current testing,PECT)具有较好的深层缺陷检测能力,但由于采用瞬态响应信号分析方法,容易受到提离效应干扰,工程实际应用较为困难,并且定量能力弱于ACFM技术.结合ACFM和PECT的优势,提出了脉冲交变磁场测量技术(Pulsed alternating current field measurement,PACFM).该技术采用脉冲周期信号作为激励信号源,基于瞬态脉冲响应信号,采用三维场量测量和瞬态信号分析相结合的方法实现缺陷识别与定量评估.对瞬态响应信号中能够表征磁场变化规律的特征量进行提取,通过研究发现PACFM不仅具有与ACFM等同的表面缺陷检测能力,而且具有优异的深层缺陷识别与定最评估能力,抗干扰能力强,具有较高的应用价值和前景.%Traditional alternating current field measurement (ACFM) technique has advantages of quantitative defect detection and noncontact, but poor detective performances on deep-layer defects. Pulsed eddy current testing (PECT) has a better detectability in deep-layer defect, but poorer quantitative performances than ACFM, and moreover, it is easily interfered by lift-off due to using transient response signal analysis method so it is difficult to be applied practically. A method of alternating current filed measurement with pulsed signal excitation is proposed, which implements defect detection and quantitative evaluation by approach of transient signal analysis combined with 3D magnetic filed measurement based on pulsed response signal. Characteristics in the transient response signal which can reflect the variation law of magnetic field are extracted. Through the study it is found that the pulsed alternating current field measurement has not only the same detectability of surface defects as ACFM, but also an

  18. Current Situation and Application Prospects of the Technique of Solar Photovoltaic Refrigerator/Freezer%太阳能光伏冰箱冷柜的研究现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘越

    2012-01-01

      The working principle and current situation of the technique solar photovoltaic refrigerator/freezer is introduced. Increasing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and reducing costs of solar cell are the first and foremost problem to be settled on the solar photovoltaic refrigerator/freezer. Applying prospects of the solar photovoltaic refrigerator/freezer is expatiated.%  本文介绍了太阳能光伏制冷技术的工作原理和在冰箱冷柜中应用的国内外现状,并指出了提高太阳能电池转换效率和降低电池成本是太阳能冰箱冷柜技术首要解决的问题。并阐述了太阳能冰箱冷柜的应用前景

  19. 我国铝(镁)合金消失模铸造技术研究现状%Current Researches on Aluminum (Magnesium) Alloy Lost-Foam Casting Technique in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 周恩俊

    2016-01-01

    The treatise gives an overview on the processes, technologies, features, application scope and current researches of aluminum (magnesium) alloy lost-foam casting in China, summarizes the key points and achievements of the researches and looks into the future of this technique in China on the basis of recent researches.%综合概述了我国铝(镁)合金消失模铸造的工艺、技术、特点、应用范围和研究现状,总结了铝(镁)合金消失模铸造技术的研究重点及成果,针对近年来的研究现状,展望了我国铝(镁)合金消失模铸造的研究方向。

  20. Electrifying Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  1. Inspection Principle and Defect Quantitative Estimation of Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current Technique%基于脉冲激励的远场涡流检测机理及缺陷定量评估技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宾峰; 张辉; 荆毅飞; 李龙军; 崔文岩

    2012-01-01

    Remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has been widely used for the inspection of ferromagnetic pipes and it's not restricted by the skin-depth effect. However, the technique under the sinusoidal excitation needs a long probe and a high power dissipation, which restricts the application of RFEC in real inspection. The pulse exciting signal has the advantages of rich frequency components, the disadvantages of the traditional RFEC can be overcome by using pulse excitation instead of sinusoidal excitation. On the basis of analyzing the principle of pulsed RFEC, the distributions of the magnetic field and eddy current a-round the pipeline and exciting coil are simulated and analyzed, the changing rule of transient state detecting signals in different field regions is studied and obtained with finite element simulation method, then, the remote field region is confirmed. The zero-crossing time and negative peak value are extracted as the eigenvectors for defect quantification. Finally, the performances of quantifying the axial defect length and depth by the pulsed RFEC are verified by performing an experiment, the result shows that this technique can be used to realize the quantitative estimation of the defect.%脉冲激励信号包含非常丰富的频谱成分,以脉冲激励代替传统的正弦激励为克服远场涡流技术的不足提供了新的解决途径.在分析了脉冲激励下远场涡流检测机理的基础上,仿真分析了激励线圈和管道周围磁场和涡流的分布,得到了检测线圈处于不同场区时瞬态检测信号的变化规律,确定了远场区的范围.并从检测信号中提取了过零时间作为缺陷定量的特征量.最后,采用实验的方法验证了脉冲激励下的远场涡流技术对管道中轴向裂纹缺陷长度和深度的定量检测能力,实验结果表明该技术可以很好的实现对缺陷的定量评估.

  2. Wire trapping technique combined with retrograde approach for recanalization of chronic total occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jun-bo; ZHANG Feng; GE Lei; QIAN Ju-ying; WANG Hao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO),defined as a total occlusion of duration >3 months,remains a technical challenge for the interventional cardiologists.The major limitation in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO is the inability to penetrate and cross the occlusion with a guidewire.It was reported that the immediate angiographic success rate varied from 50%to 70% using the standard antegrade techniques,1 To improve this suboptimal success rate,the authors firstly introduced retrograde approach through the collateral channels as a novel technique2 and successfully recanalized a left main CTO using this technique when demonstrating the live cases in Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) 2005.Recently,modified techniques based on the retrograde approach have demonstrated that this approach could provide a high success rate with PCI.3-5 In the present report,we described a new method,wire trapping technique combined with retrograde approach,which was applied successfully in three patients with CTO.

  3. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  4. An Inquiry Approach to Fostering Stronger Earth Science Backgrounds in Current and Future Middle and High School Science Teachers: Research Techniques as Mechanisms of Teaching Time Scales and Systems Interactions in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, J. G.; Finkel, E.; Froburg, E.; Graham, K.; Hale, S.; Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; von Damm, K. L.; Fellows, T.

    2008-12-01

    Earth science provides an ideal opportunity to integrate authentic research into middle and high school curricula by providing a context for teaching scientific content, promoting a sense of intrigue through the inquiry process, and sharpening skills needed for future scientific endeavors. The University of New Hampshire's offerings as part of the Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project provide for the professional development of in-service and pre-service middle and high school science teachers. A centerpiece of the TESSE program is an entry-level accelerated course in Earth Systems Science (Earth System Science for Teachers, ESST-1). Participants in the ESST-1 course include current and prospective teachers wishing to improve their Earth science content background or those interested in updating their traditional content background to include a systems approach. Time scale and system interactions significant in the Earth System are introduced through authentic research conducted during field trips, research experiences and working with long-term datasets. Teachers are trained in keeping a field notebook, making field observations, and drawing conclusions based on this evidence. Combining these techniques with digital photography, teachers document evidence of Earth system processes and their associated timescales, presenting their findings in a peer-group poster session. Teachers also participate in research-based field trips to the local estuary and a wetland research site. During the following school year, the teachers are paired with science graduate fellows to integrate inquiry- based research with existing curricula. These classroom collaborations include measurement techniques, process skills and methods of communicating evidence learned during the summer institute that are then incorporated into the classroom activities. In addition to effecting change at the curriculum-development level, the graduate fellows paired with the first

  5. 多层螺旋CT自动管电流调制技术及应用进展%Automatic Tube Current Modulation Techniques in Multi-slice CT Scanning and the Application Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩

    2013-01-01

    随着计算机X线断层扫描(CT)技术的普及,CT扫描的高辐射剂量日益得到广泛关注.CT低剂量研究也成为了CT研究的热点领域.目前,降低CT扫描剂量的方法众多,而自动管电流调制技术(ATCM)作为一项通过实时曝光控制优化辐射剂量兼顾图像质量的先进技术已在临床工作中应用.不同的设备各有其技术基本原理及指标.对ATCM技术在头颈、胸、腹、盆腔部位应用及其影响因素和局限性等尚需更多的临床研究和改进.%With the popularization of CT scanning technology,high radiation dose has drawn wide attention, and low-dose CT has become the hot field. Jnowdays,many methods could be used to reduce CT radiation dose. Automatic tube current modulationt (ATCM ) technique, an advanced technology, has been applied in the clinical which optimizes radiation dose through real-time exposure control with the guaranty for image quality. Different equipments have different working principles and indicators, and the application of ATCM technique in head and neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvic cavity and the influencers and limitations still need further clinical research and improvement.

  6. 带包覆层铁磁性管道腐蚀脉冲涡流检测技术%Pulsed Eddy Current Inspection Technique in for Corrosion under Insulation in Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康小伟; 付跃文

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we applied pulsed eddy current(PEC} inspection technique to detect ferromagnetic tubes corrosion under insulation. By detecting corrosion of different thickness insulation and different defect areas and deepness, variation of detection sensitivity was analyzed. It was proved that as for corrosion defect with a large area, pulsed eddy current had a very good ability in testing under appropriate inspection parameters, even with a thick insulation.%应用脉冲涡流检测技术,对带包覆层的铁磁性管道腐蚀进行了检测。对不同厚度的包覆层、不同面积和深度的腐蚀缺陷进行了试验,分析检测灵敏度的变化。试验结果表明,对于较大面积的腐蚀缺陷,即使包覆层较厚,在合适的检测参数下,脉冲涡流也具有很好的检测能力。

  7. 重复经颅磁刺激器电容充电技术发展现状%Current progress of capacitor charging techniques for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷发胜; 赵晓昕; 张广浩; 霍小林

    2016-01-01

    经颅磁刺激( TMS)是一种非侵入式、无创无痛的神经检测和治疗技术。其中,重复经颅磁刺激( rTMS)具有调节病变区皮质兴奋性等复杂机制,在神经性疾病治疗研究方面具有巨大潜在价值,已经成为当今的研究热点。电容器充电技术是重复经颅磁刺激的核心技术,直接影响rTMS的性能,研制高效和可靠的电容充电电源成为rTMS技术发展的迫切需求。目前比较成熟的电容器充电技术中,高频开关变换器充电方式较其他方式具有明显的优势,随着电力电子器件的发展已成为当今的主流。本文首先详细介绍了两种高频变换器拓扑结构:PWM变换器和谐振变换器,随后从效率、充电速度、体积等几方面阐述了可用于rTMS系统的电容器充电电源技术的最新研究进展,最后指明了rTMS电源技术未来的发展方向。%Transcranial magnetic stimulation ( TMS ) is a non⁃invasive neural detection and treatment technique without causing the subject discomfort. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation ( rTMS) which has some com⁃plex regulatory mechanisms, such as regulating excitability of cortical areas, has great potential value in therapy re⁃search for neurological diseases, and it has become a current research hotspot. The capacitor charging technology is the core of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, directly impacting on the performance of rTMS. Developing highly efficient and reliable capacitor charging power supply ( CCPS) becomes urgent requirements for the advance⁃ment of rTMS techniques. With the mushroom growth of power electronic devices, compared with the other two kinds of techniques, high frequency switching converter has become current mainstream. Firstly two topologies of high frequency converter, PWM converter and resonant convertor, are introduced in detail, and then the latest re⁃search progress of capacitor charging power supply

  8. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  9. 阵列探头在传热管管板区涡流检测中的应用%The Feasibility Research of Array Probe Technique on Eddy Current Inspection of Tube Sheet Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹刚; 师绍猛; 袁建中; 杨敏

    2011-01-01

    Bobbin probes are used to inspect tubes of the condenser, but the inspection is subjected with the "blind area" problem near the tube sheet. Based on this inspection requirement, the application of CXB (Circ X+ Bobbin probe, a kind of array probe) on eddy current inspection of tube sheet area is under discussed. Experiment results by mockup show that CXB is capable of solving "blind area" problems encountered in tube sheet area with bobbin technique. In addition, the problem of CXB quantitative evaluation of defects is figured out successfully. Finally, site results are shown.%传统上采用Bobbin探头进行凝汽器传热管涡流检测时存在管板盲区问题。基于传热管管板区涡流检测需求,研究了CXB型阵列探头在此领域的应用。通过设计制作凝汽器模拟管板,开展了试验研究。试验发现,CXB探头能够有效解决涡流检测中Bobbin探头在传热管管板区存在的盲区问题。同时,试验解决了CXB探头对于缺陷的定量评定难题。最后给出了现场检测中的实际应用结果。

  10. Survey of Cataract Surgical Techniques in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF SABE NWOSU

    Objective: To determine the techniques of cataract surgery as currently being ... include phacoemulsification, manual small incision sutureless. 3 cataract surgery (SICS) ... technology automated small incision phacoemulsification technique.5.

  11. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  12. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  13. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  14. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  15. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  16. 当代景观设计中的自然意识和自然营造手法%Natural awareness and building technique in current landscape design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元婷

    2012-01-01

    围绕景观设计的自然观和设计手法,提出景观设计的三种境界,即"图中有景;眼中有景;心中有景",并分别从理念和手法两方面讨论了景观设计应具备的自然意识和自然营造手法,进而为当代景观设计提供了创新手法。%This paper focuses on the design of nature and landscape design techniques,point out the three proposed landscape design realm,that is,"Figure in landscape,in the eyes of the nature landscape,the hearts of the nature landscape",and respectively from the concepts and techniques discussed the landscape design should have a natural way to create awareness and natural building technique,in order to provide innovative techniques for contemporary landscape design.

  17. Validation of the ultrasonic and Eddy current techniques to inspect the accommodation of the elements of (CRDH) control rod drive; Validacion de las tecnicas de ultrasonidos y corrientes inducidas para inspeccionar los alojamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Gomez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Resa, P.

    2013-07-01

    Tecnatom development in the past with ultrasonic inspection procedures to examine vessels BWR of several Central nuclear (CRDH) control rod drive elements, accommodations. In each case, inspection techniques have relied on both the volume of required test postulated defects. Also, taking into account the possible access to the component, developed mechanical equipments of different characteristics.

  18. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  19. 油气藏水力压裂计算模拟技术研究现状与展望%CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECT OF COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNIQUES OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING IN OIL AND GAS FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张搏; 李晓; 王宇; 武艳芳; 李关访

    2015-01-01

    水力压裂技术是油气藏尤其是页岩气开发中的核心技术,利用数值模拟方法进行压裂优化和产能预测又是水力压裂成功的关键。本文首先介绍了水力压裂技术的发展历程。然后从计算模型(二维模型、拟三维模型和全三维模型)和数值模拟方法(基于连续介质和基于非连续介质)两方面对油气藏开发领域的水力压裂计算模拟技术进行较全面的总结。最后,从以下3个方面指出现今研究的不足并提出了进一步的研究建议:(1)全三维模型的完善-全三维模型应当与真实的工程参数和监测数据结合,用于校正模型本身,而校正后的全三维模型又可预测和优化新的现场水力压裂作业;(2)数值模拟方法的选用-已有的水力压裂数值模拟方法种类繁多,需要针对各种方法的适用范围、计算效率和模拟效果等,进行全面的比较和优化;(3)页岩储层中天然裂缝网络的数值模拟-天然裂隙网络加剧了页岩储层力学性质的各向异性,同时水力裂缝沟通天然裂缝活化扩展是有利于储层的增渗增产,对压裂缝网的形态、尺寸和连通率等起着至关重要的作用。因此,数值计算过程中综合考虑页岩储层中天然裂缝与水力裂缝的相互作用,将是未来水力压裂模拟的热点。%Hydraulic fracturing technology is the core technology in the oil and gas production,especially for the shale gas extraction.Numerical simulation for optimization design of fracking and productivity prediction is a key factor in successful hydraulic fracturing.This paper introduces the history of hydraulic fracturing technology.It reviews the computer simulation techniques of hydraulic fracturing in the oil and gas field.It covers the following two aspects:computing models(2D model,P3D model and fully 3D model)and numerical methods(continuum-based numerical methods and discontinuum

  20. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  1. Acceptor Removal in Silicon Devices for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Thalmayr, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In the course of my summer student project at CERN I used several characterization techniques to study changes in the detector properties after irradiation. Thereby I focused on annealing related effects on the leakage current and the depletion voltage of the sensors performing CV/IV measurements. Additionally transient current technique (TCT) is used to crossckeck results from CV/IV and get insight on the impact of annealing on the electric field shape.

  2. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...... architectural production as a conglomerate of various analogue and digital methods, and provide the basics, the tips/tricks - and how the tool themselves becomes operational for spatial/thematic investigations. Eventually, this will become a city, exhibition and phamplet inhabited by the (by...

  3. Fabrication of FeAl-WC composite and metal/metal joint using pulse current sintering technique; Pulse tsudenshoketsu gijutsu wo riyoshita FEAl-WC fukugozai narabini kinzoku setsugotaino sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Nishio, T.; Ozaki, K.; Sugiyama, A.; Kamiya, A.; Asahina, T. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya,Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-10-25

    Fe-40at%Al+0 {approx} 5at%B powder mixtures were milled in a planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere. The size of the particles decreased with increasing the B content. The mechanical properties such as transverse rupture strength and vickers hardness for Fe-40at%Al+3at%B compacts prepared by pulse current sintering were improved relative to Fe-40at%Al compacts. FeAl{sub 3}-0 {approx} 65vol%WC composites were prepared by using pulse current sintering in vacuum at the sintering temperature of 1,373 - 1,473K. The B added FeAl composites with 50vol% WC exhibited a transverse rupture strength of 1.7GPa and vickers hardness of 1,240. These values were 1.2 {approx} 1.5 times higher than those of FeAl-50vol%WC composites. A novel process for diffusion joining, a combination of pulse current sintering with pseudo-hot isostatic pressing (PHIP-PCS), was proposed. The joining between iron and aluminium tablets using PHIP-PCS process was successfully performed. (author)

  4. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  5. Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J

    1999-01-01

    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  6. Lack of run-down of smooth muscle P2X receptor currents recorded with the amphotericin permeabilized patch technique, physiological and pharmacological characterization of the properties of mesenteric artery P2X receptor ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C J; Evans, R J

    2000-12-01

    Immunoreactivity for P2X(1), P2X(4) and P2X(5) receptor subtypes was detected in the smooth muscle cell layer of second and third order rat mesenteric arteries immunoreactivity, for P2X(2), P2X(3), P2X(6) and P2X(7) receptors was below the level of detection in the smooth muscle layer. P2X receptor-mediated currents were recorded in patch clamp studies on acutely dissociated mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. Purinergic agonists evoked transient inward currents that decayed rapidly in the continued presence of agonist (tau approximately 200 ms). Standard whole cell responses to repeated applications of agonist at 5 min intervals ran down. Run-down was unaffected by changes in extracellular calcium concentration, intracellular calcium buffering or the inclusion of ATP and GTP in the pipette solution. Run-down was overcome and reproducible responses to purinergic agonists were recorded using the amphotericin permeabilized patch recording configuration. The rank order of potency at the P2X receptor was ATP=2 methylthio ATP>alpha, beta-methylene ATP>CTP=l-beta,gamma-methylene ATP. Only ATP and 2meSATP were full agonists. The P2 receptor antagonists suramin and PPADS inhibited P2X receptor-mediated currents with IC(50)s of 4 microM and 70 nM respectively. These results provide further characterization of artery P2X receptors and demonstrate that the properties are dominated by a P2X(1)-like receptor phenotype. No evidence could be found for a phenotype corresponding to homomeric P2X(4) or P2X(5) receptors or to heteromeric P2X(1/5) receptors and the functional role of these receptors in arteries remains unclear.

  7. 乳腺癌的超声诊断现状及新技术应用进展%Current State and Progress of New Techniques Applications of Ultrasonography in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晨曦

    2012-01-01

    近年来,乳腺肿瘤的发病率呈逐年上升趋势.乳腺癌是女性最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,早期诊断对其治疗及预后十分重要.随着现代影像技术的发展,超声检查已成为乳腺癌诊断的主要手段.二维灰阶超声结合多普勒超声、超声造影、三维超声、超声弹性成像、超声光散射成像以及SonoCT等新技术显著提高了乳腺癌的诊断准确率.现就这些检查方法及其他新技术的应用进展作一简要概述.%The incidence oi breast tumors has been in a yearly glowing uptiendierently. Breast ranrer is one oi the most common malignant tumors in women, the detection in the early-stage oi which is critical to the treatment and prognosis. With the development oi modern imaging techniques,ultrasound has become a major means oi breast cancer diagnosis. The combination oi grey-scale ultrasonography with new technologies such as Dopplei imaging,contrast-enhanced ultiasonogiphy,three-dimensional ultrasonogrphy,elastomography,diffuse optical imaging and,and SonoCT,has signiiicantly improved the breast cancel' diagnosis accuracy. Here is to make a brief review on the applications oi these methods and other new techniques in diagnosis oi breast cancer.

  8. Critical current density enhancement by ion irradiation for thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} films prepared by diffusion reaction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujur, A. [Department of Physics, NIT, Rourkela, Odisha 769 008 (India); Asokan, K. [IUAC, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Behera, D., E-mail: dhrubananda_behera@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, NIT, Rourkela, Odisha 769 008 (India)

    2015-01-15

    In the present work we have investigated the effect of 200 MeV Ag ions on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5 wt.% and 10 wt.%) composite thick films. The samples were characterized using temperature dependent resistivity and magnetization measurements. The residual resistivity, mean field transition temperature and the zero resistance state are appreciably modified due to swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI). With the increase in defect density for 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} added samples irradiated with Φ ⩾ 5 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} shows semiconducting behavior above the transition temperature marked by broadening of transition width. Pseudogap temperature regime estimated from the deviation of linear behaviour from resistivity data indicates a shift to lower temperature zone. Synergetic effect of SHI and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} show enhancement of critical current density and flux pinning at 40 K for 5 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusions. However, 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} added films after ion bombardment records lower values of critical current density and flux pinning. The results are explained on the basis of interplay of defect density and pinning of vortices in the YBCO matrix.

  9. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  10. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  11. Técnicas cirúrgicas correntes para fissuras lábio-palatinas, em Minas Gerais, Brasil Current surgical techniques for cleft lip-palate in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maris Ribeiro Paranaíba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fissuras do lábio e/ou palato (FL/P representam as anomalias congênitas crânio-facial mais comuns. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as técnicas cirúrgicas correntes na reabilitação de FL/P em um Serviço de referência no Estado de Minas Gerais. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo, 2002 a 2007, avaliando 109 portadores de FL/P não sindrômicas que tiveram o tratamento concluído. As dimensões de análise (identificação pessoal, classificação das FL/P e tratamento cirúrgico realizado foram obtidas a partir dos prontuários, sendo posteriormente construído banco de dados e as análises estatísticas realizadas pelo programa SPSS 13.0. Seguiu-se análise descritiva dos procedimentos cirúrgicos em função do tipo de FL/P encontrada. RESULTADOS: Entre os 109 pacientes, 65,1% foram do gênero masculino e 34,8% do feminino. Verificou-se que 45% dos pacientes apresentaram fissuras lábio-palatinas, 37,6% fissuras labiais e 17,4% fissuras palatinas. As técnicas correntes empregadas foram as de Millard e Spina para as queiloplastias, McComb para as rinoplastias e as de Veau e Van Langenbeeck para as palatoplastias. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo é o primeiro a abordar reabilitação em FL/P em Minas Gerais. Nas FL/P unilaterais houve a associação das técnicas de McComb, Veau e Millard, respectivamente, para rinoplastia, palatoplastia e queiloplastia, em 76,9% dos pacientes.Cleft lip and palate (CL/P are the most common congenital anomalies of the craniofacial region. AIM: to evaluate the surgical techniques used in CL/P treatment in a craniofacial deformities ward, in Minas Gerais. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, carried out between 2002 and 2007, we studied 109 individuals with non-syndromic CL/P submitted to treatment. The aspects analyzed (personal identification, classification of CL/P and surgical treatment performed were obtained from patient charts, and then we built a database and ran statistical analyses

  12. 香蕉采收技术现状及机械化生产对策%Current Situation of Banana Harvest Techniques and Countermeasures for Banana Harvest Mechanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮哲; 朱立学; 马稚昱

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the current situations of production mechanization and nondestructive harvest technology of bananas both at home and abroad, and comparing the application of several domestic modes for banana harvest, this thesis explores the harvest mode that is suitable for banana industry in China and then proposes some countermeasures for the harvest and post-harvest commercialization of bananas.%通过分析国内外当前香蕉生产机械化程度与无损采收技术,对比国内几种采收技术模式的应用情况,讨论适合中国香蕉产业发展的采收模式,并就香蕉采收与采后商品化处理提出了对策。

  13. Simulation Analysis and Experimental Research on Parameter Influence in Pulsed Eddy Current Nondestructive Testing Technique%脉冲涡流检测中参数影响的仿真分析与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 杨宾峰; 王晓锋; 赵玉丰

    2012-01-01

    脉冲涡流检测过程中传感器尺寸及激励参数对检测结果影响较大,对其进行优化设计可提高检测系统的性能.在分析矩形脉冲涡流传感器工作原理的基础上,采用ANSYS仿真软件建立了脉冲涡流的仿真模型,仿真分析了传感器尺寸变化对铝板中涡流衰减规律的影响,激励脉冲频率和占空比变化对缺陷检测灵敏度的影响,仿真结果表明:当激励线圈长度增加时,涡流在铝板中的衰减速度变慢,而当激励线圈宽度和高度增加时,涡流在铝板中的衰减速度变快;激励频率与占空比对缺陷检测灵敏度的影响与被测试件厚度有关,对于厚度较大的板材,应适当降低激励频率并提高占空比.最后采用实验的方法对仿真结果进行了验证,实验与仿真结果相一致,证明了仿真结论的正确性.%The dimension of probe and the exciting parameters have an obvious influence on the result of pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive testing, the capability of the PEC inspection system can be improved by optimizing these parameters. Based on the analysis of the principle of PEC, the PEC model is established by ANSYS finite element simulation software to analyze the influence of the variation of probe dimension on the eddy current decay law and that of the change of exciting frequency and duty cycle on the detecting sensitivity. The simulation results show that the attenuation of the eddy current slows down with the increase of exciting coil length, and the attenuation of the eddy current quickens with the increase of exciting coil width and highness. The influence of exciting frequency and duty cycle on the detecting sensitivity of defect has a relationship with the specimen thickness, the exciting frequency should be appropriately decreased and the duty cycle increased in inspecting thick specimen. Finally, the results of simulation are testified by experiment methods, the agreement between simulation and

  14. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  15. A summary of virtualization techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Haro, Fernando; Freitag, Fèlix; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Hernández Sánchez, Efraín; Farías Mendoza, Nicandro; Guerrero Ibáñez, Juan Antonio; González Potes, Apolinar

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, virtualization is a technology that is applied for sharing the capabilities of physical computers by splitting the resources among OSs. The concept of Virtual Machines (VMs) started back in 1964 with a IBM project called CP/CMS system. Currently, there are several virtualization techniques that can be used for supporting the execution of entire operating systems. We classify the virtualization techniques from the OS view. First, we discuss two techniques that executes modified gu...

  16. 网师园古树树体现状和症状及保护技术措施研究%Current Situation, Symptoms and Protective Techniques of Ancient Trees in the Master-of-Nets Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏胜林; 茅晓伟; 肖湘东; 付哓渝; 张重阳; 张帅

    2011-01-01

    调研了网师园现存古树的生长现状与病状,得知网师因现有古树6株,分别属5科5属,树龄为120 ~920年.网师园古树总体得到了一定的保护,6株古树中树势生长正常,只需进行常规管理的古树有3株,分别为白皮松、罗汉松、紫藤(殿春簃南庭院);需要重点保护的古树有3株,分别为木瓜、圆柏、紫藤,其中树干需要进行防腐、填充保护措施的古树有2株,需进行树势复壮综合技术措施的古树有1株.基于需重点保护的3株古树的病症,笔者提出木瓜的保护措施为:①清理、消毒洞穴,涂抹防腐蚀保护剂,②填补洞穴,③封实洞口;紫藤的保护措施为:①清理腐烂木质部,②对树干进行防腐消毒处理,③涂抹防腐保护剂;圆柏的保护措施为:①清除附属攀缘植物,②清理腐烂木质,③填补洞穴,④改良根际环境及树体复壮.%Growth conditions and symptoms of ancient trees in the Master-of-Nets Garden were investigated, it was found that there were 6 ancient trees about 120 -920 years old in this garden, belonging to 5 genera and 5 families. Generally speaking, ancient trees in this garden grow well due to the proper protection, and 3 of them need only regular management, specifically, Pinus bungeana Zucc. , Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb. ) D. Don, Wisteria sinensis Sweet in south yard of Dianchun Yi (the Peony Study), while another three need key protection, specifically, Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne, Sabina chinensis (Linn. ) Ant. And W. Sinensis Sweet, 2 of which need corrosion prevention and filling protection, and another 1 needs comprehensive techniques for the rejuvenation of tree vigor. In view of symptoms of these 3 trees requiring key protection, corresponding techniques were proposed; 3 steps for protecting C. Sinensis Koehne (A. Clearing and sterilizing tree holes, painting anti-corrosion protective agent; B. Filling holes; C. Sealing holes); 3 steps for protecting W. Sinensis Sweet (A

  17. 疲劳损伤磁性无损评估技术研究现状及发展前景∗%Current Research and Development Prospects of Magnetic Non-destructive Assessment Techniques for Fatigue Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冲冲; 董丽虹; 王海斗; 徐滨士; 李国禄

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic non-destructive testing plays a significant role in evaluating the fatigue damage in ferromag-netic materials.Based on the fatigue damage in ferromagnetic materials,several typical magnetic NDT techniques,i. e.,magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN),magneto-acoustic emission (MAE),magnetic flux leakage (MFL)and metal magnetic memory (MMM),etc.,are introduced.The generation mechanism and application characteristics of those methods are overviewed.Meanwhile,the research status and main achievements of those methods are summarized.Fi-nally the technical problems and further research directions are presented and the development prospect is also predic-ted.%磁性无损检测技术是评估铁磁材料疲劳损伤以及重要结构件可靠性的重要检测手段。针对铁磁材料的疲劳损伤,介绍了几种典型的磁性无损检测技术,如磁巴克豪森噪声(MBN)、磁声发射(MAE)、漏磁(MFL)和金属磁记忆(MMM)等,对其产生机理及应用特点进行了概述;对几种磁性检测技术在疲劳损伤评估领域的研究现状以及取得的主要研究成果进行了综述;最后指出几种技术尚存的问题和进一步的研究方向,并对其发展前景进行预测。

  18. Current management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelis A Papadopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbyopia is a physiologic inevitability that causes gradual loss of accommodation during the fifth decade of life. The correction of presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. Different approaches on the cornea, the crystalline lens and the sclera are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability. There are however, a number of limitations and considerations that have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical correction for presbyopia. The quality of vision, optical and visual distortions, regression of effect, complications such as corneal ectasia and haze, anisometropia after monovision correction, impaired distance vision and the invasive nature of the currently techniques have limited the utilization of presbyopia surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of current procedures available for presbyopia correction and their limitations.

  19. High-frequency techniques for RCS prediction of plate geometries and a physical optics/equivalent currents model for the RCS of trihedral corner reflectors, parts 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis C.

    Formulations for scattering from the coated plate and the coated dihedral corner reflector are included. A coated plate model based upon the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for impedance wedges was presented in the last report. In order to resolve inaccuracies and discontinuities in the predicted patterns using the UTD-based model, an improved model that uses more accurate diffraction coefficients is presented. A Physical Optics (PO) model for the coated dihedral corner reflector is presented as an intermediary step in developing a high-frequency model for this structure. The PO model is based upon the reflection coefficients for a metal-backed lossy material. Preliminary PO results for the dihedral corner reflector suggest that, in addition to being much faster computationally, this model may be more accurate than existing moment method (MM) models. An improved Physical Optics (PO)/Equivalent Currents model for modeling the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of both square and triangular, perfectly conducting, trihedral corner reflectors is presented. The new model uses the PO approximation at each reflection for the first- and second-order reflection terms. For the third-order reflection terms, a Geometrical Optics (GO) approximation is used for the first reflection; and PO approximations are used for the remaining reflections. The previously reported model used GO for all reflections except the terminating reflection. Using PO for most of the reflections results in a computationally slower model because many integrations must be performed numerically, but the advantage is that the predicted RCS using the new model is much more accurate. Comparisons between the two PO models, Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and experimental data are presented for validation of the new model.

  20. 儿科急诊现状及急救技术规范化建设思考%The current situation and standardization construction of pediatric emergency system and technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝益民

    2016-01-01

    As a new branch of subject,pediatric emergency medicine developed rapidly but imbalanced.In this article,we reviewed the current situation of pediatric emergency medicine,analyzed the existed main problems and put forward some proposals about its development.Because we lacked professional and standardized medical team and systems,personnel configuration distributed unreasonably,pre-hospital transport developed relatively backward and scientific researches in this field do not have big progress,we are now still in lack of unified documents which are suitable for our national conditions as a guideline.So it is highly important to organize specialized talent training,introduce some new technologies and strengthen multidisciplinary cooperation for further constitute and promote guideline.%儿科急诊医学作为一门新兴学科,发展迅速但不平衡.本文通过回顾我国儿科急诊医学发展的历程与现状,分析了存在的主要问题,包括专业医师队伍缺乏、体系不规范、标准少、患者多、院前转运滞后、科学研究薄弱等.提出未来完善儿科急诊医疗体系过程中加强符合我国国情的儿科急诊技术规范化的设想,如专业人才培养、新技术准入和多学科合作,强调制定和推广指南的重要性.

  1. 持续性肾脏替代治疗抗凝技术的应用%The current state and prospect of continuous renal replacement treatment anticoagulation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管向东; 孙冠青; 陈娟

    2012-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement treatment (CRRT) is a common organ function support ive technique in the field of Critical Care Medicine. Since sepsis patients are always combined with hemodynamic instability and coagulation dysfunction , anticoagulation therapy has been an indispensable component part in CRRT for sepsis patients. Anticoagulation therapy enables to slow or reduce the clottings in pipeline and/or filter so as to prolong its life,improve the efficacy of CRRT treatment, and reduce the loss of blood components and thrombosis under pathological state. So far,the common CRRT anticoagulation drugs include heparin,antithrombin,low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and/or hyparinoids from animal organs, II factor antagonists, nafamostat, sodium citrate and antiplatelet agents. Coagulation function should be regularly monitored in the process of CRRT anticoagulation treatment. Under the circumstance of anticoagulation taboo, heparin-saline priming, predilution and hydrophilic filter can be used to reduce the clottings in pipeline and/or filter.%持续性肾脏替代治疗(CRRT)是重症医学领域常用的器官功能支持技术.由于脓毒症患者常合并血流动力学不稳定及凝血功能障碍,抗凝技术已成为脓毒症患者CRRT过程中必不可少的组成部分.抗凝技术能延缓或减少管路和(或)滤器的凝血,延长其寿命,提高CRRT治疗效率,减少血液成分的丢失及病理状态下的血栓形成.目前常用的CRRT抗凝药物包括肝素、抗凝酶、低分子肝素和(或)肝素类似物、Ⅱ因子拮抗剂、萘莫斯他、枸橼酸钠及抗血小板药物.CRRT抗凝治疗过程中需动态监测凝血功能等指标.在抗凝禁忌的情况下,可用肝素盐水浸泡、前稀释及选择高亲水性滤器等方法减少管路和(或)滤器凝血.

  2. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  3. 当前铁路隧道施工亟待解决的若干技术问题%Technique Problems Need to be Solved Urgently in Current Railway Tunnel Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 刘仁智; 陈寿根; 高明忠

    2011-01-01

    Tunneling in high-speed railways is characterized by high construction standards, great construction difficulties, high safety risks and strict construction management requirements. Taking the Cuiguang high-speed railway as an example, this paper analyzes several key problems that restrict construction efficiency and safety. Based on the current technical status of domestic railway tunnel construction, some conclusions were drawn: 1) Excavation with the micro bench method utilizing precise blasting technology can solve the contradiction between excavation advancement and keeping a safe distance between different processes for rocks class IV and V; 2) Trackless transportation, which benefits from the progress of ventilation technology and air purification technology, is applicable to the construction of long tunnels with large sections; 3) Developing and applying fast construction equipment for tunnel invert construction and movable formworks for the construction of water ditches and cable grooves filled a gap in this field; and 4) Information-oriented construction is the trend of tunnel construction technology development in the future.%高速铁路隧道工程建设标准高,施工难度大,安全风险高,施工管理要求严格.文章以贵广铁路隧道工程为实例,结合当前国内隧道施工技术现状和贵广铁路隧道创新技术的现场实践,研究分析了制约隧道施工安全和施工效率的突出技术问题,取得了一系列研究成果:①基于精细爆破技术的微台阶开挖工艺可有效解决Ⅳ、Ⅴ级围岩隧道开挖进度与工序安全距离之间的矛盾;②得益于通风技术和空气净化技术的进步,无轨运输方式可以适应于长大隧道的施工;③隧道仰拱快速施工设备和隧道沟槽移动模架的开发应用填补了这一领域的空白;④信息化施工是未来遂道施工技术发展的大趋势.

  4. 海洋平台钻机底座焊缝的交流电磁场检测%Detection of Critical Welds of Ocean Platform Drilling Rig Substructure Using Alternating Current Field Measurement Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛运春; 张翼; 冷建成; 周国强; 吴泽民

    2015-01-01

    A new method using alternating current field measurement(ACFM)has been proposed in order to nondestructively inspect the critical welds of the in-service offshore platform drilling rig substructure with coatings. The detection principle of ACFM method is first introduced and is compared and analyzed with other nondestructive testing methods for surface defects,including MT and ET.Based on the structural characteristics and the special working environment of the platform drilling rig substructure,the corresponding ACFM detection system is presented,which is applied successfully to test surface or sub-surface defects of the critical welds of the rig substructure,and the scanning methods and signal recognition for the longitudinal and transversal cracks are emphatically discussed.At last,the general process and detection procedure of engineering application using ACFM method are summarized systematically,providing a good reference for ACFM inspection of other engineering structures.%为了对带有涂层的在役海洋平台钻机底座焊缝进行检测,使用了交流电磁场(ACFM)检测方法。介绍了 ACFM 检测的基本原理,并与磁粉检测、涡流检测等表面缺陷检测方法进行了对比分析。基于平台底座结构及其所处环境的特点,确定了将 ACFM 检测系统成功应用于底座关键焊缝的表面或近表面缺陷检测,重点探讨了纵向裂纹和横向裂纹的 ACFM 扫描方法和信号识别。总结了 ACFM 现场工程应用的一般流程和检测程序,对其他工程结构的 ACFM 检测具有很好的借鉴意义。

  5. 反射式Sagnac型光纤电流互感器的关键技术%Key Techniques of Reflective Sagnac Interferometer-type Fiber Optic Current Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传生; 张春熹; 王夏霄; 于佳; 冯秀娟

    2013-01-01

    给出了反射式Sagnac型光纤电流互感器(RS-FOCT)检测相位差与传感光纤Verdet常数及线性双折射、1/4波片相位延迟、相位调制器尾纤偏振串音和延迟光纤偏振串音等参数的定量关系,确定了它们的温度相关性是造成户外型RS-FOCT变比误差的主要原因,并采用传感光纤螺旋绕制、变比误差自补偿、降低相位调制器和延迟光纤偏振耦合等方法加以抑制.分析了RS-FOCT偏振非互易误差的产生机理,提出了偏振器尾纤快轴通光消除非互易波列相干性的误差抑制方法.实验结果表明:在-40~60℃范围内,敏感环路温度变化时变比误差不超过±0.2%;相位调制器、延迟光纤温度变化造成的变比变化量分别由1.828%和5.96%减小到0.283%和0.053 1%;偏振器输入尾纤温度变化引起的互感器输出准周期振荡被抑制.%The phase difference detected by a reflective Sagnac interferometer-type fiber optic current transformer (RS-FOCT as a function of the Verdet constant and linear birefringence of the sensing fiber,phase retardation of quarter-wave retarder,pigtail polarization crosstalk of integrated optical phase modulator and polarization crosstalk of the polarization-maintaining delay fiber are given respectively.The temperature dependences of these parameters are determined to be major causes of the scale factor error of the RS-FOCT applied to the outdoor environment.Some error suppression measures are taken to improve the temperature performance of the RS-FOCT including winding the sensing fiber spirally,the self-compensation of the scale factor temperature error and lowering the polarization coupling intensity of the phase modulator and delay fiber.The polarization nonreciprocal error mechanism of the RS-FOCT is analyzed with the corresponding error suppression method.The method aligns the fast axis of the pigtail and integrated optical waveguide of the polarizer so that the coherence between the

  6. Characterization of Input Current Interharmonics in Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    -edge symmetrical regularly sampled Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique, on the input current interharmonic components are presented and discussed. Particular attention is also given to the influence of the asymmetrical regularly sampled modulation technique on the drive input current interharmonics...

  7. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  8. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese

  9. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.......Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass...... to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls...

  10. The Cervical Cancer Screening Technique of Application and Progression%子宫颈癌筛查方法的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 东燕; 孙绪兰; 王萍; 曾燕

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic tumor and it is the second-leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide. It is critical to construct a sustainable, reasonable and efficient general survey method for the early detection of precancerosis of Cervical Cancer. At present, cervical cancer screening technique includes: (a) cervical cytological screening (papanicolaou smear, TCT and DNA quantification); (b) visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol'S iodine (VH.I) ; (c) vaginoscopy; (d) HPV detection. The article is to summarize the application and progression of technique for cervical cancer screening.%子宫颈癌是妇科常见恶性肿瘤之一,发病率居女性恶性肿瘤第二位.建立可持续、合理、有效的普查方法,早期发现癌前病变是防治宫颈癌的关键.目前宫颈癌筛查方法有宫颈细胞学筛查(巴氏涂片、液基薄层细胞学检测、细胞DNA定量分析技术)、肉眼观察辅以醋酸白和Lugol碘溶液检测法、阴道镜检查、病毒-HPV检测,本文就当前各种筛查方法的应用及研究进展进行概括.

  11. Design and optimization of the low frequency eddy current technique for the volumetric inspection of austenitic small diameter tubes with a wall thickness up to 12 mm; Auslegung und Optimierung des Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahrens fuer die volumetrische Pruefung von austenitischen Neben- und Kleinleitungen mit Wandstaerken bis 12 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Bessert, S.; Disque, M.; Weiss, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The low-frequency eddy current technique discussed is a suitable external inspection technique detecting defects at the inner walls of small-diameter tubes and measuring their depths via the ligament. A testing system with optimized sensor lus software for image recording, evaluation, display and documentation is available. The current state of development of the system permits detection and measurement of defects up to 20 mm in size in austenitic inner walls 12.5 mm thick down to a depth of 3 mm. This applies both to the homogenous base metal and the weld with {delta} ferrite. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das vorgestellte Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahren ist geeignet, bei Pruefung von aussen Fehler an der Innenseite von Klein- und Nebenleitungen nachzuweisen und ueber das Ligament deren Tiefe zu bestimmen. Ein entsprechendes Pruefsystem mit optimiertem Sensor und der Software zur Aufnahme, Auswertung, Darstellung und Dokumentation der Wirbelstrom-Urdaten steht zur Verfuegung. Beim jetzigen Entwicklungsstand liegt die Nachweisgrenze fuer einen 20 mm langen Innenfehler in einer 12.5 mm dicken austenitischen Wandung bei einer Fehlertiefe von 3 mm. Dies gilt sowohl fuer den homogenen Grundwerkstoff als auch fuer Schweissgefuege mit {delta}-Ferrit. (orig./MM)

  12. Exoplanet Detection Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Laughlin, Greg P; Macintosh, Bruce; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sahlmann, Johannes; Yee, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    We are still in the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require further improvements in instrumentation and new analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry. We provide a basic description of how each of these techniques works and discuss forefront developments that will result in new discoveries. We also highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method and their connections to future space missions.

  13. [Molecular techniques in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel; Gómez-López, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    An increasing number of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of fungal infections have been developed in the last few years, due to the growing prevalence of mycoses and the length of time required for diagnosis when classical microbiological methods are used. These methods are designed to resolve the following aspects of mycological diagnosis: a) Identification of fungi to species level by means of sequencing relevant taxonomic targets; b) early clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; c) detection of molecular mechanisms of resistance to antifungal agents; and d) molecular typing of fungi. Currently, these methods are restricted to highly developed laboratories. However, some of these techniques will probably be available in daily clinical practice in the near future.

  14. Current techniques in CAD/CAM denture fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Nadim Z; AlRumaih, Hamad S; Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce complete dentures has seen exponential growth in the dental market, and the number of commercially available CAD/CAM denture systems grows every year. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and laboratory procedures of 5 CAD/CAM denture systems.

  15. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia - A review of current management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a pathologic condition of bone of unknown etiology with no apparent familial, hereditary or congenital basis. Lichtenstein first coined the term in 1938 and in 1942 he and Jaffe separated it from other fibro-osseous lesions. It is a bone tumor that, although benign, has the potential to cause significant cosmetic and functional disturbance, particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Its management poses significant challenges to the surgeon. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is 1 of 3 types of fibrous dysplasia that can affect the bones of the craniofacial complex, including the mandible and maxilla. Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal developmental disorder of the bone-forming mesenchyme that manifests as a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation. It is a lesion of unknown etiology, uncertain pathogenesis, and diverse histopathology. Fibrous dysplasia represents about 2, 5% of all bone tumors and over 7% of all benign tumours. Over the years, we have gained a better understanding of its etiology, clinical behavior, and both surgical and non-surgical treatments.

  16. Metabolomics of cereals under biotic stress: current knowledge and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBalmer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prone to attacks by pathogens and pests, plants employ intricate chemical defense mechanisms consisting of metabolic adaptations. However, many plant attackers are manipulating the host metabolism to counteract defense responses and to induce favorable nutritional conditions. Advances in analytical chemistry have allowed the generation of extensive metabolic profiles during plant-pathogen and pest interactions. Thereby, metabolic processes were found to be highly specific for given tissues, species and plant-pathogen/pest interactions. The clusters of identified compounds not only serve as base in the quest of novel defense compounds, but also as markers for the characterization of the plants’ defensive state. The latter is especially useful in agronomic applications where meaningful markers are essential for crop protection. Cereals such as maize make use of their metabolic arsenal during both local and systemic defense responses, and the chemical response is highly adapted to specific attackers. Here, we summarize highlights and recent findings of metabolic patterns of cereals under pathogen and pest attack.

  17. Carotid artery stenting: Rationale, technique, and current concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Hasan, E-mail: hasan.yilmaz@hcuge.c [Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Narata, Ana-Paula [Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Sztajzel, Roman [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Lovblad, Karl-Olof [Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    Carotid stenosis is a major risk factor for stroke. With the aging of the general population and the availability of non-invasive vascular imaging studies, the diagnosis of a carotid plaque is commonly made in medical practice. Asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenoses need to be considered separately because their natural history is different. Two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in preventing ipsilateral ischemic events in patients with symptomatic severe stenosis. The benefit of surgery is much less for moderate stenosis and harmful in patients with stenosis less than 50%. Surgery has a marginal benefit in patients with asymptomatic stenosis. Improvements in medical treatment must be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of these previous trials which compared surgery against medical treatment available at the time the trials were conducted. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) might avoid the risks associated with surgery, including cranial nerve palsy, myocardial infarction, or pulmonary embolism. Therefore and additionally to well-established indications of CAS, this endovascular approach might be a valid alternative particularly in patients at high surgical risk. However, trials of endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis have failed to provide enough evidence to justify routine CAS as an alternative to CEA in patients suitable for surgery. More data from ongoing randomized trials of CEA versus CAS will be soon available. These results will help determining the role of CAS in the management of patients with carotid artery stenosis.

  18. First principle leakage current reduction technique for CMOS devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsague, HD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available that the device is suitable for low power applications. Physical models used for simulation included SI(sub3)N(sub4) and HfO(sub2) as gate dielectric with TiSix as metal gate. From the simulation result, it was shown that HfO2 was the best dielectric material when...

  19. Development of Capacitor Charging Supply Based on Constant Current Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jing-he; ZHANG; Li-feng; YANG; Sheng; TONG; Xun-hua; YU; Guo-long

    2013-01-01

    As the pulse power supply in electron linear accelerator,the line-type pulse modulator is used to produce the high voltage pulse which come into being when the pulse forming net(PFN)is discharged.The frequency and stability is related to the PFN charging system.The breakthrough in high power switch devices makes it possible that applying switch devices are into pulse power field.In line-type high voltage

  20. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter generally includes dust, smoke, soot, or aerosol particles. Environmental research addresses the origin, size, chemical composition, and the formation mechanics of aerosols. In the troposphere, fine aerosols (e.g. with diameters < 2.5 um) remain suspended until...

  1. Pectus excavatum: current imaging techniques and opportunities for dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Zahir U; DeFlorio, Robert; O'Connor, Stephen C

    2014-08-01

    Pectus excavatum (PE) is the most common congenital chest wall deformity in children. It affects 1 in every 300-1000 live births with a male to female ratio of 5:1. Most of the patients present in their first year of life. During the teenage years, patients may have exercise intolerance and psychological strain because of their chest wall deformity. The Nuss and Ravitch procedures are established methods of surgical correction of PE. An index of severity known best as the Haller index, typically evaluated with computed tomography scan, when measuring greater than 3.2 is considered to indicate moderate or severe PE and is a prerequisite for third-party insurance reimbursement for these corrective procedures. This article reviews the clinical features of PE, the role of imaging, and the opportunities for radiation dose reduction.

  2. Applicability of Current Atmospheric Correction Techniques in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2016-10-26

    Much of the Red Sea is considered to be a typical oligotrophic sea having very low chlorophyll-a concentrations. Few existing studies describe the variability of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. This study evaluates the resulting chlorophyll-a values computed with different chlorophyll algorithms (e.g., Chl_OCI, Chl_Carder, Chl_GSM, and Chl_GIOP) using radiances derived from two different atmospheric correction algorithms (NASA standard and Singh and Shanmugam (2014)). The resulting satellite derived chlorophyll-a concentrations are compared with in situ chlorophyll values measured using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Statistical analyses are used to assess the performances of algorithms using the in situ measurements obtain in the Red Sea, to evaluate the approach to atmospheric correction and algorithm parameterization.

  3. A Novel Current Sensor Technique for Brushless DC Motor Drives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1 Introduction Itiswellknownthatthetorquedevelopedbyapermanentmagnetbrushlessdcmotorisproportionaltothemagnitudeofmotorphasecurrents.ThislinearrelationshipmakesitconvenienttocontrolBLDCMtorqueproductionbyregulatingthemotorphasecurrents[1].Inthispaper,theinstantaneoustorquereferstotherealtorqueproducedatanytimeinstant,whereasthestatictorquereferstothetorqueproducedwhenonlytwoofthethreephasewindingscarrycurrents[2,3]. Instantaneoustorquecontrolstrategiesareusuallyimplementedonsuchservoapplicationsthatareexpec...

  4. Circuit Controls Turn-On Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    Single choke used in primary circuit with diode arrangement, maintaining dc current flow through choke and setting up a unidirectional magnetic field, limits turn-on current of transformer-rectifier power supply. Technique reduces number and weight of components and minimizes effect of initial inrush surge current on source.

  5. Pileup Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Matthew Henry; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the ATLAS experiment in developing tools to mitigate the effects of pile-up. Forward pile-up jet tagging techniques, as well as constituent-level pile-up suppression algorithms are discussed in details. The impacts of these approaches on both jet energy and angular resolution, as well as jet substructure and boosted object tagging performance are discussed. Improvements to various physics channels of interest are discussed and the potential future of such algorithms — both online and offline, and both at the current LHC and a future high-luminosity LHC and beyond — is considered in detail

  6. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  7. Automatic Threshold Detector Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-15

    TECHNIQUES Contract No. DAAH01-76-C-0363 ER76-4208 15 July 1976 Prepared for: HEADQUA RTERS U.S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35809 j...rain cross section each FFT filter) a MUT, MUCL , KCL, MUN, MUCLF (2 ), MUl, MUWI= MUW2 where MUT = Target cross section (M2), MUCL = total ground...variable is currently not used by the program. Since there is yet no point clutter model, MUCL represents the fluctuating component. Until a point plus

  8. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik

    2011-09-05

    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  9. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  10. Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, William R.; Kissinger, Peter T.

    1980-01-01

    Reports developments involving the experimental aspects of finite and current analytical electrochemistry including electrode materials (97 cited references), hydrodynamic techniques (56), spectroelectrochemistry (62), stripping voltammetry (70), voltammetric techniques (27), polarographic techniques (59), and miscellany (12). (CS)

  11. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  12. Full scale lightning test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.; Schneider, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A test technique was developed for applying a full scale mean value (30 kiloampere peak) simulated lightning return stroke current on a complete flight ready aircraft to assess the threat of lightning to aircraft electrical circuits. A computer-aided generator design was used to establish the parameters of the test system. Data from previous work done on development of low inductance current paths determined the basic system configuration.

  13. Recent results of the 3D-stripixel Si detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng, E-mail: lizheng@xtu.edu.cn [School of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Bassignana, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica IMB-CNM-CSIC, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Chen, Wei; Liu, Shuhuan; Lynn, David [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica IMB-CNM-CSIC, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-21

    The design, fabrication process and the characteristics measurements of the new 3D-stripixel detectors are presented in this paper. The optimized detectors design is simulated and analyzed with Sentaurus TCAD toolkit. The active area of the detector was studied with the laser transient current techniques (TCT) measurement. The characteristics of detector's 2D position sensitivity and charge collection was studied with an Alibava DAQ system.

  14. Point Defect Characterization in CdZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul,R.; Li, Z.; Bolotnikov, A.; Keeter, K.; Rodriguez, R.; James, R.

    2009-03-24

    Measurements of the defect levels and performance testing of CdZnTe detectors were performed by means of Current Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (I-DLTS), Transient Charge Technique (TCT), Current versus Voltage measurements (I-V), and gamma-ray spectroscopy. CdZnTe crystals were acquired from different commercial vendors and characterized for their point defects. I-DLTS studies included measurements of defect parameters such as energy levels in the band gap, carrier capture cross sections, and defect densities. The induced current due to laser-generated carriers was measured using TCT. The data were used to determine the transport properties of the detectors under study. A good correlation was found between the point defects in the detectors and their performance.

  15. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  16. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  17. Current possibilities for hip arthroplasty,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cavalli Polesello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy has been popularized over the last decade and, with technical advances regarding imaging diagnostics, understanding of the physiopathology or surgical techniques, several applications have been described. Both arthroscopy for intra-articular conditions and endoscopy for extra-articular procedures can be used in diagnosing or treating different conditions. This updated article has the objective of presenting the various current possibilities for hip arthroscopy.

  18. Current concepts in maxillofacial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddinghaus, Rudolf [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: rboeddinghaus@perthradclinic.com.au; Whyte, Andy [Perth Radiological Clinic, 127 Hamersley Road, Subiaco, Western Australia 6008 (Australia)], E-mail: awhyte@perthradclinic.com.au

    2008-06-15

    A review of state-of-the-art maxillofacial imaging is presented. Current imaging techniques include intra-oral radiographs, dental panoramic tomography, multidetector helical computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The commonest conditions encountered in clinical radiological practice are reviewed, including maxillofacial deformities, complicated dental impactions, maxillofacial trauma, jaw lesions (cysts, neoplasms, fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) and infections), and temporomandibular joint pathology. Pre-operative assessment for dental implant placement is also briefly reviewed.

  19. Invisalign: current guidelines for effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncio, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Invisalign is an increasingly popular technique for aligning teeth and correcting malocclusions orthodontically. This article analyzes the current professional literature published on Invisalign and the benefits and risks of using the technique for both patients and doctors. The steady increase in the number of cases treated with Invisalign and where the technique is going in the future is investigated. Ten guidelines for Invisalign treatment and patient selection are given, along with case examples.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    This 120-page book is a concise, yet comprehensive, clearly-written and well-illustrated monograph that covers the subject matter from basic principles through design, construction and calibration details to the principal applications. The book will be useful, as a primer, to the uninitiated and, as a reference book to the practitioner involved with transformer-type ratio devices. The length of the book and the style of presentation will not overburden any informed reader. The described techniques and the cited references are primarily from the work at the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Any omissions, however, are not serious with respect to coverage of the subject matter, since most of the development work has been done at NRC. The role of transformers and transformer-like devices for establishing accurate voltage and current ratios has been recognized for over half a century. Transformer techniques were much explored and developed in the fifties and sixties for accuracy levels suitable for standards laboratories. Three-winding voltage transformers were developed for scaling of impedances in connection with the calculable Thompson Lampard capacitor; three-winding current transformers or current comparators were initially explored for the calibration of current transformers and later for specialized impedance measurements. Extensive development of the current comparator and its applications has been and is still being conducted at the NRC by a team that was started and, until his retirement, led by N L Kusters. The team is now led by W J M Moore. He and P N Miljanic, the authors of this book, have had the principal roles in the development of the current comparator. It is fortunate for the field of metrology that considerabe resources and a talented group of researchers were available to do this development along with mechanisms that were available to transfer this technology to a private sector instrument manufacturer and, thus, disseminate it world wide

  1. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

    2012-10-01

    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  2. Psychosomatics: a current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, José Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The term 'psychosomatic' has typically defined a series of illnesses in which somatic injury breaks out from psychic conflict not recognized as such. Currently, health is considered the only psychosomatic state of integration of mind and soma: an ideal state of integration. Somatic pathology is an effect of mind/body splitting. In the heterogeneous 'field of psychosomatics' interaction between psyche and soma ranges from classical psychosomatic illness to sporadic episodes in which the body has responded to an inability to process mental conflict. The author briefly reviews the development of psychoanalytic thought on psychosomatics in Argentina. He suggests the need to find appropriate conceptual tools to approach the mental structure underlying this pathology. He presents his ideas about the mental functioning of patients with somatization disorders. He introduces the concept of somatic event as a restitution phenomenon through which the subject attempts to re-establish self-integration and links with reality. He also offers some reflections on temporality and on changes in psychoanalytic technique with these patients. A clinical case illustrates his ideas.

  3. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  4. Other imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J

    1984-02-01

    Images of the breast can now be produced by five modalities: x-ray, heat, sound, light, and magnetism. X-ray mammography is generally accepted as the most accurate of these in the detection of breast cancer, and the standard by which the others are judged. Despite the obvious attraction of nonionizing techniques, the economic factor attendant on multiple studies requires consideration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is currently being investigated in several clinics, but as yet there is no large series of documented cases. This report addresses itself to thermography, ultrasonography and diaphanography (transillumination). The unique characteristics of each and their respective roles in evaluation of the breast, particularly in the detection of breast cancer, will be discussed. When used in conjunction with mammography, potential advantages include: enhanced diagnostic accuracy, reduction of unnecessary surgery, and, in proven cases of breast cancer, prognostic capability. Thus far it has not been demonstrated that any of the nonionizing techniques can serve as a sole screening modality for breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women.

  5. Defining and resolving current systems in geospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Liemohn, M. W.; Dubyagin, S.; Daglis, I. A.; Dandouras, I.; De Zeeuw, D. L.; Ebihara, Y.; Ilie, R.; Katus, R.; Kubyshkina, M.; Milan, S. E.; Ohtani, S.; Ostgaard, N.; Reistad, J. P.; Tenfjord, P.; Toffoletto, F.; Zaharia, S.; Amariutei, O.

    2015-11-01

    Electric currents flowing through near-Earth space (R ≤ 12 RE) can support a highly distorted magnetic field topology, changing particle drift paths and therefore having a nonlinear feedback on the currents themselves. A number of current systems exist in the magnetosphere, most commonly defined as (1) the dayside magnetopause Chapman-Ferraro currents, (2) the Birkeland field-aligned currents with high-latitude "region 1" and lower-latitude "region 2" currents connected to the partial ring current, (3) the magnetotail currents, and (4) the symmetric ring current. In the near-Earth nightside region, however, several of these current systems flow in close proximity to each other. Moreover, the existence of other temporal current systems, such as the substorm current wedge or "banana" current, has been reported. It is very difficult to identify a local measurement as belonging to a specific system. Such identification is important, however, because how the current closes and how these loops change in space and time governs the magnetic topology of the magnetosphere and therefore controls the physical processes of geospace. Furthermore, many methods exist for identifying the regions of near-Earth space carrying each type of current. This study presents a robust collection of these definitions of current systems in geospace, particularly in the near-Earth nightside magnetosphere, as viewed from a variety of observational and computational analysis techniques. The influence of definitional choice on the resulting interpretation of physical processes governing geospace dynamics is presented and discussed.

  6. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  7. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  8. Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Alpay

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Atilla Alpay, Suat Hayri Ugurbas, Berktug ErdoganDepartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TurkeyPurpose: To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique.Methods: This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia; mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent pterygia; 18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction; and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years.Results: Eight recurrences (38.09% were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25% recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33% recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were  observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients.Conclusion: A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease.Keywords: pterygium, comparing, techniques, mitomycin C

  9. Learning by Doing: An Empirical Study of Active Teaching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Kate L.; Tennial, Rachel E.; Garczynski, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the effectiveness of four teaching techniques (lecture, demonstrations, discussions, and in-class activities) in the classroom. As each technique offers different benefits to the instructor and students, each technique was expected to aid in a different depth of learning. The current findings indicated that each…

  10. Application of grid-nesting technique on sandwaves migration simulation Ⅰ——Ultra-high resolution 3D current simulation%网格嵌套技术在模拟海底沙波运移中的应用Ⅰ——超高分辨率海洋三维流场模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文滨; 林缅

    2011-01-01

    本文采用POM(Princeton Ocean Model)模式,结合多波束测量得到的高分辨率地形数据,通过网格嵌套分级计算,得到了南海北部琼西南海域近40km2研究区内的水平网格分辨率达200 m的海底流场.通过数值试验,确定了内嵌模型的最佳侧面开边界条件.计算结果表明,本文所提出超高水平分辨率嵌套模式能够模拟复杂海洋地形上的余流特征.研究证明,本文为模拟开边界小区域海洋三维流场提供了一种较为快速、准确的方法.该方法的水平分辨率是目前国际上流行的高分辨率的9倍,也可用于开边界小区域物理海洋环境的数值模拟.%Adopting the Princeton Ocean Model, a model with horizontal resolution of about 200 m is developed in this paper to simulate the bottom current field of the small study area in the north of South China Sea. The grid-nesting technique is used twice in this model with the high-resolution bathymetry data measured by multi-beam equipments. The lateral open boundary conditions of the nested model are selected by numerical experiments. It is proved that this ultra-high resolution model is able to simulate the residual current of the area with complex ocean topography and is a quick and accurate way to get three-dimensional high-resolution ocean current field of small sea area with open boundaries. The resolution is nine times as high as international advanced level. The model developed here is also applicable for researches on small scale ocean environment.

  11. Nontraditional manufacturing technique-Nano machining technique based on SPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Shen; YAN; Yongda; SUN; Tao; LIANG; Yingchun; CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Nano machining based on SPM is a novel, nontraditional advanced manufacturing technique. There are three main machining methods based on SPM, i.e.single atom manipulation, surface modification using physical or chemical actions and mechanical scratching. The current development of this technique is summarized. Based on the analysis of mechanical scratching mechanism, a 5 μm micro inflation hole is fabricated on the surface of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. The processing technique is optimized. The machining properties of brittle material, single crystal Ge, are investigated. A micro machining system combining SPM and a high accuracy stage is developed. Some 2D and 3D microstructures are fabricated using the system. This method has broad applications in the field of nano machining.

  12. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  13. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses.

  14. Functional chromatographic technique for natural product isolation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Eichhorst, Nicole; Engelder, Pearce; Mesa, Celestina; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product discovery arises through a unique interplay between chromatographic purification and biological assays. Currently, most techniques used for natural product purification deliver leads without a defined biological action. We now describe a technique, referred to herein as functional chromatography, that deploys biological affinity as the matrix for compound isolation. PMID:25588099

  15. Functional chromatographic technique for natural product isolation†

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Eric C.; Mason, Damian J.; Eichhorst, Nicole; Engelder, Pearce; Mesa, Celestina; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.; La Clair, James J.; Chapman, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Natural product discovery arises through a unique interplay between chromatographic purification and biological assays. Currently, most techniques used for natural product purification deliver leads without a defined biological action. We now describe a technique, referred to herein as functional chromatography, that deploys biological affinity as the matrix for compound isolation.

  16. The Delphi Technique in Educational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Ravonne A.

    2014-01-01

    The Delphi Technique has been useful in educational settings in forming guidelines, standards, and in predicting trends. Judd lists these major uses of the Delphi Technique in higher education: (a) cost-effectiveness, (b) cost–benefit analysis, (c) curriculum and campus planning, and (d) university-wide educational goals and objectives. The thorough Delphi researcher seeks to reconcile the Delphi consensus with current...

  17. Clinical techniques of artificial insemination in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makloski, Chelsea L

    2012-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the current breeding techniques used in small animal reproduction today with an emphasis on artificial insemination techniques such as transvaginal and transcervical insemination as well as surgical deposition of semen in the uterus and oviduct. Breeding management and ovulation timing will be mentioned but are discussed in further detail in another article in this issue.

  18. Stress Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Czabała

    2016-05-01

    Of all the stress management techniques people used mostly those included in the categories of “problem solving”, “vicarious gratification” and “distancing”. This points to the use of techniques that require no effort but are not fully effective. It could be so that they have not skills to use other techniques, or are aware that such techniques exist.

  19. Radiologic imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushong, S.C. (Dept. of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (US)); Eastman, T.R. (Agfagavert Inc., Irving, TX (US))

    1990-01-01

    The authors focus on the subject of clinical radiographic technique. Emphasizing correct radiographic technique, it's heavily illustrated with radiographs that demonstrate proper exposure and show what happens when exposure variables are changed. A key feature is a discussion and evaluation of radiographic technique charts. Basic technique charts are provided for every body part examined.

  20. Microcontact Printing Techniques in Bioscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xi-zeng; HOU Sun; CHAN Qi-lin; WANG Li-kai; QIN Ming; HAN Pei-dong

    2004-01-01

    The microcontact printing(μCP) technology available for patterning protein, DNA hybridization, immunoassay and cellular cocultures onto solid surface are reviewed. This review describes some of the techniques currently employed for creating two-dimensional biomolecular microarray, and the research results regarding their effectiveness. In addition, the applications of the impact of μCP technology in the field of biosciences are also presented.

  1. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction is a complete reference text composed of the most thorough collection of topics on the ACL and its surgical reconstruction compiled, with contributions from some of the world's experts and most experienced ACL surgeons. Various procedures mentioned throughout the text are also demonstrated in an accompanying video CD-ROM. PURPOSE Composing a single, comprehensive and complete information source on ACL including basic sciences, clinical issues, latest concepts and surgical techniques, from evaluation to outcome, from history to future, editors and contributors have targeted to keep the audience pace with the latest concepts and techniques for the evaluation and the treatment of ACL injuries. FEATURES The text is composed of 27 chapters in 6 sections. The first section is mostly about basic sciences, also history of the ACL, imaging, clinical approach to adolescent and pediatric patients are subjected. In the second section, Graft Choices and Arthroscopy Portals for ACL Reconstruction are mentioned. The third section is about the technique and the outcome of the single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The fourth chapter includes the techniques and outcome of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In the fifth chapter revision, navigation technology, rehabilitation and the evaluation of the outcome of ACL reconstruction is subjected. The sixth/the last chapter is about the future advances to reach: What We Have Learned and the Future of ACL Reconstruction. AUDIENCE Orthopedic residents, sports traumatology and knee surgery fellows, orthopedic surgeons, also scientists in basic sciences or clinicians who are studying or planning a research on ACL forms the audience group of this book. ASSESSMENT This is the latest, the most complete and comprehensive textbook of ACL reconstruction produced by the editorial work up of two pioneer and masters "Freddie H. Fu MD and Steven B. Cohen MD" with the contribution of world

  2. Currents for Arbitrary Helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Using Mackey's classification of unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group on massles states of arbitrary helicity we disprove the claim that states with helicity |h|>=1 cannot couple to a conserved current by constructing such a current.

  3. Magnetic current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  4. Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Atilla; Uğurbaş, Suat Hayri; Erdoğan, Berktuğ

    2009-01-01

    To compare various techniques of pterygium surgery including bare sclera, intraoperative mitomycin C application, conjunctival flap reconstruction, and conjunctival autografting technique. This study is designed to compare 4 currently used techniques in order to determine the complication and recurrence rates after pterygium exision. Included in the study were 77 eyes from 60 patients. Bare sclera technique was used to treat 21 primary pterygia;mitomycin C was used to treat 20 (16 primary, 4 recurrent) pterygia;18 (17 primary, 1 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjuntival flap reconstruction;and 18 (9 primary, 9 recurrent) pterygia were treated by conjunctival autografting technique. All patients who underwent surgery were followed up for between 6 months and 2 years. Eight recurrences (38.09%) were observed in the bare sclera group whereas there were 5 (25%) recurrences in the mitomycin C group. In the conjunctival flap reconstruction group, 6 (33.33%) recurrences were detected. In the conjunctival autografting group, 3 recurrences were observed. There were no major complications threatening visual ability in the surgical patients. A comparison of the groups demonstrated that the recurrence rate was highest in the bare sclera group, and lowest in conjunctival autografting and mitomycin C treatment groups respectively. Although the conjunctival autografting technique is a more difficult and time consuming technique than the others, cosmetic and surgical results were found to be superior. We advise conjunctival autografting for the treatment of pterygium in view of the high recurrence rates of other techniques, and the possible complications of mitomycin C treatment for benign disease.

  5. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...

  6. Controlled current inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  7. Transient eddy current flow metering

    CERN Document Server

    Forbriger, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.

  8. Transient eddy current flow metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbriger, J.; Stefani, F.

    2015-10-01

    Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.

  9. Precise Characterization of a Laser Current Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Daylin

    2009-10-01

    I will be presenting a characterization of our unique low-noise laser current driver. Our current driver improves on the typical model used in laboratories, giving extra current stability and lower noise. I will discuss our techniques for measuring the noise and drift and the results we obtained. The current driver has a lower noise and drift than any other current driver with a published value, so it has value in making precision measurements. Many other labs have expressed interest in our design as there is a need for this type of current driver in many applications. The current driver demonstrates some interesting applications of electronics principles and uses of electric components, as well as practical considerations in designing circuitry.

  10. Current status of transarterial radioembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas H Mahnken

    2016-01-01

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization(TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: 90Y-resin and 90Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease.

  11. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  12. Decomposition of residue currents

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  13. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  14. Alternating current CMT and high frequency pulse composite arc on A1-Li alloys welding technique%铝锂合金交流CMT焊接高频脉冲复合电弧焊接技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪殿龙; 张志洋; 王波; 梁志敏; 王军

    2013-01-01

    随着兵器工业和航空航天领域对高强、轻质A1-Li系合金结构件的迫切需求,实现Al-Li合金的可靠高效连接显得日益重要.针对在焊接Al-Li合金使用传统焊接方法易出现热输入量大、焊接稳定性差导致的组织性能差及气孔、热裂纹缺陷等问题,提出采用交流CMT焊接与DC-DC变换高频脉冲复合电弧焊接技术进行A1-Li系合金焊接,利用低热输入量的交流CMT焊接电孤破除合金表面氧化膜,减小熔池气孔和热裂纹敏感性,利用高频脉冲电弧的高频效应及其电弧超声细化晶粒,提高接头强度,获得良好的结合性能.%With the urgent needs of high strength, lightweight Al-Li alloy structure in weapons industry and aerospace areas, reliable and efficient connection of Al-Li alloy appears increasingly important. It is prone to porosity, thermal cracks and other defects in traditional Al-Li alloy welding methods because of oversized heat input and poor welding stability. In response to these issues, this paper proposed a novel technique using alternating current CMT and DC-DC high-frequency pulsed composite arc on Al-Li alloy welding. In order to get good bonding properties, the low heat input of alternating current CMT arc is used to break oxidation film in alloy surface, reduce porosity and the thermal crack sensitivity of weld pool. The high frequency effect of high frequency pulse arc and its arc ultrasonic is used to refine grains and improve joint strength.

  15. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  16. Improved Search Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  17. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  18. Eddy current quality control of soldered current-carrying busbar splices of superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, L; Savary, F; Principe, R; Datskov, V; Rozenfel'd, E; Khudjakov, B

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current technique associated with a U-shaped transducer is studied for the quality control of soldered joints between superconducting busbars ('splices'). Two other quality control techniques, based on X-rays and direct measurement of the electrical resistance, are also studied for comparison. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these three methods in relation to the quality control of soldered superconducting busbar cables enclosed in copper shells is used for benchmarking. The results of inspections with the U-shaped eddy current transducer carried out on several sample joints presenting different types of soldering defects show the potential of this type of nondestructive (ND) quality control technique.

  19. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  20. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  1. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  2. Relaxation Techniques for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Relaxation Techniques for Health Share: On This Page What’s the ... Bottom Line? How much do we know about relaxation techniques? A substantial amount of research has been done ...

  3. Detection of magnetising inrush current using real time integration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P. C. Y.; Basak, A.

    1990-01-01

    A technique of predicting magnetising inrush currents in transformers is described. Computed results show an inconsistency in second harmonic decay resulting detection failure while using conventional second harmonic techniques. A new detection scheme using real time integration values of the inrush current is proposed to provide reliable relay operation.

  4. Transport critical current of MgB2 wires: pulsed current of varying rate compared to direct current method

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of transport critical current (Ic) for MgB2 wires and tapes has been investigated with two different techniques, the conventional four-probe arrangement with direct current (DC) power source, and a tailored triangle pulse at different rates of current change. The DC method has been widely used and practiced by various groups, but suffers from inevitable heating effects when high currents are used at low magnetic fields. The pulsed current method has no heating effects, but the critical current can depend on the rate of the current change (dI/dt) in the pulse. Our pulsed current measurements with varying dI/dt show that the same values of Ic are obtained as with the DC method, but without the artifacts of heating. Our method is particularly useful at low field regions which are often inaccessible by DC methods. We also performed a finite element method (FEM) analysis to obtain the time dependent heat distribution in MgB2 due to the electric potential produced at the current contacts to the superconducting sample and its gradient around the contacts. This gradient is defined as the current transfer length (CTL) of the samples and leads to Joule heating of the wire near the contacts. The FEM results provide further evidence of the limitation of the DC method in obtaining high transport critical current.

  5. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  6. Medium voltage switching techniques; Techniques de coupure en moyenne tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theoleyre, S. [Schneider Electric S.A., 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    1999-08-01

    The link between power production plants and users is ensured by a grid or an arborescence of connections, lines and cables. For exploitation, maintenance or safety reasons it may be necessary to switch off and switch on the current at any point of the network. Switching devices are used for this purpose and the choice of a given device depends on the nature of the current (load, overload and fault currents) and of the domain of application. During switching and during continuous operation, these devices are submitted to dielectric, thermal, electrodynamical and mechanical stresses. The most important stresses are those linked with transient phenomena and involving an electric arc. This paper deals principally with the switching of medium voltage (1 to 52 kV) AC currents using circuit breakers. The first part analyzes the phenomena that occur during the operation of circuit breakers while the second part presents the four switching techniques currently used: in air, oil, vacuum and in sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). (J.S.) 35 refs.

  7. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  8. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C Vicentini

    2009-01-01

    Although the evolution of the technique in the last 20 years, urologists must continue to improve their skills and develop new technologies to offer to the patients more and more a safe and effective option to treat large renal stones.

  9. Current Trends in Tactical Missile Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vathsal

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tactical missile guidance is very challenging and has been treated using several basic metlfodologies in the past four decades. Major techniques can be grouped underclassical guidance laws, modern guidance laws, l'aws for manoeuvring targets, predictive guidance for endgame scenario, and guidance laws based on intelligent control methods. Each technique has some advantages and disadvantages while implementing in a practical system. Guidance law selection is dictated by nature of flight profile like boost, midcourse, terminal homing, etc, and also miss-distance and a single-shot kill probability. This paper presents a brief survey of the existing techniques and current trends in tactical missile guidance.

  10. Merging of plasma currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Schep, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The merging process of current filaments in a strongly magnetized plasma is described. The evolution is calculated using a contour dynamics method, which accurately tracks piecewise constant distributions of the conserved quantities. In the interaction of two screened currents, both develop dipolar

  11. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying spec

  12. Discrete Noether Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Gerhart

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple generalization of Noether's theorem for discrete symmetries in relativistic continuum field theories. We calculate explicitly the conserved current for several discrete spacetime and internal symmetries. In addition, we formulate an analogue of the Ward-Takahashi identity for the Noether current associated with a discrete symmetry.

  13. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  14. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  15. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying

  16. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Stegner, Alexander; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Salinas, Carolina; Aguiar-González, Borja; Henríquez-Pastene, Cristian; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying special attention to the recirculation of the BC at the northeastern tip and northern slopes of the SSI. We observed that when the northeastward-flowing BC reaches the northeastern tip of the SSI, it recirculates around an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy that has not previously been reported in this region. Part of this recirculating water then proceeds southwest along the northern SSI shelf break as a narrow baroclinic jet and another part join the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Consequently, the cross-slope gradients of properties strengthen, and the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current becomes a nearly submesoscale ( 10 km) front. Second, we compare the observations with buoyant gravity current laboratory experiments in an open basin setup where the SSI topographic barrier is represented by a central wall. The resulting circulation of the buoyant gravity current around the wall mirrors our in situ observations. First, a narrow buoyant gravity current flows northeastward along the southern boundary of the wall. Once the head of the buoyant gravity current reaches the tip of the wall, a recirculating anticyclonic vortex is generated, and the buoyant gravity current then proceeds westward along the north side of the wall. This circulation of the BC around the SSI as a buoyant gravity current may contribute to the fertilization of the waters around the SSI, as suggested by previously reported distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton.

  17. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  18. Machine learning techniques in dialogue act recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fišel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This report addresses dialogue acts, their existing applications and techniques of automatically recognizing them, in Estonia as well as elsewhere. Three main applications are described: in dialogue systems to determine the intention of the speaker, in dialogue systems with machine translation to resolve ambiguities in the possible translation variants and in speech recognition to reduce word recognition error rate. Several recognition techniques are described on the surface level: how they work and how they are trained. A summary of the corresponding representation methods is provided for each technique. The paper also includes examples of applying the techniques to dialogue act recognition.The author comes to the conclusion that using the current evaluation metric it is impossible to compare dialogue act recognition techniques when these are applied to different dialogue act tag sets. Dialogue acts remain an open research area, with space and need for developing new recognition techniques and methods of evaluation.

  19. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands for time and skilled technical personnel, HVTs are currently used in only a few research laboratories worldwide. Instead, most researchers in this filed are attracted to more facile Schlenk techniques. The basic principle of this technique followed in all laboratories is substantially the same, i.e. the use of alternate vacuum and inert gas atmosphere in glass apparatus for the purification/charging of monomer, solvents, additives, and for the manipulation of air-sensitive compounds such as alkyl metal initiators, organometallic or organic catalysts. However, it is executed quite differently in each research group in terms of the structure of Schlenk apparatus (manifolds, connections, purification/storage flasks, reactors, etc.), the use of small supplementary devices (soft tubing, cannulas, stopcocks, etc.) and experimental procedures. The operational methods are partly purpose-oriented while also featured by a high flexibility, which makes it impossible to describe in detail each specific one. In this chapter we will briefly exemplify the application of Schlenk techniques for anionic polymerization by describing the performance of a few experiments from our own work.

  20. Apoptosis Evaluation by Electrochemical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Miao, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis has close relevance to pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Accurate and convenient detection of apoptosis would be beneficial for biological study, clinical diagnosis, and drug development. Based on distinct features of apoptotic cells, a diversity of analytical techniques have been exploited for sensitive analysis of apoptosis, such as surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical methods, flow cytometry, and some imaging assays. Among them, the features of simplicity, easy operation, low cost, and high sensitivity make electrochemical techniques powerful tools to investigate electron-transfer processes of in vitro biological systems. In this contribution, a general overview of current knowledge on various technical approaches for apoptosis evaluation is provided. Furthermore, recently developed electrochemical biosensors for detecting apoptotic cells and their advantages over traditional methods are summarized. One of the main considerations focuses on designing the recognition elements based on various biochemical events during apoptosis.

  1. Surgical technique of orthotopic liver transplantation in rats: the Kamada technique and a new splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Eiichi; Shimizu, Akira; Takahashi, Mikiko; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Ryuji; Masuda, Yukinari; Fukuda, Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.

  2. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator's contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff's laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm.

  3. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  4. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilshtein, Hayim; Duek, Simon-Daniel; Khoury, Wisam

    2016-06-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is part of the colorectal surgeons' armamentarium for over 2 decades. Since its first implementation for the resection of benign and T1 malignant lesions in the rectum several new indications were developed and it carries additional promise for further extension in upcoming years. Herein we review the technique, its current indications, novel implications, and future perspectives.

  5. Current correlators for general gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooguri, Hirosi [California Institute of Technology, 452-48 Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ookouchi, Yutaka [California Institute of Technology, 452-48 Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: yutaka@caltech.edu; Park, Chang-Soon; Song, Jaewon [California Institute of Technology, 452-48 Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-02-11

    In the gauge mediation mechanism, the effects of the hidden sector are characterized by a set of correlation functions of the global symmetry current of the hidden sector. We present methods to compute these correlators in cases with strongly coupled hidden sectors. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the technique explicitly.

  6. Noncontact Measurement Of Critical Current In Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Critical current measured indirectly via flux-compression technique. Magnetic flux compressed into gap between superconductive hollow cylinder and superconductive rod when rod inserted in hole in cylinder. Hall-effect probe measures flux density before and after compression. Method does not involve any electrical contact with superconductor. Therefore, does not cause resistive heating and consequent premature loss of superconductivity.

  7. Current State of Craniofacial Prosthetic Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; van Oort, Robert P.; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to review the current state of the techniques and materials used to rehabilitate maxillofacial defects. Materials and Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertinent to maxillofacial prostheses published from January 1990 to July 2011. The

  8. Water Current Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tidal, river and ocean current observations collected by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Period of record is late 1800s to mid-1980s.

  9. Prognosis - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prognosis. Includes posts on factors that influence prognosis, prognostic biomarkers, and doctor-patient communications about prognosis.

  10. NOAA NDBC SOS - currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for...

  11. AUTO FIB Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  13. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  14. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  15. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  16. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  17. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  18. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  19. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  20. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.