WorldWideScience

Sample records for current study seeks

  1. Current psychological status of those seeking services at the Rape Trauma Service during the years 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnhildur Gunnarsdóttir 1990

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault has extensive and often long-term psychological consequences. The aim of the current study was to examine the current status of those seeking services at the Rape Trauma Service (RTS) during the year 2010-2014, i.e. depression, anxiety and stress, PTSD symptoms, and perceived social support. The study was a survey study without a comparison group. Information about age, gender, time elapsed from the assault, and abuse severity were obtained retrospectively from medical data. Th...

  2. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  3. Help-seeking behaviour following school-based screening for current suicidality among European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Pádraig; Kaess, Michael; Corcoran, Paul; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Keeley, Helen; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Resch, Franz; Postuvan, Vita; Värnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-06-01

    To screen and clinically interview European adolescents reporting current suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempt) and investigate attendance at the clinical interview. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) Project was carried out in 11 European countries. A baseline questionnaire was completed in school by 12,395 adolescents (mean age 14.9; SD 0.9). Those who screened positive for suicidality (attempting suicide and/or serious suicidal ideation or plans) in the past 2 weeks were invited to a clinical interview with a mental health professional. Of the 12,395 adolescents, 4.2 % (n = 516) screened positive for current suicidality. The prevalence ranged from 1.1 % in Hungary to 7.7 % in Israel (p attended the clinical interview. Female students were more likely to attend for interview (42.0 % versus 30.6 %, p = 0.010). The attendance rate varied considerably across countries, from 5.7 % in Italy to 96.7 % in France (p attendance was associated with using school as the only interview setting (Mean attendance rate, MAR = 88 vs. 31 %, p = 0.006) and arranging the interview within 1 week of contacting the student (MAR = 64 vs. 23 %, p = 0.013). The greater the travel time to interview, the lower the attendance rate (Pearson's r = -0.64, p = 0.034). Independent of the variation by country, at the individual level, adolescents with more depressive symptoms and a recent suicide attempt more often attended for interview. A high rate of current suicidality was found amongst European adolescents. However, the majority of these displayed limited help-seeking behaviour. Future studies should investigate ways of making screening programmes and other interventions more acceptable and accessible to young people, especially young males.

  4. Seeking professional help for nightmares: a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schredl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nightmares are defined as disturbing mental experiences that generally occur during REM sleep and often result in awakening. Even though about 5% of the general population suffers from nightmares, little is known about seeking professional help in this patient group. Methods: A quota sample of 2019 participants representative for the German population was studied. Results: The findings indicate that every eighth person with frequent nightmares (cutoff: every other week or more often sought at one time of his/her life for professional help for coping with nightmares. Socio-demographic variables did not correlate with help-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Nightmares are an undertreated condition and future studies should aim at a more throughout understanding why nightmare sufferers rarely seek help for their condition.

  5. Health information-seeking among Latino newcomers - an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Courtright

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction. This exploratory study examines health information-seeking practices among Latin American newcomers to a small city in the United States. The framework locates these practices within social networks, the local institutional context and the use and non-use of information technologies. Method. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Spanish with seven immigrant workers. Interviews elicited incidents of both purposive seeking and accidental encountering of health information. Analysis. Data were coded for reference to social networks, strengths of social networks, and perceptions and uses of institutions, organizations, and technologies, treating the information incident as unit of analysis. Results. Information seeking is often assisted by both social networks and key institutions, yet the quality of the information transmitted through social networks is apt to be uneven, and newcomers are unable to obtain an adequate overview of local health care for improved decision-making. Of particular interest is the finding that the local information environment has evolved significantly in response to growing demand for Spanish-language and low-income services. Conclusion. It is particularly important for information behaviour researchers to examine the dynamic interactions among study populations and their information environments over time.

  6. Identifying Health-Seeking Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Withrow, Cora

    1986-01-01

    Sought to determine how adolescents' (N=156) health-seeking behaviors, which include self-management and information-seeking behaviors, differ according to age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and religion. Findings confirmed gender as a differentiating variable for performance of information-seeking behavior and found positive health…

  7. Studying collaborative information seeking: Experiences with three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden; Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    , however, benefit from a discussion of methodological issues. This chapter describes the application of three methods for collecting and analyzing data in three CIS studies. The three methods are Multidimensional Exploration, used in a CIS study of students’ in-formation behavior during a group assignment......Collaborative information seeking (CIS) has lately produced interesting empirical studies, describing CIS in real-life settings. While these studies explore how and why CIS manifests itself in different domains, discussions about how to study CIS have been scarce. The research area of CIS may......; Task-structured Observation, used in a CIS study of patent engineers; and Condensed Observation, used in a CIS study of information-systems development. The three methods are presented in the context of the studies for which they were devised, and the experiences gained using the methods are discussed...

  8. Studying collaborative information seeking: Experiences with three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden; Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking (CIS) has lately produced interesting empirical studies, describing CIS in real-life settings. While these studies explore how and why CIS manifests itself in different domains, discussions about how to study CIS have been scarce. The research area of CIS may......, however, benefit from a discussion of methodological issues. This chapter describes the application of three methods for collecting and analyzing data in three CIS studies. The three methods are Multidimensional Exploration, used in a CIS study of students’ in-formation behavior during a group assignment......; Task-structured Observation, used in a CIS study of patent engineers; and Condensed Observation, used in a CIS study of information-systems development. The three methods are presented in the context of the studies for which they were devised, and the experiences gained using the methods are discussed...

  9. Help-seeking behavior among women currently leaking urine in Nigeria: is it any different from the rest of the world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojengbede OA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Babatunde O Adedokun,1 Imran O Morhason-Bello,2 Oladosu A Ojengbede,2 Ngozi S Okonkwo,1 Charles Kolade21Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics, and Environmental Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine/University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, NigeriaObjective: We examined help-seeking behaviors and factors influencing their choice of hospital care in women currently leaking urine.Materials and methods: This study was part of a multistage community survey conducted among 5001 women in Nigeria who participated in the Ibadan Urinary Incontinence Household Survey. Help-seeking behavior was analyzed among 139 respondents currently leaking urine within the population surveyed.Results: The mean age of those currently leaking urine was 35.7 years (standard deviation = 15.8. Only 18 (12.9% had ever sought help, of which 15 had received hospital care. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of seeking hospital care was higher among less educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 4.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–13.89 and among those with severe incontinence (OR = 4.20, 95% CI: 1.24–14.29. Reasons mentioned for not seeking hospital care include a belief that the condition is not life-threatening (51.2%, do not believe there is treatment (18.2%, lack of funds (1.7%, too shy to disclose (2.5%, afraid of complications (1.7%, other (2.5%, and no reason (22.3%.Conclusion: This study shows that very few women, currently experiencing urinary incontinence have sought medical care (approximately 1 in 10; and that the barriers identified are similar to those identified in previous studies, except that these women lack the necessary funds to seek care.Keywords: urinary incontinence, help (health-seeking behavior, women, Nigeria

  10. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  11. Procedures and Collaborative Information Seeking: A Study of Emergency Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Reddy, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Information seeking is a central and inherently collaborative activity in the emergency department (ED) which is the common entry point to hospitals for nearly all acute patients. In this paper, we investigate how ED clinicians’ collabo-rative information seeking (CIS) is shaped by the procedures...... that the clinicians follow in the ED. Based on observations in two Danish EDs, we identify four pro-cedures prominent to how CIS is accomplished: the triage procedure, the timeouts, the coordinating nurse, and the recurrent opportunities for information seeking at the whiteboard. We then discuss how CIS activities...

  12. Procedures and Collaborative Information Seeking: A Study of Emergency Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Reddy, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Information seeking is a central and inherently collaborative activity in the emergency department (ED) which is the common entry point to hospitals for nearly all acute patients. In this paper, we investigate how ED clinicians’ collabo-rative information seeking (CIS) is shaped by the procedures...... that the clinicians follow in the ED. Based on observations in two Danish EDs, we identify four pro-cedures prominent to how CIS is accomplished: the triage procedure, the timeouts, the coordinating nurse, and the recurrent opportunities for information seeking at the whiteboard. We then discuss how CIS activities...

  13. Beyond the Notes: A Qualitative Study of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Ethnomusicologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chern Li; Ng, Siong Ngor

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the information-seeking behavior of fourteen ethnomusicologists in New Zealand via interviews. The findings shed light on what information ethnomusicologists seek, the sources and services they use, and the barriers they face in information seeking and use. A number of ways in which libraries can create collections and…

  14. Beyond the Notes: A Qualitative Study of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Ethnomusicologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chern Li; Ng, Siong Ngor

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the information-seeking behavior of fourteen ethnomusicologists in New Zealand via interviews. The findings shed light on what information ethnomusicologists seek, the sources and services they use, and the barriers they face in information seeking and use. A number of ways in which libraries can create collections and…

  15. Mobile information-seeking behavior: A comparative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jong-Moon; Song, Yoo-Seong

    2015-01-01

    .... While such a rapid adoption of mobile devices is a worldwide phenomenon, the authors sought to investigate similarities and differences of mobile information-seeking behavior of college students in diverse regions...

  16. The curious case of cyberchondria: A longitudinal study on the reciprocal relationship between health anxiety and online health information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Poel, Fam; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Hartmann, Tilo; Tanis, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The current study is the first to longitudinally investigate the reciprocal relationship between online health information seeking and health anxiety, i.e., cyberchondria. Expectations were that health anxious individuals who go online to find health information, experience an increase in health anxiety, which in turn will reinforce online seeking. A 4-wave longitudinal survey study among 5322 respondents aged 16-93 was conducted. Our results showed that individuals who are more health anxious than others, search online for health information more. Moreover, the results provided initial evidence for the expected reciprocal relationship between health anxiety and online health information seeking in respondents with non-clinical levels of health anxiety at the start of the study. However, this reciprocal relationship could not be found in a subsample of clinically health anxious individuals. Although for these individuals online health information seeking did not seem to exacerbate health anxiety levels, it might still serve as a maintaining factor of clinical health anxiety.

  17. Information-Seeking Behavior and Use of Social Science Faculty Studying Stateless Nations: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The information-seeking behavior of social science faculty studying the Kurds was assessed using a questionnaire, citation analysis, and follow-up inquiry. Two specific questions were addressed: how these faculty locate relevant government information and what factors influence their seeking behavior and use of such information. Results show that besides using traditional methods for locating relevant government information, social science faculty studying the Kurds use the World Wide Web and...

  18. A study of profile of disability certificate seeking patients with schizophrenia over a 5 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia has been identified as one of the most disabling condition known to mankind. Until recently there was no published literature on disability certification seeking behavior of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The current study aimed at understanding the profile of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia seeking disability certification for a tertiary level multispecialty hospital in India. Materials a nd Methods: The study was carried out at the Psychiatry department for a tertiary care hospital in India. The evaluation of the subjects was carried out in the presence of a primary care giver. First, the diagnosis was established using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Conditions (ICD-10. Subsequently, the disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale (IDEAS. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17. Results: A total of 169 subjects seeking disability certification over the study period of 5 years were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Out of 169 subjects 132 (78.1% were male and 37 (21.9% were female. There was a statistically significant difference in the marital status of the male and female study subjects. Family history of psychiatric illness was positive in 9.8% of male subjects and 10.8% of female subjects. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects for the duration of illness and duration of being on treatment. Male and female subjects did not differ significantly on the IDEAS global score, personal care, interpersonal interaction, and understanding and communication domains of IDEAS. The two groups differed significantly on the work domain. Conclusions: Majority of patients with schizophrenia seeking disability certificate continue to be male. However, male and female subjects tend to differ very little on various socio-demographic and illness related variables. The levels

  19. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  20. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  1. Seeking creativity: A case study on information problem solving in professional music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Derix, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the information seeking behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to reveal

  2. Seeking creativity: A case study on information problem solving in professional music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Derix, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the information seeking behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to reveal

  3. Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lian J.

    2011-01-01

    Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

  4. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help.

  5. 78 FR 1266 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend a Current Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Research and Development Survey. OMB Control Number: 3145-0100. ] Expiration Date of Current Approval: October 31, 2013. Proposed Renewal Project: The Higher Education Research and Development Survey (formerly... working on R&D. Data are published in NSF's annual publication series Higher Education Research......

  6. Effective Methods for Studying Information Seeking and Use. Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2002-01-01

    In conjunction with the American Society for Information Science and Technology's (ASIST) annual meeting in fall 2001, the Special Interest Group on Information Needs, Seeking, and Use (SIG USE) sponsored a research symposium on "Effective Methods for Studying Information Seeking and Use." This article briefly reviews six articles presented at the…

  7. Who Seeks Career Counselling? A Prospective Study of Personality and Career Variables among Swiss Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Elif; Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether career adaptability, personality, attitude towards career counselling and some demographic variables predict the help seeking behaviour in career counselling among 330 Swiss adolescents in eighth grade. The results indicated that boys were less likely to seek help and that career related variables and attitude but…

  8. A Comparative Study on Information-Seeking Behaviors of Domestic and International Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoo-Seong

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates information-seeking behavior of one particular segment of international students--international students seeking degrees in the field of business. The author surveyed domestic and international business students enrolled in the College of Business at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The survey was designed to…

  9. Understanding Information Seeking Behavior of Indonesian Postgraduate Students in Malaysian Universities: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Subhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This study investigates Indonesian postgraduate student’s experience at the pre-sessional program of the process of seeking information and the strategies they used throughout the process. The objective is to understand their information seeking behavior particularly academic-related information in order to improve the effectiveness of educational communication in Malaysia higher institutions. Two research questions are addressed: what experiences do pre-sessional students face in the process of information seeking that can be articulated and described? What stages do pre-sessional students experience in the process of information seeking construction? Using the qualitative method, the study found that the pre-sessional students have different patterns in the constructive process of information seeking in two different groups i.e. writing and reading classes. Six stages and four stages of the search process were identified respectively for the two groups.

  10. Experiences of Infertile Women Seeking Assisted Pregnancy in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are complicated and stressful techniques and the social and cultural norms are major obstacles against their use. Many qualitative studies have been done in the field of women’s experiences of infertility, but less is known about the experiences of infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to understand and describe the experience of women who have used assisted reproductive technologies for their current pregnancy. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on a content analysis approach. With purposive sampling, 12 pregnant women who were using ART were recruited from Avicenna Fertility Center in Tehran. Women were selected purposefully and with maximum variation. Interviews were performed after a positive test of pregnancy and women were introduced to researchers in their first visit of pregnancy in the prenatal clinic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently. Semi-structured interviews were coded, categorized and the themes were also identified. Results: Four main themes were uncovered which included struggle to achieve pregnancy, fear and uncertainty, escape from stigma and the pursuit to achieve husband satisfaction. Conclusion: It is essential for these women to be counseled and prepared by their health care providers after the use of ARTs. Distress can be reduced for infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy when they are prepared for possible failures, empowered to deal with stigma, and have their partners’ involvement in counseling sessions. PMID:27110521

  11. The use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to palatable food seeking during dieting

    OpenAIRE

    Calu, Donna J.; Chen, Yu-Wei; Kawa, Alex B.; Nair, Sunila G.; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Excessive consumption of unhealthy foods is a major public health problem. While many people attempt to control their food intake through dieting, many relapse to unhealthy eating habits within a few months. We have begun to study this clinical condition in rats by adapting the reinstatement model, which has been used extensively to study relapse to drug seeking. In our adaptation of the relapse model, reinstatement of palatable food seeking by exposure to food-pellet priming, food-associated...

  12. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults experience a high level of mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. Research indicates that there are many barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for young people in the general community. However there are limited data available for young elite athletes. This study aims to determine what young elite athletes perceive as the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Fifteen elite athletes aged 16–23 years each participated in one of three focus group discussions. In addition to written data, verbal responses were audio taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants’ written and verbal data suggested that stigma was the most important perceived barrier to seeking help for young elite athletes. Other notable barriers were a lack of mental health literacy, and negative past experiences of help-seeking. Facilitators to help-seeking were encouragement from others, having an established relationship with a provider, pleasant previous interactions with providers, the positive attitudes of others, especially their coach, and access to the internet. Conclusions Intervention strategies for improving help-seeking in young elite athletes should focus on reducing stigma, increasing mental health literacy, and improving relations with potential providers.

  13. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  14. The use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to palatable food seeking during dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calu, Donna J; Chen, Yu-Wei; Kawa, Alex B; Nair, Sunila G; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of unhealthy foods is a major public health problem. While many people attempt to control their food intake through dieting, many relapse to unhealthy eating habits within a few months. We have begun to study this clinical condition in rats by adapting the reinstatement model, which has been used extensively to study relapse to drug seeking. In our adaptation of the relapse model, reinstatement of palatable food seeking by exposure to food-pellet priming, food-associated cues, or stress is assessed in food-restricted (to mimic dieting) rats after operant food-pellet self-administration training and subsequent extinction of the food-reinforced responding. In this review, we first outline the clinical problem and discuss a recent study in which we assessed the predictive validity of the reinstatement model for studying relapse to food seeking during dieting by using the anorexigenic drug fenfluramine. Next, we summarize results from our initial studies on the role of several stress- and feeding-related peptides (corticotropin-releasing factor, hypocretin, melanin-concentrating hormone, peptide YY3-36) in reinstatement of palatable food seeking. We then present results from our studies on the role of dopamine and medial prefrontal cortex in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking. We conclude by discussing potential clinical implications. We offer two main conclusions: (1) the food reinstatement model is a simple, reliable, and valid model to study mechanisms of relapse to palatable food seeking during dieting, and to identify medications to prevent this relapse; (2) mechanisms of relapse to food seeking are often dissociable from mechanisms of ongoing food intake. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  15. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Expertise seeking is the activity of selecting people as sources for consultation about an information need. This review of 72 expertise-seeking papers shows that across a range of tasks and contexts people, in particular work-group colleagues and other strong ties, are among the most frequently...... used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...... influence of source quality and source accessibility on source selection varies across studies. Overall, expertise seekers appear to aim for sufficient quality, composed of reliability and relevance, while also attending to accessibility, composed of access to the source and access to the source information...

  16. An initial study of information seeking behavior of researchers as faculty/student team members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehua; HU; Juan; ZHANG; Dan; CHE; Aijing; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study was carried out to uncover the characteristics of information seeking behavior of researchers as faculty/student team members.Design/methodology/approach:An inventory encompassing 6 dimensions of information seeking behavior was developed:Information awareness,information acquisition,information evaluation,information organization and management,information utilization and information ethics.Data was collected on 306 respondents from 52 faculty/student teams in Central South University in China and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software.Findings:Significant differences were found among researchers with different genders in information awareness and in different academic disciplines in information acquisition and information utilization.The survey shows the characteristics of information seeking behavior of different gender groups and different teams:1) male participants got higher scores in all of the 6 dimensions of information seeking behavior;2) small teams performed best,followed by middle-sized teams and large teams;3) faculty/doctoral student teams possessed better information seeking skills than faculty/master’s student teams or faculty/doctoral and master’s student teams:4) medical teams achieved the highest level in all of the 6 dimensions of information seeking behavior,whereas natural science teams the lowest level.Medical and engineering teams were rated higher than other teams in information acquisition and information utilization.Research limitations:The small population size and doctoral students accounting for only a small portion of the respondents in the sample limit the generalization of our findings.Practical implications:The findings of this study have some implications for research and practice,especially for educational institutions,library science and information literacy training.Originality/value:This paper is the first to describe and analyze the characteristics of information seeking behavior of researchers as faculty

  17. Seeking ethical approval for an international study in primary care patient safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovey, S.; Hall, K.; Makeham, M.; Rosser, W.; Kuzel, A.; Weel, C. van; Esmail, A.; Phillips, R.

    2011-01-01

    Seeking ethics committee approval for research can be challenging even for relatively simple studies occurring in single settings. Complicating factors such as multicentre studies and/or contentious research issues can challenge review processes, and conducting such studies internationally adds a fu

  18. Current studies on megapode phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, T.G.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic relationships between megapodes and other birds are reviewed, and it is concluded that the available evidence supports a sistergroup relationship between megapodes and all other galliforms. Current studies in this direction are discussed. The resolvement of intr

  19. Experiencing information seeking and learning: a study of the interaction between two phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports the design and findings of a research project for a doctoral thesis on information seeking and use in a learning context. Theoretical frames were found in LIS use and user studies and in phenomenographic learning theory. The empirical study was conducted in a naturalistic setting with a group of 25 high school seniors. Phenomenographic method, designed to investigate variation in people's ways of experiencing phenomena in the world, was used. Three major ways of experiencing information seeking and use were identified; (a fact-finding, (b balancing information in order to make correct choices, (c scrutinizing and analysing. The variation in information seeking and use interacted closely with variation in learning outcomes. These findings form a basis for further research on variation in users' ways of experiencing the content of information. They also provide a basis for didactic development of information literacy instruction.

  20. Recourse seeking and intervention in the context of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, S.R.; Lenzi, R.; Hoang, T.A.; Vu, S.H.; Yount, K.M.; Quach, T.T

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines attitudes toward recourse seeking and intervention in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in periurban Vietnam. The data come from 20 open-ended interviews, 4 focus group discussions, and 40 cognitive interviews conducted with married men and women.

  1. The Motivations of Iranian Patients With Cardiovascular Disease to Seek Health Information: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Mousavi Arfaa, Nazila

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular patients need information to preserve and promote their health, but not all of them have the necessary motivation to seek relevant health knowledge. The present study analyzed experiences of patients, family caregivers, and healthcare providers to explore the motivating factors that cause cardiovascular patients to seek important health information. This study was conducted using a qualitative approach and conventional qualitative content analysis method. Thirty-six people, including 18 cardiovascular patients, 7 family caregivers, and 11 healthcare providers (from multidisciplinary backgrounds) participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling and continued until data saturation. Data collection and analysis proceeded simultaneously and with constant comparison; this study was carried out from May 2012 to May 2013. During the analysis process, three main themes were extracted that characterized participants' experiences, perceptions, and motivations to seek health information. The themes were "Optimizing quality of life, "Desire for personal rights to be respected," and "Gaining confidence through consultation." Our findings showed that, through seeking information, patients try to achieve well-being and realize their personal rights as well as their right to security. They should also be encouraged to enhance their quality of life by using the Knowles' learning theory to formulate their needs and learning priorities.

  2. Recourse seeking and intervention in the context of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, S.R.; Lenzi, R.; Hoang, T.A.; Vu, S.H.; Yount, K.M.; Quach, T.T

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines attitudes toward recourse seeking and intervention in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in periurban Vietnam. The data come from 20 open-ended interviews, 4 focus group discussions, and 40 cognitive interviews conducted with married men and women.

  3. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  4. Apprehensive parents: a qualitative study on parents seeking immediate primary care for their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hugenholtz; C. Bröer; R. van Daalen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children are more frequent users of out-of-hours primary care than other age groups, although their medical problems are less urgent. Aim: To gain insight into the health-seeking behaviour of parents who ask for immediate medical attention for their children. Design of study: Qualitative

  5. Understanding information seeking behavior of rural women:Field studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiqun; LIU; Hui; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:The purpose of this research is to investigate Chinese rural women’s information needs and information seeking behavior,with an emphasis on exploration of the intervening variables that influence information needs and information seeking behavior.Design/methodology/approach:The sample consisted of 27 women from 9 villages in Gansu Province,Anhui Province and Tianjin City,China.Data were collected through in-depth individual interview.Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed to analyze the data.Findings:Chinese rural women’s needs are basically tied to agricultural technologies,employment and health information.Social network,rather than the Internet,serves as the most frequently used information channel.Women’s cognitive ability,social role and their living environment are the 3 intervening variables that have an impact on their information needs and their information seeking behavior.Research limitations:This qualitative research is based on a small sample and conducted on specific socio-economic settings in China,which may restrict the generalization and application of relevant findings in other settings and countries.Practical implications:The study results will help librarians and information professionals better understand Chinese rural women’s information needs and information seeking behavior in an effort to find ways to solve problems they may encounter in their information seeking process.Originality/value:This paper introduced an analysis framework that provides an integrated perspective on understanding information needs and information seeking behavior of Chinese women in rural areas.

  6. Help-seeking behaviors for female sexual dysfunction: a cross sectional study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montazeri Ali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sexual dysfunctions (FSD are prevalent multifactor problems that in general remain misdiagnosed in primary health care. This population-based study investigated help-seeking behaviors among women with FSD in Iran. Methods This was a cross sectional study carried out in Kohgilouyeh-Boyer-Ahmad province in Iran. Using quota sampling all sexually active women aged 15 and over registered in primary health care delivery centers were studied. Experience of sexual problems was assessed using an ad-hoc questionnaire (Female sexual dysfunction: help-seeking behaviors survey containing 14 items. Trained female nurses interviewed all participants after a verbal informed consent. Data were analyzed in a descriptive manner. Results In all 1540 women were studied. Of these, 786 (51% cases had experienced at least one of the FSD problems. Results showed that 35.8% of women with FSD had sought no professional help and the most reasons for not seeking help were identified as: 'time constraints' and believing that it 'did not occur to me' (39.1 and 28.5% respectively. Sixty one percent of women who sought help for FSD reported that 'doctor gave me a definite diagnosis' and 'a definite treatment plan was given' in 57% of cases. Conclusion The study findings indicated that FSD problems were prevalent and many women did not seek help for their problem. Finding 'time constraints' and believing that the problem 'did not occur to me' as the most cited reasons for not seeking help might facilitate to understand potential barriers that exist in recognition and treatment of the female sexual dysfunctions. Since FSD might have a negative impact on interpersonal relationships and women's quality of life, it seems that there is need to address the problem both at local and national primary health care services.

  7. Health-care seeking behaviour among persons with diabetes in Uganda: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atwine Fortunate

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-seeking behaviour in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM has been investigated to a limited extent, and not in developing countries. Switches between different health sectors may interrupt glycaemic control, affecting health. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare-seeking behaviour, including use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM and traditional healers, in Ugandans diagnosed with DM. Further, to study whether gender influenced healthcare-seeking behaviour. Methods This is a descriptive study with a snowball sample from a community in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with 16 women and 8 men, aged 25-70. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results Healthcare was mainly sought among doctors and nurses in the professional sector because of severe symptoms related to DM and/or glycaemic control. Females more often focused on follow-up of DM and chronic pain in joints, while males described fewer problems. Among those who felt that healthcare had failed, most had turned to traditional healers in the folk sector for prescription of herbs or food supplements, more so in women than men. Males more often turned to private for-profit clinics while females more often used free governmental institutions. Conclusions Healthcare was mainly sought from nurses and physicians in the professional sector and females used more free-of-charge governmental institutions. Perceived failure in health care to manage DM or related complications led many, particularly women, to seek alternative treatment from CAM practitioners in the folk sector. Living conditions, including healthcare organisation and gender, seemed to influence healthcare seeking, but further studies are needed.

  8. [Current studies in myotonic dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimeng; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2014-03-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a genetic, progressive, multisystemic disease with muscular disorder as its primary symptom. There are two types of DM (DM1 and DM2) caused by mutations in different genes, and in Japan, DM occurs with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the disease is RNA toxicity caused by transcripts of aberrantly elongated CTG or CCTG repeats located in the 3' untranslated region or in the intron. The current treatments for DM is limited to symptomatic care. In this review, we will discuss several new therapeutic strategies based on recent studies of RNA toxicity.

  9. Risk factors and current health seeking patterns of migrants in northeastern Mexico: healthcare needs for a socially vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eStoesslé

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identified risk factors for health and access to healthcare services of migrants during their journey across Mexico to the United States. Data were collected in shelters located in Monterrey, the largest city of northeastern Mexico, through a basic clinical examination and a survey completed by 75 migrants; 92% of them were undocumented Central Americans. During their transit, they are at a high risk of contracting, developing, and transmitting diseases. The need of working to survive affects health-seeking behavior and a constant fear of being traced keeps migrants away from public health services, which delays diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Negligent lifestyles, such as smoking, drinking (31.8% of men and 11.1% of women, and drug abuse (13% of men and 11% of women, were found. Regarding tuberculosis (TB, undocumented migrants are usually not screened, even though they come from countries with a high TB burden. Besides, they might be overexposed to TB because of their living conditions in overcrowded places with deficient hygiene, protection, and malnutrition (54.7% of the sample. Possible comorbidities like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS; 4% and diabetes (2.7%, but probably under-diagnosed were referred. Migrants have little TB knowledge, which is independent of their level of education or a previous experience of deportation. About one-third of the migrants were totally unfamiliar with TB-related symptoms, while 36% had correct knowledge of basic TB symptoms. We conclude that a shortage of information on the highly vulnerable migratory population combined with a lack of social support and health education among migrants may play a significant role in the spread of communicable diseases. We recommend that health authorities address this urgent, binational, public health concern, in order to prevent outbreaks of emerging infections.

  10. Physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and seeking behavior: a study with case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heale, Bret S E; Khalifa, Aly; Stone, Bryan L; Nelson, Scott; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Genetic testing, especially in pharmacogenomics, can have a major impact on patient care. However, most physicians do not feel that they have sufficient knowledge to apply pharmacogenomics to patient care. Online information resources can help address this gap. We investigated physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and information-seeking behavior, in order to guide the design of pharmacogenomics information resources that effectively meet clinical information needs. We performed a formative, mixed-method assessment of physicians' information-seeking process in three pharmacogenomics case vignettes. Interactions of 6 physicians' with online pharmacogenomics resources were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for prominent themes. Quantitative data included information-seeking duration, page navigations, and number of searches entered. We found that participants searched an average of 8 min per case vignette, spent less than 30 s reviewing specific content, and rarely refined search terms. Participants' information needs included a need for clinically meaningful descriptions of test interpretations, a molecular basis for the clinical effect of drug variation, information on the logistics of carrying out a genetic test (including questions related to cost, availability, test turn-around time, insurance coverage, and accessibility of expert support).Also, participants sought alternative therapies that would not require genetic testing. This study of pharmacogenomics information-seeking behavior indicates that content to support their information needs is dispersed and hard to find. Our results reveal a set of themes that information resources can use to help physicians find and apply pharmacogenomics information to the care of their patients.

  11. A psychological study of people who seek orthodontic treatment: Comparison with untreated controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Jamilian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improvement in appearance is an important motivation for orthodontic treatment; nevertheless, not all patients with malocclusion seek treatment; therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the psychological state of patients with moderate to severe malocclusion who seek orthodontic treatment with patients who suffer from similar malocclusion but do not seek treatment. Materials and Methods: Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 questionnaire which assesses psychological states of people were given to 100 subject with moderate to severe malocclusion who were undergoing orthodontic treatment and 100 subjects with similar malocclusion who did not request orthodontic treatment. All subjects had similar demographic variables. Clinical scales measured by the test included: Hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, and hypomania. The questionnaire consisted of 71 questions, and the subjects had to mark "True" or "False" in response. The scores were transformed into T-scores by a trained psychologist. The results were evaluated by independent t-test. Results and Conclusion: The results of the test showed that both treated and untreated subjects were in similar psychological state and were psychologically normal; therefore, it is likely that other factors affect patients′ willingness for seeking orthodontic treatment rather than their psychological state.

  12. Cancer Information Seeking Among Adult New Zealanders: a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; McNoe, Bronwen; Iosua, Ella; Reeder, Anthony; Egan, Richard; Marsh, Louise; Robertson, Lindsay; Maclennan, Brett; Dawson, Anna; Quigg, Robin; Petersen, Anne-Cathrine

    2016-11-16

    Organisations seeking to establish themselves as leading cancer information sources for the public need to understand patterns and motivators for information seeking. This study describes cancer information seeking among New Zealanders through a national cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014/15 with a population-based sample of adults (18 years and over). Participants were asked if they had sought information about cancer during the past 12 months, the type of information they sought, what prompted them to look for information and ways of getting information they found helpful. Telephone interviews were completed by 1064 participants (588 females, 476 males, 64% response rate). Of these, 33.8% of females and 23.3% of males (total, 29.2%) had searched for information about cancer over the past year. A search was most frequently prompted by a cancer diagnosis of a family member or friend (43.3%), a desire to educate themselves (17.5%), experience of potential symptoms or a positive screening test (9.4%), family history of cancer (8.9%) or the respondent's own cancer diagnosis (7.7%). Across the cancer control spectrum, the information sought was most commonly about treatment and survival (20.2%), symptoms/early detection (17.2%) or risk factors (14.2%), although many were general or non-specific queries (50.0%). The internet was most commonly identified as a helpful source of information (71.7%), followed by health professionals (35.8%), and reading material (e.g. books, pamphlets) (14.7%).This study provides a snapshot of cancer information seeking in New Zealand, providing valuable knowledge to help shape resource delivery to better meet the diverse needs of information seekers and address potential unmet needs, where information seeking is less prevalent.

  13. Information-seeking behaviour and information needs of LGBTQ health professionals: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martin; Roberto, K R

    2016-09-01

    Except for one study in 2004, the literature has no data on the information-seeking behaviour of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) health professionals. After a decade of change for LGBTQ people, and the growth of electronic information sources and social networks, it is appropriate to revisit this subject. To gain an updated understanding of the information-seeking behaviour of LGBTQ health professionals and of how medical libraries can provide a culturally competent service to such users. A mixed-methods approach was adopted combining a Web-based questionnaire with email follow-up discussions. One hundred and twenty-three complete responses were received, mostly from the USA and Canada, between November 2012 and October 2013. LGBTQ health professionals remain more comfortable seeking LGBTQ health information from a medical librarian whom they know to be LGBTQ because they perceive LGBTQ librarians as more likely to have specialist knowledge, or through concern that non-LGBTQ librarians may be more likely to react in a stigmatising or discriminatory way. The study also provides evidence suggesting that online chat has marginal appeal for respondents seeking LGBTQ health information, despite its anonymity. Medical libraries seeking to demonstrate their cultural competency should provide visible evidence of this, such as through the creation of dedicated resource lists, promotion of LGBTQ literature on the library's website, and display of other symbols or statements supporting diversity. Opportunities exist for LGBTQ health professionals and medical librarians to work together to ensure that medical libraries are culturally competent and welcoming spaces for LGBTQ patrons, that library collections match their needs, and in the creation of guides to ensure maximum access to the results of LGBTQ health research. Medical libraries should also consider nominating and, if necessary, training a specialist in LGBTQ health information. Such

  14. A Research Method to Investigate Information Seeking using the Concept of Information Horizons: An Example from a Study of Lower Socio-economic Students’ Information Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenwald, D. H.; Wildemuth, B. S.; Harmon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    As research questions and topics in information studies evolve, there is a continual need to seek out innovative research methods to help us investigate and address these questions. This paper presents an emerging research method, the creation and analysis of information horizon maps, and discusses the use of such maps in an ongoing research study. Sonnenwald's (1999) framework for human information behavior provides a theoretical foundation for this method. This theoretical framework suggest...

  15. Experiencing information seeking and learning: a study of the interaction between two phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Limberg

    1999-01-01

    Reports the design and findings of a research project for a doctoral thesis on information seeking and use in a learning context. Theoretical frames were found in LIS use and user studies and in phenomenographic learning theory. The empirical study was conducted in a naturalistic setting with a group of 25 high school seniors. Phenomenographic method, designed to investigate variation in people's ways of experiencing phenomena in the world, was used. Three major ways of experiencing informati...

  16. The influence of gender and other patient characteristics on health care-seeking behaviour: a QUALICOPC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; Anisimowicz, Yvonne; Miedema, Baukje; Hogg, William; Wodchis, Walter P; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris

    2016-03-31

    Canadians' health care-seeking behaviour for physical and mental health issues was examined using the international Quality and Cost of Primary Care (QUALICOPC) survey that was conducted in 2013 in Canada. This study used the cross-sectional Patient Experiences Survey collected from 7260 patients in 759 practices across 10 Canadian provinces as part of the QUALICOPC study. A Responsive Care Scale (RCS) was constructed to reflect the degree of health care-seeking behaviour across 11 health conditions. Using several patient characteristics as independent variables, four multiple regression analyses were conducted. Patients' self-reports indicated that there were gender differences in health care-seeking behaviour, with women reporting they visited their primary care provider to a greater extent than did men for both physical and mental health concerns. Overall, patients were less likely to seek care for mental health concerns in comparison to physical health concerns. For both women and men, the results of the regressions indicated that age, illness prevention, trust in physicians and chronic conditions were important factors when explaining health care-seeking behaviours for mental health concerns. This study confirms the gender differences in health care-seeking behaviour advances previous research by exploring in detail the variables predicting differences in health care-seeking behaviour for men and women. The variables were better predictors of health care-seeking behaviour in response to mental health concerns than physical health concerns, likely reflecting greater variation among those seeking mental health care. This study has implications for those working to improve barriers to health care access by identifying those more likely to engage in health care-seeking behaviours and the variables predicting health care-seeking. Consequently, those who are not accessing primary care can be targeted and policies can be developed and put in place to promote their

  17. Sleeping Patterns of Afghan Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Adolescents: A Large Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Bronstein; Paul Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) have experienced multiple traumas and are a high-risk group for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effects of trauma are known to be associated with sleep problems; indeed sleeping problems are core features of PTSD. However, there has been no systematic research examining the sleep of this high risk group of children. This study presents the first evidence on the sleeping patterns of Afghan UASC living in the UK. A total of 222 male Afghan ...

  18. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  19. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  20. A Study of Rural Elderly’s Health Information Needs and Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Liao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey method was used and 92 valid questionnaires were collected for the analyses. The results showed that the majority of the rural elder people expressed the need for and attention to health information. ‘‘health service information’’ and ‘‘prevention health care information’’ were the most needed and important. Family, friends and television were the main channels for accessing health information. However, fewer respondents actively sought health information. When health problems occurred, they tended to seek direct medical treatment. This study also found that men were more attentive and active in seeking health information. Respondents over 75 years old rarely concerned about their health information need. People with more education were also more aware of their health information needs and more attentive to information disseminated via mass media. [Article content in Chinese

  1. Information needs and information seeking in primary care: a study of nurse practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdill, Keith W.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to understand the information-related behavior of nurse practitioners (NPs), a population of clinicians responsible for an increasing proportion of primary care. Methods: Two phases of data collection addressed seven research questions. The initial phase of data collection was a questionnaire sent to 300 NPs, who were asked to report their experiences of needing information as a result of patient encounters as well as their experiences of seeking information. The second phase of data collection entailed a series of interviews with twenty NPs following their encounters with patients to collect data on instances of information needs and information seeking. Results: NPs most frequently needed information related to drug therapy and diagnosis. NPs with a master's degree were found to perceive information needs more frequently than their colleagues who had not received a master's degree. The information resources NPs used most frequently were consultations with colleagues, drug reference manuals, and textbooks and protocol manuals. NPs were more likely to pursue needs related to drug therapy with a print resource and needs related to diagnosis with a colleague. The generalizability of a need emerged as a negative predictor of information seeking. Conclusions: This study has addressed a number of questions about the information-related behavior of NPs in primary care practices and led to the development of a temporal model of information seeking in these settings. Results of this research underscore the importance of access to information resources in primary care practices. This study's findings also support the development of educational and outreach programs to promote evidence-based decision making among primary care clinicians. PMID:12883577

  2. The Prevalence of Online Health Information Seeking Among Patients in Scotland: A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Julia; French, Tara L; Cumming, Grant P

    2015-07-15

    Online health information seeking is an activity that needs to be explored in Scotland. While there are a growing number of studies that adopt a qualitative approach to this issue and attempt to understand the behaviors associated with online health information seeking, previous studies focusing on quantifying the prevalence and pattern of online health seeking in the United Kingdom have been based on Internet users in general. This exploratory study sought to describe the prevalence of online health information seeking in a rural area of Scotland based on primary data from a patient population. A survey design was employed utilizing self-completed questionnaires, based on the Pew Internet and American Life Project; questionnaires were distributed among adult patients in 10 primary care centers in a rural community in Scotland. A convenience sample of 571 (0.10% of the total population in Grampian, N=581,198) patients completed the questionnaire. A total of 68.4% (379/554) of patients had previously used the Internet to acquire health information. A total of 25.4% (136/536) of patients consulted the Internet for health information regarding their current appointment on the day surveyed; 34.6% (47/136) of these patients were influenced to attend their appointment as a result of that online health information. A total of 43.2% (207/479) of patients stated the health information helped improve their health and 67.1% (290/432) indicated that they had learned something new. A total of 34.0% (146/430) of patients talked to a health professional about the information they had found and 90.0% (376/418) reported that the information was useful. In total, 70.4% (145/206) of patients were concerned about obtaining health information online from reliable sources. A total of 67.1% (139/207) of patients were concerned that a health site may sell their personal information, yet only 6.7% (36/535) checked the privacy policy of the site visited. However, 27.9% (55/197) of patients

  3. Women's perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their help-seeking behaviour: a qualitative interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, M.B.R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2013; 27; 406-413 Women's perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their help-seeking behaviour: a qualitative interview study Aims: To explore women's perception of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and their help-seeking behaviour. Methods: We interviewed 26 pati

  4. Help-Seeking Behaviour and Attitudes towards Counselling: A Qualitative Study among Hong Kong Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiol, Diego

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Hong Kong university students' perception of general help-seeking and seeking of professional help. Thirty-two students, aged from 25 to 46 years were interviewed. A grounded theory approach was adopted. The results indicated four domains to categorise culture-influenced factors: attitudes towards speaking, relational concern,…

  5. Care seeking for fatal illness episodes in Neonates: a population-based study in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor neonatal health is a major contributor to under-five mortality in developing countries. A major constraint to effective neonatal survival programme has been the lack of population level data in developing countries. This study investigated the consultation patterns of caregivers during neonatal fatal illness episodes in the rural Matlab sub-district of eastern Bangladesh. Methods Neonatal deaths were identified through a population-based demographic surveillance system in Matlab ICDDR,B maternal and child health (MCH project area and an adjoining government service area. Trained project staff administered a structured questionnaire on care seeking to mothers at home who had experienced a neonatal death. Univariate, bivariate and binary multivariate logistic regressions were performed to describe care seeking during the fatal illness episode. Results Of the 365 deaths recorded during 2003 and 2004, 84% died in the early (0-7 days neonatal period, with the remaining deaths occurring over the subsequent 8 to 28 days. The first resort of care by parents was a qualified doctor or paramedic in 37% of cases, followed by traditional and unqualified health care providers in 25%, while 38% sought no care. Thus, almost two thirds (63% of neonates who died received only traditional and unqualified care or no care at all during their final illness episode. About 22% sought care from more than one provider, including 6% from 3 or more providers. Such plurality in care seeking was more likely among male infants, in the late neonatal period, and in the MCH project area. Conclusions The high proportion of neonatal deaths that had received traditional care or no medical care in a rural area of Bangladesh highlights the need to develop community awareness about prompt medical care seeking for neonatal illnesses and to improve access to effective health care. Integration of traditional care providers into mainstream health programs should

  6. Development of an opioid self-administration assay to study drug seeking in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Gabriel D; Peterson, Randall T

    2017-09-29

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an excellent tool to study mental health disorders, due to its physiological and genetic similarity to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, and feasibility of small molecule screening. Zebrafish have been shown to exhibit characteristics of addiction to drugs of abuse in non-contingent assays, including conditioned place preference, but contingent assays have been limited to a single assay for alcohol consumption. Using inexpensive electronic, mechanical, and optical components, we developed an automated opioid self-administration assay for zebrafish, enabling us to measure drug seeking and gain insight into the underlying biological pathways. Zebrafish trained in the assay for five days exhibited robust self-administration, which was dependent on the function of the μ-opioid receptor. In addition, a progressive ratio protocol was used to test conditioned animals for motivation. Furthermore, conditioned fish continued to seek the drug despite an adverse consequence and showed signs of stress and anxiety upon withdrawal of the drug. Finally, we validated our assay by confirming that self-administration in zebrafish is dependent on several of the same molecular pathways as in other animal models. Given the ease and throughput of this assay, it will enable identification of important biological pathways regulating drug seeking and could lead to the development of new therapeutic molecules to treat addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Study of the Information Seeking Behavior of Communication Graduate Students in Their Research Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chuan Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thesis is the research outcome that a graduate student spends most of his or her time and energies to achieve. Therefore, the research process of student’s thesis writing is an important topic to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to explore graduate students’ information seeking behavior during the process of thesis writing. Ten graduate students in the field of communication were interviewed, and their information horizon maps as well as bibliographical references were analyzed also. Results showed that the library, as a formal channel, is the primary source for graduate students. The documents that they used most often were theses and dissertations, monographs, and journals. In addition to the formal channels, social network also played as a very important role in students’ research process. The networks even changed their information seeking behaviors in formal channels. Students reported several problems encountered in the research process, such as lacking of the background knowledge of the interdisciplinary, being unable to find out the core and relevant documents from the search results, etc. In conclusion, graduate students’ information seeking behavior changed at different stages in the research process. [Article content in Chinese

  8. Everyday Information Needs and Information Seeking Habits in the Countryside: a Study of a Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The research attempts to provide an insight into the information world of the Slovenian countryside. It presents the first results of an exploratory study of information needs, information seeking habits and types of information sources.Methodology/approach: Brenda Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology was used as the theoretical basis for this research. 25 open structured interviews with inhabitants of a local community were conducted based on purposive sampling. Interview recordings were transcribed, summarised and analysed using the qualitative content analysis approach.Results: The analysis results in recognizing the types of gaps in the context of an individual, economic activities and in the context of a local community. Gap categories are described with regard to questions or problems and the ways of solving them. There are 20 categories describing gaps in the context of an individual, 17 categories which present economic activities – and 6 categories which pertain to a local community. Findings about information needs and the ways of seeking information stress the key role of information sources in farming and prevalence of interpersonal exchange of information and experts' opinion in the context of individual problem solving.Research limitation: The generalisation of results is not possible due to the sample size.Originality/practical implications: The findings contribute to understanding of information needs and ways of information seeking in the Slovenian countryside.

  9. Finding competitive intelligence on Internet start-up companies: a study of secondary resource use and information-seeking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from a study of CI activities involving Internet start-up companies in the telecommunications industry. The CI gathering was conducted by graduate students in library and information science in the context of a class project for a real business client, itself a small Internet start-up company. The primary objective of the study was to provide empirical insights into the applicability of specific types of secondary information resources to finding competitive intelligence information on small Internet start-up companies. An additional objective was to identify the characteristics of research strategies applied in the collection of CI on Internet start-ups from the perspective of current conceptual frameworks of information-seeking behaviour presented in the library and information science literature. This study revealed some interesting findings regarding the types of secondary information resources that can be used to find competitive intelligence on small, Internet start-up companies. The study also provided insight into the characteristics of the overall information-seeking strategies that are applied in this type of competitive intelligence research.

  10. Current and recalled childhood gender identity in community youth in comparison to referred adolescents seeking sex reassignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumia, Maria; Lindberg, Nina; Työläjärvi, Marja; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-04-01

    We studied current (GIDYQ-A) and recalled (RCGI) childhood gender identity among 719 upper secondary school students 401 girls, mean age 17.0 (SD = 0.88) years old and 318 boys, mean age 17.2 (SD = 0.86 years old in Finland. We also compared these dimensions of identity in community youth to same dimensions among adolescent sex reassignment (SR) applicants. Most community youth scored high on the normative, cis-gender end of gender experience (median score 4.9 for boys and 4.9 for girls) and recalled fairly gender typical childhood behaviours and experiences. The girls displayed more gender non-conformity in childhood. Among the boys 2.2% and among the girls 0.5% displayed potentially clinically significant gender dysphoria on the GIDYQ-A. The community youth differed clearly from adolescent SR applicants on current and recalled childhood gender identity (SR applicants were 47, 6 natal boys and 41 natal girls, average ages were 16.4 years old (SD = 0.93) and girls were on average 16.8 years old (SD = 1.0). Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    behavior and if so how they change it. We focus on the status of current seeking behavior in a Danish government administration. The results showed that information needs are commonly verificative and consciously topical and that information seeking most often takes the form of mere “look-ups.” Employees......The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking...

  12. Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Eshetu; Tesfaye, Markos

    2011-08-22

    Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%), schizophrenia 55 (14.3%) and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2%) were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8%) and other patients 75 (19.5%). Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%), came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2%) or an herbalist 77 (20.1%) before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6%) and evil eye 61 (15.9%), whereas 73 (19.0%) of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7%) believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers were the first place where help was sought for mental

  13. Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Markos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. Methods A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Result Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%, schizophrenia 55 (14.3% and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2% were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8% and other patients 75 (19.5%. Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%, came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2% or an herbalist 77 (20.1% before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6% and evil eye 61 (15.9%, whereas 73 (19.0% of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7% believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. Conclusions There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers

  14. Information-seeking behavior and the use of online resources: a snapshot of current health sciences faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Sandra L; Shultz, Mary; Blecic, Deborah D

    2014-07-01

    The research assesses the information-seeking behaviors of health sciences faculty, including their use of online databases, journals, and social media. A survey was designed and distributed via email to 754 health sciences faculty at a large urban research university with 6 health sciences colleges. Twenty-six percent (198) of faculty responded. MEDLINE was the primary database utilized, with 78.5% respondents indicating they use the database at least once a week. Compared to MEDLINE, Google was utilized more often on a daily basis. Other databases showed much lower usage. Low use of online databases other than MEDLINE, link-out tools to online journals, and online social media and collaboration tools demonstrates a need for meaningful promotion of online resources and informatics literacy instruction for faculty. Library resources are plentiful and perhaps somewhat overwhelming. Librarians need to help faculty discover and utilize the resources and tools that libraries have to offer.

  15. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  16. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CURRENT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Delev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to address problems of liquidity and in particular the values and factors that influenced the values of the coefficient of total liquidity sixty Bulgarian public companies for the period 2013 - 2007 year. In the analysis it was found that some businesses fail to achieve favorable values of the ratio between current assets and current liabilities. It was found that plants have a low level of total liquidity, which can create problems in repayment of short-term liabilities. It can be seen that there are companies with very high liquidity, which is not so good phenomenon, ie the retention of a high level of resources required. Businesses should conduct a thorough analysis and implement appropriate measures to correct adverse changes. The financial management of the companies surveyed had worked towards improving the state of the enterprise, thereby seeking to reduce liquidity risk.

  17. Information-Seeking Behavior in the Digital Age: A Multidisciplinary Study of Academic Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information-seeking process in the social sciences and humanities. It examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in these fields, and extends the David Ellis model of information-seeking behavior for social scientists, which includes six characteristics:…

  18. Information-Seeking Behavior in the Digital Age: A Multidisciplinary Study of Academic Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information-seeking process in the social sciences and humanities. It examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in these fields, and extends the David Ellis model of information-seeking behavior for social scientists, which includes six characteristics:…

  19. The Role of Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Coping, and Year of Study in Student Gambling: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Luke A.; Norman, Christine; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Students are among the most prevalent gamblers with the highest incidence of problem gambling. Furthermore, research into gambling has noted certain personality traits and coping mechanisms to be highly predictive of gambling in student populations. The present study examined the role of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping strategies, and year…

  20. Information seeking habits of information and knowledge management students: A University of Johannesburg case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J.P. Niemand

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Uçak (2007:697, ‘it is important to explore the information behaviours of the students who are being educated in the field of information management since the role they are going to play in establishing connections between information sources and users is crucial’. This study focuses on the identification of the information seeking behaviour of students in the department of Information and Knowledge Management at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. The research is based on research conducted at the Hacettep University in Ankara, Turkey.

  1. Information seeking by blind and sight impaired citizens: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports a study which investigated information seeking by blind and sight impaired people, with particular emphasis on the role of the Internet. A literature review revealed a paucity of studies about the information-seeking behaviour of groups of people with disabilities, including blind and sight impaired people. The study focussed very specifically on both personal lives and broader social contexts. The techniques for collecting qualitative data included two focus groups involving 16 participants and 15 individual interviewees, from both city and country settings. The findings of the study address issues of information needs, information sources, the role of the Internet in meeting needs and the barriers to the use of the Internet. A major conclusion is that people who are blind and sight impaired deserve to be provided with a range of ways of meeting information needs, as are available for people with normal sight. Given the inexorable continuing impact of the information age, it is also concluded that ways must be found so that people with disabilities can participate equitably in the information economy.

  2. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  4. MORBIDITY PROFILE, HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND HOME ENVIRONMENT SURVEY FOR ADAPTIVE MEASURES IN GERIATRIC POPULATION – URBAN COMMUNITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warbhe Priya A, Warbhe Rupesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing is a significant product of demographic transition. Declining fertility and improved health and longevity have generated rising proportions of the older population. Double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affects the geriatric segment of the population with variable health seeking behaviour. Objectives: To assess morbidity profile, health seeking behaviour and home environmental survey for adaptive measures in geriatric population from an urban community. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study stratified systematic random sampling was applied. Research tool was interviewer based closed ended questionnaire. Adaptive measures as part of environment survey were assessed. Proportions and Pearson’s chi-square test were calculated. Results: 64.1% participants were from 60-69 years age category, 9.1% current smokers. 94.1% had 1-3 morbidities, 4.1% had 4-6 morbidities .37.3% gave a history of fall and 31.4% history of fracture. 13.6% cataract operation, 16.8% procedure for fracture.10% had dental procedure. 54.2% went to UHC and GOVT/BMC hospitals for treatment and 78.6% received both allopathic and ayurvedic treatment. History of fall was not associated with adaptive measures in the house (p=0.952. Conclusions: Majority of the participants suffered from old age related morbidities, hypertension emerged as a major morbidity. Most of the participants relied on government hospitals for treatment. Adaptive measures were lacking in most of the houses.

  5. Exploratory study into awareness of heart disease and health care seeking behavior among Emirati women (UAE) - Cross sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Ali, Syed Adnan

    2017-09-26

    Cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2010. Heart attacks usually happen in older women thus symptoms of heart disease may be masked by symptoms of chronic diseases, which could explain the delay in seeking health care and higher mortality following an ischaemic episode among women. This study seeks to a) highlight the awareness of heart diseases among Emirati women and b) to understand Emirati women's health care seeking behaviour in UAE. A cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted using a survey instrument adapted from the American Heart Association National survey. A convenience sample of 676 Emirati women between the ages of 18-55 years completed the questionnaire. The study showed low levels of awareness of heart disease and associated risk factors in Emirati women; only 19.4% participants were found to be aware of heart diseases. Awareness levels were highest in Dubai (OR 2.18, p seeking health care. Interestingly, just 49.1% Emirati women believed that good quality and affordable health care was available in the UAE. Only 28.8% of the participants believed there were sufficient female doctors to respond to health needs of women in UAE. Furthermore, only 36.7% Emirati women chose to be treated in the UAE over treatment in other countries. Emirati women clearly lack the knowledge on severity and vulnerability to heart disease in the region that is essential to improve cardiovascular related health outcomes. This study has identified the need for wider outreach that focuses on gender and age specific awareness on heart disease risks and symptoms. The study has also highlighted potential modifiable barriers in seeking health care that should be overcome to reduce morbidity and mortality due to heart disease among national women of UAE.

  6. What Predicts Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Egyptian Adults? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghweeba, Mayada; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Shishi, Sobhi; Abbas, Mostafa; Waheed, Amani; Amer, Shaymaa

    2017-06-22

    Over the last decade, the Internet has become an important source of health-related information for a wide range of users worldwide. Yet, little is known about the personal characteristics of Egyptian Internet users who search for online health information (OHI). The aim of the study was to identify the personal characteristics of Egyptian OHI seekers and to determine any associations between their personal characteristics and their health information-seeking behavior.  This cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted from June to October 2015. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to Egyptian users aged 18 years and older (N=1400) of a popular Arabic-language health information website. The questionnaire included (1) demographic characteristics; (2) self-reported general health status; and (3) OHI-seeking behavior that included frequency of use, different topics sought, and self-reported impact of obtained OHI on health behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. A total of 490 participants completed the electronic questionnaire with a response rate equivalent to 35.0% (490/1400). Regarding personal characteristics, 57.1% (280/490) of participants were females, 63.4% (311/490) had a university level qualification, and 37.1% (182/490) had a chronic health problem. The most commonly sought OHI by the participants was nutrition-related. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that 31.0% of the variance in frequency of seeking OHI among Egyptian adults can be predicted by personal characteristics. Participants who sought OHI more frequently were likely to be female, of younger age, had higher education levels, and good self-reported general health. Our results provide insights into personal characteristics and OHI-seeking behaviors of Egyptian OHI users. This will contribute to better recognize their needs, highlight ways to increase the availability of appropriate OHI, and may lead to the

  7. Injecting drug users and their health seeking behavior: a cross-sectional study in dhaka, bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27-38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.

  8. Injecting Drug Users and Their Health Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR age of the participants were 32.5±21.3 and 33 (27–38 years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.

  9. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenbeek Romy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers. The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency to a general practitioner (GP, a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. Results In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP. For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency, high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist. Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP, full time work (GP frequency and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist. Conclusions We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to

  10. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy

    2012-08-31

    The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the

  11. When doctors are patients: a narrative study of help-seeking behaviour among addicted physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistrand, Jonatan

    2017-03-01

    In recent decades studies based on questionnaires and interviews have concluded that when doctors become ill they face significant barriers to seeking help. Several reasons have been proposed, primarily the notion that doctors' work environment predisposes them to an inappropriate help-seeking behaviour. In this article, the idea of the ill physician as a paradox in a medical drama is examined. Through a text-interpretive and comparative approach to historical illness narratives written by doctors suffering from one specific diagnosis, namely opioid addiction, the complex set of considerations guiding their behaviour as patients are to some extent revealed. The article concludes that, in the identity transition necessary to become a patient, doctors are held back by their professional status and that every step to assist them needs to take shape based on an awareness of the underlying principles of the medical drama. Written illness narratives by doctors, such as those highlighted in this article, might serve as a tool to increase such awareness.

  12. STUDY OF PATTERN OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT IN PATIENTS SEEKING VISUAL DISABILITY CERTIFICATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhratha Sathish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To determine the severity and various causes of visual impairment in patients seeking visual disability certificate. METHODS Cross-sectional study of patients seeking visual disability certificate from November 2014 to April 2015 was done. Severity of visual impairment was calculated as per the guidelines of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 1999. Cause was ascertained after detailed examination which included slit-lamp examination, direct ophthalmoscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy with 78D lens, Humphrey visual field analysis wherever necessary. RESULTS Of the 267 patients, category 0-7 (2.62%, category 1-37 (13.85%, category 2-42 (15.73%, category 3-157(58.80%, one eyed- 24 (8.98%. Male preponderance was seen (56.55%. The causes were congenital malformations-78 (29.21%, retinitis pigmentosa- 71 (26.59%, refractive errors with amblyopia-52 (19.47%, corneal opacity related to trauma and infectious keratitis 22(8.23%, glaucoma-14 (5.24%, phthisis bulbi-9 (3.37%, ARMD-3 (1.12%, miscellaneous-9 (3.37%. The causes were preventable in 41.19%. CONCLUSION Most of the patients who sought disability certificate were totally blind. The leading causes for visual impairment were congenital malformations, retinitis pigmentosa and refractive errors with amblyopia. 41.19% patients suffered from visual impairment caused by potentially preventable conditions. The burden of visual impairment can be reduced by taking necessary preventive measures with the leading causes being identified.

  13. Information Seeking Behavior and Needs of Women Parliamentarians of Pakistan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqsood Ahmad Shaheen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study probes into the information needs and seeking behavior of women parliamentarians in the 12th National Assembly of Pakistan during 2002 through 2007. It attempts to answer some of the questions raised on women’s political participation in the parliament and their information habits and needs by analyzing their preferred sources used in preparing for speeches, resolutions, bills, and laws. It also measures their information and communication technology skills. The study gauges their dependence and perception about the National Assembly Library and other sources of information available and suggests possible means by which information services to parliamentarians can be further enhanced. The findings of this study may present aspects which have never before been considered by researchers in trying to meet women parliamentarians’ information needs.

  14. Investigating Information-Seeking Behavior of Faculty Members Based on Wilson's Model: Case Study of PNU University, Mazandaran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Fereydoon; Ghasemi, Shahrzad

    2016-09-01

    The present research aims to study information seeking behavior of faculty Members of Payame Noor University (PNU) in Mazandaran province of Iran by using Wilson's model of information seeking behavior. This is a survey study. Participants were 97 of PNU faculty Members in Mazandaran province. An information-seeking behavior inventory was employed to gather information and research data, which had 24 items based on 5-point likert scale. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results showed that the most important goal of faculty members was publishing a scientific paper, and their least important goal was updating technical information. Also we found that they mostly use internet-based resources to meet their information needs. Accordingly, 57.7% of them find information resources via online search engines (e.g. Google, Yahoo). Also we concluded that there was a significant relationship between English language proficiency, academic rank, and work experience of them and their information- seeking behavior.

  15. Widespread pain - do pain intensity and care-seeking influence sickness absence? - A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Søren; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Jensen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    pain and sickness absence has not been studied. Additionally it is unknown whether care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders has a positive or negative impact on future absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pain intensity on the association...... between number of musculoskeletal pain sites and sickness absence, and to analyze the impact on absenteeism from care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders.METHODS: 3745 Danish adults registered with eight General Practitioners (GPs) in one primary medical center reported location...... the results. Similar findings were observed for sickness absence of shorter duration, although the association was weaker. Care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders did not overall alter the odds of later sickness absence.CONCLUSION: Pain intensity and care-seeking due...

  16. Oral health knowledge deficit: A barrier for seeking periodontal therapy? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Hosadurga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In developing countries many chronic conditions including periodontitis are on the rise. Oral health attitudes and beliefs are important factors affecting oral health behavior. Aims: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the existing knowledge about periodontal disease and its impact on treatment seeking behavior in a group of population visiting the out-patient Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, India. This study also attempted to identify deficit in the knowledge if present. Settings and Design: This is a written questionnaire based pilot study. 143 subjects (89 male and 54 female agreed to participate in the study. Simple random sampling was used for recruitment. Subjects and Methods: A written questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was given to the patients. Only one correct answer was present and the score given was + 1. The knowledge of the subjects was reflected by their ability to select a correct answer from the number of distractors (multiple choices, prespecified answers. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS software version 15.0 is used for all statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was employed to assess the passive knowledge of the participants in relation to their age. Results: We found a deficit in the knowledge in all the topics investigated. No consistent relationship between age and gender was found. Female respondents had better knowledge about oral hygiene compared to males. Conclusion: We made an attempt to assess the knowledge of periodontitis among the participants of this study. Knowledge deficit was found in the population surveyed. This knowledge deficit could be one of the reasons why patients do not seek periodontal treatment routinely unless there are acute symptoms. There is urgent need to educate the patients about the periodontal disease, the need for the treatment of periodontitis and advanced treatment modalities available.

  17. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    ASMAA GHAREEB MOHAMED; Ohashi, Ayumi; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; Chiang, Chifa; SHOKRIA ADLY LABEEB; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas ...

  18. Information-Seeking Behavior of Greek Nursing Students: A Questionnaire Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intas, George; Kostagiolas, Petros; Zavras, Dimitris; Chalari, Eleftheria; Stergiannis, Pantelis; Toylia, Georgia; Niakas, Dimitris

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the use of electronic journals by nursing students through identification of information needs, information resources used, and barriers to seeking information. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a specially designed structured questionnaire. Of 600 nursing students, 505 agreed to participate, indicating a response rate of 84.2%. Participants sought out nurses and doctors, printed materials, scholarly databases/e-journals, and seminars as information resources. Participants reported that they searched for information for themselves, parents, and inpatients. Most searched for information for diet or special nutrition needs and for specific diseases. The obstacles faced included lack of time and cost. Training in information literacy is important to enhance the skills of nursing students.

  19. Cross-sectional study of preventive dental knowledge among adult patients seeking dental care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A. AlSadhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the current knowledge about oral health and preventive dentistry among adults seeking dental care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in which 900 questionnaires were randomly distributed to adults seeking dental care in all health settings in Riyadh; 450 questionnaires were distributed in each of the governmental and the private sectors. The questionnaire included questions regarding socio-demographic factors (age, education, occupation, etc and others concerning the patient’s knowledge of preventive dental measures; the oral hygiene procedures, fluoride and sealant applications and the healthy dietary habits. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS and simple descriptive statistics as means and frequency distributions were calculated for the study variables. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square test. Results: Eighty-six percent of the study subjects knew that dental caries could be prevented. Almost 59% were aware of the relation between frequency of sugar intake and dental caries. The prevalence of patients who knew that fluoride prevents dental caries was 50.3%, however, only 34.2% reported previous applications of topical fluoride in dental clinics. About 16% of the participants had received fissure sealants although 42.4% knew about them. The study sample’s dietary knowledge had statistically significant relations with education and occupation (p < 0.0001. Correct knowledge of visiting the dental clinic was statistically significantly related to education (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the majority of adults in Riyadh have the correct preventive dental knowledge, which is mostly related to the individuals’ educational level and occupation.

  20. Exploratory study into the awareness of heart diseases among Emirati women (UAE) and their health seeking behaviour- a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Khoory, Ayesha; Al Zaffin, Dhabia; Al Suwaidi, Meera

    2016-11-07

    Cardiovascular diseases were the leading cause of death in women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2010. The UAE is expected to experience a tripling of heart diseases in the next two decades as risk factors for heart diseases increase. Research shows that first year survival rates of younger women suffering from a heart attack are lower than in men. Women present with a wider range of symptoms for heart diseases than men; non-recognition of atypical symptoms may explain the delay in seeking treatment and poor prognosis following heart diseases in women. No known study on awareness of heart diseases among women has been carried out in the Middle Eastern region. Social constructionist and interpretivist epistemological approaches have been considered in this qualitative study to explore the awareness of heart diseases and the health seeking behavior of Emirati women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 41 Emirati women. Three focus groups and six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain data. Thematic content analysis was applied to the data following transcription and translation of recordings. Emirati women had limited knowledge on heart diseases. Women were generally unaware of the atypical symptoms, commonly experienced by women however they identified most risk factors associated with heart diseases. Lack of awareness of disease severity and symptoms, sociocultural influences and distrust in the healthcare system were considered the main barriers to seeking prompt treatment. This study clearly identified gaps and inaccuracies in knowledge of heart diseases, which could contribute to delayed health seeking action and possibly poorer prognosis among Emirati women. Absence of initiatives to educate women on cardiovascular diseases in UAE has erroneously deemed it a less serious concern among Emirati women. The findings from this study provide clear indications of the need to increase accountability of the healthcare system and to

  1. Patients seeking treatment for craniofacial pain: a retrospective study of 300 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, Wesley E

    2008-10-01

    Those engaged in any type of pain practice will encounter patients who have seen many practitioners. This is especially true for clinicians who treat craniofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. In this retrospective study of 300 patients seeking treatment for various types of craniofacial pain, the average age was 43.05 years. A mean average of 3.92 clinicians was consulted with the range of practitioners being one to 26. The average time of pain was 4.15 years. Most of the subjects (210) were in the age groups 21 years to 60 years old. Females comprised 85.30% of the subjects with a mean average age of 43.43 years; 14.70% were male with a mean average age of 41.02 years.

  2. Educational leaders' information seeking behavior and problem solving - an explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden; Harboe, Thomas; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    in education may influence educational leaders’ approach to educational leadership. As demonstrated in the poster it seems that the preferred approach to information seeking and problem solving could be associated with specific approaches to educational leadership, hence different notions of quality: 1......This poster presents the results of an explorative survey study carried out in fall 2015 of sixty-six educational leaders and their use of information sources for problem solving and educational development. Preferences for specific information sources representing different perspectives of quality......) informal, 2) bureaucratic or 3) knowledge based. It is stated that information, leadership and quality are interrelated and influential factors in educational development and practice. Consequently, more research is needed to inform and develop academic leadership in higher education as well as helping...

  3. Asylum-seeking children's experiences of detention in Canada: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Rachel; Rousseau, Cécile; Cleveland, Janet

    2015-05-01

    Children and parents seeking asylum are regularly detained in Canada, however little is known about the experiences of detained families. International literature suggests that the detention of children is associated with significant morbidity. Our study aims to understand the experiences of detained children and families who have sought asylum in Canada by using a qualitative methodology that includes semistructured interviews and ethnographic participant observation. Detention appears to be a frightening experience of deprivation that leaves children feeling criminalized and helpless. Family separation further shatters children's sense of well-being. Children's emotional and behavioral responses to separation and to detention suggest that the experience is acutely stressful and, in some cases, traumatic--even when detention is brief. Distress and impairment may persist months after release. Given the burden of psychological suffering and the harmful consequences of separating families, children should not be detained for immigration reasons and parents should not be detained without children.

  4. Profile of Clients seeking Consultation at Yoga Therapy Department: A Cross sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that between 10% and 30% of the general practice population are mentally or emotionally disturbed. Physical complaints, multiple aches and pains are construed as signs and symptoms of stress. Although yoga is considered as beneficial, any hidden psychiatric morbidity may go undetected and thus untreated. Thus the aim of this study was to obtain an estimate of hidden psychiatric morbidity in clients seeking consultation at the Department of Yoga. Fifty respondents were administered Life Satisfaction Scale and General Health Questionnaire-12. Majority were females, younger, graduates, married and also scored above the cut off on GHQ, suggesting minor psychiatric disorder/distress; reasons for consultation were related to being over weight, stress, aches and pains, poor concentration. A significant number of persons reported of some dissatisfaction in life. The perceived benefits were related to reducing symptoms, stress, weight, relaxation and improvement in concentration and memory.

  5. Barriers, facilitators, and survival strategies for GPs seeking treatment for distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Johanna; Buszewicz, Marta; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Gerada, Clare; Kessler, David; Leggett, Nick; Manning, Chris; Taylor, Anna Kathryn; Thornton, Gail; Riley, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    GPs are under increasing pressure due to a lack of resources, a diminishing workforce, and rising patient demand. As a result, they may feel stressed, burnt out, anxious, or depressed. To establish what might help or hinder GPs experiencing mental distress as they consider seeking help for their symptoms, and to explore potential survival strategies. The authors recruited 47 GP participants via e-mails to doctors attending a specialist service, adverts to local medical committees (LMCs) nationally and in GP publications, social media, and snowballing. Participants self-identified as either currently living with mental distress, returning to work following treatment, off sick or retired early as a result of mental distress, or without experience of mental distress. Interviews were conducted face to face or over the telephone. Transcripts were uploaded to NVivo 11 and analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers and facilitators were related to work, stigma, and symptoms. Specifically, GPs discussed feeling a need to attend work, the stigma surrounding mental ill health, and issues around time, confidentiality, and privacy. Participants also reported difficulties accessing good-quality treatment. GPs also talked about cutting down or varying work content, or asserting boundaries to protect themselves. Systemic changes, such as further information about specialist services designed to help GPs, are needed to support individual GPs and protect the profession from further damage. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  6. What Contributes to the Regularity of Patients with Hypertension or Diabetes Seeking Health Services? A Pilot Follow-Up, Observational Study in Two Sites in Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Feng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular maintenance of non-communicable chronic diseases can constrain disease progression in diabetic and hypertensive patients. To identify the individual and social factors that are associated with positive health-seeking behaviors and regular maintenance of chronic diseases, we have conducted a follow up study in 2015 on diabetic and hypertensive patients in Hubei Province. We used binary logistic regression models to determine specific factors associated with diabetic and hypertensive patients that sought healthcare services for their conditions in accordance with current Chinese Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC guidelines. Our findings show that 42.16% of 510 people living with chronic conditions (PLCDs sought health services in line with existing guidelines. Findings also show a higher probability (8.418 times for PLCDs seeking healthcare services at higher-tiered hospitals (secondary and tertiary hospitals than for PLCDs seeking care at primary hospitals (odds ratio (OR = 8.418, 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.82, 14.27, p < 0.001. These analyses underscore the importance of having patient advocates who can provide support, where necessary, and encourage positive health-seeking behavior. The study also shows a negative impact on regular maintenance for PLCDs in households with high financial constraints. In contrast, the study shows positive impacts for increased household income, age, and residency in rural locations. In sum, this study underscores the importance of primary hospitals as key points of care and critical players in care coordination for PLCDs. The study provides more evidence for Chinese policymakers seeking to contain costs and improve population health. The findings also underscore the need for community-based interventions, specifically interventions that link local primary hospitals, friends/family members, and PLCDs.

  7. A STUDY ON HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF PATIENTS WITH GENITAL ULCER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developing countries, the proportion with STDs who present with genital ulcers is high compared to developed nations. AIM: 1. To study reaction of the cases toward their disease. 2. To study communication of cases with their partners. 3. To study treatment of symptoms and starting treatment, selfmedication & completion of treatment. 4. To study approach of health care providers. STUDY SETTINGS: Present study was carried out in Department of skin and VD, Medical College and SSG Hospital Baroda between June 2001 to Feb. 2003. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Sexually active male or female having genital ulcer with history of exposure in patient or partner. Total 216 cases were included in the study. Detailed history was taken and was recorded. An attempt was made to study health care seeking behavior in 60 cases. These cases were questioned about their reaction towards the disease treatment seeking including completion of treatment and time gap between appearance of symptoms and treatment taken were asked. They were also asked about the approach of the health care providers from whom they took treatment before coming to our clinic. RESULTS: It was observed that 57% of the cases among males were frightened after having GUD. They were likely to come to STD clinics at the earliest for treatment. Spousal communication was only 45% in male cases. Only 1/3rd cases came directly to STD clinic and the other visited other practitioners. Among these, only 60% took treatment from MBBS doctors or STD specialist. Rest of them went to unqualified health. Awareness about protective value of condom, as for as STI prevention is concerned, was 70% but consistent use was seen only in 2% cases. Twenty one percent cases did not know how to use condom, and 7% did not know about condoms at all. As many as 89% cases didn’t feel it necessary to use condoms during sexual relations with wife. CONCLUSION: Creating awareness

  8. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  9. Brief Report: Need for Autonomy and Other Perceived Barriers Relating to Adolescents' Intentions to Seek Professional Mental Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between belief-based barriers to seeking professional mental health care and help-seeking intentions in a sample of 1037 adolescents. From early adolescence to adulthood, for males and females, the need for autonomy was a strong barrier to seeking professional mental health care. Help-seeking fears were…

  10. Treatment seeking behaviour of STI clients in a tertiary care centre of North India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastika Suvirya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:(1 To determine the treatment seeking behaviour of STI clients. (2 To ascertain the relationship of socio-demographic factors and sexual behaviours with the treatment seeking component in STI clients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the data collected daily from master register, STI/RTI patient wise register and counsellor's patient diary during the study period August 2013 to July 2015 was processed by Microsoft Excel program. The counsellor also recorded the source of information regarding STI Clinic. The information collected regarding bio-social characteristics, high risk sexual behaviours and source of knowledge about Suraksha clinic was analysed. Results: Our results showed that literacy, male sex, urban residence and employment were some of the parameters which significantly improved the health seeking behaviour of STI clients. These variables were associated with higher odds for seeking treatment when adjusted for other variables. Similarly group with bisexual and homosexual behaviour had significantly lower odds for seeking treatment when adjusted for other variables. Conclusion/Key Message: The optimal use of information, education and communication (IEC techniques needs to be strengthened to further improve the utilization of STI clinic services at tertiary care teaching hospitals.

  11. Perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behavior in an urban community in Vietnam: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Lia; Wright, Pamela; Van, Thang Vo; Doan, Vuong D K; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2011-10-01

    This explorative study assesses perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behavior among adults in Vietnam. Methods included questionnaires (200) and focus group discussions (eight). Respondents were often unable to name specific mental illnesses. Frequently mentioned symptoms of mental illness were talking nonsense, talking/laughing alone and wandering. Pressure/stress and studying/thinking too much were often identified causes. Most respondents showed a preference for medical treatment options, often in combination with family care. The results show that perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behaviour are influenced by a lack of knowledge and a mix of traditional and modern views.

  12. Types and Factors Associated With Online Health Information Seeking Among College Men in Latino Fraternities: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Enmanuel Antonio; Chaney, Elizabeth Hensleigh; Stellefson, Michael Leland; Chaney, J Don; Chavarria, Nikita; Dodd, Virginia Jones

    2016-01-18

    Despite the fact that a large percentage of Americans go online to seek health information, literature pertaining to online health information (OHI) seeking among college men in Latino fraternities (CMLF) has been nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (a) identify the types of OHI that CMLF seek and (b) to determine the factors motivating OHI seeking among CMLF. Four 1- to 1.5-hour focus groups were conducted in two public universities in Florida with 41 college-aged Latino males in an established Latino fraternity. E-mails were used to recruit fraternity members. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified that CMLF search for a variety of OHI types including searches on symptoms, diagnoses, weight loss, and treatments for conditions or diseases among other types of OHI. Factors motivating OHI seeking included informational needs of others and concerns for others, worries due to lack of health insurance, preoccupations with health condition, concerns over physical appearance, and clarification through social media. CMLF may be elicited to serve as information conduits to increase access to health information on chronic diseases for older non-English-speaking Latino adults. Lack of health insurance along with other factors in this segment of the population have led to self-diagnosis and self-treatment of illness. Thus, empirical research and health promotion on the potential risks due to self-diagnosing and self-treatment of illness is warranted among CMLF.

  13. Why bother about health? A study on the factors that influence health information seeking behaviour among Malaysian healthcare consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Ainin, Sulaiman; Yeong, Mun Wai

    2017-08-01

    The general improvement of socio-economic conditions has resulted in people becoming more educated to make better-informed decisions in health related matters. Individual's perspective on health increases with better understanding of ways to improve lifestyle for better health and living. With the increase in lifestyle related diseases that lead to health problems, there is an increase in the availability of healthcare information. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that influence information seeking behaviour in the area of healthcare and lifestyle. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the factors that affect online health information-seeking behaviour among healthcare product in the capital city of Malaysia. Survey questionnaire was used to collect empirical data. A survey was conducted among 300 healthcare consumers in three main cities in Malaysia where questionnaires were personally distributed through snowball sampling. A total of 271 questionnaire forms were used in the analysis. Health Behaviour of the consumers influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. And this relationship is strongly affected by Gender whereby the affect is strongly among females compared to males. The findings indicate that Health Behaviour influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Marketers can find out which target segment of population to target when devising information channels for consumers, especially through the Internet. However, message that promotes positive health behaviour to a target audience who already has positive Health Behaviour increase the motivation to Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleeping patterns of Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents: a large observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) have experienced multiple traumas and are a high-risk group for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effects of trauma are known to be associated with sleep problems; indeed sleeping problems are core features of PTSD. However, there has been no systematic research examining the sleep of this high risk group of children. This study presents the first evidence on the sleeping patterns of Afghan UASC living in the UK. A total of 222 male Afghan children, aged 13-18, were interviewed using validated self-report questionnaires measuring sleeping patterns and PTSD. Overall, UASC patterns for bed time and rise time appear acculturated to the country of asylum. Mean UASC sleep onset latency scores were approximately 20 minutes greater compared with normative scores, which may be a reflection of UASC pre-migration and post-migration experiences. As expected, UASC who screened above the clinical cut-off for PTSD reported significantly greater sleep onset latency, increased nightmares, and less total sleep time compared to the non-PTSD group. The results may be of particular interest to clinicians given that, compared to screening for PTSD, screening for sleep problems may be a less culturally disputed form of initial assessment indicating distress in UASC. Similarly, the field of UASC and refugee child interventions is largely focused on trauma, yet sleep may provide a novel avenue for equally or more effective treatment.

  15. Sleeping patterns of Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents: a large observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Bronstein

    Full Text Available Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC have experienced multiple traumas and are a high-risk group for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The effects of trauma are known to be associated with sleep problems; indeed sleeping problems are core features of PTSD. However, there has been no systematic research examining the sleep of this high risk group of children. This study presents the first evidence on the sleeping patterns of Afghan UASC living in the UK. A total of 222 male Afghan children, aged 13-18, were interviewed using validated self-report questionnaires measuring sleeping patterns and PTSD. Overall, UASC patterns for bed time and rise time appear acculturated to the country of asylum. Mean UASC sleep onset latency scores were approximately 20 minutes greater compared with normative scores, which may be a reflection of UASC pre-migration and post-migration experiences. As expected, UASC who screened above the clinical cut-off for PTSD reported significantly greater sleep onset latency, increased nightmares, and less total sleep time compared to the non-PTSD group. The results may be of particular interest to clinicians given that, compared to screening for PTSD, screening for sleep problems may be a less culturally disputed form of initial assessment indicating distress in UASC. Similarly, the field of UASC and refugee child interventions is largely focused on trauma, yet sleep may provide a novel avenue for equally or more effective treatment.

  16. Factors associated with help-seeking behaviors in Mexican elderly individuals with depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Arango-Lopera, Victoria Eugenia; Wagner, Fernando A.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; García-Peña, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Depression in the elderly is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, such as high health service utilization rates, low pharmacological compliance, and synergistic interactions with other comorbidities. Moreover, the help seeking process, which usually starts with the feeling “that something is wrong” and ends with appropriate medical care, is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the pathway of help seeking among older adults with depressive symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study of 60-year or older of community dwelling elderly belonging to the largest health and social security system in Mexico was done. A standardized interview explored the process of seeking health care in four dimensions: depressive symptoms, help seeking, help acquisition and specialized mental health. Results A total of 2,322 individuals were studied; from these, 67.14% (n=1,559) were women, and the mean age was 73.18 years (SD=7.02) 57.9% had symptoms of depression, 337 (25.1%) participants sought help, and 271 (80.4%) received help and 103 (38%) received specialized mental health care. In the stepwise model for not seeking help (χ2=81.66, p<0.0001), significant variables were female gender (OR=0.07 95% CI 0.511–0.958 p=0.026), health care use (OR 3.26 CI 95% 1.64–6.488, p=0.001). Number of years in school, difficulty in activities, SAST score and depression as a disease belief were also significant. Conclusions Appropriate mental health care is rather complex and is influenced by several factors. The main factors associated with help seeking were gender, education level, recent health service use, and the belief that depression is not a disease. Detection of subjects with these characteristics could improve care of elderly with depressive symptoms. PMID:23585359

  17. Delays in seeking an abortion until the second trimester: a qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mosotho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the South African abortion legislation in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortions still exist. Second trimester abortions, an inherently more risky procedure, continue to be 20% of all abortions. Understanding the reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester is important for informing interventions to reduce the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews were conducted in 2006 with women seeking a second trimester abortion at one public sector tertiary hospital and two NGO health care facilities in the greater Cape Town area, South Africa. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Almost all women described multiple and interrelated factors that influenced the timing of seeking an abortion. Reasons why women delayed seeking an abortion were complex and were linked to changes in personal circumstances often leading to indecision, delays in detecting a pregnancy and health service related barriers that hindered access to abortion services. Conclusion Understanding the complex reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester can inform health care interventions aimed at reducing the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa.

  18. Care seeking behavior of chest symptomatics: a community based study done in South India after the implementation of the RNTCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niruparani Charles

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the creation of the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP, tuberculosis services have become decentralized and more accessible. A 1997 study prior to RNTCP implementation reported that most chest symptomatics accessed first private health care facilities and a general dissatisfaction with government health facilities. The study was repeated post-RNTCP implementation to gain insight into the current care seeking behavior of chest symptomatics. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional community-based study carried out between March-August 2008 in 4 sites (2 rural [R] and 2 urban [U] from the same two districts of Chennai and Madurai, southern India, as in the 1997 study. Six hundred and forty chest symptomatics were identified (R 314; U 326, and detailed interviews were done for 606 (R311; U295. RESULTS: Prevalence of chest symptomatics in the urban and rural areas were 2.7% and 4.9% respectively (p<0.01, and was found to increase with age (Chi-square for trend, p<0.01. Longer delays in seeking care were seen amongst symptomatics above 45 years of age (p 0.01, and those who had taken previous TB treatment (p=0.05. Overall, 50% (222/444 of the chest symptomatics approached a government health care facility first (R 142 (61%; U 80 (38%, p=or  <0.001. This was significantly (p<0.001 more than were observed in the 1997 study, where only 38.4% approached a government facility first. Sixty two (28% of the 222 made a second visit to a government facility (R26%; U31%, while 17% shifted to a private facility (R14%; U21%. Dissatisfaction with the health care facility was one of the major reasons expressed. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the RNTCP has had an impact in the community with regard to the availability and accessibility of TB services in government health facilities. However the relatively high levels of subsequent shifting to private health facilities calls for urgent action to make government facilities more patients friendly

  19. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  20. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  1. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  2. A Case Study of Information-Seeking Behavior in 7-Year-Old Children in a Semistructured Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    This case study of information-seeking behavior of second grade children in their school library media center focuses on how young children learning to read cope with searching for information in a largely textual corpus. Discusses children's search strategies; computer versus shelf searching; textual versus visual searching; and comparisons with…

  3. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  4. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB

  5. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  6. What would encourage help-seeking for memory problems among UK-based South Asians? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadam, Naaheed; Waugh, Amy; Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2015-09-11

    People from Minority Ethnic groups tend to present late to dementia services, often in crisis. Culture-specific barriers to help-seeking seem to underlie this. We sought to determine these barriers to timely help-seeking for dementia among people from South Asian backgrounds and what the features of an intervention to overcome them would be. Qualitative study to delineate barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking for South Asian adults with dementia through focus groups and individual interviews. Community settings in and around Greater London. To achieve a maximum variation sample, we purposively recruited 53 English or Bengali speaking South Asian adults without a known diagnosis of dementia through community centres and snowballing. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 83 years, were mostly female and were 60% Bangladeshi. We recruited people from different religions and occupational backgrounds and included those with experience of caring for someone with dementia as well as those without this experience. Participants identified four main barriers to timely diagnosis: barriers to help-seeking for memory problems; the threshold for seeking help for memory problems; ways to overcome barriers to help-seeking; what features an educational resource should have. We have identified the features of an intervention with the potential to improve timely dementia diagnosis in South Asians. The next steps are to devise and test such an intervention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. An Empirical Study of Personality Disorders Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Oldenhof, E; Allen, J S; Dowling, N A

    2016-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist outpatient gambling service in Australia. The prevalence of personality disorders using the self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorders Screen was 43.3 %. Cluster B personality disorders, but not Cluster A or C personality disorders, were associated with problem gambling severity. All psychological symptoms, except alcohol and drug use, were significantly higher among participants with personality disorder pathology compared to those without. Finally, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for problem gamblers with personality disorder pathology, while impulsivity, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for those without personality disorder pathology. High rates of comorbid personality disorders, particularly Cluster B disorders, necessitate routine screening in gambling treatment services. More complex psychological profiles may complicate treatment for problem gamblers with comorbid personality disorders. Future research should examine the applicability of the biosocial developmental model to problem gambling in community studies.

  8. A Study on Health Seeking Behaviors of Patients of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Basher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL remains a major public health threat in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Surya Kanta Kala azar Research Centre (SKKRC, Mymensingh, from January 2012 to July 2013 to evaluate the health seeking behaviour and the length of delay of PKDL management. The consecutive 200 diagnosed PKDL cases that got treatment in SKKRC hospital were subjected to evaluation. Most (98% of the patients were not aware and had no knowledge about PKDL, though 87.5% had a history of history of Kala-azar treatment. Many patients reported first to village doctor (15.5%, the pharmacy shop (10%, or traditional health provider (7.5% upon recognition of symptom. The time between the initial symptom recognition and first medical consultation (patient delay ranged from 10 days to 4745 days (13 years with a median of 373 days (mean: 696; IQR: 138 to 900 days. The time between first medical consultations to definite treatment (system delay ranged from 0 days to 1971 days (5.4 years, with a median delay of 14 days (mean: 46.48; IQR: 7 to 44 days that was reported in this study. Age, education, occupation, and residential status had significant association with patient delay (P<0.05. Educational status, occupation, number of treatment providers, and first health care provider had a significant association with system delay (P<0.05. Success in PKDL diagnosis and treatment requires specific behavior from patients and health care providers which facilitate those practices.

  9. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  10. Studies of Current Dependent Effects at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A S; Huttel, E; Pérez, F; Pont, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The ANKA electron storage ring is operated at energies between 0.5 and 2.5 GeV. A major requirement for a synchrotron light source, such as ANKA, is to achieve a high beam current. A multitude of mostly impedance related effects depend on either bunch or total beam current. This paper gives an overview over the various beam studies performed at ANKA in this context, specifically the observation of current dependent detuning, the determination of the bunch length change with current from a measurement of the ratio between coherent and incoherent synchrotron tune and an assessment of the effective longitudinal loss factor from the current dependent horizontal closed orbit distortion.

  11. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services.

  12. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; CHIANG, CHIFA; AOYAMA, ATSUKO

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women’s health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women’s health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  13. When Children Seek Asylum from Their Parents: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossin, Michael; Demirdache, Laila

    2012-01-01

    When children seek asylum from alleged abuse by a custodial parent, the notion that family reunification is always in the best interests of independent child migrants is undermined. In this chapter, the authors discuss the legal tensions between the Refugee Convention, the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (the…

  14. Seeking Information after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: A Case Study in Mass-Fatality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kailash

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which killed an estimated 316,000 people, offered many lessons in mass-fatality management (MFM). The dissertation defined MFM in seeking information and in recovery, preservation, identification, and disposition of human remains. Specifically, it examined how mass fatalities were managed in Haiti, how affected…

  15. When Children Seek Asylum from Their Parents: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossin, Michael; Demirdache, Laila

    2012-01-01

    When children seek asylum from alleged abuse by a custodial parent, the notion that family reunification is always in the best interests of independent child migrants is undermined. In this chapter, the authors discuss the legal tensions between the Refugee Convention, the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (the…

  16. Why abused women do not seek professional help: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to gain insight into the process of help seeking of abused women visiting their family physician (FP). SETTING: Family practice in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. METHOD: We used a qualitative method with interviews in a sample of 14 abused women, identified in an earlier cross-secti

  17. Ecstasy use and self-reported depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.L. de Win; T. Schilt; L. Reneman; H. Vervaeke; G. Jager; S. Dijkink; J. Booij; W. van den Brink

    2006-01-01

    Although there are indications that ecstasy users have higher Levels of depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking, it is unknown whether these are consequences of ecstasy use or predisposing factors for starting ecstasy use. We prospectively assessed the predictive value of depression, impulsiv

  18. Modeling the Information-Seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis's Study Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meho, Lokman I.; Tibbo, Helen R.

    2003-01-01

    Revises David Ellis's information-seeking behavior model of social scientists which includes six generic features: starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring, and extracting. Suggests four new features be added: accessing, networking, verifying, and information managing; and describes a new model that includes searching, accessing,…

  19. Factors Influencing Children's and Adults' Information Seeking on the Web: Results of Two Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Dania; Kirby, Joe

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the success and information-seeking behavior of seventh-grade children and graduate students in using the Yahooligans! Web search engine/directory to find the correct answer for a fact-based search task. Analyzes and compares the overall patterns of children's and graduate students' Web traversal behaviors, including searching,…

  20. Applying an expectancy-value model to study motivators for work-task based information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Karen Tølbøl; Skov, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to operationalise and verify a cognitive motivation model that has been adapted to information seeking. The original model was presented within the field of psychology. Design/methodology/approach: An operationalisation of the model is presented based on the ...

  1. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  2. Muslim Woman Seeking Work: An English Case Study with a Dutch Comparison, of Discrimination and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bagley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of, and change in “race relations”. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, and earlier work, begun in America, was continued in England in the 1960s, and further replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and the Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1043 potential employers indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that modern societies continue, in several ways, to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities may have the effect of pushing some ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control in ways which may deny minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.

  3. A study to examine the role of environmental motivation and sensation seeking personality to predict behavioral intention in volunteer tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Suhud

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first, objective of this study is to understand the role of environmental motivation and sensation seeking personality in predicting intention to be involved in VT. The second objective is to examine whether the theory of reasoned action could be extended by adding two new variables - environmental motivation and sensation seeking personality. The last objective is to understand the difference intention in difference periods of time – within one, three, and five years; Volunteer tourism is about combination of volunteering and tourism activities that require participants to pay their own costs – transport, accommodation, meals, and even contribute to the project offered in a destination. Researchers claimed that there is an overlap between volunteer tourism and eco-tourism. This claim referred to two reasons: most of projects are relating to environment and part of motivations of the participants relate to environment. The author adapted the theory of reasoned action by adding new variables – sensation seeking personality and environmental motivation. The author considers that this is an experimental study as there has not been documented that a single environmental motivation has an influence on behavioral intention, particularly in the tourism field. The author collected data using an online survey and approached volunteers, tourists, and volunteer tourists to participate in an online survey conveniently. In total, 551 respondents participated, coming from developed and developing countries. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (structural equation model. Three fitted models were built representing intention within one year, three years, and five years. Almost all hypotheses in all models were accepted. This quantitative study proves that environmental motivation and sensation seeking personality have different influences on intention to be involved in VT in different periods of time. In addition, it

  4. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal activation and synaptic alterations after stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking: a study using c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Carlo; Koya, Eisuke; Navarre, Brittany M; Calu, Donna J; Baumann, Michael H; Marchant, Nathan J; Liu, Qing-Rong; Khuc, Thi; Pickel, James; Lupica, Carl R; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-06-20

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express GFP in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained to lever-press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, lever-pressing was extinguished and reinstatement of food seeking and mPFC neuronal activation was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.5-2 mg/kg) or pellet priming (1-4 noncontingent pellets). Estrous cycle effects on reinstatement were also assessed in wild-type rats. Yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement was associated with Fos and GFP induction in mPFC; both reinstatement and neuronal activation were minimally affected by ovarian hormones in both c-fos-GFP and wild-type rats. c-fos-GFP transgenic rats were then used to assess glutamatergic synaptic alterations within activated GFP-positive and nonactivated GFP-negative mPFC neurons following yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking. This reinstatement was associated with reduced AMPA receptor/NMDA receptor current ratios and increased paired-pulse facilitation in activated GFP-positive but not GFP-negative neurons. While ovarian hormones do not appear to play a role in stress-induced relapse of food seeking in our rat model, this reinstatement was associated with unique synaptic alterations in strongly activated mPFC neurons. Our paper introduces the c-fos-GFP transgenic rat as a new tool to study unique synaptic changes in activated neurons during behavior.

  5. The Role of Health Literacy and Social Networks in Arthritis Patients' Health Information-Seeking Behavior: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients engage in health information-seeking behaviour to maintain their wellbeing and to manage chronic diseases such as arthritis. Health literacy allows patients to understand available treatments and to critically appraise information they obtain from a wide range of sources. Aims. To explore how arthritis patients' health literacy affects engagement in arthritis-focused health information-seeking behaviour and the selection of sources of health information available through their informal social network. Methods. An exploratory, qualitative study consisting of one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Twenty participants with arthritis were recruited from community organizations. The interviews were designed to elicit participants' understanding about their arthritis and arthritis medication and to determine how the participants' health literacy informed selection of where they found information about their arthritis and pain medication. Results. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to be engaged with health information-seeking behaviour. Participants with intermediate health literacy were more likely to source arthritis-focused health information from newspapers, television, and within their informal social network. Those with high health literacy sourced information from the internet and specialist health sources and were providers of information within their informal social network. Conclusion. Health professionals need to be aware that levels of engagement in health information-seeking behaviour and sources of arthritis-focused health information may be related to their patients' health literacy.

  6. The role of health literacy and social networks in arthritis patients' health information-seeking behavior: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Janette; Mullan, Judy; Worsley, Anthony; Pai, Nagesh

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients engage in health information-seeking behaviour to maintain their wellbeing and to manage chronic diseases such as arthritis. Health literacy allows patients to understand available treatments and to critically appraise information they obtain from a wide range of sources. Aims. To explore how arthritis patients' health literacy affects engagement in arthritis-focused health information-seeking behaviour and the selection of sources of health information available through their informal social network. Methods. An exploratory, qualitative study consisting of one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Twenty participants with arthritis were recruited from community organizations. The interviews were designed to elicit participants' understanding about their arthritis and arthritis medication and to determine how the participants' health literacy informed selection of where they found information about their arthritis and pain medication. Results. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to be engaged with health information-seeking behaviour. Participants with intermediate health literacy were more likely to source arthritis-focused health information from newspapers, television, and within their informal social network. Those with high health literacy sourced information from the internet and specialist health sources and were providers of information within their informal social network. Conclusion. Health professionals need to be aware that levels of engagement in health information-seeking behaviour and sources of arthritis-focused health information may be related to their patients' health literacy.

  7. Australian adolescents beliefs and help-seeking intentions towards peers experiencing symptoms of depression and alcohol misuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D I Lubman; A Cheetham; A F Jorm; B J Berridge; C Wilson; F Blee; L Mckay-Brown; N Allen; J Proimos

    2017-01-01

    .... The current study examined adolescents’ ability to recognise symptoms of depression and alcohol misuse, perceived barriers to help-seeking, and their intentions to encourage a peer to seek help from a range of informal and formal help sources...

  8. Delay in seeking medical help following Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA or "mini-stroke": a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mc Sharry

    Full Text Available Prompt treatment following Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA can reduce the risk of subsequent stroke and disability. However, many patients delay in making contact with medical services. This study aimed to explore TIA patients' accounts of delay between symptom onset and contacting medical services including how decisions to contact services were made and the factors discussed in relation to delay.Twenty interviews were conducted with TIA patients in England. Using a previous systematic review as an initial framework, interview data were organised into categories of symptom recognition, presence of others and type of care sought. A thematic analysis was then conducted to explore descriptions of care-seeking relevant to each category.Delay in contacting medical services varied from less than an hour to eight days. Awareness of typical stroke symptoms could lead to urgent action when more severe TIA symptoms were present but could lead to delay when experienced symptoms were less severe. The role of friends and family varied widely from deciding on and enacting care-seeking decisions to simply providing transport to the GP practice. When family or friends played a greater role, and both made and enacted care-seeking decisions, delays were often shorter, even when patients themselves failed to identify symptoms. Healthcare professionals also impacted on patients' care-seeking with greater delays in seeking further care for the same episode described when patients perceived a lack of urgency during initial healthcare interactions.This study provides new information on patients' decisions to contact medical services following TIA and identifies overlapping factors that can lead to delay in receiving appropriate treatment. While recognition of symptoms may contribute to delay in contacting medical services, additional factors, including full responsibility being taken by others and initial healthcare interactions, can over-ride or undermine the

  9. What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, S; Schauman, O; Graham, T; Maggioni, F; Evans-Lacko, S; Bezborodovs, N; Morgan, C; Rüsch, N; Brown, J S L; Thornicroft, G

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often avoid or delay seeking professional help for mental health problems. Stigma may be a key deterrent to help-seeking but this has not been reviewed systematically. Our systematic review addressed the overarching question: What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking for mental health problems? Subquestions were: (a) What is the size and direction of any association between stigma and help-seeking? (b) To what extent is stigma identified as a barrier to help-seeking? (c) What processes underlie the relationship between stigma and help-seeking? (d) Are there population groups for which stigma disproportionately deters help-seeking? Five electronic databases were searched from 1980 to 2011 and references of reviews checked. A meta-synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies, comprising three parallel narrative syntheses and subgroup analyses, was conducted. The review identified 144 studies with 90,189 participants meeting inclusion criteria. The median association between stigma and help-seeking was d = - 0.27, with internalized and treatment stigma being most often associated with reduced help-seeking. Stigma was the fourth highest ranked barrier to help-seeking, with disclosure concerns the most commonly reported stigma barrier. A detailed conceptual model was derived that describes the processes contributing to, and counteracting, the deterrent effect of stigma on help-seeking. Ethnic minorities, youth, men and those in military and health professions were disproportionately deterred by stigma. Stigma has a small- to moderate-sized negative effect on help-seeking. Review findings can be used to help inform the design of interventions to increase help-seeking.

  10. Socio-cultural determinants of health-seeking behaviour on the Kenyan coast: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Health-seeking behaviour, and the factors influencing this behaviour, were examined in two traditional communities. We held in-depth interviews with 53 mothers, fathers and caregivers from two rural clinics at the Kenyan Coast. Biomedical medicine (from health facilities and purchased over the counter was found to be the most popular first point of treatment. However, traditional healing still plays a salient role in the health care within these two communities. Traditional healers were consulted for various reasons: a attribution of causation of ill-health to supernatural sources, b chronic illness (inability of modern medicine to cure the problem and c as prevention against possible ill-health. In developing an explanatory model of decision-making, we observed that this was a complex process involving consultation at various levels, with elders, but also between both parents, depending on the perceived nature and chronicity of the illness. However, it was reported that fathers were the ultimate decision makers in relation to decisions concerning where the child would be taken for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Health systems need to see traditional healing as a complementary system in order to ensure adequate access to health care. Importantly, fathers also need to be addressed in intervention and education programs.

  11. THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON HEALTHCARE SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF KALDERASH ROMA. A QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ROMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some ethnic groups, as the Roma, are thought to have different healthcare seeking behaviour. This paper aims to provide findings on the attitudes, preferences, expectations and concerns of a Roma ethnic group (Kalderash regarding inpatient hospitalization. The findings focus on a series of data analysed from semi-structured interviews with 23 Kalderash patients and caregivers from Zanea community (county of Iasi, north-eastern part of Romania. Kalderash people have negative attitudes towards hospitalization and report significant anxieties. The findings reveal specificities related to patients’ ethnic background, cultural views and communication barriers. For their part, Roma are often suspicious of non-Roma people and institutions. Roma ideas about hospital are closely related to notions of purity and impurity. These basic concepts affect everyday life during inpatient hospitalization, including the way Roma deal with eating and washing, physicians and treatments, or coping with illness and death. When they seek medical care, Roma often come into conflict with medical personnel who find their behaviour confusing and demanding. Roma’s cultural beliefs and attitudes underlie their behaviour when they are being confronted with a serious illness and are seeking inpatient medical care. Attention to cultural diversity does matter, as this should lead to different medical behavioural patterns.

  12. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boundary layers to influence the ambient larger-scale flow. We have studied these issues through ocean model simulations, adjoint sensitivity...circulation be monitored from pressure gauges, temperature sensors, current meters, or other measurements near the feature? • The influence of the

  13. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  14. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a pop...

  15. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  16. A Study On The Psychometric Features Of The Turkish Version Of The Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (Bsss-8 For Young Adults And The Relation Between Sensation Seeking And Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt the sensation seeking scale for young adults into Turkish and to investigate if the life satisfaction of university students differ significantly in terms of sensation seeking. In addition, it was investigated whether the life satisfaction levels of university students differ significantly in terms of gender. The data for this research was collected from 570 university students. The original form of BSSS-8 consist of 8 items and 4 factors. The scale was subjected to CFA in order to determine the structural validity of its Turkish version and it was found that this version had a single factor structure. The results of the CFA suggested acceptable levels of fit indices (χ2/df = 4.46, RMSEA = .07, GFI =96, CFI = .94, IFI = .94, NFI = .93, AGFI = .93, and NNFI = .91. The reliability coefficient of the scale was found at a level of .79. Furthermore, corrected item total correlation were found to be in a range between .22 and .59. The results suggest that the single factor structure of the scale produces valid and reliable results. In addition, it was found that the life satisfaction levels of university students differ significantly in terms of sensation seeking level, but life satisfaction levels of university students do not differ significantly in terms of gender. The results showed that the life satisfaction levels of students with lower sensation seeking are higher than of students with higher sensation seeking

  17. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  18. Predicting Intentions to Seek Psychological Help Among Botswana University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho M. Pheko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study had two main objectives. The first was to investigate Botswana’s university students’ intentions to seek psychological help. The second was to investigate whether (a Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH, (b Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH, and (c Social Stigma of Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH predicted the students’ intentions to seek psychological help. A total of N = 519 (283 females and 236 males students from the University of Botswana completed the survey. Results indicated that generally, the students had moderate intentions of seeking psychological help. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three predictors, only ATSPPH and SSRPH significantly predicted intentions to seek psychological help. The current study is important because while it has been established that university students are a high-risk population for mental health problems, there is close to nothing documented on university students in Botswana. Findings of the current study will undoubtedly increase knowledge relating to psychological help-seeking and its predictors in Botswana and may inform interventions that aim to encourage young people to seek psychological or counseling help.

  19. Shaping healthcare-seeking processes during fatal illness in resource-poor settings. A study in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvesson Helle M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are profound social meanings attached to bearing children that affect the experience of losing a child, which is akin to the loss of a mother in the household. The objective of this study is to comprehend the broader processes that shape household healthcare-seeking during fatal illness episodes or reproductive health emergencies in resource-poor communities. Methods The study was conducted in six purposively selected poor, rural communities in Lao PDR, located in two districts that represent communities with different access to health facilities and contain diverse ethnic groups. Households having experienced fatal cases were first identified in focus group discussions with community members, which lead to the identification of 26 deaths in eleven households through caregiver and spouse interviews. The interviews used an open-ended anthropological approach and followed a three-delay framework. Interpretive description was used in the data analysis. Results The healthcare-seeking behavior reported by caregivers revealed a broad range of providers, reflecting the mix of public, private, informal and traditional health services in Lao PDR. Most caregivers had experienced multiple constraints in healthcare-seeking prior to death. Decisions regarding care-seeking were characterized as social rather than individual actions. They were constrained by medical costs, low expectations of recovery and worries about normative expectations from healthcare workers on how patients and caregivers should behave at health facilities to qualify for treatment. Caregivers raised the difficulties in determining the severity of the state of the child/mother. Delays in reaching care related to lack of physical access and to risks associated with taking a sick family member out of the local community. Delays in receiving care were affected by the perceived low quality of care provided at the health facilities. Conclusions Care-seeking is

  20. Designing Health Websites Based on Users' Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Chang, Shanton; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-06-06

    Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for "exploring" health information. The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information-seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information-seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity. Better Health Explorer provides strong

  1. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  2. Knowledge, perceived stigma, and care-seeking experiences for sexually transmitted infections: a qualitative study from the perspective of public clinic attendees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunnigham Shayna D

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 12 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs are documented in Brazil per year. Given the scope of this public health challenge and the importance of prompt treatment and follow-up counseling to reduce future STI/HIV-related risk behavior, we sought to qualitatively explore STI clinic experiences among individuals diagnosed with STIs via public clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study focused on eliciting the perspective of clinic users with regard to those factors influencing their STI care-seeking decisions and the health education and counseling which they received during their clinic visit. Methods Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with heterosexual men and women and men who have sex with men presenting with STIs at two public clinics. Content analysis was conducted by coding transcripts of audio-taped interviews for key domains of interest and comparing and synthesizing code output across participants and sub-groups. Thematic narratives were then developed per each of the study sub-groups. Results Salient themes that emerged from participant narratives included the importance of low STI-related knowledge and high perceived stigma, both STI-related and other types of social stigma, on STI care-seeking delays. However, there are indications in the data that the level of STI-related knowledge and the amount and types of stigma experienced vary across the study sub-groups suggesting the need for further research on the significance and program relevance of these potential differences. Interview findings also suggest that such barriers to care seeking are not adequately addressed through ongoing health education and counseling efforts at public STI clinics and in turn critical opportunities for STI/HIV prevention are currently being missed. Conclusion Information, communication and education regarding early recognition and prompt care-seeking for STIs should be developed, with consideration

  3. [Current registry studies of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltkamp, R; Jüttler, E; Pfefferkorn, T; Purrucker, J; Ringleb, P

    2012-10-01

    Study registries offer the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new therapies or to observe the consequences of new treatments in clinical practice. The SITS-MOST registry confirmed the validity of findings from randomized trials on intravenous thrombolysis concerning safety and efficacy in the clinical routine. Current study registries concerning new interventional thrombectomy techniques suggest a high recanalization rate; however, the clinical benefit can only be evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Similarly, the experiences of the BASICS registry on basilar artery occlusion have led to the initiation of a controlled trial. The benefit of hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction has been demonstrated by the pooled analysis of three randomized trials. Numerous relevant aspects are currently documented in the DESTINY-R registry. Finally, the recently started RASUNOA registry examines diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurring during therapy with new oral anticoagulants.

  4. Help-Seeking Experiences of Health Care Learners in a WebCT Online Graduate Study Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a qualitative research project that explored health care students’ activities related to seeking help within a masters program offered exclusively through a WebCT online environment. A constructivist theoretical perspective and an action research approach framed the study. Data sources included one question on a program satisfaction questionnaire, focus groups and ten individual audio tape-recorded transcribed interviews. Content was analyzed for themes and confirmed through ongoing member checking with participants. The following four overarching themes were identified and are used to explain and describe significant features of help-seeking experiences of online health care learners: (1 Self-help included reflection and re-reading directions available within the course; (2 A primary source of help was other students in the class; (3 Involving family, friends and co-workers provided important educational support; and (4 Instructors’ first message, involvement in weekly discussions and anecdotal comments were highly valued.

  5. Physical Activity, Sensation Seeking, and Aggression as Injury Risk Factors in Young Swiss Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Diener, Eva; Foster, Simon; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Martin, Brian W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the relationships between physical activity (PA), sports participation and sensation seeking or aggression and injury risk in young men. A representative cohort study was conducted with 4686 conscripts for the Swiss army. Risk factors assessed at baseline were PA, the frequency of sports participation, sensation seeking, and aggression. The number of injuries during the past 12 months was reported 16 months after baseline. Exposure to moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA) was estimated based on baseline PA. Among conscripts, 48.5% reported at least 1 injury for the past 12 months. After accounting for exposure to MVPA, the most inactive individuals (reference group) had the highest injury risk and those with high levels of PA and weekly sports participation the lowest (Poisson regression analysis: incidence rate ratio = 0.14 [0.12-0.16]). Independent of activity level, sensation seeking increased cumulative injury incidence significantly (Logistic regression analysis [injured vs. not injured]: odds ratio = 1.29 [1.02-1.63]) and incidence rates marginally. Aggression was marginally associated only with cumulative injury incidence and only in those participating in daily sports. When accounting for exposure to PA, being inactive is a strong injury risk factor in young men, whereas the roles of the personality variables are less clear.

  6. The Health Seeking Behaviors and Perceptions of Iranian Patient with Osteoarthritis about Pain Management: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is the main reason for patients with osteoarthritis (OA to visit health clinics. Health seeking behaviors indicate unmet patient needs and lack of understanding of OA pain patterns. This study aimed to describe the experiences of Iranian patients with OA and explore their health seeking behaviors and perceptions on pain management related to osteoarthritis. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, data was collected by interviewing 19 patients, 2 family members, and 5 health care providers from the in-patient and out-patient clinics, and physicians’ offices. Data saturation was reached after 31 in-depth and semi-structured interviews (five second interviews. Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, using comparison, reflection and interpretation techniques. The criteria used to enhance rigor included credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Results: Two main categories and six subcategories emerged from data analysis. The first main category included "adapting to the reality" which had three subcategories: Facing OA pain, seeking health care, and accepting pain as a part of life. The second main category included "behavior fluctuation" with three subcategory of role conflict, responsibility for self-care and, adherence to prescribed treatment versus self-treatment. Conclusion: Care seeking behaviors for chronic pain sufferers are void of cultural, emotional, social and financial situation and patient expectations. Some misconceptions emerged about the health problem and its management, which may lead to negative attitudes toward treatment and therapists and finally lead to non-adherence to treatment. Patients need for education to enhance appropriate health care utilization.

  7. Recognising and treatment seeking for acute bacterial meningitis in adults and children in resource-poor settings: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Desmond

    Full Text Available High mortality burden from Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM in resource-poor settings has been frequently blamed on delays in treatment seeking. We explored treatment-seeking pathways from household to primary health care and referral for ABM in Malawi.A cross-sectional qualitative study using narrative in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions.Adults and children with proven and probable acute bacterial meningitis and/or their carers; adults from urban and peri-urban communities; and primary health care workers (HCW.Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH, urban and peri-urban private and government primary health centres and communities in Blantyre District, Malawi.Whilst communities associated meningitis with a stiff neck, in practice responses focused on ability to recognise severe illness. Misdiagnosis of meningitis as malaria was common. Subsequent action by families depended on the extent to which normal social life was disrupted by the illness and depended on the age and social position of the sufferer. Seizures and convulsions were considered severe symptoms but were often thought to be malaria. Presumptive malaria treatment at home often delayed formal treatment seeking. Further delays in treatment seeking were caused by economic barriers and perceptions of inefficient or inadequate primary health services.Given the difficulties in diagnosis of meningitis where malaria is common, any intervention for ABM at primary level must focus on recognising severe illness, and encouraging action at the household, community and primary health levels. Overcoming barriers to recognition and social constraints at community level require broad community-based strategies and may provide a route to addressing poor clinical outcomes.

  8. Recognising and treatment seeking for acute bacterial meningitis in adults and children in resource-poor settings: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Nicola A; Nyirenda, Deborah; Dube, Queen; Mallewa, MacPherson; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Lalloo, David G; Heyderman, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    High mortality burden from Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM) in resource-poor settings has been frequently blamed on delays in treatment seeking. We explored treatment-seeking pathways from household to primary health care and referral for ABM in Malawi. A cross-sectional qualitative study using narrative in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Adults and children with proven and probable acute bacterial meningitis and/or their carers; adults from urban and peri-urban communities; and primary health care workers (HCW). Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), urban and peri-urban private and government primary health centres and communities in Blantyre District, Malawi. Whilst communities associated meningitis with a stiff neck, in practice responses focused on ability to recognise severe illness. Misdiagnosis of meningitis as malaria was common. Subsequent action by families depended on the extent to which normal social life was disrupted by the illness and depended on the age and social position of the sufferer. Seizures and convulsions were considered severe symptoms but were often thought to be malaria. Presumptive malaria treatment at home often delayed formal treatment seeking. Further delays in treatment seeking were caused by economic barriers and perceptions of inefficient or inadequate primary health services. Given the difficulties in diagnosis of meningitis where malaria is common, any intervention for ABM at primary level must focus on recognising severe illness, and encouraging action at the household, community and primary health levels. Overcoming barriers to recognition and social constraints at community level require broad community-based strategies and may provide a route to addressing poor clinical outcomes.

  9. The Health Seeking Behaviors and Perceptions of Iranian Patient with Osteoarthritis about Pain Management: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Foolady, Marjaneh; Behshid, Mozhgan; Irajpoor, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pain is the main reason for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to visit health clinics. Health seeking behaviors indicate unmet patient needs and lack of understanding of OA pain patterns. This study aimed to describe the experiences of Iranian patients with OA and explore their health seeking behaviors and perceptions on pain management related to osteoarthritis. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, data was collected by interviewing 19 patients, 2 family members, and 5 health care providers from the in-patient and out-patient clinics, and physicians’ offices. Data saturation was reached after 31 in-depth and semi-structured interviews (five second interviews). Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, using comparison, reflection and interpretation techniques. The criteria used to enhance rigor included credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Results: Two main categories and six subcategories emerged from data analysis. The first main category included "adapting to the reality" which had three subcategories: Facing OA pain, seeking health care, and accepting pain as a part of life. The second main category included "behavior fluctuation" with three subcategory of role conflict, responsibility for self-care and, adherence to prescribed treatment versus self-treatment. Conclusion: Care seeking behaviors for chronic pain sufferers are void of cultural, emotional, social and financial situation and patient expectations. Some misconceptions emerged about the health problem and its management, which may lead to negative attitudes toward treatment and therapists and finally lead to non-adherence to treatment. Patients need for education to enhance appropriate health care utilization. PMID:28299300

  10. Difficulties leaving home: a cross-sectional study of delays in seeking emergency obstetric care in Herat, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Atsumi; Borchert, Matthias; Niksear, Homa; Alkozai, Ahmad Shah; Cox, Jonathan; Gardiner, Julian; Osmani, Khadija Ruina; Filippi, Véronique

    2011-10-01

    This study used an analytical cross-sectional design to identify risk factors associated with delays in care-seeking among women admitted in life-threatening conditions to a maternity hospital in Herat, Afghanistan, from February 2007 to January 2008. Disease-specific criteria of 'near-miss' were used to identify women in life-threatening conditions. Among 472 eligible women and their husbands, 411 paired interviews were conducted, and information on socio-demographic factors; the woman's status and social resources; the husband's social networks; health care accessibility and utilisation; care-seeking costs; and community characteristics were obtained. Decision and departure delays were assessed quantitatively from reported timings of symptom recognition, care-seeking decision, and departure for health facilities. Censored normal regression analyses suggest that although determinants of decision delay were influenced by the nature and symptoms of complications, uptake of antenatal care (ANC) and the birth plan reduced decision delay at the time of the obstetric emergency. Access to care and social networks reduced departure delay. Programmatic efforts may be directed towards exploiting the roles of ANC and social resources in facilitating access to emergency obstetric care.

  11. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  12. Nurses' Information Seeking Behavior for Clinical Practice: A Case Study in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Kimiafar, Khalil; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    We used a valid questionnaire to survey Iranian nurses' seeking information behavior and their confidence on different information sources. The frequently used sources were Internet" and "personal experiences" (54.8% and 48.2% respectively). "English medical journals" (61.9%) and "English textbooks" (41.3%) were the least frequently used sources. Nurses felt high confidence in sources such as "International instructions/guidelines" (58.6%) and "English medical textbooks" (50.4%). The main reasons for selecting sources were easy accessibility, being up to date and reliability. Google, Pubmed and Up to Date were the most used electronic sources. In addition, there were differences in terms of using some of these resources and nurse' age and gender. In developing information sources for nurses, factors such as reliability level, availability, and updatedness of resources should be more emphasized.

  13. Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Illes, Judy

    2013-03-04

    The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords "gene therapy" from the Q&A site "Yahoo! Answers" for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease.

  14. Service user and carer experiences of seeking help for a first episode of psychosis: a UK qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Rosalind

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP is associated with poor outcomes and low quality of life at first contact with mental health services. However, long DUP is common. In order to inform initiatives to reduce DUP, we investigated service users' and carers' experiences of the onset of psychosis and help-seeking in two multicultural, inner London boroughs and the roles of participants' social networks in their pathways to care. Method In-depth interviews were conducted with service users and carers from an early intervention service in North London, purposively sampled to achieve diversity in sociodemographic characteristics and DUP and to include service users in contact with community organisations during illness onset. Interviews covered respondents' understanding of and reaction to the onset of psychosis, their help-seeking attempts and the reactions of social networks and health services. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted. Results Multiple barriers to prompt treatment included not attributing problems to psychosis, worries about the stigma of mental illness and service contact, not knowing where to get help and unhelpful service responses. Help was often not sought until crisis point, despite considerable prior distress. The person experiencing symptoms was often the last to recognise them as mental illness. In an urban UK setting, where involved, workers in non-health community organisations were frequently willing to assist help-seeking but often lacked skills, time or knowledge to do so. Conclusion Even modest periods of untreated psychosis cause distress and disruption to individuals and their families. Early intervention services should prioritise early detection. Initiatives aimed at reducing DUP may succeed not by promoting swift service response alone, but also by targeting delays in initial help-seeking. Our study suggests that strategies for doing this may include addressing the

  15. The role of social support and social networks in health information-seeking behavior among Korean Americans: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonsun; Kreps, Gary L; Shin, Cha-Nam

    2015-04-28

    This study used social network theory to explore the role of social support and social networks in health information-seeking behavior among Korean American (KA) adults. A descriptive qualitative study using a web-based online survey was conducted from January 2013 to April 2013 in the U.S. The survey included open-ended questions about health information-seeking experiences in personal social networks and their importance in KA adults. Themes emerging from a constant comparative analysis of the narrative comments by 129 of the 202 respondents were analyzed. The sample consisted of 129 KA adults, 64.7% female, with a mean age of 33.2 (SD = 7.7). Friends, church members, and family members were the important network connections for KAs to obtain health information. KAs looked for a broad range of health information from social network members, from recommendations and reviews of hospitals/doctors to specific diseases or health conditions. These social networks were regarded as important for KAs because there were no language barriers, social network members had experiences similar to those of other KAs, they felt a sense of belonging with those in their networks, the network connections promoted increased understanding of different health care systems of the U.S. system, and communication with these network connections helped enhance feelings of being physically and mentally healthy. This study demonstrates the important role that social support and personal social networks perform in the dissemination of health information for a large ethnic population, KAs, who confront distinct cultural challenges when seeking health information in the U.S. Data from this study also illustrate the cultural factors that influence health information acquisition and access to social support for ethnic minorities. This study provides practical insights for professionals in health information services, namely, that social networks can be employed as a channel for disseminating

  16. A study of model bivalve siphonal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Janet K.; O'Riordan, Catherine A.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    1990-01-01

    We carried out experiments studying the hydrodynamics of bivalve siphonal currents in a laboratory flume. Rather than use living animals, we devised a simple, model siphon pair connected to a pump. Fluorescence-based flow visualization was used to characterize siphon-jet flows for several geometric configurations and flow speeds. These measurements show that the boundary-layer velocity profile, siphon height, siphon pair orientation, and size of siphon structure all affect the vertical distribution of the excurrent flow downstream of the siphon pair and the fraction of excurrent that is refiltered. The observed flows may effect both the clearance rate of an entire population of siphonate bivalves as well as the efficiency of feeding of any individual. Our results imply that field conditions are properly represented in laboratory flume studies of phytoplankton biomass losses to benthic bivalves when the shear velocity and bottom roughness are matched to values found in the field. Numerical models of feeding by a bivalve population should include an effective sink distribution which is created by the combined incurrent-excurrent flow field. Near-bed flows need to be accounted for to properly represent these benthic-pelagic exchanges. We also present velocity measurements made with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) for a single configuration (siphons flush with bed, inlet downstream) that show that the siphonal currents have a significant local effect on the properties of a turbulent boundary layer.

  17. New bone-seeking agent. Animal study of Tc-99m-incadronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, Makoto; Shiomi, Susumu; Iwao, Hiroshi; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-02-01

    Disodium cycloheptylaminomethylenediphosphonate monohydrate (incadronate disodium) is a third-generation bisphosphonate compound which potently inhibits bone resorption, and a highly effective drug in the treatment of metastatic bone disease. We first labeled incadronate disodium with {sup 99m}Tc, and examined its biodistribution and bone uptake after intravenous injection in rats to assess its potential for clinical use as a bone-seeking agent for judgment of the therapeutic effect of incadronate on bone metastases. Bone scan with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled incadronate ({sup 99m}Tc-incadronate) may yield important information prior to the use of incadronate for treatment of bone metastases. Synthesis of {sup 99m}Tc-incadronate was carried out by reduction of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} and N{sub 2} gas. Normal rats were injected with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) {sup 99m}Tc-incadronate in a volume of 0.1 ml intravenously and then sacrificed at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h or 2 h (six rats at each time point) after injection. Samples of muscle, stomach, small intestine, kidney, liver and bone (femur) were taken and weighed. In addition, a 1-ml sample of blood was drawn from the heart, and urine was taken from the urinary bladder immediately after sacrifice. Samples were measured for radioactivity and expressed as percent uptake of injected dose per gram or per milliliter (% ID/g or ml). Bone-to-blood and bone-to-muscle uptake ratios were determined from the % ID/g or ml values for these organs. The greatest accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-incadronate was found in bone. Radioactivity in bone was as high as 3.22{+-}0.68% ID/g at 2 hours after injection. Scintigraphic images of {sup 99m}Tc-incadronate in normal rats revealed highly selective skeletal uptake. {sup 99m}Tc-incadronate exhibited high uptake in bone, and relatively low uptake in soft tissue, suggesting that it may be useful as a bone-seeking agent for judgment of the therapeutic effect of incadronate on

  18. Influence of World Thrombosis Day on digital information seeking on venous thrombosis: a Google Trends study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheres, L J J; Lijfering, W M; Middeldorp, S; Cannegieter, S C

    2016-12-01

    Essentials In 2014, World Thrombosis Day (WTD) was initiated to increase global awareness of thrombosis. Google Trends can be used freely to monitor digital information seeking behavior. We used Google Trends data to assess the impact of WTD on internet searches on venous thrombosis. The WTD period was associated with more searches on thrombosis compared to control periods. Background World Thrombosis Day (WTD) was launched in 2014 and is to be held every year to increase global awareness of venous thrombosis. Measuring the impact of health awareness days is challenging; however, use of internet-based data seems promising. Methods Google Trends data were used to quantify digital searches for 'venous thrombosis' worldwide and 'trombose' in the Netherlands. The relative search volume (RSV), which is the proportion of the term of interest amongst all Google searches for a specific region and timeframe was used. Mean differences for 4 weeks surrounding WTD (period of interest) and the remaining weeks of the year (control period) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). This was done for 2014, 2015 and 2009-2013 (control years). Results and discussion Mean differences in RSV for worldwide searches were 2.9 (95% CI, -8.2, 14.1) in 2014 and 10.5 (95% CI, 0.4, 20.5) in 2015. These figures were 15.3 (95% CI, 4.7, 25.8) and 15.9 (95% CI, 7.8, 24.1) for the Netherlands, respectively. Relatively, this corresponds to an increase in RSV of 3.9% and 13.9% for 2014 and 2015 worldwide and a 21.9% and 23.3% increase for 2014 and 2015 in the Netherlands. There was one control year with an increase in RSV in the WTD period. Conclusion In 2014 and 2015 WTD was associated with an increase in digital information seeking on venous thrombosis worldwide. This association was more pronounced in 2015 than in 2014. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  20. Information-seeking behaviour for epilepsy: an infodemiological study of searches for Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopaedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. Our aim was to evaluate information-seeking behaviour of English-speaking internet users searching Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and epileptic seizures. Using Wiki Trends, which provides quantitative information on daily viewing of articles, data on global search queries for Wikipedia articles related to epilepsy and seizures were analysed. The daily Wikipedia article views on syncope, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, migraine, and multiple sclerosis served as comparative data. The period of analysis covered was from January 2008 to December 2014. Overall, the Wikipedia article "epilepsy and driving" was found to be more frequently visited than the articles "epilepsy and employment" or "epilepsy in children". Since January 2008, the Wikipedia article "multiple sclerosis" was more often visited compared to the articles "epilepsy", "syncope", "psychogenic non-epileptic seizures" or "migraine"; the article "epilepsy" ranked 3,779 and was less frequently visited than "multiple sclerosis", ranked at 571, in traffic on Wikipedia. The highest peak in search volume for the article "epilepsy" coincided with the news of a celebrity having seizures. Fears and worries about epileptic seizures, their impact on driving and employment, and news about celebrities with epilepsy might be major determinants in searching Wikipedia for information.

  1. Health care seeking among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects and patients in rural Ethiopia: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaldu Tilahun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care seeking is a dynamic process that is influenced by socio-demographic, cultural and other factors. In Ethiopia, there are limited studies regarding the health seeking behaviour of tuberculosis (TB suspects and TB patients. However, a thorough understanding of patients' motivation and actions is crucial to understanding TB and the treatment of disease. Such insights would conceivably help to reduce delay in diagnosis, improve treatment adherence and thereby reduce transmission of TB in the community. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze health care seeking among TB suspects and pulmonary TB (PTB cases in a rural district of the Amhara Region in Ethiopia. Methods Study kebeles were randomly selected in a cross-sectional study design. House-to-house visits were conducted in which individuals aged 15 years and above in all households of the kebeles were included. Subjects with symptoms suggestive of TB were interviewed about their health seeking behaviour, socio-demographic and clinical factors using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistics regression analysis was employed to assess associations between the independent and outcome variables. Results The majority, 787 (78%, TB suspects and 33 (82.5% PTB cases had taken health care actions for symptoms from sources outside their homes. The median delay before the first action was 30 days. In logistics regression, women (AOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6, 0.9 were found to be less likely to visit a medical health provider than men. Those with a long duration of cough (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03, 2.1 and those with a previous history of TB (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03, 2.3 were more likely to visit a medical health provider compared to those with a shorter duration of cough and with no history of TB. Conclusion The majority of TB suspects and PTB cases had already taken health care actions for their symptoms at the time of the survey. The availability of a simple and rapid

  2. Burden of menstrual symptoms in Japanese women – an analysis of medical care-seeking behavior from a survey-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka E

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erika Tanaka,1 Mikio Momoeda,2 Yutaka Osuga,3 Bruno Rossi,4 Ken Nomoto,5 Masakane Hayakawa,5 Kinya Kokubo,6 Edward CY Wang1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Integrated Women's Health, St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Market Access, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 5Medical Affairs Women's Health and Dermatology, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 6Consumer Goods/Service and Healthcare Industry Consulting Department, Nomura Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan Background: Menstrual symptoms are associated with various health problems in women of reproductive age, and this may impact their quality of life. Despite this, Japanese women are likely to hesitate seeking a specialist's medical help for their menstrual symptoms. Purpose: To study subject parameters including symptom severity, gynecological disorders, and treatments in medical care-seeking women (outpatient and women opting for self-care (nonvisit, to identify reasons why Japanese women do not see a gynecologist, and to document the benefit of gynecologist visits by assessing the impact on women's daily lives. Methods: Two online surveys were conducted among women aged 15–49 years. Sampling was structured to approximate the age and geographic distribution in Japan. Results of the first survey and part of the second survey on the overall current burden of menstrual symptoms are reported in a separate publication. Further outcomes from the second survey reported in this paper included data from the outpatient (n=274 and nonvisit (n=500 groups on symptom severity, gynecological disorders, medical treatment use, reasons for not seeking medical care, and the improvement of daily life. Results: The outpatient group tended to have greater symptom severity compared to the nonvisit group. Uterine fibroids, dysmenorrhea

  3. Information seeking behavior of patients with diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study in an outpatient clinic of a university-affiliated hospital in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzi, Sofia; Kostagiolas, Petros; Kechagias, Georgios; Niakas, Dimitrios; Makrilakis, Konstantinos

    2015-02-20

    The purpose of this study is to examine the information behavior of diabetic patients, a relatively unexplored field of diabetes care, including their needs for information, resources used, obstacles encountered and degree of satisfaction for diabetes-related information acquisition. 203 patients (males: 110, type 2:172) followed-up in the outpatient Diabetes Clinics of a University-affiliated hospital in Greece were assessed, using a validated questionnaire. Patients identified diet (61.4%) and diabetic complications (41.9%) as "the most important" for their information needs and the treating physician (94.6%) for information resources. Internet importance and frequency of use ranked low. Main obstacles to information seeking were "lack of time" and "cost". Most patients (71.4%) stated they were "quite" or "very satisfied" with the current possibilities of information seeking. Diabetic patients' stated information needs and information sources, as well as main obstacles to obtaining information could potentially have important implications in designing a future information campaign.

  4. A Study of compatibility between Iranian digital libraries user interface and the elements of Ellis model of information seeking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Norouzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to evaluate the compatibility between Iranian digital libraries user interface and the elements of Ellis model of information seeking behavior. This study was performed using evaluation method with a checklist. This list is based on six features of Ellis model, "Starting", "Chaining", "Browsing", "Differentiating", "Monitoring" and "Extracting" and included 110 sub-components that have been developed using Delphi method. The population of this study included 5 library softwares: Azarakhsh, Simorgh, Papyrus, Payam and Parvan. Results showed that the average of scores of user interface of softwares is as follows: in Starting 99.6, Chaining 117.2, Browsing 29.6, Differentiating 53. 2, Monitoring 22.4 and Extracting 39. Among the softwares of digital libraries, according to the total score for elements of Ellis model (1080, Azarakhsh with 549 points is in the first rank and had the highest support for elements of Ellis model. It also became clear that Chaining with 586 points (%55 had the highest support in softwares of digital libraries. Also the elements of Chaining, Starting and Differentiating earned sequently the highest rank in softwares of digital libraries. Finally, testing research hypotheses with %95 confidence showed that among softwares of digital libraries there is no significant difference regarding the rate of support of elements of information seeking behavior of Ellis model.

  5. The Association Between Internet Use and Ambulatory Care-Seeking Behaviors in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ronan Wenhan; Chen, Likwang; Chen, Tsung-Fu; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Tzu-Bin; Chen, Yen-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-12-07

    Compared with the traditional ways of gaining health-related information from newspapers, magazines, radio, and television, the Internet is inexpensive, accessible, and conveys diverse opinions. Several studies on how increasing Internet use affected outpatient clinic visits were inconclusive. The objective of this study was to examine the role of Internet use on ambulatory care-seeking behaviors as indicated by the number of outpatient clinic visits after adjusting for confounding variables. We conducted this study using a sample randomly selected from the general population in Taiwan. To handle the missing data, we built a multivariate logistic regression model for propensity score matching using age and sex as the independent variables. The questionnaires with no missing data were then included in a multivariate linear regression model for examining the association between Internet use and outpatient clinic visits. We included a sample of 293 participants who answered the questionnaire with no missing data in the multivariate linear regression model. We found that Internet use was significantly associated with more outpatient clinic visits (P=.04). The participants with chronic diseases tended to make more outpatient clinic visits (PInternet may be associated with patients' increasing need for interpreting and discussing the information with health care professionals, thus resulting in an increasing number of outpatient clinic visits. In addition, the media literacy of Web-based health-related information seekers may also affect their ambulatory care-seeking behaviors, such as outpatient clinic visits.

  6. Worrying about wasting GP time as a barrier to help-seeking: a community-based, qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromme, Susanne K; Whitaker, Katriina L; Winstanley, Kelly; Renzi, Cristina; Smith, Claire Friedemann; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Worrying about wasting GP time is frequently cited as a barrier to help-seeking for cancer symptoms. Aim To explore the circumstances under which individuals feel that they are wasting GP time. Design and setting Community-based, qualitative interview studies that took place in London, the South East and the North West of England. Method Interviewees (n = 62) were recruited from a sample (n = 2042) of adults aged ≥50 years, who completed a ‘health survey’ that included a list of cancer ‘alarm’ symptoms. Individuals who reported symptoms at baseline that were still present at the 3-month follow-up (n = 271), and who had also consented to be contacted (n = 215), constituted the pool of people invited for interview. Analyses focused on accounts of worrying about wasting GP time. Results Participants were worried about wasting GP time when time constraints were visible, while dismissive interactions with their GP induced a worry of unnecessary help-seeking. Many felt that symptoms that were not persistent, worsening, or life-threatening did not warrant GP attention. Additionally, patients considered it time-wasting when they perceived attention from nurses or pharmacists to be sufficient, or when appointment structures (for example, ‘one issue per visit’) were not adhered to. Close relationships with GPs eased worries about time-wasting, while some patients saw GPs as fulfilling a service financed by taxpayers. Conclusion Worrying about wasting GP time is a complex barrier to help-seeking. GP time and resource scarcity, symptom gravity, appointment etiquette, and previous GP interactions contribute to increasing worries. Friendly GP relationships, economic reasoning, and a focus on the GP’s responsibilities as a medical professional reduce this worry. PMID:27215569

  7. Who seeks public treatment for substance abuse in Brazil? Results of a multicenter study involving four Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Faller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of alcohol and drug users who seek treatment at the Brazilian Unified Health System in Brazil.METHOD:A multicenter cross-sectional study involving five clinical and research centers located in four Brazilian state capitals was conducted with 740 in- and outpatients. The only exclusion criterion was the presence of neurological or severe psychiatric symptoms at the moment of the interview. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6 and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST were used to assess the severity of substance use and the problems related.RESULTS: There were significantly more men than women in the sample; mean age was 36 years. The drug most frequently used at all sites was alcohol (78%, followed by cocaine/crack (51%. Alcohol was the drug that most commonly motivated treatment seeking, at all centers. ASI-6 Summary Scores for Recent Functioning (SS-Rs were quite similar among centers. SS-Rs were compared between users who had never received treatment for psychoactive substance abuse (n = 265, 36.1% and those who had already been treated at one or more occasions (n = 470, 63.9%. This analysis revealed significant differences between the groups in the drug, psychiatric symptoms, legal, and family/social problems areas (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm previous evidence suggesting that the management of patients seeking drug abuse treatment should take several different aspects into consideration, e.g., education, employment, and family relationships, which often appear as areas of concern for these individuals.

  8. Factors associated with delay in care–seeking for fatal neonatal illness in the Sylhet district of Bangladesh: results from a verbal and social autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bareng AS Nonyane 1,2

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a social and verbal autopsy study to determine cultural–, social– and health system–related factors that were associated with the delay in formal care seeking in Sylhet district, Bangladesh.

  9. Effect of residence on mothers' health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross--sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-10-08

    Children are at higher risk of acquiring infections and developing severe disease. This study assessed the health care seeking behavior and associated factors of urban and rural mothers for common childhood illness in Northwest Ethiopia. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural mothers living in the district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questioner via interview was used to collect the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of the associations. A total of 827 (274 urban and 553 rural) mothers were interviewed. Among these, 79.3% (95% CI: (76.5%, 82.06%)) of the mothers were sought health care in the district. Health care seeking behavior was higher among urban mothers (84.6%) than rural mothers (76.7%). Marital status, completion health extension package, and sex of child were significantly associated with health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Whereas age of child, age and occupation of mothers, educational level of fathers, wealth quintile, and type of reported illness were significantly associated with rural mothers. Perceived severity of illness was significantly associated with both urban and rural mothers for health care seeking behavior. The overall health seeking behaviors of mothers for common childhood illness was high. However, urban mothers seek health care more than rural. Socio Economic position and types of reported illness has an effect for health seeking behavior of rural mothers. Whereas child sex preference and graduation status for health extension package has an effect for health care seeking behavior of urban mothers. Work on strengthen accessibility of health care services in the rural mothers and increase awareness of mothers about the disadvantage of sex preferences will improve the health care seek behavior of

  10. Being healthy: A Grounded Theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmi Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. “Being healthy” (the core category with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders’ concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non–help seeking and “self” rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.

  11. Being healthy: a grounded theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. "Being healthy" (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders' concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non-help seeking and "self" rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.

  12. Information Behavior and Information Practice: Reviewing the "Umbrella Concepts" of Information-Seeking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    Information behavior and information practice, two major concepts denoting the general ways in which people deal with information, are analyzed. Because of their general nature, they may be conceived of as umbrella concepts drawing on "umbrella discourses" with similar names. Information behavior is currently the dominating umbrella concept, while…

  13. Information Behavior and Information Practice: Reviewing the "Umbrella Concepts" of Information-Seeking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    Information behavior and information practice, two major concepts denoting the general ways in which people deal with information, are analyzed. Because of their general nature, they may be conceived of as umbrella concepts drawing on "umbrella discourses" with similar names. Information behavior is currently the dominating umbrella concept, while…

  14. Seeking Connections, Articulating Commonalities: English Education, Composition Studies, and Writing Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Janet; Brockman, Elizabeth; Bush, Jonathan; Letcher, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article, which is coauthored by former and current SIG (special interest group) leaders, describes the SIG's history, its member profile, and the scholarly and teacherly endeavors that have grown from their work together. The article also describes the significance of this successful partnership beyond the immediate work of the SIG, including…

  15. Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry

  16. Influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shadi S; Trask, Jacqueline; Peterson, Tina; Martin, Bryan C; Baldwin, Josh; Knapp, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans was explored. This was a qualitative phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 15 African American men and women aged 60 and older in Alabama. The sample size of 15 was adequate for the phenomenological method of this study. While this was a small exploratory study and was not intended for any generalizations, it did provide a unique opportunity to hear the voices, the concerns, and the stories of elderly African Americans, which have often been overlooked in the literature. The following themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) perception of health as ability to be active, (2) reluctance toward prescription medicine use, (3) lack of trust in doctors, (4) avoidance of bad news, (5) race of doctors, (6) use of home remedies, and (7) importance of God and spirituality on health, illness, and healing.

  17. Predictors of Online Cancer Prevention Information Seeking Among Patients and Caregivers Across the Digital Divide: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2016-03-09

    The digital divide is a recognized public health problem caused by social determinants that exacerbate health disparities. Despite the "tectonic shift" in how most of the public obtains cancer information, underserved communities are at increased risk of being digitally marginalized. However, research that examines factors underlying eHealth information seeking in diverse health contexts is lacking. The aim of this paper is to explore preferences and use of eHealth cancer prevention information (CPI) among patients and caregivers attending a minority-serving oncology clinic using the comprehensive model of information seeking as a theoretical framework. Specifically, the study examined the role of social determinants and prevention orientation in differences in preference and use of the Internet for CPI seeking among this diverse sample. Survey methodology was used to identify social determinants and behavioral factors, including prevention orientation as correlates and predictors of respondents' (n=252) preferences and use of eHealth for CPI seeking. Less than half (112/252, 44.4%) of respondents said that if faced with the need to seek CPI, they would seek this information online. In the final logistic regression model, education, ethnicity, age, and prevention orientation made significant contributions to the model (Pspeaking Latinos (P=.036). Finally, with each one point increase on the prevention orientation scale, respondents were 1.83 times less likely to cite online CPI seeking (P=.05). Social determinants to health have profound influence on eHealth CPI seeking. Providers and policy makers should focus on meeting patients and family members' CPI needs following diagnosis and increase eHealth accessibility and availability of evidence-based CPI to diverse populations. Future research is needed to unravel further differences in eHealth CPI seeking, including those among Native Americans that emerged as an additional digitally underserved racial/ethnic group

  18. Investigating Information-Seeking Behavior of Faculty Members Based on Wilson’s Model: Case Study of PNU University, Mazandaran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Fereydoon; Ghasemi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    The present research aims to study information seeking behavior of faculty Members of Payame Noor University (PNU) in Mazandaran province of Iran by using Wilson’s model of information seeking behavior. This is a survey study. Participants were 97 of PNU faculty Members in Mazandaran province. An information-seeking behavior inventory was employed to gather information and research data, which had 24 items based on 5-point likert scale. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results showed that the most important goal of faculty members was publishing a scientific paper, and their least important goal was updating technical information. Also we found that they mostly use internet-based resources to meet their information needs. Accordingly, 57.7% of them find information resources via online search engines (e.g. Google, Yahoo). Also we concluded that there was a significant relationship between English language proficiency, academic rank, and work experience of them and their information- seeking behavior. PMID:27157151

  19. A Study in HRT Resolution: Seeking Maximum Sensitivity Among Variations in Sensing Element Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    The EXACT (Experiments Along Coexistence near Tricriticality) project endeavors to perform the most rigorous test to date of Renormalization Group theory. In most cases, the theory gives only approximate solutions, but it offers exact predictions in the case of the He-3-He-4 tricritical point. Currently, the project is focused on maximizing the performance of the low-temperature system's HRT (high resolution thermometer) near the tricritical point. The HRT uses a PdMn sensing element, the qualities of which change based on its Mn concentration and whether or not it is annealed. All sensing element combinations will be catalogued, and through the data, the optimum configuration will be reported.

  20. Factors that influence young people's mental health help-seeking behaviour: a study based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter J; Martin, Brett; Weeks, Clinton S; Ong, Luzian

    2014-11-01

    To identify key predictors and moderators of mental health 'help-seeking behavior' in adolescents. Mental illness is highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults; however, individuals in this demographic group are among the least likely to seek help for such illnesses. Very little quantitative research has examined predictors of help-seeking behaviour in this demographic group. A cross-sectional design was used. A group of 180 volunteers between the ages of 17-25 completed a survey designed to measure hypothesized predictors and moderators of help-seeking behaviour. Predictors included a range of health beliefs, personality traits and attitudes. Data were collected in August 2010 and were analysed using two standard and three hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The standard multiple regression analyses revealed that extraversion, perceived benefits of seeking help, perceived barriers to seeking help and social support were direct predictors of help-seeking behaviour. Tests of moderated relationships (using hierarchical multiple regression analyses) indicated that perceived benefits were more important than barriers in predicting help-seeking behaviour. In addition, perceived susceptibility did not predict help-seeking behaviour unless individuals were health conscious to begin with or they believed that they would benefit from help. A range of personality traits, attitudes and health beliefs can predict help-seeking behaviour for mental health problems in adolescents. The variable 'Perceived Benefits' is of particular importance as it is: (1) a strong and robust predictor of help-seeking behaviour; and (2) a factor that can theoretically be modified based on health promotion programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Survey of 25 North Carolina Health Departments/Districts on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices to Seeking Reimbursement From Third-Party Payers for Sexually Transmitted Disease Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Cheryl L; Carter, Susan

    2017-06-01

    North Carolina Administrative Code 10A Chapter 41A.0204 (a) states "local health departments shall provide diagnosis, testing, treatment, follow-up, and preventive services for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, … These services shall be provided upon request and at no charge to the patient." Although health departments/districts may bill governmental or nongovernmental insurance providers for sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, current billing practices are unknown. Because of its high STD morbidity, the eastern region of North Carolina was targeted. Using a Qualtrics Survey developed to measure attitudes as well as knowledge and reimbursement practices, this descriptive study was performed with staff from 25 eastern North Carolina health departments/districts. Snowball sampling was used to allow for greater inclusion. Analysis of data was performed at the individual and agency level based on types of questions in the survey. For knowledge, 87% of the respondents reported being aware of the possibility of reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers for STD services. In regard to current billing of these services, 20 health departments/districts (80%) reported they were billing these payers. When asked about their attitude of seeking reimbursement from commercial insurance, 92% reported it was acceptable or very acceptable. But when asked if STD services should remain a free service at the health department, 55% supported and 45% did not. These data provide a knowledge base for assisting health departments/districts to move forward in improving STD services as well as maximizing reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers when possible.

  2. The Association Between Internet Use and Ambulatory Care-Seeking Behaviors in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Fu; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Tzu-Bin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Background Compared with the traditional ways of gaining health-related information from newspapers, magazines, radio, and television, the Internet is inexpensive, accessible, and conveys diverse opinions. Several studies on how increasing Internet use affected outpatient clinic visits were inconclusive. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of Internet use on ambulatory care-seeking behaviors as indicated by the number of outpatient clinic visits after adjusting for confounding variables. Methods We conducted this study using a sample randomly selected from the general population in Taiwan. To handle the missing data, we built a multivariate logistic regression model for propensity score matching using age and sex as the independent variables. The questionnaires with no missing data were then included in a multivariate linear regression model for examining the association between Internet use and outpatient clinic visits. Results We included a sample of 293 participants who answered the questionnaire with no missing data in the multivariate linear regression model. We found that Internet use was significantly associated with more outpatient clinic visits (P=.04). The participants with chronic diseases tended to make more outpatient clinic visits (P<.01). Conclusions The inconsistent quality of health-related information obtained from the Internet may be associated with patients’ increasing need for interpreting and discussing the information with health care professionals, thus resulting in an increasing number of outpatient clinic visits. In addition, the media literacy of Web-based health-related information seekers may also affect their ambulatory care-seeking behaviors, such as outpatient clinic visits. PMID:27927606

  3. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  4. Divorce, divorce rates, and professional care seeking for mental health problems in Europe: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symoens Sara AA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about differences in professional care seeking based on marital status. The few existing studies show more professional care seeking among the divorced or separated compared to the married or cohabiting. The aim of this study is to determine whether, in a sample of the European general population, the divorced or separated seek more professional mental health care than the married or cohabiting, regardless of self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, we examine whether two country-level features--the supply of mental health professionals and the country-level divorce rates--contribute to marital status differences in professional care-seeking behavior. Methods We use data from the Eurobarometer 248 on mental well-being that was collected via telephone interviews. The unweighted sample includes 27,146 respondents (11,728 men and 15,418 women. Poisson hierarchical regression models were estimated to examine whether the divorced or separated have higher professional health care use for emotional or psychological problems, after controlling for mental and somatic health, sociodemographic characteristics, support from family and friends, and degree of urbanization. We also considered country-level divorce rates and indicators of the supply of mental health professionals, and applied design and population weights. Results We find that professional care seeking is strongly need based. Moreover, the divorced or separated consult health professionals for mental health problems more often than people who are married or who cohabit do. In addition, we find that the gap between the divorced or separated and the married or cohabiting is highest in countries with low divorce rates. Conclusions The higher rates of professional care seeking for mental health problems among the divorced or separated only partially correlates with their more severe mental health problems. In countries where marital dissolution is more

  5. Morbidity Pattern and Health-seeking Behavior of Aged Population residing in Shimla Hills of North India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Mazta, Salig Ram; Parashar, Anupam

    2013-04-01

    Population aging is a global phenomenon. In India, the size of the elderly population is growing fast. Many older adults have multiple medical conditions. Understanding elderly health problems and health-seeking behavior is prerequisite for proving comprehensive geriatric care to them. To assess the morbidity pattern and study the health-seeking behavior of the elderly people of Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 400 elderly people aged 60 years and above were selected from urban and rural areas of Shimla hills in North India by simple random sampling. Statistical software Epi info software version 3.2 was used for analyzing data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and morbidity variables. The most common morbidity identified among them were musculoskeletal problems (55.0%) followed by hypertension (40.5%). Two third were seeking treatment for their health problems. Among older persons not seeking treatment for their medical condition, most considered these morbidities as an age-related phenomenon. Many perceived that the health services were too far. The high morbidity load among elderly in the present study stresses for efforts to provide better health care to them and thus ensure that they remain active members of our society. Residence emerged out to be most significant determinant of healthcare-seeking behavior. Policy makers must focus on rural elderly and their beliefs which prevent them from seeking healthcare.

  6. Morbidity pattern and health-seeking behavior of aged population residing in Shimla hills of north India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is a global phenomenon. In India, the size of the elderly population is growing fast. Many older adults have multiple medical conditions. Understanding elderly health problems and health-seeking behavior is prerequisite for proving comprehensive geriatric care to them. Objectives: To assess the morbidity pattern and study the health-seeking behavior of the elderly people of Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 elderly people aged 60 years and above were selected from urban and rural areas of Shimla hills in North India by simple random sampling. Statistical software Epi info software version 3.2 was used for analyzing data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and morbidity variables. Results: The most common morbidity identified among them were musculoskeletal problems (55.0% followed by hypertension (40.5%. Two third were seeking treatment for their health problems. Among older persons not seeking treatment for their medical condition, most considered these morbidities as an age-related phenomenon. Many perceived that the health services were too far. Conclusion: The high morbidity load among elderly in the present study stresses for efforts to provide better health care to them and thus ensure that they remain active members of our society. Residence emerged out to be most significant determinant of healthcare-seeking behavior. Policy makers must focus on rural elderly and their beliefs which prevent them from seeking healthcare.

  7. A Study of Information-Seeking Behaviors and Processes of New Zealand Men during Periods of Life-Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellstead, Peta

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand men have poor health outcomes in a range of domains compared to women. They also report barriers (both personal and structural) in their information-seeking behaviors and processes to improve health and wellbeing. This paper reports a research project in progress that is investigating the information-seeking behaviors and processes of…

  8. Do specialized services exist for LGBT individuals seeking treatment for substance misuse? A study of available treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Robohm, Jennifer S

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse research has demonstrated that client sexual orientation influences treatment outcomes. Consequently, many substance user treatment programs offer services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In a recent search of SAMHSA treatment listings, 11.8% (N=911) of substance user treatment programs (including residential, outpatient, and partial hospitalization) in the United States and Puerto Rico indicated that they offer specialized services for LGBT clients. However, a telephone survey we conducted in 2003-2004 revealed that 70.8% of these "LGBT" programs were no different from services offered to the general population, and only 7.4% could identify a service specifically tailored to the needs of LGBT clients. Implications for LGBT individuals seeking services are discussed, the study's limitations are noted, and future research directions are identified.

  9. Women׳s help-seeking behaviours for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period: Socio-demographic and clinical correlates and perceived barriers to seeking professional help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Gorayeb, Ricardo; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the help-seeking behaviours of women who were screened positive for perinatal depression, to investigate its sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and to characterize the perceived barriers that prevent women from seeking professional help. Cross-sectional internet survey. Participants were recruited through advertisements published in pamphlets and posted on social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and websites and forums that focused on pregnancy and childbirth. 656 women (currently pregnant or who had a baby during the last 12 months) completed the survey. Participants were assessed with the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, and were questioned about sociodemographic and clinical data, help-seeking behaviours and perceived barriers to help-seeking. Different pathways of help-seeking were found, with only 13.6% of women with a perinatal depression seeking help for their emotional problems. Married women, currently pregnant women, and women without history of psychological problems had a higher likelihood of not engaging in any type of help-seeking behaviour. The majority of women who had not sought professional assistance identified several barriers to help-seeking, particularly knowledge barriers. Strategies to increase women׳s help-seeking behaviours should be implemented, namely improving mental health literacy, introducing screening procedures for mental health problems in pre/postnatal health care settings, and offering women innovative opportunities (e.g., web-based tools) that allow them to overcome the practical barriers to help-seeking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seeking Better Lives by Becoming Teachers in Rural South Georgia: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, David W.

    2011-01-01

    For four years the Investigator studied students in South Georgia attempting to become teachers. Three themes emerged impacting study subjects most. They are location, teacher education program, and the economy. South Georgia is one of the poorest rural regions in the United States. People are often place-bound and they endure chronic…

  11. Seeking New Perspectives on the Development of Teacher Education A Study of the Finnish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Hökkä, Päivi; Eteläpelto, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that changes in teacher education around the world occur slowly and are difficult to implement. This study aims to contribute to the discussion on the major resources for and obstacles to developing teacher education and finding novel solutions to overcome the obstacles. Resources and obstacles were investigated in the context of academic and university-based teacher education in Finland. Findings revealed three major challenges: (a) obstacles in renegotiating professional identi...

  12. Help-seeking in relation to signs of dementia: a pilot study to evaluate the utility of the common-sense model of illness representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, Kate E; Milne, Alisoun J; Chenery, Alison; Tilbrook, Carolyn

    2010-10-01

    Despite the importance of early diagnosis of dementia, little is known about the factors underlying help-seeking in relation to signs of the condition. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine the potential utility of the common sense model (CSM) of illness representations for understanding lay perceptions of dementia and predicting intentions to seek help in relation to possible signs and symptoms. A secondary aim was to develop a measure of (dementia-related) illness representations as a tool for future research. After reading a vignette describing a "relative" with mild or moderate dementia, participants (N = 118) completed measures of illness representations and help-seeking intentions. Analyses compared perceptions of the mild and moderate vignettes and determined the extent to which illness perceptions differentiated between alternative forms of help-seeking (e.g. seeking professional help vs. help from family members). Results indicated that cognitive deficits were more readily identified as dementia than non-cognitive symptoms; these were commonly attributed to stress or depression. Participants were more likely to indicate an intention to seek professional help if they identified the problem in the vignette as dementia, perceived symptoms as severe, as having serious consequences and as likely to be permanent, but less likely to do so if they identified the problem as stress or attributed symptoms to psychological causes. Our preliminary data suggests that help-seeking may be prevented by inaccurate illness representations or misattribution of symptoms. The CSM may provide a useful framework for understanding perceptions of dementia symptoms and for informing help-seeking pathways.

  13. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns......Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... are breakdowns in collaborative grounding rather than information seeking, that the medication incidents mainly concern breakdowns in the use of records as opposed to oral communication, that the breakdowns span multiple degrees of separation between clinicians, and that the electronic medication record has...

  14. An empirical study of everyday life information seeking behavior of urban low-income residents in the Haizhu District of Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongying; XIAO; Lanman; HE

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation on everyday life information seeking behavior of urban low-income group in the Haizhu District of Guangzhou City.Empirical data were collected via in-depth interviews with low-income urban residents and were analyzed using qualitative methods.This paper discusses the research findings based on the more noticeable results of information seeking behavior among these people.Our approach touches on a focused study of such issues as what the role of information seeking in their everyday life is,what information they care about,which information channels they prefer to use,which factors influence their information seeking behavior,how difficult it is to seek the information they need,and how they use public libraries.Based on our research findings,we propose that public libraries should provide customized information services for urban low-income residents according to the unique characteristics of their information seeking behavior in everyday life.

  15. Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical Oral Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty

    2010-01-01

    Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of oral presentations as an indispensable component of workplace oral communication activities; however, since there is limited literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical oral presentations or final year engineering project…

  16. Why do men suffering from LUTS seek primary medical care? A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, H.A.; Wijnhoven, R. van; Teunissen, T.A.M.; Harmsen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common problems among men, but only a small proportion actually visit their general practitioner (GP). This study aims to gain insight into the reasons why men visit a doctor, and their expectations. METHODS: We opted to perform

  17. A study of patients who go to a psychology clinic seeking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñá, Francisco José; Labrador, Francisco Javier; García-Vera, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    In order to characterize a typical clinical context, as opposed to an academic or research context, this article will analyze the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients who turn to a psychology clinic in need of professional help. This study was conducted using an initial sample of 1,305 patients at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) Clínica Universitaria de Psicología. Of the sociodemographic characteristics studied, it is noteworthy that the majority of patients were women (65%) and relatively young (the average age is 29.7 years-old). The disorders for which psychological help was most often needed were anxiety and mood disorders and relationship problems, which together made up 50% of cases. In 17.70% of cases, patients had at least one comorbid disorder in addition to the one that brought them to the clinic. The generalizability and implications of the results are discussed.

  18. Seeking for Non-Zinc-Binding MMP-2 Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modelling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Campestre, Cristina; Laghezza, Antonio; Marrone, Alessandro; Amoroso, Rosa; Tortorella, Paolo; Agamennone, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an important family of zinc-containing enzymes with a central role in many physiological and pathological processes. Although several MMP inhibitors have been synthesized over the years, none reached the market because of off-target effects, due to the presence of a zinc binding group in the inhibitor structure. To overcome this problem non-zinc-binding inhibitors (NZIs) have been recently designed. In a previous article, a virtual screening campaign identified some hydroxynaphtyridine and hydroxyquinoline as MMP-2 non-zinc-binding inhibitors. In the present work, simplified analogues of previously-identified hits have been synthesized and tested in enzyme inhibition assays. Docking and molecular dynamics studies were carried out to rationalize the activity data. PMID:27782083

  19. Seeking for Non-Zinc-Binding MMP-2 Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modelling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ammazzalorso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are an important family of zinc-containing enzymes with a central role in many physiological and pathological processes. Although several MMP inhibitors have been synthesized over the years, none reached the market because of off-target effects, due to the presence of a zinc binding group in the inhibitor structure. To overcome this problem non-zinc-binding inhibitors (NZIs have been recently designed. In a previous article, a virtual screening campaign identified some hydroxynaphtyridine and hydroxyquinoline as MMP-2 non-zinc-binding inhibitors. In the present work, simplified analogues of previously-identified hits have been synthesized and tested in enzyme inhibition assays. Docking and molecular dynamics studies were carried out to rationalize the activity data.

  20. Care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Laos: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrasisombath Ketkesone

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt, correct diagnosis and treatment with health information are essential components of reproductive tract infection (RTI and sexually transmitted infection (STI services. This study aims to describe care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing RTI/STI services among female sex workers (FSWs in Laos. Methods A cross-sectional survey using closed and open-ended questions was performed in six districts along Road 9, traversing Savannakhet province from Thailand to Vietnam. In total, 407 FSWs were interviewed. The data were analyzed and presented descriptively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to assess associations between respondents' background characteristics and care seeking behaviour. Results About half of the respondents (49% were less than or equal to 19 years of age, and 50% had started or completed secondary school. Fifty-eight percent had been engaged in sex work for less than 1 year. Eighty-six percent of the respondents reported RTI/STI signs or symptoms currently or in the last 3 months but only two-thirds of those with symptoms sought treatment. Source of treatment for the last RTI/STI episode was the drop-in centre (53% followed by a public hospital (23%, private clinic (12%, private pharmacy (9%, and herbalist (2%. The main barriers to service use were long waiting time, inconvenient location of the clinic, not knowing where to get the services needed, and negative attitudes among healthcare providers. Care seeking behaviour was associated with longer duration of sex work (OR = 2.6, 95%CI 1.52-5.36. Forty-four percent received health information from peer educators, 34% from fellow friends, 26% from a pimp, and 26% had received information from a healthcare provider during the visit. Conclusion There were several barriers to accessing RTI/STI services and they were related to both structural and individual factors. Innovative STI service strategies to inform FSWs about the importance of

  1. RADIONUCLIDE STUDIES USING TUMOR-SEEKING RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tarassov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: to evaluate the efficiency of prostate scintigraphy in the prebioptic diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and two patients with suspected PC underwent comprehensive examination, including 99mTc-technetril prostate scintigraphy and a morphometric study of biopsy material columns. A computer program (official registration certificate No. 2007614475 dated October 24, 2007 was worked out and patented to calculate the intensity of accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in different portions of the right and left prostate lobes.Results and discussion. When the division index point «pathological focus/background», 1.5; ≤ 1.5, healthy; > 1.5 suspected prostate cancer was used, the sensitivity of prostate scintigraphy was 81.65%; its specificity was 87.1%; the diagnostic effectiveness was 84.37%.Conclusion: The application of prostate scintigraphy can improve indicators for early detection of PC, due to the purposeful detection of the points, enhance the effectiveness of biopsy, and, having more grounds than the early ones, to exclude this disease at the prebioptic stage. The method is noninvasive and can be used to monitor patients with suspected PC.

  2. RADIONUCLIDE STUDIES USING TUMOR-SEEKING RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tarassov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Object: to evaluate the efficiency of prostate scintigraphy in the prebioptic diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and two patients with suspected PC underwent comprehensive examination, including 99mTc-technetril prostate scintigraphy and a morphometric study of biopsy material columns. A computer program (official registration certificate No. 2007614475 dated October 24, 2007 was worked out and patented to calculate the intensity of accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in different portions of the right and left prostate lobes.Results and discussion. When the division index point «pathological focus/background», 1.5; ≤ 1.5, healthy; > 1.5 suspected prostate cancer was used, the sensitivity of prostate scintigraphy was 81.65%; its specificity was 87.1%; the diagnostic effectiveness was 84.37%.Conclusion: The application of prostate scintigraphy can improve indicators for early detection of PC, due to the purposeful detection of the points, enhance the effectiveness of biopsy, and, having more grounds than the early ones, to exclude this disease at the prebioptic stage. The method is noninvasive and can be used to monitor patients with suspected PC.

  3. Why do people google movement disorders? An infodemiological study of information seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Erro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide everyday search Google or Wikipedia to look for health-related information. Aim of this study was to evaluate and interpret web search queries for terms related to movement disorders (MD) in English-speaking countries and their changes over time. We analyzed information regarding the volume of online searches in Google and Wikipedia for the most common MD and their treatments. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. The volume of searches for some queries related to MD entered in Google enormously increased over time. Most queries were related to definition, subtypes, symptoms and treatment (mostly to adverse effects, or alternatively, to possible alternative treatments). The highest peaks of MD search queries were temporally related to news about celebrities suffering from MD, to specific mass-media events or to news concerning pharmaceutic companies or scientific discoveries on MD. An increasing number of people use Google and Wikipedia to look for terms related to MD to obtain information on definitions, causes and symptoms, possibly to aid initial self-diagnosis. MD information demand and the actual prevalence of different MDs do not travel together: web search volume may mirrors patients' fears and worries about some particular disorders perceived as more serious than others, or may be driven by release of news about celebrities suffering from MD, "breaking news" or specific mass-media events regarding MD.

  4. The Role of Health Literacy and Social Networks in Arthritis Patients' Health Information-Seeking Behavior: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janette Ellis; Judy Mullan; Anthony Worsley; Nagesh Pai

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients engage in health information-seeking behaviour to maintain their wellbeing and to manage chronic diseases such as arthritis. Health literacy allows patients to understand available treatments and to critically appraise information they obtain from a wide range of sources. Aims. To explore how arthritis patients' health literacy affects engagement in arthritis-focused health information-seeking behaviour and the selection of sources of health information available through ...

  5. Treatment-seeking for febrile illness in north-east India: an epidemiological study in the malaria endemic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanta Jagadish

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper studies the determinants of utilization of health care services, especially for treatment of febrile illness in the malaria endemic area of north-east India. Methods An area served by two districts of Upper Assam representing people living in malaria endemic area was selected for household survey. A sample of 1,989 households, in which at least one member of household suffered from febrile illness during last three months and received treatment from health service providers, were selected randomly and interviewed by using the structured questionnaire. The individual characteristics of patients including social indicators, area of residence and distance of health service centers has been used to discriminate or group the patients with respect to their initial and final choice of service providers. Results Of 1,989 surveyed households, initial choice of treatment-seeking for febrile illness was self-medication (17.8%, traditional healer (Vaidya(39.2%, government (29.3% and private (13.7% health services. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR analysis exhibits the influence of occupation, area of residence and ethnicity on choice of health service providers. The traditional system of medicine was commonly used by the people living in remote areas compared with towns. As all the febrile cases finally received treatment either from government or private health service providers, the odds (Multivariate Rate Ratio was almost three-times higher in favour of government services for lower households income people compared to private. Conclusion The study indicates the popular use of self-medication and traditional system especially in remote areas, which may be the main cause of delay in diagnosis of malaria. The malaria training given to the paramedical staff to assist the health care delivery needs to be intensified and expanded in north-east India. The people who are economically poor and living in remote areas mainly

  6. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  7. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  8. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  9. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  10. Emotional job resources and emotional support seeking as moderators of the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion: a two-wave panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Ven, Bart; van den Tooren, Marieke; Vlerick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion was investigated, as was the moderating role of emotional job resources and emotional support seeking on this relation. We hypothesized a positive lagged effect of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion, and proposed that this relation is weakened by the availability of emotional job resources. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that this stress-buffer effect of emotional job resources would be stronger for employees high on emotional support seeking (3-way interaction). A 2-wave survey study with a 1-year time lag was conducted among 711 employees in the technology sector. Results showed that emotional job demands are least likely to result in emotional exhaustion when employees are provided with high emotional job resources and score high on emotional support seeking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  12. The influence of travel time on emergency obstetric care seeking behavior in the urban poor of Bangladesh: a GIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, Rocco; Khan, Akib; Rizvi, Syed Jafar Raza; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmed, Tanvir; Islam, Rubana; Adams, Alayne M

    2016-08-22

    Availability of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) is crucial to avert maternal death due to life-threatening complications potentially arising during delivery. Research on the determinants of utilization of EmOC has neglected urban settings, where traffic congestion can pose a significant barrier to the access of EmOC facilities, particularly for the urban poor due to costly and limited transportation options. This study investigates the impact of travel time to EmOC facilities on the utilization of facility-based delivery services among mothers living in urban poor settlements in Sylhet, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional EmOC health-seeking behavior survey from 39 poor urban clusters was geo-spatially linked to a comprehensive geo-referenced dataset of EmOC facility locations. Geo-spatial techniques and logistic regression were then applied to quantify the impact of travel time on place of delivery (EmOC facility or home), while controlling for confounding socio-cultural and economic factors. Increasing travel time to the nearest EmOC facility is found to act as a strong deterrent to seeking care for the urban poor in Sylhet. Logistic regression results indicate that a 5-min increase in travel time to the nearest EmOC facility is associated with a 30 % decrease (0.655 odds ratio, 95 % CI: 0.529-0.811) in the likelihood of delivery at an EmOC facility rather than at home. Moreover, the impact of travel time varies substantially between public, NGO and private facilities. A 5-min increase in travel time from a private EmOC facility is associated with a 32.9 % decrease in the likelihood of delivering at a private facility, while for public and Non-Government Organizations (NGO) EmOC facilities, the impact is lower (28.2 and 28.6 % decrease respectively). Other strong determinants of delivery at an EmOC facility are the use of antenatal care and mother's formal education, while Muslim mothers are found to be more likely to deliver at home. Geospatial evidence points to

  13. First-time admissions for opioid treatment: cross-sectional and descriptive study of new opioid users seeking treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo Flórez,1,2 Ana López-Durán,3 Yolanda Triñanes,4 Jesús Osorio,5 Jaime Fraga,5 José Manuel Fernández,5 Elisardo Becoña,3 Manuel Arrojo5 1Addictive Disorders Assistance Unit, Complejo Hospitalario, Ourense, Spain; 2Center for Biomedical Research in Mental Health (CIBERSAM, Oviedo, Spain; 3Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Directorate General for Innovation and Management of Public Health, Galicia, Spain; 5Directorate General of Health Assistance, Galician Health Service, Galicia, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the profiles of the new treatment demands posed by opioid addicts between 2005 and 2010 at the addictive disorders assistance units in Galicia, Spain. Methods: A cluster analysis was performed using data from 1,655 treatment entrants. Clusters were constructed using sociodemographic and medicolegal variables. A cluster analysis was also conducted according to age. Once clusters were defined, their association with the following variables was analyzed: age at first use of opioids, years of use, frequency of opioid use in the previous month, psychiatric treatment, cocaine use, existence of a drug-dependent partner, and source of referral. Results: Four clusters were obtained in the main analysis. Cluster 1 (34.01% consisted of young males, cluster 2 (16.19% consisted of not-so-young males, cluster 3 (32.62% consisted mainly of older males and a small group of females, and cluster 4 (17.18% was made up entirely of women. With regard to age-related clusters, two clusters were obtained in those under the age of 30 years: cluster 1 (73% without medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (27% with medicolegal complications. For those over the age of 30 years, two clusters were obtained: cluster 1 (53.92% with hardly any medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (46.08% with

  14. Predictors of treatment seeking intention among people with cough in East Wollega, Ethiopia based on the theory of planned behavior: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addisu, Yohannes; Birhanu, Zewdie; Tilahun, Dejen; Assefa, Tsion

    2014-04-01

    Early treatment seeking for cough is crucial in the prevention and control of Tuberculosis. This study was intended to assess treatment seeking intention of people with cough of more than two weeks, and to identify its predictors. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 763 individuals with cough of more than two weeks in East Wollega Zone from March 10 to April 16, 2011. Study participants were selected from eighteen villages by cluster sampling method. Data collection instruments were developed according to the standard guideline of the theory of planned behavior. The data were analyzed with SPSS 16.0. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors. Mean score of intention was found to be 12.6 (SD=2.8) (range of possible score=3-15). Knowledge (β=0.14, 95%CI: 0.07-0.2), direct attitude (β=0.31, 95%CI: 0.25-0.35), belief-based attitude (β=0.03, 95%CI: 0.02-0.06) and perceived subjective norm (β=0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.31) positively predicted treatment seeking intention. However, perceived behavioral control and control belief were not significantly associated with treatment seeking intention (p>0.05). Being smoker (β=-0.97, 95%CI:-1.65 (-0.37)) and higher family income (β=-0.06, 95%CI:-0.07-(-0.01) were significantly associated with lower treatment seeking intention. TPB significantly predicted treatment seeking intention among the study participants. Attitude and silent beliefs held by the respondents play an important role and should be given emphasize in prevention and control of Tuberculosis.

  15. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  16. Should the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Seek NCATE Reaccreditation in 1983? Report of the Ad Hoc NCATE Study Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooley, John; And Others

    A study by the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire (UWEC) was designed to provide information on whether UWEC should seek NCATE (National Council of Accreditation for Teacher Education) reaccreditation for its graduate and undergraduate teacher education programs in 1983. The essential question in the study was whether…

  17. Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozekicioglu Seda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

  18. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  19. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  20. Study of high current commutation by explosive switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuba, S.; Kakudate, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Miyamoto, M.; Morita, T.; Kubota, A.; den, M.

    1993-01-01

    The study presents the basic experimental data obtained with a large current opening switch for current commutation using explosives. It is shown that currents up to a maximum of 40 kA can be completely interrupted within 30 microsec. The mechanism of current interruption using a thin conductor plate and methods of measuring interrupting current with a pickup coil and taking photographs with a high-speed camera (one frame per microsec) are discussed.

  1. Obstetric danger signs and factors affecting health seeking behaviour among the Kassena-Nankani of Northern Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborigo, Raymond A; Moyer, Cheryl A; Gupta, Mira; Adongo, Philip B; Williams, John; Hodgson, Abraham; Allote, Pascale; Engmann, Cyril M

    2014-09-01

    Improving community members' knowledge of obstetric danger signs is one strategy for increasing the use of skilled care during pregnancy and the puerperium. This study explored knowledge of obstetric danger signs among a range of community members, examined the sources of their information, and the perceived factors that affect health seeking behaviour in rural northern Ghana. We conducted 72 in-depth interviews and 18 focus groups with community members. All interactions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo 9.0. Community members demonstrated knowledge of a wide range of obstetric danger signs, including excessive bleeding, stomach aches, waist pains, vomiting and fever. Pregnant women learn about danger signs from a range of providers, and regular contact with formal providers typically coincided with increased knowledge of danger signs. Traditional remedies for problems in obstetrics are plentiful and cultural beliefs often restrict the use of allopathic medicine. Increasing knowledge of obstetric danger signs is necessary but not sufficient to overcome cultural preferences for traditional treatments for pregnancy danger signs.

  2. Identification of Psychological Dysfunctions and Eating Disorders in Obese Women Seeking Weight Loss: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Panchaud Cornut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools.

  3. Profile of adults seeking voluntary HIV testing and counseling in rural Central India: results from a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Joshi, Rajnish; Moodie, Erica E M; Taksande, Bharati; Kalantri, S P; Pai, Madhukar; Tulsky, Jacqueline P; Reingold, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    Rural India has an undetected load of HIV-positive individuals. Few rural adults present for HIV testing and counseling due to stigma, discrimination, and fear of social ostracization. In this rural hospital clinic-based study, we document profiles of rural adults seeking voluntary testing and counseling, and analyze correlates of HIV seropositivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 450 participants presenting to the outpatient clinics of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Central India. After informed consent, pre- and post-test counseling, HIV testing, and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The median age of the 450 study participants was 34 years (range 18-88 years); the majority (74%) was married. The overall proportion of HIV seropositivity was 32% [95% CI 28%, 37%]. The proportions of HIV seropositivity in married women, married men, and single men were 41%, 37%, 18%, respectively. No single woman was found seropositive in the study. Very few married women were aware of their husbands' HIV status. In a multivariate analysis, correlates of HIV seropositivity in men were: age 30-39 years, being married, having sex with multiple partners, use of alcohol before sex, and testing positive for HIV in the past. In married women, the only predictor of seropositivity was being married. Although limited by the non-random nature of the sampling method, this pilot study is unique in that it is the first from this rural region of Central India. It provides baseline data on marginalized, largely unstudied populations that may aid in designing probabilistic community-based surveys in this neglected population.

  4. Online health information seeking behaviors of Hispanics in New York City: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ji; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Larson, Elaine; Wilcox, Adam; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-07-22

    The emergence of the Internet has increased access to health information and can facilitate active individual engagement in health care decision making. Hispanics are the fastest-growing minority group in the United States and are also the most underserved in terms of access to online health information. A growing body of literature has examined correlates of online health information seeking behaviors (HISBs), but few studies have included Hispanics. The specific aim of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine factors associated with HISBs of Hispanics. The study sample (N=4070) was recruited from five postal zip codes in northern Manhattan for the Washington Heights Inwood Informatics Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research project. Survey data were collected via interview by bilingual community health workers in a community center, households, and other community settings. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Among individual respondents, online HISBs were significantly associated with higher education (OR 3.03, 95% CI 2.15-4.29, POnline HISBs of other household members were significantly associated with respondent factors: female gender (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.22-2.10, P=.001), being younger (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.90, P=.002), being married (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09-1.71, P=.007), having higher education (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.404-2.316, Ponline HISBs (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.29-2.60, P=.001). This large-scale community survey identified factors associated with online HISBs among Hispanics that merit closer examination. To enhance online HISBs among Hispanics, health care providers and policy makers need to understand the cultural context of the Hispanic population. Results of this study can provide a foundation for the development of informatics-based interventions to improve the health of Hispanics in the United States.

  5. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    , the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing......Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  6. Effect of the Uganda Newborn Study on care-seeking and care practices: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Waiswa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Care for women and babies before, during, and after the time of birth is a sensitive measure of the functionality of any health system. Engaging communities in preventing newborn deaths is a promising strategy to achieve further progress in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To assess the effect of a home visit strategy combined with health facility strengthening on uptake of newborn care-seeking, practices and services, and to link the results to national policy and scale-up in Uganda. Design: The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST was a two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial in rural eastern Uganda. In intervention villages volunteer community health workers (CHWs were trained to identify pregnant women and make five home visits (two during pregnancy and three in the first week after birth to offer preventive and promotive care and counselling, with extra visits for sick and small newborns to assess and refer. Health facility strengthening was done in all facilities to improve quality of care. Primary outcomes were coverage of key essential newborn care behaviours (breastfeeding, thermal care, and cord care. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered as a clinical trial, number ISRCTN50321130. Results: The intervention significantly improved essential newborn care practices, although many interventions saw major increases in both arms over the study period. Immediate breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly higher in the intervention arm compared to the control arm (72.6% vs. 66.0%; p=0.016 and 81.8% vs. 75.9%, p=0.042, respectively. Skin-to-skin care immediately after birth and cord cutting with a clean instrument were marginally higher in the intervention arm versus the control arm (80.7% vs. 72.2%; p=0.071 and 88.1% vs. 84.4%; p=0.023, respectively. Half (49.6% of the mothers in the intervention arm waited more than 24 hours to bathe the baby, compared to 35.5% in

  7. Are attitudes towards mental health help-seeking associated with service use? Results from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Vilagut, G.; Kovess, V.; Alonso, J.

    To investigate the prevailing attitudes towards mental health help-seeking in Europe, their correlates, and whether these attitudes are associated with actual service use for mental health problems. Data were derived from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a survey

  8. Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

  9. Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

  10. The Danish Symptom Cohort: Questionnaire and Feasibility in the Nationwide Study on Symptom Experience and Healthcare-Seeking among 100.000 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In order to develop strategies to prevent delay in diagnosis, it is important to gain knowledge of symptoms and healthcare-seeking processes in the population. This paper describes a combined survey and register-based study with (1) focus on development of a questionnaire concerning...

  11. I'm feeling lucky: the relationship between affect and risk-seeking in the framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Elaine; Mikels, Joseph A

    2011-08-01

    Engagement in risky behavior has traditionally been attributed to an underestimation of the associated risks, but recent perspectives suggest that affective reactions toward a risky option may better explain risk-seeking than risk perception. However, the precise relationship between emotion and risk-seeking remains unclear. The current set of studies elucidates the relationship between emotion and risk-seeking in risky choice framing, using a gambling task. In Study 1, reliance on emotion was related to risk-seeking, but goals to regulate emotion mitigated these effects. In Study 2, positive affect was associated with risk-seeking in loss frames, but unrelated to risk aversion in gain frames. Collectively, these findings indicate a general role for emotion reliance on risk-seeking and a specific role of positive affect on risk-seeking in the loss trials of the framing effect.

  12. What Defines "Enough" Information? How Policy Workers Make Judgements and Decisions during Information Seeking: Preliminary Results from an Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method:…

  13. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online: A Mixed-Methods Study among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Bigelow, Louisa; DeHaan, Samantha; Mustanski, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the positive and negative aspects of Internet use for sexual health information among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young people. A diverse community sample of 32 LGBT young people (aged 16-24 years) completed qualitative interviews focusing on how, where, and when…

  14. Design of Interfaces for Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionini, Gary; Komlodi, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines the current state of user interface design for information seeking. Topics include technology push and interdisciplinarity; research and development; literature trends; user-centered interface design; information seeking in electronic environments; online information retrieval system interfaces; online public access catalog interfaces;…

  15. First-time admissions for opioid treatment: cross-sectional and descriptive study of new opioid users seeking treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; López-Durán, Ana; Triñanes, Yolanda; Osorio, Jesús; Fraga, Jaime; Fernández, José Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo; Arrojo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the profiles of the new treatment demands posed by opioid addicts between 2005 and 2010 at the addictive disorders assistance units in Galicia, Spain. Methods A cluster analysis was performed using data from 1,655 treatment entrants. Clusters were constructed using sociodemographic and medicolegal variables. A cluster analysis was also conducted according to age. Once clusters were defined, their association with the following variables was analyzed: age at first use of opioids, years of use, frequency of opioid use in the previous month, psychiatric treatment, cocaine use, existence of a drug-dependent partner, and source of referral. Results Four clusters were obtained in the main analysis. Cluster 1 (34.01%) consisted of young males, cluster 2 (16.19%) consisted of not-so-young males, cluster 3 (32.62%) consisted mainly of older males and a small group of females, and cluster 4 (17.18%) was made up entirely of women. With regard to age-related clusters, two clusters were obtained in those under the age of 30 years: cluster 1 (73%) without medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (27%) with medicolegal complications. For those over the age of 30 years, two clusters were obtained: cluster 1 (53.92%) with hardly any medicolegal complications and cluster 2 (46.08%) with medicolegal complications. Conclusion Cluster analysis suggests that there have been no substantial changes in variables indicating greater severity in this new group of patients. Women are likely to seek help earlier, which reduces their duration of opioid use. The younger the patient, the shorter the duration of opioid use and the greater the likelihood of cessation of intravenous use. Public health systems should use a two-pronged treatment strategy of short but intense cessation therapies for women and younger treatment entrants and longer maintenance and replacement therapies for older treatment entrants with more psychosocial

  16. Help-seeking Behaviors Among Caregivers of Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Patients: A Hospital-based Study in Two Geographically and Culturally Distinct Indian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Naik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is a country of several diversities and cultures, which may influence the help-seeking behavior of mentally ill patients and families. Only a few Indian studies have focused on help seeking, especially for severe mental disorders. Objective: The study aimed to describe and compare the help-seeking behaviors among caregivers of psychotic patients visiting psychiatric clinics at two distinct cities of India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study of key caregivers (N=50 of patients with a DSM-IV TR diagnosis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, visiting psychiatric out-patient departments of VIMHANS, New Delhi, and CIMS, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. After due informed consent was taken, a semi-structured proforma was administered for socio-demographic profile, illness details, causative beliefs, and information on help seeking. Results: Supernatural forces were held responsible by 40% of the Bilaspur sample in contrast to 8% in New Delhi sample. Faith-healers were initial contacts for 56% and 64% of sample, respectively, at New Delhi and Bilaspur. Faith-healers followed by a psychiatrist formed the commonest pathway of care at both centers (32% and 36%, respectively. The sample at New Delhi spent significantly more money (median: $4000 vs. $10 and traveled greater distances (median: 35 km vs. 10 km for faith-healers during the course of illness. Two-thirds of sample in New Delhi and one-third at Bilaspur were aware of the nearby psychiatrist at the time of initial help seeking; however, only 28% and 12%, respectively, chose psychiatrist as an initial contact. The New Delhi sample reported a fear of medication adverse effects and stigma as perceived disadvantages of psychiatric help. The median time lost at both the centers was 1 month, with a maximum of 8.4 years in New Delhi and 4.9 years in Bilaspur. Of the total, 16% caregivers at New Delhi and 32% at Bilaspur center reported an intention to

  17. Factors influencing choice of care-seeking for acute fever comparing private chemical shops with health centres and hospitals in Ghana: a study using case-control methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Evelyn K; Gyapong, Margaret; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Bart-Plange, Constance; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2016-05-25

    Several public health interventions to improve management of patients with fever are largely focused on the public sector yet a high proportion of patients seek care outside the formal healthcare sector. Few studies have provided information on the determinants of utilization of the private sector as against formal public sector. Understanding the differences between those who attend public and private health institutions, and their pathway to care, has significant practical implications. The chemical shop is an important source of care for acute fever in Ghana. Case-control methodology was used to identify factors associated with seeking care for fever in the Dangme West District, Ghana. People presenting to health centres, or hospital outpatients, with a history or current fever were compared to counterparts from the same community with fever visiting a chemical shop. Of 600 patients, 150 each, were recruited from the district hospital and two health centres, respectively, and 300 controls from 51 chemical shops. Overall, 103 (17.2 %) patients tested slide positive for malaria. Specifically, 13.7 % (41/300) of chemical shop patients, 30.7 % (46/150) health centre and 10.7 % (16/150) hospital patients were slide positive. While it was the first option for care for 92.7 % (278/300) chemical shop patients, 42.7 % (64/150) of health centre patients first sought care from a chemical shop. More health centre patients (61.3 %; 92/150) presented with fever after more than 3 days than chemical shop patients (27.7 %; 83/300) [AOR = 0.19; p < 0.001 CI 0.11-0.30]. Although the hospital was the first option for 83.3 % (125/150) of hospital patients, most (63.3 %; 95/150) patients arrived there over 3 days after their symptoms begun. Proximity was significantly associated with utilization of each source of care. Education, but not other socioeconomic or demographic factors were significantly associated with chemical shop use. The private drug retail sector is

  18. Mental health among children seeking asylum in Denmark – the effect of length of stay and number of relocations: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe S; Norredam, Marie; Christiansen, Karen L; Obel, Carsten; Hilden, Jørgen; Krasnik, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Background The process of seeking asylum and the related organisational conditions in the host country may adversely affect the children's mental health. The objective of this study was to examine the mental health of children seeking asylum in relation to organisational factors of the asylum system including length of stay and number of relocations. Methods The population included all 260 parent-accompanied asylum-seeking children aged 4–16 years living in the asylum centres managed by the Danish Red Cross in October–December 2006. Mental health was evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School teachers evaluated children aged 4–16; and the 11–16-year-olds completed the self-report version. To assess the association between organisational factors and mental health, binary logistic regression analyses were done using backwards elimination. We received responses for 246 children equivalent to 95% of the study population. Results Using teachers' reports, we found that children who had been asylum-seeking for more than one year in Denmark had an increased risk of having mental difficulties (odds ratio 5.5, 95% CI 1.8–16.3); four or more relocations in the asylum system were also associated with a higher risk (3.0, 1.4–6.7). When the self-report data were included, the associations were even stronger. Conclusion Protracted stays at asylum centres and multiple relocations within the asylum system appear to have an adverse effect on asylum-seeking children's mental health. A limit to the duration of the children's stay in the asylum system should be ensured. Follow-up studies with inclusion of other conditions, such as parental mental health and the children's previous trauma, are needed to clarify the influence of the different factors and their interactions. PMID:18713455

  19. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...... in organizations newcomers access to participate and negotiate meaning in practice becomes essential. Information seeking hereby plays a significant role in newcomers learning by establishing, developing, and maintaining a relationship to a given organizational practice. Through accessing textual, social...

  20. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...... in organizations newcomers access to participate and negotiate meaning in practice becomes essential. Information seeking hereby plays a significant role in newcomers learning by establishing, developing, and maintaining a relationship to a given organizational practice. Through accessing textual, social...

  1. Health-Seeking Behaviour towards Poverty-Related Disease (PRDs: A Qualitative Study of People Living in Camps and on Campuses in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Makoge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty-Related Diseases (PRDs emphasize poverty as a 'breeding-ground' for a range of diseases. The study presented here starts from the premise that poverty is a general condition that can limit people's capacity to prevent, mitigate or treat diseases. Using an interpretation of health seeking behaviour (HSB, inspired by the salutogenic approach, we investigated how people deal with PRDs, their ability and strategies put in place to cope. We collected HSB data from two groups of respondents in Cameroon: labourers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC living in settlements called camps and students of the state universities of Buea and Yaoundé living in settlements we refer to as campuses. By selecting these groups, the study offers a unique view of how different people cope with similar health challenges. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 21 camp dwellers and 21 students in a cross-sectional study. Our findings revealed 1 respondents use multiple resources to cope with PRDs. 2 Respondents' perceptions of diseases and connection with poverty closely ties to general hygienic conditions of their living environment. 3 Utilisation of health facilities is not strongly dependent on financial resources. 4 Volatile health facilities are a major challenge and reason for people to revert to other health resources. The study brings out the need for organisations (governmental and non-governmental to strengthen people's capacities to cope with health situations through better health and housing policies geared at incorporating practices currently used by the people and supporting pro-hygienic initiatives.

  2. Health-Seeking Behaviour towards Poverty-Related Disease (PRDs): A Qualitative Study of People Living in Camps and on Campuses in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Harro; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Poverty-Related Diseases (PRDs) emphasize poverty as a ‘breeding-ground’ for a range of diseases. The study presented here starts from the premise that poverty is a general condition that can limit people’s capacity to prevent, mitigate or treat diseases. Using an interpretation of health seeking behaviour (HSB), inspired by the salutogenic approach, we investigated how people deal with PRDs, their ability and strategies put in place to cope. We collected HSB data from two groups of respondents in Cameroon: labourers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) living in settlements called camps and students of the state universities of Buea and Yaoundé living in settlements we refer to as campuses. By selecting these groups, the study offers a unique view of how different people cope with similar health challenges. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 21 camp dwellers and 21 students in a cross-sectional study. Our findings revealed 1) respondents use multiple resources to cope with PRDs. 2) Respondents’ perceptions of diseases and connection with poverty closely ties to general hygienic conditions of their living environment. 3) Utilisation of health facilities is not strongly dependent on financial resources. 4) Volatile health facilities are a major challenge and reason for people to revert to other health resources. The study brings out the need for organisations (governmental and non-governmental) to strengthen people’s capacities to cope with health situations through better health and housing policies geared at incorporating practices currently used by the people and supporting pro-hygienic initiatives. PMID:28052068

  3. Patient Reported Delays in Seeking Treatment for Tuberculosis among Adult and Pediatric TB Patients and TB Patients Co-Infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Alban, Rebecca E; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R; Oberhelman, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child's or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level.

  4. Health Information Seeking and Cancer Screening Adherence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Arheart, Kristopher L; Byrne, Margaret M; Kornfeld, Julie; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-03-01

    Effective screening tools are available for many of the top cancer killers in the USA. Searching for health information has previously been found to be associated with adhering to cancer screening guidelines, but Internet information seeking has not been examined separately. The current study examines the relationship between health and cancer Internet information seeking and adherence to cancer screening guidelines for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in a large nationally representative dataset. The current study was conducted using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey from 2003 and 2007. The study examined age-stratified models which correlated health and cancer information seeking with getting breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening on schedule, while controlling for several key variables. Internet health and cancer information seeking was positively associated with getting Pap screening on schedule, while information seeking from any sources was positively associated with getting colorectal screening on schedule. People who look for health or cancer information are more likely to get screened on schedule. Some groups of people, however, do not exhibit this relationship and, thus, may be more vulnerable to under-screening. These groups may benefit more from targeted interventions that attempt to engage people in their health care more actively.

  5. Health care-seeking behavior among patients with chronic kidney disease: A cross-sectional study of patients presenting at a single teaching hospital in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babawale Taslim Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care-seeking behavior of individuals determines how early they present for appropriate care. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, late presentation to the nephrologist is associated with poor outcomes. This study aims to describe the health care-seeking behavior of patients with CKD attending the nephrology outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital located in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on 104 consecutive adult patients with CKD, presenting for the first time at the nephrology outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital located in Lagos, South West Nigeria. Information was retrieved from the study participants using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and analyzed using Epi Info® statistical software version 7.0. Results: Overall, 74 (71.2% patients sought help, first from a trained health care provider, and their health care-seeking behavior was adjudged to be appropriate. Compared to patients with appropriate health care-seeking behavior, those with inappropriate health care-seeking behavior had a lower mean age (40.4 ± 13.7 years vs 47.3 ± 15.6 years;P = 0.03, were less likely to see their illness as a medical problem (46.7% vs 67.6%;P = 0.04, more likely to have a monthly income less than N25,000 ($150 (80.0% vs 59.5%;P = 0.04, and have received below tertiary level education (20.0% vs 48.6%; P < 0.01. They were also more likely to have consulted more than one health care provider before being referred to our clinic. The factors predicting inappropriate health care-seeking behavior were education below the tertiary level and age less than 45 years. Conclusion: Though health care-seeking behavior was appropriate in majority of our patients with CKD, there remains a need for improved public health awareness.

  6. Social differentiation and embodied dispositions: a qualitative study of maternal care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljestrand Jerker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health care in low-income countries has been associated with several socioeconomic and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. A previous study showed that 75% of women with severe obstetric morbidity (near-miss identified at hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers also in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. The present study explores how health care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity is conditioned in La Paz, Bolivia. Methods Thematic interviews with 30 women with a near-miss event upon arrival at hospital. Near-miss was defined based on clinical and management criteria. Modified analytic induction was applied in the analysis that was further influenced by theoretical views that care-seeking behaviour is formed by predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and perceived need, as well as by socially shaped habitual behaviours. Results The self-perception of being fundamentally separated from "others", meaning those who utilise health care, was typical for women who customarily delivered at home and who delayed seeking medical assistance for obstetric emergencies. Other explanations given by these women were distrust of authority, mistreatment by staff, such as not being kept informed about their condition or the course of their treatment, all of which reinforced their dissociation from the health-care system. Conclusion The findings illustrate health care-seeking behaviour as a practise that is substantially conditioned by social differentiation. Social marginalization and the role health institutions play in shaping care-seeking behaviour have been de-emphasised by focusing solely on endogenous cultural factors in Bolivia.

  7. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Linda E; Hurenkamp, Gerard JB; ter Riet, Gerben; Schellevis, François G; Grundmeijer, Hans G; van Weert, Henk C

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001). Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP) with upper GI symptoms) and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints), matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psycho)pharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year). Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.37 to 3.45). Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90), including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or social co

  8. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001. Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP with upper GI symptoms and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints, matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psychopharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year. Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs ranging from 1.37 to 3.45. Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90, including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or

  9. A grounded theory study of attitudes towards mental illness and help-seeking amongst police officers with a military background.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Both police and Armed Forces personnel are at increased risk of encountering psychological trauma with the prevalence of mental health problems higher than in the general population. Appropriate and effective mental health services are crucial but there is a marked lack of take-up of services. This research considered how the attitudes of police officers with a military background affected their help-seeking for mental health problems.Methodology: A phenomenological approach was...

  10. Theoretical studies of non inductive current drive in compact toroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farengo, R; Lifschitz, AF; Caputi, KI; Arista, NR; Clemente, RA

    2002-01-01

    Three non inductive current drive methods that can be applied to compact toroids axe studied. The use of neutral beams to drive current in field reversed configurations and spheromaks is studied using a Monte Carlo code that includes a complete ionization package and follows the exact particle orbit

  11. What defines 'enough' information? How policy workers make judgements and decisions during information seeking: preliminary results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berryman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with public sector policy workers in Australia. Two interviews were carried out, the first with individual participants and the second, a joint interview with two participants. Interviews were taped and transcribed and inductive data analysis carried out. Findings. Findings discussed in this paper focus on contextual factors that frame policy workers' judgment and decision making while information seeking, factors including ill-structured problems, shifting goals, time stress and action-feedback loops. Also revealed was the importance of developing a framework, against which the judgment of enough information can be made, and the fluid and iterative nature of these judgments. Conclusion. The contextual factors reported show similarities with those identified by naturalistic decision making researchers, suggesting this new field of decision theory has much to offer researchers into information seeking in context.

  12. Parental investment in child health in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national study of health-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring's condition. Here, we make use of household data on health-seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 17 sub-Saharan African countries, we examine whether maternal factors (age, health, marital status) and child factors (birth order, health, sex, age) independently influence parental investment in health-seeking behaviours: two preventative behaviours (malaria net use and immunization) and two curative ones (treating fever and diarrhoea). Results indicate that children with lower birth order, older mothers and mothers with better health status have higher odds of investment. The effects of a child's sex and health status and whether the mother is polygynously married vary depending on the type of health-seeking behaviour (preventative versus curative). We discuss how these results square with predictions from parental investment theory pertaining to the state of mothers and children, and reflect on some potential mechanisms and directions for future research.

  13. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  14. An association study of DRD2 and COMT polymorphisms with novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores, in two independent samples of depressed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frampton Christopher MA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was recently reported that an interaction of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT influences the behavioural approach system – as measured using Carver and White's Behavioural Inhibition and Behavioural Approach System (BIS/BAS scales – in a sample of healthy German subjects. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, in particular the novelty seeking (NS and harm avoidance (HA scales, correlates moderately with the BIS/BAS measure. This study aimed to examine support for an association of DRD2 and COMT with behavioural activation, using the TCI within two independent samples of depressed outpatients (for both samples n = 146. Methods Two clinical samples of depressed patients were ascertained to assess the efficacy of two different pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyse NS and HA scale and subscale scores with respect to gene loci within each clinical sample. Analysis of covariance were undertaken to examine the association of age and gender with NS and HA scores. An association of age group or gender with gene loci were explored using chi-squared tests, in each sample. Results No significant effect of DRD2 or COMT, either independently or as an interaction, on NS or HA scores was observed, within either sample. Whilst age was significantly negatively associated with NS scores, including age in the two- and three-way interactions did not affect the significance of the association of personality with gene loci. Conclusion This study suggests that the COMT-DRD2 Equilibrium Model of Positive Emotionality recently proposed by Reuter and his colleagues is not applicable amongst currently depressed individuals, whose behavioural approach and inhibition tendencies have been assessed using the TCI.

  15. Caregivers' perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour for under five children in Mandura District, West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitiku, Israel; Assefa, Adane

    2017-04-08

    Early diagnosis and prompt malaria treatment is essential to reduce progression of the illness to severe disease and, therefore, decrease mortality particularly among children under 5 years of age. This study assessed perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour for children under five with fever in the last 2 weeks in Mandura District, West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 491 caregivers of children under five in Mandura District, West Ethiopia in December 2014. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analysed using SPSS version 20. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the determinants of caregivers' treatment-seeking behaviour. Overall, 94.1% of the respondents perceived that fever is the most common symptom and 70% associated mosquito bite with the occurrence of malaria. Of 197 caregivers with under five children with fever in the last 2 weeks preceding the study 87.8% sought treatment. However, only 38.7% received treatment within 24 h of onset of fever. Determinants of treatment-seeking include place of residence (rural/urban) (AOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01-7.70), caregivers age (AOR 3.40, 95% CI 1.27-9.10), knowledge of malaria (AOR 4.65, 95% CI 1.38-15.64), perceived susceptibility to malaria (AOR 3.63, 95% CI 1.21-10.88), and perceived barrier to seek treatment (AOR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06-0.52). Majority of the respondents of this study sought treatment for their under five children. However, a considerable number of caregivers first consulted traditional healers and tried home treatment, thus, sought treatment late. Living in rural village, caregivers' age, malaria knowledge, perceived susceptibility to malaria and perceived barrier to seek treatment were important factors in seeking health care. There is a need to focus on targeted interventions, promote awareness and prevention, and address misconceptions about

  16. Exploring awareness and help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in Ireland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of malignant and benign testicular disorders among young men is on the rise. Evidence from three reviews suggest that men's knowledge of these disorders is lacking and their help-seeking intention for testicular symptoms is suboptimal. Qualitative studies have addressed men's awareness of testicular cancer, with none exploring their awareness of non-malignant diseases such as epididymitis, testicular torsion, and varicocele and none including sexual minorities. To explore, in-depth, heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men's awareness of testicular disorders and their help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms in the Irish context. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Data were collected via face-to-face individual interviews and focus groups. Participation was sought from a number of community and youth organisations and one university in Southern Ireland. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit a heterogeneous sample. A total of 29 men partook in this study. Participants were men, aged between 18 and 50 years, and residents of the Republic of Ireland. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Reflective field notes were taken following each interview. A summary of the interview was shared with selected participants for member-check. Data were analysed and validated by three researchers. Inductive qualitative analysis of manifest content was used. Latent content was captured in the field notes. Data analysis yielded two key themes. The themes that emerged from the interviews were: Awareness of testicular disorders and their screening, and help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms. Although most participants heard of testicular cancer, most did not know the different aspects of this malignancy including its risk factors, symptoms, treatments, and screening. Several men had a number of misconceptions around testicular disorders which negatively impacted their intentions to seek prompt help

  17. Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012. Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1, 33-45.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio DeRosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five parts: general information (including gender, age, education, position, and professional experience; questions on computer and Internet accessibility; questions regarding individual information needs; questions on information-seeking obstacles; and a question regarding the satisfaction with the current degree of information availability in the hospital. The last question was ranked using a 5-point Likert scale. Each questionnaire was distributed with a cover letter explaining the anonymity and consent of the respondent. Hospital members were randomly selected using a number generator and respondents returned completed surveys to the hospital personnel office in a sealed envelope within a specified time frame. The sampled group was representative of the overall population of the hospital.Main Results – The authors discuss demographic data of respondents: 65.7% were women; 56.7% were over 40 years old; 29.0% were graduates of higher technological institutes; 28.3% were university graduates; 9.7% held a postgraduate degree; 8.3% had a PhD; and 1.4% had only secondary education. As for the remainder of the survey questions: 64% of respondents had access to the Internet both at home and at work, while only 8.2% had no access to the Internet at all; most respondents noted using the Internet for seeking scientific information (83.0% and e-mail communication (65.3%; the main obstacle respondents noted experiencing when seeking information was the lack of

  18. Older Adult Unemployment in Spain: A Diary Study on Emotions, Affect Regulation, and Job-Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2014. Director de la Tesis: David Martínez Íñigo Background: Throughout the 20th century, much research has been done on the effects of unemployment on psychological and physical well-being. Although most studies seem to draw the conclusion that unemployment generally has negative consequences for well-being, little is known about risk and protective factors in specific groups like older people. Moreover, the current adver...

  19. Care-seeking behaviour of adolescents with knee pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Skuldbøl, Sune Kjems; Rasch, Mads Nyhuus

    2013-01-01

    Knee pain is common during adolescence. Adolescents and their parents may think that knee pain is benign and self-limiting and therefore avoid seeking medical care. However, long-term prognosis of knee pain is not favourable and treatment seems to offer greater reductions in pain compared...... to a "wait-and-see" approach. The purpose of this study was to describe the determinants of care-seeking behaviour among adolescents with current knee pain and investigate what types of treatment are initiated....

  20. Study of a fibre optics current sensor for the measurement of plasma current in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuilpart, Marc; Vanus, Benoit; Andrasan, Alina; Gusarov, Andrei; Moreau, Philippe; Mégret, Patrice

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study the feasibility of using a fibre-optics current sensor (FOCS) for the measurement of plasma current in the future fusion reactor ITER. The sensor is based on a classical FOCS interrogator involving the measurement of the state of polarization rotation undergone by the light in presence of a magnetic field (Faraday effect) in an optical fibre surrounding the current and terminated by a Faraday mirror. We considered a uniformly spun optical fibre as the sensing element and we used the Stokes formalism to simulate the sensor. The objective of the simulations is to quantify the ratio LB/SP (beat length over the spun period of the spun fibre) enabling a measurement error in agreement with the ITER specifications. The simulator takes into account the temperature variations undergone by the measurement system under ITER operation. The simulation work showed that a LB/SP ratio of 19.2 is adequate.

  1. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  2. Breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior and interest on cell phone and text use: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Ghanbari-Baghestan, Abbas; Latiff, Latiffah A; Khaniki, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer. A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia. The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones. Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

  3. Exploratory study of the occupational health and health-seeking of migrant and seasonal farmworkers on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) workforce is aging. Aging causes functional changes that can affect work performance and increase injury/accident risk. It also has been linked with deferred health-seeking. The exploratory study was conducted to investigate occupational injuries and health-seeking in Hispanic MSFW on the U.S.-Mexico border. Data were collected using an abbreviated Spanish-version of the California Agricultural Worker Health Survey. Nearly 60% of the 141 participants were middle-aged or older. Musculoskeletal injuries and those consistent with agrochemical and environmental exposures were common. Farmworkers aged >40 years were 2.5-5 times more likely than younger MSFW to report persistent single and multiple injuries involving the knees, shoulder, feet, and hands. Except for neck and back injuries, few received any medical treatment. Although many self-treated with traditional home remedies, few used CAM practitioners. The study findings highlight the multiple workplace health and health-seeking challenges faced by aging immigrant MSFW.

  4. Weighing up the costs of seeking health care for dengue symptoms: a grounded theory study of backpackers' decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Bálint; Holberg, Mette; Mills, Jane; McBride, William J H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne virus, is an ongoing public health issue in North Queensland. Importation of dengue fever by travellers visiting or returning to Australia can lead to epidemics. The mosquito can acquire the virus in the symptomatic viraemic phase, so timely recognition of cases is important to prevent epidemics. There is a gap in the literature about backpackers' knowledge of dengue fever and the decision-making process they use when considering utilising the Australian health-care system. This study uses grounded theory methods to construct a theory that explains the process backpackers use when seeking health care. Fifty semi-structured interviews with backpackers, hostel receptionists, travel agents and pharmacists were analysed, resulting in identification of a core category: 'weighing up the costs of seeking health care'. This core category has three subcategories: 'self-assessment of health status', 'wait-and-see' and 'seek direction'. Findings from this study identified key areas where health promotion material and increased access to health-care professionals could reduce the risk of backpackers spreading dengue fever.

  5. Is Women's Empowerment Associated With Help-Seeking for Spousal Violence in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Kathleen; Mumford, Elizabeth; Clark, Cari Jo

    2015-12-09

    Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  7. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  8. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Key Words: Immunization; growth chart; health-seeking behavior; child health; Nigeria. African Health ..... expensive but have short waiting time. They were ... urban resident) In the urban area, cost, time, perceived severity of ...

  9. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Umubyeyi

    Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  10. Reward-learning and the novelty-seeking personality: a between- and within-subjects study of the effects of dopamine agonists on young Parkinson's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódi, Nikoletta; Kéri, Szabolcs; Nagy, Helga; Moustafa, Ahmed; Myers, Catherine E; Daw, Nathaniel; Dibó, György; Takáts, Annamária; Bereczki, Dániel; Gluck, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic pathways projecting to the striatum. These pathways are implicated in reward prediction. In this study, we investigated reward and punishment processing in young, never-medicated Parkinson's disease patients, recently medicated patients receiving the dopamine receptor agonists pramipexole and ropinirole and healthy controls. The never-medicated patients were also re-evaluated after 12 weeks of treatment with dopamine agonists. Reward and punishment processing was assessed by a feedback-based probabilistic classification task. Personality characteristics were measured by the temperament and character inventory. Results revealed that never-medicated patients with Parkinson's disease showed selective deficits on reward processing and novelty seeking, which were remediated by dopamine agonists. These medications disrupted punishment processing. In addition, dopamine agonists increased the correlation between reward processing and novelty seeking, whereas these drugs decreased the correlation between punishment processing and harm avoidance. Our finding that dopamine agonist administration in young patients with Parkinson's disease resulted in increased novelty seeking, enhanced reward processing, and decreased punishment processing may shed light on the cognitive and personality bases of the impulse control disorders, which arise as side-effects of dopamine agonist therapy in some Parkinson's disease patients.

  11. Confidentiality as a barrier to support seeking among physicians: the influence of psychosocial work factors in four European hospitals (the HOUPE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvseth, Lise Tevik; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw; Fridner, Ann; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Jónsdóttir, Lilja Sigrun; Einarsdóttir, Torgerdur; Marini, Massimo; Minucci, Daria; Pavan, Luigi; Götestam, K Gunnar; Linaker, Olav Morten

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about protecting patient's privacy can interfere with proper stress adaptation which is associated with physician's health. It is important to investigate relevant organizational confounders to this phenomenon to enable interventions that can ameliorate the subjective burden of patient confidentiality. This study investigates factors in the psychosocial work environment that can explain patient confidentiality's prominence in social support seeking among physicians, and if these factors covary differently with support seeking according to country. University hospital physicians in four European cities (N=2095) in Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Italy participated in a cross-sectional survey. Questionnaire comprised items on psychosocial work environment, basic socio-demographics, presence of formal and informal meetings at work, and measurement of confidentiality as a barrier for support. High role conflict, availability of formal or informal meetings, lack of control over decisions, and lack of control over work pace were predictors of confidentiality as a barrier to support. There were differences between countries in how these factors covaried with confidentiality as a barrier to support. High role conflict was the strongest predictor of confidentiality as a barrier to support across all samples. Psychosocial work factors predicted confidentiality as a barrier to support seeking among physicians. It is important to create routines and an organizational framework that ensures both the patient's right to privacy and physician's ability to cope with emotional demanding situations from work.

  12. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  13. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangping Kong; Zhe Zhang; Xianggen Yin; Zhenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influenc...

  14. Obstacles to Help-Seeking for Sexual Offenders: Implications for Prevention of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Vicencio, Claudia P

    2017-01-01

    Persons with potentially harmful sexual interests such as attraction to minors are unlikely to seek or receive treatment before a sexual offense has been committed. The current study explored barriers to help-seeking in a sample of 372 individuals in treatment for sexual offending. Results revealed that the shame and secrecy resulting from stigma associated with pedophilic interests often prevented our respondents from seeking professional counseling, and only about 20% tried to talk to anyone about their sexual interests prior to their arrest. Barriers to seeking and receiving psychological services included concerns about confidentiality, fears of social and legal consequences, personal shame or confusion about the problem, affordability, and challenges finding competent therapists who were adequately equipped to help them. Understanding and ultimately reducing obstacles to help-seeking can improve the quality of life for people with harmful sexual interests and potentially prevent sexual abuse of children or other vulnerable individuals.

  15. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-04-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  16. Specific attitudes which predict psychology students' intentions to seek help for psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J

    2014-03-01

    Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Study of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alpat, B.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Antreasyan, D.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chan, A.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boeck, H.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; Efremenko, Yu.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Fenyi, B.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gougas, A.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jenkes, K.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A. J. W.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moore, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulik, T.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Muheim, F.; Nagy, E.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Opitz, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petrak, S.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Strauch, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Tang, X. W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tuchscherer, H.; Tung, K. L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Völkert, R.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xu, J.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yao, X. Y.; Ye, J. B.; Yeh, S. C.; You, J. M.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.

    1997-02-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69+/-0.07 (stat.)+/-0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40+/-17% of the produced mesons are light-flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the π0 multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays.

  18. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  19. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  20. Cross-Cultural Examination of Depression Expression and Help-Seeking Behavior: A Comparative Study of American and Korean College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Skovholt, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cross-cultural differences in depression expression and help-seeking behavior among college students in the United States and Korea. Results indicate that the Korean students showed more somatization tendency, negative affect, and negative help-seeking behavior. Negative help-seeking behavior of Korean students was shown to relate to…

  1. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking...

  2. The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1 ± 75.8 m versus 682.7 ± 98.4, p binge eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the frequently observed physical discomfort when developing rehabilitation programmes for people with binge eating disorder.

  3. Frequent relocations between asylum-seeker centres are associated with mental distress in asylum-seeking children: a longitudinal medical record study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosen, Simone; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-02-01

    There are concerns about negative effects of relocations between asylum-seeker centres on the mental health of asylum-seeking children. However, empirical evidence comes from cross-sectional studies only. In this longitudinal medical record study, we aimed to assess: (i) whether relocations during the asylum process are associated with the incidence of newly recorded mental distress in asylum-seeking children; and (ii) whether this association is stronger among vulnerable children. Data were extracted from the electronic medical records database of the Community Health Services for Asylum Seekers in The Netherlands (study period: 1 January 2000-31 December 2008). Included were 8047 children aged 4 to 17 years. Case attribution was done using International Classification of Primary Care codes for mental, behavioural or psychosocial problems. The association between annual relocation rate and incidence of mental distress was measured using relative risks (RR) estimated with multivariate Cox regression models. A high annual relocation rate (>1 relocation/year) was associated with increased incidence of mental distress [RR = 2.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30-3.17]. The relative risk associated with a high annual relocation rate was larger in children who had experienced violence (RR = 3.87; 95% CI 2.79-5.37) and in children whose mothers had been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder or depression (RR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.50-4.63). The risk of mental distress was greater in asylum-seeking children who had undergone a high annual relocation rate. This risk increase was stronger in vulnerable children. These findings contribute to the appeal for policies that minimize the relocation of asylum seekers.

  4. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    the teleological or goal-oriented nature of the behaviour of living organisms. Such a theory should define the essential characteristics in human information seeking, including a description of it cultural and social determinants. It should consider the costs and benefits of information seeking, and the social......A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and explain...... mechanisms influencing its value. Further, such a theory should explain information neglecting and avoidance, the utilisation of different kinds of information resources, the strategies used, and their efficiency. A general theory should formulate what the essential, non-trivial factors are, which can...

  5. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and explain...... the teleological or goal-oriented nature of the behaviour of living organisms. Such a theory should define the essential characteristics in human information seeking, including a description of it cultural and social determinants. It should consider the costs and benefits of information seeking, and the social...... mechanisms influencing its value. Further, such a theory should explain information neglecting and avoidance, the utilisation of different kinds of information resources, the strategies used, and their efficiency. A general theory should formulate what the essential, non-trivial factors are, which can...

  6. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal activation and synaptic alterations after stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking: a study using c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained...

  7. Health-care-seeking patterns in the emerging private sector in Burkina Faso: a population-based study of urban adult residents in Ouagadougou.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrissa Beogo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. However, people's health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. METHOD: We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. RESULTS: Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.28, and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39. Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers

  8. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  9. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  10. A study of eddy current measurement (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted in 1986 to evaluate a modified eddy current system for measuring copper thickness on Kapton. Results showed a measurement error of 0.42 {mu}in. for a thickness range of 165 to 170 {mu}in. and a measurement variability of 3.2 {mu}in.

  11. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  12. Confident to seek help: the development of skill and judgement in nurse practitioners. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Diane

    2013-07-01

    Healthcare is undergoing a transformation in terms of traditional role and skill assignations of staff, with an attendant blurring of boundaries. Expert judgement is used in order to develop and assess learners as they prepare for these new roles. To determine factors related to the perceived usefulness of feedback, to find out how participants use expert judgement, to develop skill and to examine how the context of learning affects the development of judgement. Four NHS Health Board areas within Scotland. 95 nurse practitioners who had successfully completed a specified course of skills based education between September 2008 and August 2010. 10 participants agreed to follow up interview. Survey and follow-up semi-structured interviews. Mixed methods. 20 item, internet based questionnaire (n = 85) and semi-structured interviews (n = 10), collected between September 2010 and February 2011. Response rate was 55%-confidence level of 99%, this sample yields a confidence interval of 12.9%. The results demonstrate that the demonstration of skill and the perception of expertise of the supervisor are related to the perceived usefulness of feedback (p develop skill and judgement, although the mining of the tacit knowledge of medical colleagues, reference to associated theory and peer support and learning strategies are also seen to be important. The development of judgement is restricted by the tightly controlled learning environment. Identification of participants with the expertise of the supervisory group reveals a group who are highly aspirational and for whom the governance of learning leads the participants to be confident to seek help and not the confidence to identify learning needs. Learning is seen to be dominated by the context in which it is set and as the participants learn motor skills, they learn to fit in and manage a brittle working environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Association Between Online Health Information-Seeking Behaviors and Health Behaviors Among Hispanics in New York City: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ji; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Jia, Haomiao; Wilcox, Adam; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-11-26

    Hispanics are the fastest-growing minority group in the United States and they suffer from a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases. Studies have shown that online health information has the potential to affect health behaviors and influence management of chronic disease for a significant proportion of the population, but little research has focused on Hispanics. The specific aim of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to examine the association between online health information-seeking behaviors and health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol use, and hypertension medication adherence) among Hispanics. Data were collected from a convenience sample (N=2680) of Hispanics living in northern Manhattan by bilingual community health workers in a face-to-face interview and analyzed using linear and ordinal logistic regression. Variable selection and statistical analyses were guided by the Integrative Model of eHealth Use. Only 7.38% (198/2680) of the sample reported online health information-seeking behaviors. Levels of moderate physical activity and fruit, vegetable, and alcohol consumption were low. Among individuals taking hypertension medication (n=825), adherence was reported as high by approximately one-third (30.9%, 255/825) of the sample. Controlling for demographic, situational, and literacy variables, online health information-seeking behaviors were significantly associated with fruit (β=0.35, 95% CI 0.08-0.62, P=.01) and vegetable (β=0.36, 95% CI 0.06-0.65, P=.02) consumption and physical activity (β=3.73, 95% CI 1.99-5.46, Pbehaviors: social networking site membership (used to measure one dimension of computer literacy) was associated with fruit consumption (β=0.23, 95% CI 0.05-0.42, P=.02), health literacy was associated with alcohol consumption (β=0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.63, Pbehaviors. Given the promising, although modest, associations between online health information-seeking behaviors and some health

  14. Differential Thermostimulated Discharge Current Method for Studying Electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekishev, G. A.; Yovcheva, T. A.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    The thermostimulated discharge current method (TSDC) is widely used for the study of charge storage mechanisms in electrets. A new discharged technique, called differential, which consists in discharging a charged sample through an otherwise identical but uncharged one, has been proposed by J.-P. Reboul and A. Toureille. In the present paper a new version of the differential thermostimulated discharge current method is advanced. In contrast to the differential technique described earlier, the measuring cell allows to realize typical differential technique. In this case the measuring system records the difference of the thermostimulated currents of two samples which have been preliminary charged (or thermally treated) under the same or different conditions. Samples of 0.85 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate are used to demonstrate an operation of the developed differential TSDC method.

  15. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Kong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influence of controller parameters of converter on the fault current characteristics is analyzed emphatically. It builds a basis for the construction of relay protection which is suitable for the power gird with accession of DFIG.

  16. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students....

  17. Auctions with rent seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2000-01-01

    We present a model which combines elements of an auction and a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also have to submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. First, we analyze the model if the returns-to-scale parameters of both b

  18. Utilization of health facilities and predictors of health-seeking behavior for under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metadel Adane; Bezatu Mengistie; Worku Mulat; Helmut Kloos; Girmay Medhin

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to assess the status of health facilities utilization and predictors for health-seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers of under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums...

  19. "I never had the money for blood testing" – Caretakers' experiences of care-seeking for fatal childhood fevers in rural Uganda – a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Judith

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main killer diseases of children all manifest as acute febrile illness, yet are curable with timely and adequate management. To avoid a fatal outcome, three essential steps must be completed: caretakers must recognize illness, decide to seek care and reach an appropriate source of care, and then receive appropriate treatment. In a fatal outcome some or all of these steps have failed and it remains to be elucidated to what extent these fatal outcomes are caused by local disease perceptions, inappropriate care-seeking or inadequate resources in the family or health system. This study explores caretakers' experiences of care-seeking for childhood febrile illness with fatal outcome in rural Uganda to elucidate the most influential barriers to adequate care. Methods A mixed methods approach using structured Verbal/Social autopsy interviews and in-depth interviews was employed with 26 caretakers living in Iganga/Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site who had lost a child 1–59 months old due to acute febrile illness between March and June 2006. In-depth interviews were analysed using content analysis with deductive category application. Results Final categories of barriers to care were: 1 "Illness interpretation barriers" involving children who received delayed or inappropriate care due to caretakers' labelling of the illness, 2 "Barriers to seeking care" with gender roles and household financial constraints hindering adequate care and 3 "Barriers to receiving adequate treatment" revealing discontents with providers and possible deficiencies in quality of care. Resource constraints were identified as the underlying theme for adequate management, both at individual and at health system levels. Conclusion The management of severely ill children in this rural setting has several shortcomings. However, the majority of children were seen by an allopathic health care provider during the final illness. Improvements of basic health care

  20. Genetic-linked Inattentiveness Protects Individuals from Internet Overuse: A Genetic Study of Internet Overuse Evaluating Hypotheses Based on Addiction, Inattention, Novelty-seeking and Harm-avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The all-pervasive Internet has created serious problems, such as Internet overuse, which has triggered considerable debate over its relationship with addiction. To further explore its genetic susceptibilities and alternative explanations for Internet overuse, we proposed and evaluated four hypotheses, each based on existing knowledge of the biological bases of addiction, inattention, novelty-seeking, and harm-avoidance. Four genetic loci including DRD4 VNTR, DRD2 Taq1A, COMT Val158Met and 5-HTTLPR length polymorphisms were screened from seventy-three individuals. Our results showed that the DRD4 4R/4R individuals scored significantly higher than the 2R or 7R carriers in Internet Addiction Test (IAT. The 5-HTTLPR short/short males scored significantly higher in IAT than the long variant carriers. Bayesian analysis showed the most compatible hypothesis with the observed genetic results was based on attention (69.8%, whereas hypotheses based harm-avoidance (21.6%, novelty-seeking (7.8% and addiction (0.9% received little support. Our study suggests that carriers of alleles (DRD4 2R and 7R, 5-HTTLPR long associated with inattentiveness are more likely to experience disrupted patterns and reduced durations of Internet use, protecting them from Internet overuse. Furthermore, our study suggests that Internet overuse should be categorized differently from addiction due to the lack of shared genetic contributions.

  1. PRISM: a planned risk information seeking model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlor, LeeAnn

    2010-06-01

    Recent attention on health-related information seeking has focused primarily on information seeking within specific health and health risk contexts. This study attempts to shift some of that focus to individual-level variables that may impact health risk information seeking across contexts. To locate these variables, the researcher posits an integrated model, the Planned Risk Information Seeking Model (PRISM). The model, which treats risk information seeking as a deliberate (planned) behavior, maps variables found in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) and the Risk Information Seeking and Processing Model (RISP; Griffin, Dunwoody, & Neuwirth, 1999), and posits linkages among those variables. This effort is further informed by Kahlor's (2007) Augmented RISP, the Theory of Motivated Information Management (Afifi & Weiner, 2004), the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (Johnson & Meischke, 1993), the Health Information Acquisition Model (Freimuth, Stein, & Kean, 1989), and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (Witte, 1998). The resulting integrated model accounted for 59% of the variance in health risk information-seeking intent and performed better than the TPB or the RISP alone.

  2. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  3. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Nikolai D.; Blaunshtein, Natan Sh.; Erukhimov, Lev M.; Ivanov, Vladimir A.; Uriadov, Valerii P.

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations.

  4. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction (ED) and treatment seeking for ED in Asian Men: the Asian Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui-Meng; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Sugita, Minoru; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Marumo, Ken; Lee, Sung Won; Fisher, William; Sand, Michael

    2007-11-01

    There have been limited multiregional studies in Asia examining the parameters of men's general and sexual health and quality of life in the general population vs. those in clinical cohorts of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The aims of the Asian Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (Asian MALES) study were to investigate the prevalence of ED, associated health conditions, and ED treatment-seeking patterns in the general male population in five regions of Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan). Standardized questionnaire previously used in a similar multiregional study and modified to ensure culturally appropriate content for Asia. Phase I of the study involved 10,934 adult men, aged 20-75 years, who were interviewed using the standardized questionnaire. Phase II of the study involved men with self-reported ED recruited from Phase I and via physician referral, invitations in general practitioner offices, and street interception (total Phase II sample, N = 1,209). The overall prevalence of self-reported ED in the Phase I study population was 6.4%. ED prevalence varied by region and significantly increased with age (P influencer of treatment seeking in all regions except Malaysia. The findings confirm those of existing research on ED in both Asian and non-Asian males: ED is a prevalent condition; the prevalence of ED increases with age and is strongly associated with comorbid conditions; and the majority of men have never sought treatment for their condition. This study highlights a substantial need for the evaluation and treatment of ED in Asian men.

  6. Study Describes Research Scientists’ Information Seeking Behaviour, but Methodological Issues Make Usefulness as Evidence Debatable. A Review of: Hemminger, B.M., Lu, D., Vaughan, K.T.L., & Adams, S. J. (2007. Information seeking behavior of academic scientists. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(14, 2205‐2225.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the transition to electronic communication in information‐seeking behaviour of academic scientists.Design – Census survey.Setting – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a large public research university.Subjects – Nine hundred two faculty, research staff, and graduate students involved in research in basic or medical science departments. Participants self‐selected (26% from 3523 recruited. The sample reflected the larger population in terms of gender, age, university position, and department.Methods – The authors developed a web‐based survey and delivered it via PHP Survey Tool. They developed the questions to parallel similar earlier studies to allow for comparative analysis. The survey included 28 main questions with some questions including further follow‐up questions depending on the initial answer. The instrument included three initial questions designed to reveal the participant’s place and role in the university, and further coding classified participants’ department as either basic or medical science. The questions included categorical, continuous, and open‐ended types. While most questions focused on the scientists’ information seeking behaviour, the three final open‐ended questions asked about their opinions of the library and ideal searching environment. Answers were transferred into a MySQL database, then imported into SAS to generate simple descriptive statistics.Main Results – Participants reported easy access to online resources, and a strong preference for conducting research online, even when access to a physical library is convenient. Infrequent visits to the library predominantly took place to utilize materials not available online, although the third most common answer for visiting was to take advantage of the library building as a quiet reading space (14%. Additional questions revealed both type and specifics of most popular sources for research, preferred

  7. Pre-vaccination care-seeking in females reporting severe adverse reactions to HPV vaccine. A registry based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Hansen, Niels Dalum; Valentiner-Branth, Palle

    2016-01-01

    to the DMA of suspected severe adverse reactions.We selected controls without reports of adverse reactions from the Danish vaccination registry and matched by year of vaccination, age of vaccination, and municipality, and obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and The National Health Insurance...... Service Register the history of health care usage two years prior to the first vaccine. We analysed the data by logistic regression while adjusting for the matching variables. Results The study included 316 cases who received first HPV vaccine between 2006 and 2014. Age range of cases was 11 to 52 years...... vaccination programme has declined. The aim of the present study was to determine health care-seeking prior to the first HPV vaccination among females who suspected adverse reactions to HPV vaccine. Methods In this registry-based case-control study, we included as cases vaccinated females with reports...

  8. Frontal lobe activation mediates the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hani D; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-10-01

    Low sensation seekers are theorized to avoid risk more often because risk is emotionally more costly for them (in comparison to high sensation seekers). Therefore, individual differences in sensation seeking should predict differences in risk task-induced cortisol changes. Furthermore, the neural mediation that accounts for the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol changes has not been studied. The current study tested whether individual differences in sensation seeking predicted cortisol changes in relation to a risk task and whether this relation was mediated by frontal lobe activation. Participants (N=17) who varied in sensation seeking completed an fMRI study in which they rated the likelihood they would take various risks. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples collected prior to and after the fMRI procedure. The findings show that low sensation seekers showed the greatest rise in cortisol after the risk procedure, and this relation was partially mediated by increased orbitofrontal cortex activity.

  9. A STUDY OF HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOR, HEALTH CARE SPENDING AND AWARENESS AMONG CASES OF MALARIA LIKE ILLNESS IN A TRIBAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodatt M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribal malaria is a cause of high morbidity in India. Lack of affordable and accessible health care leads to out of pocket expenditure on malaria which is easily treatable under the NVBDCP. Lack of knowledge about causation and preventive measures about malaria predisposes to high incidence among Tribal. OBJECTIVES: 1 To study the prevalence of malaria like illness in the population 2 To study the health seeking behavior of the respondents 3 Study the health care spending on malaria like illness 4 Awareness among cases about malaria causation, prevention and control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out during the month of September 2009 in three villages which fell under the Rural Health training center of a tertiary care medical .A Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from only those who had suffered from Malaria like illness with investigator visiting each household to enquire about malaria like illness in past 3 months. All the respondents who gave a positive history were included in the study. RESULTS: The study findings include (11% of people suffered Malaria like illness, 80% of patients took treatment other than sub center and PHC, mean cost of spending per visit was 62 rs, 62% had no knowledge of malaria causation while 52% used cow dung smoke to drive out the mosquitoes. CONCLUSION: Health seeking behavior of tribal people in malaria like illness is inclined more towards the Private physicians and faith healers. Out of pocket expenditure was high on diseases which can be treated free of cost under government sponsored programme. There was a general lack of knowledge about modes of transmission of malaria and methods of mosquito control. Inadequate active surveillance by the health worker was noted.

  10. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  11. Sintomas psicóticos e cognitivos associados à busca de tratamento por dependentes de substâncias: um estudo qualitativo Psychotic and cognitive symptoms associated to treatment seeking behavior: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2010-01-01

    psychopathological disorders and how they can be related to treatment seeking behavior, as described by the patients themselves. METHOD: Qualitative study conducted on an intentional sample of 13 substance dependents seeking for formal treatment; in-depth semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: The participants spontaneously reported: shape, course and content thought disturbances and sense of reality, sensory perception disorders, and attention, memory and language deficits. The sample's participants seemed to relate these disorders to the treatment seeking motivations. The data were interpreted considering the interviewees' psycho-cultural context their clinical presentations (dependence or withdrawal syndromes and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research contribute to improve current models of substance dependents' treatment seeking behavior. The clinical investigation of psychopathologic disorders seem to motivate patients to specific treatments of dysfunctional use of substances.

  12. Determinants of delayed care seeking for TB suggestive symptoms in Seru district, Oromiya region, Ethiopia: a community based unmatched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirgu, Robel; Lemessa, Firaol; Hirpa, Selamawit; Alemayehu, Abraham; Klinkenberg, Eveline

    2017-04-20

    Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order to provide insights into the magnitude and determinants of patient delay. The study was conducted in rural Seru district, employing a population based unmatched case-control study design. The WHO standardized TB screening tool was used to identify presumptive TB cases among the district population ages > 15 years. Presumptive TB cases who sought care in a health facility more than 14 days after the onset of symptoms were considered cases while those who sought care within the first 14 days were classified as controls. A structured interview questionnaire was used to capture socio demographic characteristics and health care service utilization related data from the study participants. A multiple binary logistic regression model was used to identify any factor associated with patient care seeking delay. A total of 9,782 individuals were screened, of which 980 (10%, 95% CI; 9.4-10.5%) presumptive TB cases were identified. From these cases 358 (76%, 95% CI; 75.6%-76.4%) sought care within the first 14 days of the onset of symptoms with a median patient delay of 15 days, IQR (5-30 days). The most common TB suggestive symptom mentioned by the participants was night sweat 754 (76.4%) while the least common was a history of contact with a confirmed TB case in the past one year 207 (21.1%). Individuals in the 45-54 age range had lower odds of delay (AOR 0.31, 95%CI 0.15, 0.61) as compared to those 15-24 years old. First TB treatment episode (AOR16.2, 95% CI 9.94, 26.26) and limited access to either traditional or modern modes of transportation (AOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.25, 5.49) were independently associated with patient care delay. Increasing community awareness about the risks of delayed care seeking and the importance of accessing health services close to the community can

  13. Meaning, Resilience, and Traumatic Stress After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Study of Mississippi Coastal Residents Seeking Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiena, Bethany J; Buchanan, Erin M; Smith, C Veronica; Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    The present study examines the relationship between resilience, perceived meaning in life, and traumatic stress symptoms among coastal residents of Mississippi directly affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also known as the Gulf oil spill). The study was conducted as part of a larger project that assessed the spill's effect on the mental health of individuals seeking therapeutic services. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine if resilience and perceived meaning are significant predictors of scores from a measure of posttraumatic stress. Descriptive data, reliability coefficients, and correlations were also calculated. Higher levels of resilience and meaning together were predictive of fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms after controlling for the effect of the spill. Resilience and meaning appeared to be similar predictors of lower posttraumatic stress scores, and meaning appears to be an important facet of what makes a person resilient.

  14. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  15. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M; Badour, Christal L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2016-09-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking.

  16. Strategies to uncover undiagnosed HIV infection among heterosexuals at high risk and link them to HIV care with high retention: a "seek, test, treat, and retain" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M; Hagan, Holly; Jenness, Samuel; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Applegate, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Amanda S; Banfield, Angela; Belkin, Mindy; Cross, Bridget; Del Olmo, Montserrat; Ha, Katharine; Martinez, Belkis Y; McCright-Gill, Talaya; Swain, Quentin L; Perlman, David C; Kurth, Ann E

    2015-05-10

    Over 50,000 individuals become infected with HIV annually in the U.S., and over a quarter of HIV infected individuals are heterosexuals. Undiagnosed HIV infection, as well as a lack of retention in care among those diagnosed, are both primary factors contributing to ongoing HIV incidence. Further, there are racial/ethnic disparities in undiagnosed HIV and engagement in care, with African Americans/Blacks and Latinos remaining undiagnosed longer and less engaged in care than Whites, signaling the need for culturally targeted intervention approaches to seek and test those with undiagnosed HIV infection, and link them to care with high retention. The study has two components: one to seek out and test heterosexuals at high risk for HIV infection, and another to link those found infected to HIV care with high retention. We will recruit sexually active African American/Black and Latino adults who have opposite sex partners, negative or unknown HIV status, and reside in locations with high poverty and HIV prevalence. The "Seek and Test" component will compare the efficacy and cost effectiveness of two strategies to uncover undiagnosed HIV infection: venue-based sampling and respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Among those recruited by RDS and found to have HIV infection, a "Treat and Retain" component will assess the efficacy of a peer-driven intervention compared to a control arm with respect to time to an HIV care appointment and health indicators using a cluster randomized controlled trial design to minimize contamination. RDS initial seeds will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control arm at a 1:1 ratio and all recruits will be assigned to the same arm as the recruiter. Participants will be followed for 12 months with outcomes assessed using medical records and biomarkers, such as HIV viral load. Heterosexuals do not test for HIV as frequently as and are diagnosed later than other risk groups. The study has the potential to contribute an efficient, innovative

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Appropriate Health Seeking Behaviour among Known Diabetics: Results from a Community-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sheleaswani Inche Zainal Abidin; Rosnah Sutan; Khadijah Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Living with diabetes requires patients to have good self-monitoring of their disease and treatment. Appropriate health seeking behavior is important to minimize complications and improve quality of life. Methodology. A community-based, cross-sectional study of disease events and experiences from diagnosis to the time of study was conducted among 460 known diabetics in Tanjong Karang district. The aim of this study was to describe the current pattern of health seeking behavior an...

  18. Health-Care-Seeking Patterns in the Emerging Private Sector in Burkina Faso: A Population-Based Study of Urban Adult Residents in Ouagadougou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beogo, Idrissa; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, people’s health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. Method We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. Results Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP) providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04–1.28), and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07–1.39). Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP) provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. Conclusion The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in

  19. A Review of the Studies on Health Information Seeking Behavior Overseas%国外健康信息搜寻行为研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月琳; 蔡文娟

    2012-01-01

    从用户年龄、种族、居住区域等研究视角综述近年来国外健康信息搜寻行为(health information seeking behavior,HISB)研究的主题、主要发现、研究方法等。结果表明,HISB研究的主题包括:搜寻的动机、目的;影响搜寻行为的因素;搜寻的途径、内容和手段;与HISB相关的方面,如网站信息质量、可信度、对健康实践的影响等。HISB研究多采用问卷调查和结构性访谈等研究方法,其中定量数据分析是主要的数据分析方法。最后,分析国外HISB研究对国内研究的启示。%This paper reviews related studies on HISB published in recent years. It categorizes the studies into age-ibcused ( e. g. seniors, adults, and teenagers) , race-focused, and habitant-focused to survey their topics, methodology, and findings. The review indicates that the main topics on HISB research include the motivations and goals of health information, influential factors of HISB, approaches to seeking health inibrmation, and issues related to HISB, such as the development of health information Websites, infor- mation quality, and credibility. Conducting surveys and structured interviews are popular research methods used in HISB research, and quantitative data analysis is the main approach to data analysis. The implications of these studies to HISB in China are also discussed.

  20. Rent seeking and the economics of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Aidt, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of Gordon Tullock (1967) and the rent-seeking literature more generally on the study of corruption. The theoretical corruption literature with its emphasis on principal-agent relationships within government and rent creation by corruption politicians has largely, but not entirely, overlooked that contestable rents encourage unproductive use of real resources in seeking these rents. As a consequence, the literature underestimates the value of corruption control ...

  1. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  2. When Ideals Get in the Way of Self-Care: Perfectionism and Self-Stigma for Seeking Psychological Help among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeifman, Richard J.; Atkey, Sarah K.; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated whether adolescents high in perfectionism are prone to experiencing self-stigma for seeking psychological help. This work is based on the premise that the need to seek help for psychological difficulties is not consistent with idealistic personal goals of perfectionistic young people and their desire to retain…

  3. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  4. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  5. Associations between confidentiality requirements, support seeking and burnout among university hospital physicians in Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Italy (the HOUPE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvseth, Lise Tevik; Fridner, Ann; Jónsdóttir, Lilja Sigrun; Marini, Massimo; Linaker, Olav Morten

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about protecting patient's privacy are experienced as a limitation in the opportunity to obtain and utilize social support by many physicians. As resources of social support can modify the process of burnout, patient confidentiality may increase risk of this syndrome by interfering with proper stress adaptation. This study investigates if experiencing limitations in seeking social support due to confidentiality concerns are associated with burnout. University hospital physicians in four European countries completed measures of burnout, (Index) of Confidentiality as a Barrier for Support (ICBS), and factors of social resources and job demands. Linear regression analysis showed that ICBS was significantly associated with the burnout dimension of Exhaustion and not with Disengagement. These findings were present when controlling for factors known to diminish or increase the likelihood of burnout. These results are the first to demonstrate that patient confidentiality is associated with burnout in the process of stress management among physicians.

  6. Social Support, Trust in Health Information, and Health Information-Seeking Behaviors (HISBs): A Study Using the 2012 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Chen, Yixin; Wendorf Muhamad, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict health information-seeking behaviors (HISBs) from three different sources (family, the Internet, doctors). To test the model, a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) (N = 3,285). Findings suggest higher social support from family predicts higher trust in health information from family members (abbreviated as trust in this article). Trust is positively related to HISBs from all three sources, with the path linking trust to HISB from family being the strongest. The effect of social support on HISB from family is partially mediated by trust, while effect of social support on HISBs from the Internet/doctors is fully mediated by trust. Implications of the study are discussed.

  7. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  8. The Information Seeking Behaviour of Distance Learners: A Case Study of the University of London International Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Tury, S.; Robinson, L; Bawden, D.

    2015-01-01

    An examination of the information behaviour of distance learning students is described, based on a case study of the International Programmes of the University of London. A comprehensive literature analysis, and comparison of relevant information behaviour models were carried out, supported by a survey of student behaviour. Following a pilot study, the main survey gained responses from 649 students, in 81 countries and following diverse study programmes. A variety of inter-related factors wer...

  9. An anlaysis of engineers information seeking activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Information seeking is an important part of the engineering design process. In this context the Internet has become a significant source of information, shaping the way engineers work and interact. Current work has focused on characterizing this activity in terms of total time allocated to differ...... complete, the visual network analysis is used to explore patterns of information seeking and other design activity. Based on the results, three clearly differentiated types of information seeking activity are identified and discussed.......Information seeking is an important part of the engineering design process. In this context the Internet has become a significant source of information, shaping the way engineers work and interact. Current work has focused on characterizing this activity in terms of total time allocated...... to different information sources or overall tasks, such as evaluating. However, these approaches do not give an understanding of how engineers information seeking affects their problem solving activity and ultimately their performance in the context of the design process. As such, a new approach is needed...

  10. What role do traditional beliefs play in treatment seeking and delay for Buruli ulcer disease?--insights from a mixed methods study in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Victims of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD frequently report to specialized units at a late stage of the disease. This delay has been associated with local beliefs and a preference for traditional healing linked to a reportedly mystical origin of the disease. We assessed the role beliefs play in determining BUD sufferers' choice between traditional and biomedical treatments. METHODS: Anthropological fieldwork was conducted in community and clinical settings in the region of Ayos and Akonolinga in Central Cameroon. The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, triangulating a qualitative strand based on ethnographic research and quantitative data obtained through a survey presented to all patients at the Ayos and Akonolinga hospitals (N = 79 at the time of study and in four endemic communities (N = 73 belonging to the hospitals' catchment area. RESULTS: The analysis of BUD sufferers' health-seeking behaviour showed extremely complex therapeutic itineraries, including various attempts and failures both in the biomedical and traditional fields. Contrary to expectations, nearly half of all hospital patients attributed their illness to mystical causes, while traditional healers admitted patients they perceived to be infected by natural causes. Moreover, both patients in hospitals and in communities often combined elements of both types of treatments. Ultimately, perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the treatment, the option for local treatment as a cost prevention strategy and the characteristics of the doctor-patient relationship were more determinant for treatment choice than beliefs. DISCUSSION: The ascription of delay and treatment choice to beliefs constitutes an over-simplification of BUD health-seeking behaviour and places the responsibility directly on the shoulders of BUD sufferers while potentially neglecting other structural elements. While more efficacious treatment in the biomedical sector is likely to

  11. Diagnosing cancer in the bush: a mixed-methods study of symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in people with cancer from rural Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Jon D; Walter, Fiona M; Gray, Vicky; Sinclair, Craig; Howting, Denise; Bulsara, Max; Bulsara, Caroline; Webster, Andrew; Auret, Kirsten; Saunders, Christobel; Nowak, Anna; Holman, C D'Arcy

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the treatment received by rural cancer patients and have not examined their diagnostic pathways as reasons for poorer outcomes in rural Australia. To compare and explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in patients with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural Western Australia (WA). A mixed-methods study of people recently diagnosed with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural WA. The time from first symptom to diagnosis (i.e. total diagnostic interval, TDI) was calculated from interviews and medical records. Sixty-six participants were recruited (24 breast, 20 colorectal, 14 prostate and 8 lung cancer patients). There was a highly significant difference in time from symptom onset to seeking help between cancers (P = 0.006). Geometric mean symptom appraisal for colorectal cancer was significantly longer than that for breast and lung cancers [geometric mean differences: 2.58 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.64-4.53), P = 0.01; 3.97 (1.63-6.30), P = 0.001, respectively]. There was a significant overall difference in arithmetic mean TDI (P = 0.046); breast cancer TDI was significantly shorter than colorectal or prostate cancer TDI [mean difference : 266.3 days (95% CI: 45.9-486.8), P = 0.019; 277.0 days, (32.1-521.9), P = 0.027, respectively]. These differences were explained by the nature and personal interpretation of symptoms, perceived as well as real problems of access to health care, optimism, stoicism, machismo, fear, embarrassment and competing demands. Longer symptom appraisal was observed for colorectal cancer. Participants defined core characteristics of rural Australians as optimism, stoicism and machismo. These features, as well as access to health care, contribute to later presentation of cancer.

  12. Local barriers and solutions to improve care-seeking for childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, K Juliet A; Sharkey, Alyssa B

    2014-01-01

    We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Kenya, Nigeria and Niger are three high burden countries with low rates of related treatment coverage, particularly in underserved areas. Data were collected in Homa Bay County in Nyanza Province, Kenya; in Kebbi and Cross River States, Nigeria; and in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions of Niger. Primary caregivers of children under 5 who did not regularly engage with health services or present their child at a health facility during illness episodes were purposively selected for interview. Data underwent rigorous thematic analysis. We organise the identified barriers and related solutions by theme: financial barriers; distance/location of health facilities; socio-cultural barriers and gender dynamics; knowledge and information barriers; and health facility deterrents. The relative importance of each differed by locality. Participant suggested solutions ranged from community-level actions to facility-level and more policy-oriented actions, plus actions to change underlying problems such as social perceptions and practices and gender dynamics. We discuss the feasibility and implications of these suggested solutions. Given the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger, this study provides important insights relating to demand-side barriers and locally proposed solutions. Significant advancements are possible when communities participate in both problem identification and resolution, and are engaged as important

  13. Spotlight on equality of employment opportunities: A qualitative study of job seeking experiences of graduating nurses and physiotherapists from black and minority ethnic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, John; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Davies, Nigel; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues. Although there is better national data on the scale of inequalities in the healthcare workforce, there is a gap in our understanding about the experience of job seeking, and the factors that influence disadvantage in nursing and other professions such as physiotherapy. This qualitative study seeks to fill that gap and explores the experience of student nurses (n=12) and physiotherapists (n=6) throughout their education and during the first 6-months post qualification to identify key experiences and milestones relating to successful employment particularly focusing on the perspectives from different ethnic groups. Participants were purposively sampled from one university to ensure diversity in ethnic group, age and gender. Using a phenomenological approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted at course completion and 6 months later. Two main themes were identified. The 'proactive self' ('It's up to me') theme included perceptions of employment success being due to student proactivity and resilience; qualities valued by employers. The second theme described the need to 'fit in' with organisational culture. Graduates described accommodating strategies where they modified aspects of their identity (clothing, cultural markers) to fit in. At one extreme, rather than fitting in, participants from minority ethnic backgrounds avoided applying to certain hospitals due to perceptions of discriminatory cultures, 'I wouldn

  14. Prevalence, continuation, and identification of postpartum depressive symptomatology among refugee, asylum-seeking, non-refugee immigrant, and Canadian-born women: results from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Merry, Lisa; Stewart, Donna; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, continuation, and identification of maternal depressive symptomatology over the first 16 weeks postpartum among refugee, asylum-seeking, non-refugee immigrant, and Canadian-born women. A sample of 1125 women (143 refugees, 369 asylum-seekers, 303 non-refugee immigrant, and 310 Canadian-born) completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 1 and 16 weeks postpartum. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the 1-week EPDS to identify women with elevated EPDS scores at 16 weeks were determined. The total number of women with EPDS scores >9 for each group at 1 and 16 weeks, respectively, was 26.6 and 18.2 % for refugees; 25.2 and 24.1 % for asylum-seekers; 22.4 and 14.2 % for non-refugee immigrants, and 14.8 and 7.4 % for Canadian-born. Using the cut-off score of 9/10, the 1-week EPDS accurately classified 77.6 % refugee, 73.4 % asylum-seeking, 76.6 % non-refugee immigrant, and 85.5 % Canadian-born women at 16 weeks with or without postpartum depressive symptomatology. The 1-week EPDS was significantly correlated to the 16-week EPDS (r = 0.46, p 9 at 1 week postpartum: refugees (OR = 6.9, 95 % CI = 2.8-17.3), asylum-seekers (OR = 4.0, 95 % CI = 2.4-6.7), non-refugee immigrants (OR = 3.8, 95 % CI = 2.0-7.6), and Canadian-born women (OR = 8.0, 95 % CI = 3.3-19.8). Our findings suggest that refugee, asylum-seeking, non-refugee immigrant, and Canadian-born women at risk of postpartum depression may be identified early in the postpartum period such that secondary preventive interventions may be implemented.

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; van de Glind, Geurt; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Allsop, Steve; Auriacombe, Marc; Barta, Csaba; Bu, Eli Torild H.; Burren, Yuliya; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Carruthers, Susan; Casas, Miguel; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Dom, Geert; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fatseas, Melina; Franck, Johan; Johnson, Brian; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Kaye, Sharlene; Konstenius, Maija; Levin, Frances R.; Moggi, Franz; Møller, Merete; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Schillinger, Arild; Skutle, Arvid; Verspreet, Sofie; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine comorbidity patterns in treatment-seeking substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with an emphasis on subgroups defined by ADHD subtype, taking into account differences related to gender and primary substance of abuse. Design Data were obtained from the cross-sectional International ADHD in Substance use disorder Prevalence (IASP) study. Setting Forty-seven centres of SUD treatment in 10 countries. Participants A total of 1205 treatment-seeking SUD patients. Measurements Structured diagnostic assessments were used for all disorders: presence of ADHD was assessed with the Conners’ Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), the presence of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), major depression (MD) and (hypo)manic episode (HME) was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI Plus), and the presence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID II). Findings The prevalence of DSM-IV adult ADHD in this SUD sample was 13.9%. ASPD [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8–4.2], BPD (OR = 7.0, 95% CI = 3.1–15.6 for alcohol; OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.8–6.4 for drugs), MD in patients with alcohol as primary substance of abuse (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1–7.8) and HME (OR = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.1–8.7) were all more prevalent in ADHD+ compared with ADHD− patients (P ADHD subtypes with increased MD in the inattentive and combined subtype (P ADHD. Seventy-five per cent of ADHD patients had at least one additional comorbid disorder compared with 37% of SUD patients without ADHD. Conclusions Treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are at a very high risk for additional externalizing disorders. PMID:24118292

  16. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. Objective To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia. Clusters were census supervisory areas (CSAs). Participants (presumptive TB cases) were individuals aged 15 years and above; having either cough, fever or chest pain for 2 weeks or more; and/or having an abnormal or inconclusive chest x-ray image. All survey participants were interviewed about symptoms and had a chest X-ray taken. An in-depth interview was conducted to collect information on health seeking behaviour and previous TB treatment. Results Of the 6,708 participants, the majority reported at least a history of chest pain (3,426; 51.1%) followed by cough (2,405; 35.9%), and fever (1,030; 15.4%) for two weeks or more. Only 34.9% (2,340) had sought care for their symptoms, mainly (92%) at government health facilities. Of those who sought care, 13.9% (326) and 12.1% (283) had chest x-ray and sputum examinations, respectively. Those ever treated for TB were 9.6% (644); while 1.7% (114) was currently on treatment. The average time (in weeks) from onset of symptoms to first care-seeking was 3 for the presumptive TB cases. Males, urban dwellers and individuals in the highest wealth quintile were less likely to seek care for their symptoms. The likelihood of having ever been treated for TB was highest among males, urban dwellers; respondents aged 35–64 years, individuals in the highest wealth quintile, or HIV positive. Conclusion Some presumptive TB patients delay care-seeking for their symptoms. The health system misses opportunities to diagnose TB among those who seek care. Improving

  17. Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: Factor Structure and Socio-Demographic Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: "Openness to seeking professional help," "Value in seeking professional help," and "Preference to cope on one's own." Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  18. Attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help: Factor structure and socio-demographic predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa ePicco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  19. Seeking Help for Psychological Distress in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…

  20. Seeking Help for Psychological Distress in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…

  1. Simulation studies of direct-current microdischarges for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Thomas Dominique

    The structure of direct-current microdischarges is investigated using a detailed two-dimensional multi-species continuum model. Microdischarges are direct-current discharges that operate at a relatively high pressure of about 100 Torr and geometric dimensions in the 10-100 micrometer range. Our motivation for the study of microdischarges comes from a potential application of these devices in microthrusters for small satellite propulsion. The Micro Plasma Thruster (MPT) concept consists of a direct-current microdischarge in a geometry comprising a constant area flow section followed by a diverging exit nozzle. A detailed description of the plasma dynamics inside the MPT including power deposition, ionization, coupling of the plasma phenomena with high-speed flow, and propulsion system performance is reported in this study. A two-dimensional model is developed as part of this study. The model consists of a plasma module coupled to a flow module and is solved on a hybrid unstructured mesh framework. The plasma module provides a self-consistent, multi-species, multi-temperature description of the microdischarge phenomena while the flow module provides a description of the low Reynolds number compressible flow through the system. The plasma module solves conservation equations for plasma species continuity and electron energy, and Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field. The flow module solves mass, bulk gas momentum and energy equations. The coupling of energy from the electrostatic field to the plasma species is modeled by the Joule heating term which appears in the electron and heavy species energy equations. Discretization of the Joule heating term on unstructured meshes requires special attention. We propose a new robust method for the numerical discretization of the Joule heating term on such meshes using a cell-centered, finite volume approach. A prototypical microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is studied to guide and validate the modeling

  2. Seeking Global Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Wan Ahmad

    1994-02-01

    Ease in finding the configuration at the global energy minimum in a symmetric neural network is important for combinatorial optimization problems. We carry out a comprehensive survey of available strategies for seeking global minima by comparing their performances in the binary representation problem. We recall our previous comparison of steepest descent with analog dynamics, genetic hill-climbing, simulated diffusion, simulated annealing, threshold accepting and simulated tunneling. To this, we add comparisons to other strategies including taboo search and one with field-ordered updating.

  3. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  4. How did the TB patients reach DOTS services in Delhi? A study of patient treatment seeking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Kapoor

    Full Text Available SETTING: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP, Delhi, India. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the number and sequence of providers visited by TB patients before availing treatment services from DOTS; to describe the duration between onset of symptoms to treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional, qualitative study. Information was gathered through in-depth interviews of TB patients registered during the month of Oct, 2012 for availing TB treatment under the Revised National TB Control Programme from four tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment centers in Delhi. RESULTS: Out of the 114 patients who registered, 108 participated in the study. The study showed that informal providers and retail chemists were the first point of contact and source of clinical advice for two-third of the patients, while the rest sought medical care from qualified providers directly. Most patients sought medical care from more than two providers, before being diagnosed as TB. Female TB patients and patients with extra-pulmonary TB had long mean duration between onset of symptoms to initiation of treatment (6.3 months and 8.4 months respectively. CONCLUSION: The pathways followed by TB patients, illustrated in this study, provide valuable lessons on the importance of different types of providers (both formal and informal in the health system in a society like India and the delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis.

  5. History of childhood abuse, sensation seeking, and intimate partner violence under/not under the influence of a substance: a cross-sectional study in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihai Zhan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. METHODS: In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Of 299 women, 104 (34.8% and 113 (37.8% reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1% of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. CONCLUSIONS: IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking. Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.

  6. Children With Autism Show Reduced Information Seeking When Learning New Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicole; Hudry, Kristelle; Trembath, David; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Information-seeking behaviours occur when children look to adults in order to gain further information about a novel stimulus/situation. The current study investigated information seeking in children with developmental delays (DD) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during a simulated teaching situation. Twenty preschool-aged children with ASD and 15 children with DD were exposed to a series of videos where a teacher provided novel instructions and demonstrated novel actions. We found that children with DD, but not those with ASD, demonstrated information-seeking behaviours in response to instructions that exceeded their level of understanding. This suggests that children with DD may use information-seeking behaviours to compensate for their cognitive and language difficulties when novel actions are being taught, while the same is not true for children with ASD.

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  8. Risk Factors for Borderline Personality Disorder in Treatment Seeking Patients with a Substance Use Disorder : An International Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapp, Manuela; van de Glind, Geurt; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torlid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Kaye, Sharlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barta, Csaba; Fatseas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Levin, Frances R.; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van den Brink, Wim; Moggi, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) often co-occur, partly because they share risk factors. In this international multicenter study, risk factors for BPD were examined for SUD patients. In total, 1,205 patients were comprehensively examined by standardized interv

  9. Mediation of sensation seeking and behavioral inhibition on the longitudinal relationship between heart rate and antisocial behavior : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expec

  10. "It Just Doesn't Feel Right": A Mixed Methods Study of Help-Seeking in Irish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Louise; Treacy, Margaret P.; Sheridan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Schools are a key setting for mental health promotion and the provision of emotional support to students. As teachers and school counsellors are adults with whom adolescents have regular contact, it is likely they would be used as a help source by distressed students however there are few studies on this from an Irish context. A mixed methods…

  11. Exploratory Study of the Current Status of the Rights and Welfare of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2016 (Special Edition); 20(3): 136 ... participation politique, l'accès limité aux services de santé et les normes ... studies, instruments and protocols as well as ... stand a better chance of strategizing to improve the ... economic production and development and to seek.

  12. Dr Google and the consumer: a qualitative study exploring the navigational needs and online health information-seeking behaviors of consumers with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David; Emmerton, Lynne

    2014-12-02

    interviews, with data saturation achieved by the 14th interview. While we identified a broad range of online health information-seeking behaviors, most related to information discussed during consumer-health professional consultations such as looking for information about medication side effects. The barriers we identified included intrinsic barriers, such as limited eHealth literacy, and extrinsic barriers, such as the inconsistency of information between different online sources. The navigational needs of our participants were extrinsic in nature and included health professionals directing consumers to appropriate online resources and better filtering of online health information. Our participants' online health information-seeking behaviors, reported barriers, and navigational needs were underpinned by the themes of trust, patient activation, and relevance. This study suggests that existing interventions aimed to assist consumers with navigating online health information may not be what consumers want or perceive they need. eHealth literacy and patient activation appear to be prevalent concepts in the context of consumers' online health information-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, the role for health professionals in guiding consumers to quality online health information is highlighted.

  13. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  14. The influence of travel time on emergency obstetric care seeking behavior in the urban poor of Bangladesh: a GIS study

    OpenAIRE

    Panciera, Rocco; Khan, Akib; Rizvi, Syed Jafar Raza; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmed, Tanvir; Islam, Rubana; Adam, Alayne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Availability of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) is crucial to avert maternal death due to life-threatening complications potentially arising during delivery. Research on the determinants of utilization of EmOC has neglected urban settings, where traffic congestion can pose a significant barrier to the access of EmOC facilities, particularly for the urban poor due to costly and limited transportation options. This study investigates the impact of travel time to EmOC facilities on th...

  15. The influence of travel time on emergency obstetric care seeking behavior in the urban poor of Bangladesh: a GIS study

    OpenAIRE

    Panciera, Rocco; Khan, Akib; Rizvi, Syed Jafar Raza; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmed, Tanvir; Islam, Rubana; Adam, Alayne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Availability of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) is crucial to avert maternal death due to life-threatening complications potentially arising during delivery. Research on the determinants of utilization of EmOC has neglected urban settings, where traffic congestion can pose a significant barrier to the access of EmOC facilities, particularly for the urban poor due to costly and limited transportation options. This study investigates the impact of travel time to EmOC facilities on th...

  16. Outcome of treatment seeking rural gamblers attending a nurse-led cognitive-behaviour therapy service: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Tolchard

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that rural problem gamblers experience different levels of co-morbid anxiety and depression from their urban counterparts, but once in treatment appear to respond quicker. ACBT approach was found to be effective in treating rural gamblers and outcomes were maintained. Ensuring better availability and access to such treatment in rural areas is important. Nurses are in a position as the majority health professional in rural areas to provide such help.

  17. Protocol study: sexual and reproductive health knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi women: a questionnaire survey of university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs. PMID:24885041

  18. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  19. Ante Natal Care (ANC seeking behavior among women living in an urban squatter settlement: results from an ethnographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeena Jalal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Pakistan’s population is estimated to be 160,943,000. It ranks third among the ten high burden
    countries and accounts for up to 7% of worldwide neonatal deaths. According to the Pakistan’s World Health Oganization (WHO 2010 health profile, only 28% of Pakistani women have used ante natal care services (4 plus visits, whilst 39% of reported births in Pakistan had used skilled birth attendant services, whereas 59% fell within the WHO’s regional average. There is also a significant disparity, reported by the WHO, in terms of inequity between the poor and the rich in the use of skilled birth attendant services: 16% and 77 % respectively.

    Objective: This ethnographic study explores the perceptions about the need for antenatal care (ANC in a disadvantaged population in Pakistan.

    Method: This is an Ethnographic study which makes use of standard methods such as non-participant observation, semi structured interviews, and documentary review. Data was collected over 14 months and was analyzed thematically. Key informants assisted in understanding the community norms. Open ended answer options were used in the questionnaire.

    Setting: The community in this case was an urban squatter settlement by the name of Ghazi Goth, which is the neighborhood of the poor people.

    Results: We found that 41% of the women did not receive ANC because of lack of financial support. 33% said that family did not support the decision. In 43% of the cases, the husband was the decision maker regarding where the delivery of the baby should take place. 31% of the respondents also reported that their mother-inlaws were the decision makers for the baby’s delivery. Only 3% reported a self decision.

    Conclusions: This a qualitative study which helps explore perceptions and attitudes of women towards ANC, through contextual data. The

  20. The health seeking trajectories of Malaysian women and their husbands in delay cases of breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nasir; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ahmad, Aini

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess why women delay in getting treatment (i.e. surgery) for breast cancer, as well as to explore on what type of issues are involved in such delay cases. Basic interpretative of qualitative methodology was applied to construct the reality of delay phenomena, and its interaction with social worlds. Six themes were identified: new conception of breast cancer treatment, psychological defenses, health support system, symtomatology experience, model and barriers. The delay issue in breast cancer requires attention as a multidimensional problem as this will facilitate more comprehensive and effective intervention to reduce delay.

  1. Comparative clinical evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator over conventional local anesthesia in children seeking dental procedures: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Varadharaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of pain control by employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS over conventional injectable local anesthesia for children requiring restorative procedures under rubber dam. Materials and Methods: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA. The level of comfort and discomfort experienced during TENS and conventional LA was determined using visual analog scale (VAS and heart rate. Result: Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78% was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%. In VAS, the mean values for pain indicate that minimum pain was felt with TENS, which was closely followed by LA. Conclusion: TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

  2. Sexual information seeking on web search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed.

  3. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  4. Numerical Study on the Bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yulong; WANG Qi; SONG Jun; ZHU Xiande; GONG Xiaoqing; WU Fang

    2011-01-01

    A 1.5-layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress is used to study the bifurcations of the North Equatorial Current (NEC).The authors found that after removing the Ekman drift,the modelled circulations can serve well as a proxy of the SODA circulations on the σθ=25.0kgm-3 potential density surface based on available long-term reanalysis wind stress data.The modelled results show that the location of the western boundary bifurcation of the NEC depends on both zonal averaged and local zero wind stress curl latitude.The effects of the anomalous wind stress curl added in different areas are also investigated and it is found that they can change the strength of the Mindanao Eddy (ME),and then influence the interior pathway.

  5. Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking. A comparative study of Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Hajdarevic, Senada; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Background Recent epidemiologic data show that Denmark has considerably poorer survival from common cancers than Sweden. This may be related to a lower awareness of cancer symptoms and longer patient intervals in Denmark than in Sweden. The aims of this study were to: 1) compare population awareness of three possible symptoms of cancer (unexplained lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding and persistent cough or hoarseness); 2) compare anticipated patient interval when noticing any breast changes, rectal bleeding and persistent cough; and 3) examine whether potential differences were noticeable in particular age groups or at particular levels of education in a Danish and Swedish population sample. Method Data were derived from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure were conducted in 2011 among 3000 adults in Denmark and 3070 adults in Sweden. Results Danish respondents reported a higher awareness of two of three symptoms (i.e. unexplained lump or swelling and persistent cough or hoarseness) and a shorter anticipated patient interval for two of three symptoms studied (i.e. any breast changes and rectal bleeding) than Swedish respondents. Differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval between these countries were most pronounced in highly educated respondents. Conclusion Somewhat paradoxically, the highest awareness of symptoms of cancer and the shortest anticipated patient intervals were found in Denmark, where cancer survival is lower than in Sweden. Thus, it appears that these differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval do not help explain the cancer survival disparity between Denmark and Sweden.

  6. The Danish Symptom Cohort: Questionnaire and Feasibility in the Nationwide Study on Symptom Experience and Healthcare-Seeking among 100 000 Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Rasmussen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In order to develop strategies to prevent delay in diagnosis, it is important to gain knowledge of symptoms and healthcare-seeking processes in the population. This paper describes a combined survey and register-based study with (1 focus on development of a questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences and (2 feasibility of the study. Methods. The study is a nationwide cohort study of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish general population. A comprehensive questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences was developed. The methodological framework for the development included defining the domains to be measured, identification of previous items, scales and questionnaires in the literature, and pilot and field testing. Results. A total of five domains and 16 subdomains were defined covering the area of symptom experience, symptom characteristics, reaction in response to symptom experience, external factors, and personality characteristics with potential influence on the symptom experience. In total, 49 706 questionnaires were completed, yielding a response rate of 52.2%. Conclusion. We developed a comprehensive questionnaire used in a large combined survey and register-based study concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences of symptom experiences. We succeeded in conducting a large survey providing the groundwork for The Danish Symptom Cohort.

  7. A cross-sectional study to assess disability and its correlates among treatment seeking individuals with alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Alcohol use is a major risk factor for global disease burden, and excessive use leads to disability in the individual. This study aimed to assess the disability and its correlates among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. In addition, it assessed the quality of life measures in this population group. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on a sample (N = 62 from among treatment seekers for alcohol dependence. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 criteria were used to assess disorder severity. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0 and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF were used to assess disability and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were used for comparative assessments. The level of statistical significance was kept at P < 0.05 for all the tests. Results: DSM-5 diagnosis of the individuals suggested a high severity of substance use disorder as an average of 8.8 (±1.8 criteria were fulfilled. WHODAS 2.0 revealed maximum disability in the domains of “participation in the society,” “household and work-related activities” and “cognitive functioning.” The quality of life measures indicate poor physical health, reduced work capacity, and cognitive dysfunction. A negative correlation was seen between the social dimensions of disability (getting along and quality of life measures of psychological health (P = 0.026 and social relationships (P = 0.046, work domain of disability schedule and physical health score on quality of life evaluation (P = 0.001. Older age had greater impairment in the work domain (P = 0.040, and unemployment was associated with higher disability (P = 0.001. Unemployment and duration of alcohol use were the independent predictors of greater disability. Conclusions: Disability assessment using WHODAS 2.0 shows significant impairment in individuals with AUDs that is

  8. A cross-sectional study of acute diarrhea in Pudong, Shanghai, China: prevalence, risk factors, and healthcare-seeking practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J-X; Zhu, W-P; Ye, C-C; Xue, C-Y; Lai, S-J; Zhang, H-L; Zhang, Z-K; Geng, Q-B; Yang, W-Z; Sun, Q; Li, Z-J

    2017-10-01

    Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3-4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4-29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.

  9. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Bailey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  10. A Pilot Study of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) in Non-Treatment Seeking Smokers with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L.; Hendricks, Peter S.; Jardin, Bianca; Clark, C. Brendan; Katiyar, Nandan; Willig, James; Mugavero, Michael; Raper, James L.; Saag, Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction PLHIV have higher rates of smoking and lower motivation to quit smoking; thus to impact smoking rates, cessation interventions need to be acceptable to a wider range of PLHIV smokers as well as feasible to implement in a busy clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and effects of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) model in an HIV/AIDS clinic among a sample of PLHIV. Methods PLHIV smokers (N = 40) were randomized at baseline, irrespective of their self-reported discrete smoking cessation motivation status, to receive either 8-weeks of combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in conjunction with brief counseling (SBIRT framework) (n = 23) or usual care (n = 17). Smoking outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms. Results The SBIRT intervention appeared to be acceptable and feasible, and produced medium to large reductions in cigarettes smoked per day, physical nicotine dependence, smoking urge, and smoking withdrawal symptoms, even for smokers not ready to quit within 6 months. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for the integration of an SBIRT model in an HIV/AIDS clinic setting to screen and provide active treatment to all smokers, regardless of readiness to quit smoking. Given the high prevalence and incredible health burden of continued smoking in this population, identifying brief and effective interventions that are easily translated into clinical practice represents an enormous challenge that if met, will yield significant improvements to overall patient outcomes. PMID:23787030

  11. Factors associated with mobile health information seeking among Singaporean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Chiuan Yen, Ching; Xue, Lishan; Choo Tai, Bee; Chuan Chan, Hock; Been-Lirn Duh, Henry; Choolani, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    This study examined effects of age and social psychological factors on women's willingness to be mobile health information seekers. A national survey of 1,878 Singaporean women was conducted to obtain information on women's mobile phone usage, experiences of health information seeking, and appraisals of using mobile phones to seek health information. Results showed that young, middle-aged, and older women exhibited distinct mobile phone usage behaviors, health information-seeking patterns, and assessments of mobile health information seeking. Factors that accounted for their mobile information-seeking intention also varied. Data reported in this study provide insights into mobile health interventions in the future.

  12. Apps seeking theories: results of a study on the use of health behavior change theories in cancer survivorship mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-03-27

    Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen's kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (Papps, 77.4 (Papps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these apps and games continue to evolve and include interactive and adaptive sensors and other forms of dynamic feedback, their content and interventional elements need to be grounded in human computer interface design and health

  13. Elderly care recipients’ perceptions of treatment helpfulness for depression and the relationship with help-seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Joanna; Naismith, Sharon L; Luscombe, Georgina M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past). Results From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. Conclusion Beliefs in the helpfulness of certain treatments were related to the use of both professional and informal sources of help, indicating the possibility that campaigns or educational programs aimed at changing beliefs about treatments

  14. A descriptive study of clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters of inhalant users seeking treatment at a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Quraishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhalant (or solvent abuse is the purposeful inhalation of vapors or gases, intended to produce pleasurable psychoactive effects. There is a dearth of Indian studies on inhalant users. Aim: The present study aimed to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of inhalant users visiting a Tertiary Care Center in North India. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective chart review for 50 inhalant users who sought treatment for the first time from the center over a period of 2 years. All patients seeking treatment for inhalant use at the center were evaluated by a psychiatrist. Results: Mean age of the sample was 17.16±4.09 years and majority comprised of children and adolescents (72.2%. There were only three girls (6%. Majority comprised of school drop-outs (82%, from lower socio-economic status (80%. Mean age of initiation of first substance was 14.13±4.27 years and inhalants were first drugs for 38%. Duration of inhalant use ranged between 1 month and 7.5 years. Use was mostly uninterrupted, and 88% were dependent users. Correction fluid was the commonest product, used by huffing or sniffing. A large majority (86% had used at least one other substance besides inhalants, and 8% reported involvement in high-risk sexual behaviors. Comorbid psychiatric disorder was seen in 8% of sample. Positive family history was observed in 30% of the sample. The mean hemoglobin of the sample was 11.88±0.60, with low hemoglobin in 25% of users. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes were elevated beyond normal in 10.8%, 6.5%, 15.2%, and 7.5%, respectively. There was no evidence of leucopenia. Bilirubin and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase was elevated in 6.6% and 13% of inhalant users, respectively. Conclusion: The study adds to the limited date available on the treatment-seeking inhalant users from Indian settings. There is a need to examine the pattern of inhalant use in larger samples

  15. We Need Health Information Too: A Systematic Review of Studies Examining the Health Information Seeking and Communication Practices of Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review literature focused on the health information seeking practices of sexual minority youth (SMY), those youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual. The aims of this systematic

  16. Variation in general practitioners' information-seeking behaviour - a cross-sectional study on the influence of gender, age and practice form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Pedersen, Line B; Riisgaard, Helle;

    2016-01-01

    after adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: A total of 1580 GPs (46.4%) responded to the questionnaire. GPs' information-seeking behaviour is associated with gender, age and practice form. Single-handed GPs use their colleagues as an information source significantly less than GPs working...... in partnership practices and they do not use other sources more frequently. Compared with their younger colleagues, GPs aged above 44 years are less likely to seek information from colleagues, guidelines and websites, but more likely to seek information from medical journals. Male and female GPs seek information...... equally frequently. However, whereas male GPs are more likely than female GPs to find that pharmaceutical sales representative and non-refundable CME meetings are important, they are less likely to find that colleagues, refundable CME meetings, guidelines and websites are important. CONCLUSION: Results...

  17. We Need Health Information Too: A Systematic Review of Studies Examining the Health Information Seeking and Communication Practices of Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review literature focused on the health information seeking practices of sexual minority youth (SMY), those youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual. The aims of this systematic

  18. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors.

  19. Deconstructing Cancer Patient Information Seeking in a Consumer Health Library Toward Developing a Virtual Information Consult for Cancer Patients and Their Caregivers: A Qualitative, Instrumental Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, Janet; Trang, Aileen; Cyr, Alaina B; Abdelmutti, Nazek; Giuliani, Meredith E; Snow, Michelle; McCurdie, Tara; Pulandiran, Menaka; Urowitz, Sara; Wiljer, David

    2017-05-24

    Cancer patients and their caregivers want information about their disease and are interested in finding health information online. Despite the abundance of cancer information online, it is often fragmented, its quality is highly variable, and it can be difficult to navigate without expert-level knowledge of the cancer system. The Patient & Family Library at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre offers a broad collection of high-quality cancer health information and staff are available to help patrons refine their questions and explore information needs that they may not have considered. The purpose of this research study was to deconstruct patrons' information-seeking behaviors in the library to assess the feasibility of replicating the services provided in the library through a Web app, extending the service beyond the walls of the cancer centre. The specific aims of this research were to understand (1) how patrons approach information seeking in the library (interface design), (2) how patrons communicate their informational needs (information categorization and metadata requirements), and (3) what resources are provided to address the patrons' information needs (collection development). We employed a qualitative, instrumental case study to deconstruct patrons' health information-seeking behavior. The study population included patients, the librarian, and library volunteers. Ethnographic observation was conducted at the library over 3 days and key informant interviews with library staff were conducted to address the first aim. A closed card-sorting activity was conducted to address the second aim and the library shift logs and Search Request Forms (SRFs) were reviewed to address the third aim. A total of 55 interactions were recorded during the ethnographic observation and nine semistructured interviews were conducted during the key informant interviews. Seven library patron personas were identified: (1) Newbie, (2) Seasoned, (3) Direct, (4) Window Shopper, (5

  20. Experimental Study on Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Tanigawa, H.; Yano, K.; Kasai, S.

    2006-06-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion for a well-defined single DW in a micro-fabricated magnetic wire with submicron width was investigated by real-space observation with magnetic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed-current, respectively. Effect of the Joule heating, reduction of the threshold current density by shape control, and magnetic ratchet effect are also presented.

  1. ‘This diarrhoea is not a disease …’ local illness concepts and their effects on mothers’ health seeking behaviour: a qualitative study, Shuhair, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, about seven million children under the age of five died in 2011. Local illness concepts are thought to be related to inappropriate health-seeking behaviour, and therefore, lead to child mortality. The aim of this study was to contribute to the definition of common local illness concepts with their effects on health-seeking behaviour for common childhood illnesses. Methods A qualitative focus group study was conducted between April 1 and 6, 2013. Participants were drawn purposefully from the vaccination unit at Shuhair Health Centre in Yemen. Four focus group discussions were conducted. The total number of participants was 31 mothers with at least one child under the age of five with a history of fever, diarrhoea, cough, or difficulty breathing during the 14 days preceding the study. Data was collected and analysed using micro-interlocutor analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 31 years (SD ± 4). There was remarkable concordance in local illness concepts across the focus groups. During focus group discussions, six local illness concepts (Senoon, lafkha, halib, didan, raqaba, and ayn) were mentioned. Local illness concepts determined the type of treatment. Most of these illnesses were not treated medically. Lafkha, halib, raqaba, and ayn were always classified as “not for medical treatment”, whereas senoon and didan as sometimes “not for medical treatment”. For medical symptoms, i.e. fever, diarrhoea, cough, and difficulty breathing, medical therapy was usually an option; these were classified as never or sometimes “not for medical treatment”. Mothers trust in traditional medicine and believe that it is always beneficial and never harmful. The participants do not disclose traditional medicine use with their doctors because doctors oppose these practices and are not open enough to these types of treatment. Conclusions Local illness concepts for common child illnesses are widespread, and they determine the type of

  2. Ondansetron reduces naturalistic drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent individuals with the LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Vuittonet, Cynthia; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background One hypothesis suggests that the differential response to ondansetron and serotonin specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5′-HTTLPR promoter region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype is postulated to be specifically sensitive to the effects of ondansetron with SS/SL 5′-HTTLPR genotypes sensitive to SSRIs. This study tests this hypothesis by matching non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals with LL genotype to ondansetron and SS/SL genotypes to the SSRI sertraline, and mis-matching them assessing naturalistic and bar-laboratory alcohol drinking. Methods Seventy-seven AD individuals were randomized to one of two counterbalanced arms to receive sertraline 200mg/day or ondansetron 0.5 mg/day for three weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then received placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE. Individuals then received the alternate drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Drinks per drinking day (DDD with drinks in SDUs) for 7 days prior to each ASAE and milliliters consumed during each ASAE were the primary outcomes. Results Fifty-five participants completed the study. The genotype x order interaction was significant [F(1,47) = 8.42, p = .006] for DDD. Three ANCOVAs were conducted for DDD during the week before each ASAE. Ondansetron compared to sertraline resulted in a significant reduction in DDD during the week before the first [F(1,47) = 7.64, p = .008] but not the third ASAE. There was no difference in milliliters consumed during each ASAE. Conclusion This study modestly supports the hypothesis that ondansetron may reduce DDD in AD individuals with the LL genotype as measured naturalistically. By contrast there was no support that ondansetron reduces drinking during the ASAEs or that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have SS/SL genotypes. We provide limited

  3. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, H.; Hiraki, N. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Toi, K. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 {<=} {rho} {<=} 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear {Delta}`-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  4. Parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for their child: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migeot Virginie

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the Internet to seek health information is becoming more common. Its consequences on health care utilisation are hardly known in the general population, in particular among children whose parents seek health information on the Internet. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for their child. Methods This cross-sectional survey has been carried out in a population of parents of pre-school children in France. The main outcome measure was the self-reported number of primary care consultations for the child, according to parental use of the Internet to seek health information, adjusted for the characteristics of the parents and their child respectively, and parental use of other health information sources. Results A total of 1 068 out of 2 197 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 49%. No association was found between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and the number of consultations within the last 12 months for their child. Variables related to the number of primary care consultations were characteristics of the child (age, medical conditions, homeopathic treatment, parental characteristics (occupation, income, stress level and consultation of other health information sources (advice from pharmacist, relatives. Conclusion We did not find any relationship between parental use of the Internet to seek health information and primary care utilisation for children. The Internet seems to be used as a supplement to health services rather than as a replacement.

  5. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  6. Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject.

  7. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (nonlinear attribution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuchar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979–2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  8. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  9. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Kassa Woreta, Hiwot; Mekonnen Kelkay, Mengistu; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735), 663 (2.2%) individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended. PMID:27022483

  10. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735, 663 (2.2% individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended.

  11. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  12. Over-the-counter advice seeking about complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) in community pharmacies and health shops: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Helen; Shaw, Alison; Wye, Lesley; Weiss, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    In many ways, consumers of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) embody the values that current policies aim to encourage such as self-caring and private consumption. For example, the British Government's choice agenda suggests patient choice and self-management are key government priorities and state that good information should be at the heart of all services. However, research on community pharmacies suggests that there is a continued lack of knowledge about CAM, especially herbal medicines and the limited research on health shops indicates that advice about CAM products is varied and inconsistent. Recognising the underlying tension of community pharmacies and health shops which combine both retail roles and promotion of patient wellbeing, we set out to examine customer advice seeking about CAM. The settings included independent and chain stores, selling varying amounts and types of CAM products. Data collection was ethnographic involving observation of staff-customer interactions, and semi-structured interviews with counter staff and people who purchased CAM products. The findings identified six main types of staff-customer interactions regarding over-the-counter CAM products. This typology ranged from needing significant amounts of help to needing very little including: help with diagnosis; help finding a general remedy; help with a specific product; free advice; pastoral care; and 'just buying'. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of ongoing debates about the place of CAM in UK mainstream medicine and the evidence base for CAM. Potentially a highly valuable community resource, there is a lack of support for community pharmacies and health shops despite the government's choice agenda.

  13. A study of treatment seeking behaviour for malaria and its management in febrile children in rural part of desert, Rajasthan, Indi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Yada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: For management of malaria, there is a need to give attention on specificgroup of people like children <5 yr of age in the community. They are unable to explain theirfeelings about severity of illness and effects of treatment on health and they are dependent onothers for their health care, therefore, it is the mother who can seek, obtain, and use medicationappropriately. This is directly linked to the level of education, socioeconomic status, timely decision,accessibility of health facility, correct use of drugs and their follow-up. The present study wasundertaken with the aim to know the basis on which malaria was recognized and classified andexploring factors involved in the selection of different treatment options in the desert populationof Rajasthan.Methods: Interview and observation techniques were used for data collection in 15 villages ofRamgarh PHC in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan state, India. A total of 164 mothers were interviewedand observations were made by the investigators in the group discussions who utilized healthfacility for the febrile children <5 yr of age.Results: More than 93.3% mothers started taking care at home for their febrile children andwatched for improvement on an average up to 72 h. When they thought there was no hope tomanage the case at their level, they shifted their febrile children to the nearest health facility suchas sub-centre/PHC/private health practitioner. Utilization of health facility was linked with theage of the child, with younger children (<24 months of age being significantly more likely to beutilized nearby health facility than 24–59 months children. Children judged as severely ill by theirmothers utilized health facility significantly more often than those not thought to be severely ill.Mothers from households where the household heads had a primary or secondary education weremore likely to utilize health facility than those household heads having no education

  14. Culture, social networks, and information sharing: An exploratory study of Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes and habits in light of cultural factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuko

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the

  15. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  16. Linkages between mental health need and help-seeking behavior among adolescents: Moderating role of ethnicity and cultural values

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Sisi; Nguyen, Hannah; Weiss, Bahr; Ngo, Victoria; Lau, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk of developing of emotional and behavioral mental health problems increases markedly during adolescence. Despite this increasing need, most adolescents, particularly ethnic minority youth, do not seek professional help. Informed by conceptual models of health behavior, the current study examined how cultural values are related to help-seeking among adolescents from two distinct racial/ethnic groups. In a prospective survey design, 169 10th and 11th grade Vietnamese American and European A...

  17. Young learners' use of social media for information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2015-01-01

    information seeking activities, strategies and preferences can be identified when young learners use social media for information seeking in relation to course work and other study-related work tasks? 2) What motivations can be identified among young learners for using social media for information seeking....... The reported factors motivating information seeking were convenience and easy access to information, in addition to the content associated with specific social media types. Students’ use of social media for information seeking was associated primarily with their private information landscape. Contributions......Background. Increased use of social media for information seeking and learning calls for more research and knowledge of how these emerging technologies can support students’ learning. Objectives. The focus is on recent studies of young learners’ use of social media for information seeking...

  18. 微信用户日常生活信息获取行为研究%Study of WeChat Users’ Everyday Life Information Seeking Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青青; 刘佳音

    2015-01-01

    采用问卷调查法对250位微信用户日常生活信息获取(ELIS)行为进行实证研究,探讨微信在用户日常生活信息获取中的作用,分析微信用户关注的人群和主题特征,研究微信用户获取日常生活信息的行为特征及影响因素,以期从理论和实践上对国内ELIS研究起到补充作用。%The paper conducts an empirical study of 250 WeChat users’ everyday life information seeking (ELIS) behaviors through questionnaire survey, discusses the roles of WeChat in users’ ELIS, analyzes features of people and topics that WeChat users concerned, and studies behavior characteristics and influencing factors of users ’ ELIS, so as to provide supplementary role in theory and practice for research of ELIS in China.

  19. Types of gambling and levels of harm: A UK study to assess severity of presentation in a treatment-seeking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-09-01

    Background and aim Previous international research emphasized that some forms of gambling are more "addictive" than others. More recently, research has shown that we should shift our attention from the type of gambling activity to the level of involvement in a number of different gambling activities. The aim of our study was to verify whether a higher Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) score was associated with particular gambling activities and evaluate the impact of involvement on gambling behavior. Methods A total of 736 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. First, the independent two-sample t-test and the Mann-Whitney test were used to verify if the PGSI score changed significantly according to the gambling activity at a bivariate level. Second, we conducted a cluster analysis and finally, we fitted a linear regression model in order to verify if some variables are useful to predict gambling addiction severity. Results The PGSI score was significantly higher for lower stakes gaming machine gamblers (1% significance level) and for fixed-odds betting terminal (FOBT) gamblers (5% significance level) at a bivariate level. Moreover, such finding was confirmed by cluster and linear regression analyses. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that gambling addiction severity was related to gambling involvement and, for a given level of gambling involvement, gambling addiction severity may vary according to gambling type, with a particularly significant increase for FOBT and gaming machine gambling.

  20. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  1. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio José Felix; Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas; Faria, Roberto Mendonça

    2009-12-01

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak β), an intermediate peak (peak α), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak ρ). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes.

  2. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Antonio Jose Felix [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Laboratory of Polymers and Renewable Materials, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faria, Roberto Mendonca [USP, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak {beta}), an intermediate peak (peak {alpha}), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak {rho}). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes. (orig.)

  3. MODEL STUDY OF THE DOUBLE FED MACHINE WITH CURRENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lyapin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling results of the double fed induction machine with current control in the rotor circuit. We show the most promising applications of electric drives on the basis of the double fed induction machine and their advantages. We present and consider functional scheme of the electric drive on the basis of the double fed induction machine with current control. Equations are obtained for creation of such machine mathematical model. Expressions for vector projections of rotor current are given. According to the obtained results, the change of the vector projections of rotor current ensures operation of the double fed induction machine with the specified values of active and reactive stator power throughout the variation range of sliding motion. We consider static characteristics of double fed machine with current control. Energy processes proceeding in the machine are analyzed. We confirm the operationpossibility of double fed induction machine with current controlin the rotor circuit with given values of active and reactive stator power. The presented results can be used for creation of mathematical models and static characteristics of double fed machines with current control of various capacities.

  4. Impact of a Corporate Merger on the Information Seeking Behaviors of Research Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Sandra; Dinkelacker, Jamie

    2003-01-01

    To assess the current state of practices and expectations regarding information seeking and collaboration in the newly merged research labs of Hewlett Packard and Compaq Computer, a survey research project was conducted over the Summer of 2002. This paper presents partial findings from this larger study, focusing on the information seeking…

  5. Motivation and Academic Help-Seeking in High School Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Yuk Fai; Pajares, Frank; Oberman, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the degree to which academic motivation predicted the executive help-seeking, instrumental help-seeking, perceived benefits of help-seeking, and avoidance of help-seeking of high school students enrolled in computer science ( n = 314). Task goals were positively associated with instrumental help-seeking and perceiving the benefits of help-seeking and negatively associated with executive help-seeking; performance-avoid goals were negatively associated with instrumental help-seeking and positively associated with avoiding help-seeking. Controlling for motivation and computer science competence, girls were more likely to seek instrumental help and to perceive the benefits of help-seeking, and African American students were more likely to seek help than were White students or Asian American students. Despite possessing equal computer science skills, girls reported lower self-efficacy, self-concept, self-efficacy for self-regulation, and value than did boys.

  6. Study of wavelet transform type high-current transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文科; 朱长纯; 刘君华; 张建军

    2002-01-01

    The wavelet transformation is applied to the high-current transformer.The high-current transformer elaborated in the paper is mainly applied to the measurement of AC/DC high-current.The principle of the transformer is the Hall direct-measurement principle.The transformer has the following three characteristics:firstly, the effect of the remnant field of the iron core on the measurement is decreased;secondly,because the temperature compensation is adopted,the transformer has good temperature charactreristic;thirdly,be-cause the wavelet transfomation technology is adopted,the transformer has the capacity of good antijanming.

  7. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  8. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  9. Durability Study of SOFCs Under Cycling Current Load Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cell applications, the cells must be able to withstand varying operating conditions. Anode supported solid oxide fuel cells were tested under cycling current load in order to determine the durability and possibly identify degradation mechanisms. At 750 °C and a cycling between zero and 0.......75 A cm-2, the cell voltage degradation rate was similar to tests with the corresponding high constant current density. However, by analyzing the impedance spectra it was found that anode degradation was becoming more important when going from constant to cycling conditions. Running the cycling load tests...... at 850 °C, the cells degraded similarly as under the corresponding constant current load whereas, in some cases, cells failed mechanically after a few hundred hours. These cells did not experience severe additional degradation due to the cycling of the current density until the point of failure...

  10. Scanning Health Information Sources: Applying and Extending the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Information scanning, or attention to information via incidental or routine exposure or browsing, is relatively less understood than information seeking. To (a) provide a more theoretical understanding of information scanning and (b) extend existing information seeking theory to information scanning, the current study used data from the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey to examine cancer information scanning using the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS). Consistent with the CMIS, health-related factors were associated with the information-carrier factor of trust, and health-related factors and trust were associated with attention to information sources. Some of these associations differed between entertainment-oriented sources, information-oriented sources, and the Internet. The current findings provide a clearer picture of information scanning and suggest future avenues of research and practice using the CMIS.

  11. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  12. Resting state low-frequency fluctuations in prefrontal cortex reflect degrees of harm avoidance and novelty seeking: An exploratory NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNakao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Harm avoidance (HA and novelty seeking (NS are temperament dimensions defined by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, respectively reflecting a heritable bias for intense response to aversive stimuli or for excitement in response to novel stimuli. High HA is regarded as a risk factor for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. In contrast, higher NS is linked to increased risk for substance abuse and pathological gambling disorder. A growing body of evidence suggests that patients with these disorders show abnormality in the power of slow oscillations of resting-state brain activity. It is particularly interesting that previous studies have demonstrated that resting state activities in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC are associated with HA or NS scores, although the relation between the power of resting state slow oscillations and these temperament dimensions remains poorly elucidated. This preliminary study investigated the biological bases of these temperament traits by particularly addressing the resting state low-frequency fluctuations in MPFC. Regional hemodynamic changes in channels covering MPFC during 5-min resting states were measured from 22 healthy participants using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. These data were used for correlation analyses. Results show that the power of slow oscillations during resting state around the dorsal part of MPFC is negatively correlated with the HA score. In contrast, NS was positively correlated with the power of resting state slow oscillations around the ventral part of MPFC. These results suggest that the powers of slow oscillation at rest in dorsal or ventral MPFC respectively reflect the degrees of HA and NS. This exploratory study therefore uncovers novel neural bases of HA and NS. We discuss a neural mechanism underlying aversion-related and reward-related processing based on results obtained from this study.

  13. Conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking for mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickwood D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Debra Rickwood, Kerry ThomasFaculty of Health, University of Canberra, ACT, AustraliaBackground: Despite a high level of research, policy, and practice interest in help-seeking for mental health problems and mental disorders, there is currently no agreed and commonly used definition or conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking.Methods: A systematic review of research activity in the field was undertaken to investigate how help-seeking has been conceptualized and measured. Common elements were used to develop a proposed conceptual measurement framework.Results: The database search revealed a very high level of research activity and confirmed that there is no commonly applied definition of help-seeking and no psychometrically sound measures that are routinely used. The most common element in the help-seeking research was a focus on formal help-seeking sources, rather than informal sources, although studies did not assess a consistent set of professional sources; rather, each study addressed an idiosyncratic range of sources of professional health and community care. Similarly, the studies considered help-seeking for a range of mental health problems and no consistent terminology was applied. The most common mental health problem investigated was depression, followed by use of generic terms, such as mental health problem, psychological distress, or emotional problem. Major gaps in the consistent measurement of help-seeking were identified.Conclusion: It is evident that an agreed definition that supports the comparable measurement of help-seeking is lacking. Therefore, a conceptual measurement framework is proposed to fill this gap. The framework maintains that the essential elements for measurement are: the part of the help-seeking process to be investigated and respective time frame, the source and type of assistance, and the type of mental health concern. It is argued that adopting this framework will facilitate progress in the field by

  14. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments have had great success in monitoring the stratospheric ozone and in understanding the processes that control its daily to decadal scale variations. This field is now reaching its zenith with a number of satellite instruments from the US, Europe and Canada capping several decades of active research in this field. The primary public policy imperative of this research was to make reliable prediction of increases in biologically active surface UV radiation due to human activity. By contrast retrieval from satellite data of atmospheric constituents and photo-chemically active radiation that affect air quality is a new and growing field that is presenting us with unique challenges in measurement and data interpretation. A key distinction compared to stratospheric sensors is the greatly enhanced role of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces (CAS) in determining the quality and quantity of useful data that is available for air quality research. In our presentation we will use data from several sensors that are currently flying on the A-train satellite constellation, including OMI, MODIS, CLOUDSAT, and CALIPSO, to highlight that CAS can have both positive and negative effects on the information content of satellite measurements. This is in sharp contrast to other fields of remote sensing where CAS are usually considered an interference except in those cases when they are the primary subject of study. Our analysis has revealed that in the reflected wavelengths one often sees much further down into the atmosphere, through most cirrus, than one does in the emitted wavelengths. The lower level clouds provide a nice background against which one can track long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols. In addition, differences in trace gas columns estimated over cloudy and adjacent clear pixels can be used to measure boundary layer trace gases. However, in order to take full advantage of these features it will be necessary to greatly advance our understanding of

  15. Men's discourses of help-seeking in the context of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joy L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2012-03-01

    Depression is an illness increasingly constructed as a gendered mood disorder and consequently diagnosed in women more than men. The diagnostic criteria used for its assessment often perpetrate and reproduce gender stereotypes. The stigma associated with mental illness and the gendered elements of depression suggest there are likely numerous discourses that position, explain, and justify help-seeking practices. This qualitative study explored men's discourses of seeking help for depression. The methodological approach was informed by a social constructionist perspective of language, discourse and gender that drew on methods from discourse analysis. We conducted individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 38 men with depression, either formally diagnosed or self reported. The analysis revealed five discursive frames that influenced the men's talk about help-seeking and depression: manly self-reliance; treatment-seeking as responsible independent action; guarded vulnerability; desperation; and genuine connection. The findings are discussed within a broader context of social discourses of gender, the limitations of current help-seeking literature and the evidence for how men seek help in ways that extend traditional notions of medical treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The role of masculinity in men's help-seeking for depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Zac E; Dawes, Alexei J; Rice, Simon M; Oliffe, John L; Dhillon, Haryana M

    2016-11-01

    Conformity to traditional masculine gender norms may deter men's help-seeking and/or impact the services men engage. Despite proliferating research, current evidence has not been evaluated systematically. This review summarises findings related to the role of masculinity on men's help-seeking for depression. Six electronic databases were searched using terms related to masculinity, depression and help-seeking. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and data systematically extracted and examined for methodological quality. Of 1927 citations identified, 37 met inclusion criteria. Seventeen (46%) studies reported qualitative research; eighteen (49%) employed quantitative methods, and two (5%) mixed methods. Findings suggest conformity to traditional masculine norms has a threefold effect on men experiencing depression, impacting: i) their symptoms and expression of symptoms; ii) their attitudes to, intention, and, actual help-seeking behaviour; and, iii) their symptom management. Results demonstrate the problematic impact of conformity to traditional masculine norms on the way men experience and seek help for depression. Tailoring and targeting clinical interventions may increase men's service uptake and the efficacy of treatments. Future research examining factors associated with men's access to, and engagement with depression care will be critical to increasing help-seeking, treatment uptake, and effectual self-management among men experiencing depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Men Interested in Seeking Treatment for Use of Pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Martino, Steve; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, men's interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Methods Using an Internet-based data-collection procedure, we recruited 1,298 male pornography users to complete questionnaires assessing demographic and sexual behaviors, hypersexuality, pornography-use characteristics, and current interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Results Approximately 14% of men reported an interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography, whereas only 6.4% of men had previously sought treatment for use of pornography. Treatment-interested men were 9.5 times more likely to report clinically significant levels of hypersexuality compared with treatment-disinterested men (OR = 9.52, 95% CI = 6.72-13.49). Bivariate analyses indicated that interest-in-seeking-treatment status was associated with being single/unmarried, viewing more pornography per week, engaging in more solitary masturbation in the past month, having had less dyadic oral sex in the past month, reporting a history of seeking treatment for use of pornography, and having had more past attempts to either "cut back" or quit using pornography completely. Results from a binary logistic regression analysis indicated that more frequent cut back/quit attempts with pornography and scores on the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory - Control subscale were significant predictors of interest-in-seeking-treatment status. Discussion and conclusions Study findings could be used to inform current screening practices aimed at identifying specific aspects of sexual self-control, impulsivity, and/or compulsivity associated with problematic use of pornography among treatment-seeking individuals.

  18. A Study on the Relationship between Resiliency and College Students' Psychological Help-seeking%复原力与大学生心理求助相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盈

    2011-01-01

    Object: This thesis will study the relationship between resiliency and psychological help-seeking and verify the theories about psychological help-seeking.Methods:The study implied stratified sampling to select 340 students from Wuhan University and Wuhan University of Science and Engineering as participates.College students'Resiliency sale,college students'Psychological Help-seeking scale and Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90) were used for the survey.Results: The total scores of resiliency and psychological help-seeking are significantly correlated(r=0.36,p0.001).According to the results of Regression analysis,the total scores of resiliency can explain 12.8% of the variance of the attitude to psychological help-seeking.Friends'support,stability and self-efficacy as predictors can explain 14.5% of the variance of the attitude to psychological help-seeking.The resiliency is the total mediator of the mental health and the attitude to psychological help-seeking.Conclusion: Only through the resiliency can mental health predict the attitude to psychological help-seeking.%目的:从积极心理学的角度,探讨复原力和大学生心理求助之间的关系。方法:用SCL-90症状自评量表、大学生复原力量表和大学生心理求助态度问卷对分层随机抽样的武汉市340名大学生进行问卷调查。结果:复原力总分和心理求助态度总分的相关显著(r=0.36,p〈0.001);回归分析表明,复原力总分可以解释心理求助态度总分变异的12.8%;复原力结构中的朋友支持、稳定性和自我效能一起作为预测变量时,可以解释心理求助态度变异的14.5%;复原力是心理健康对心理求助态度影响的中介变量。结论:心理困扰水平对心理求助态度的影响是通过复原力来实现的。

  19. Knowledge on preconceptional folic acid supplementation and intention to seek for preconception care among men and women in an urban city: A population-based cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Temel (Sevilay); Ö. Erdem (Özcan); T. Voorham (Toon); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To study the knowledge of a large city population on preconception folic acid supplementation and intention to seek for preconception care within an urban perinatal health program. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys run in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in 2007 and annually from

  20. Knowledge on preconceptional folic acid supplementation and intention to seek for preconception care among men and women in an urban city: A population-based cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Temel (Sevilay); Ö. Erdem (Özcan); T. Voorham (Toon); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To study the knowledge of a large city population on preconception folic acid supplementation and intention to seek for preconception care within an urban perinatal health program. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys run in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in 2007 and annually from 2

  1. Care seeking for orofacial pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollman, A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the contribution of a wide range of factors to care-seeking behavior in orofacial pain patients, expressed as (A) decision to seek care and (B) number of health care practitioners visited. METHODS: Subjects with orofacial pain complaints were recruited in seven TMD clinics and fro

  2. Care seeking for orofacial pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollman, A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the contribution of a wide range of factors to care-seeking behavior in orofacial pain patients, expressed as (A) decision to seek care and (B) number of health care practitioners visited. METHODS: Subjects with orofacial pain complaints were recruited in seven TMD clinics and

  3. Nigeria Seeks Energy Investment from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wenge

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nigeria sent a delegation to China in mid-July to seek investment in the oil-enriched nation. Currently, Nigeria has granted the Chinese oil companies the permits of four oil fields while the Chinese side offered technical support in the energy cooperation field. In addition to the energy sector, Nigeria's invitation of investment this time also covers transportation, finance, telecommunications and manufacturing sector.

  4. Care-seeking behavior and out-of-pocket expenditure for sick newborns among urban poor in Lucknow, northern India: a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Neeraj M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The state of Uttar Pradesh, India accounts for one-quarter of India's neonatal deaths and 8 percent of those worldwide. More than half (52% of these deaths occur due to infections. In order to achieve Millennium Development Goal-4 of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015, it is important to study factors which affect neonatal health. In Uttar Pradesh there is meager data for spending on health care in general and neonates in particular. Methods The study was conducted at an urban Reproductive and Child Health (RCH center and a District hospital. Neonates were enrolled within 48 hours of birth and were followed-up once at 6 weeks ± 15 days at the OPD of the respective hospitals or at home. This study assessed (1 distribution of neonatal illnesses and different health providers sought (2 distribution of out-of-pocket expenditures by type of illness and type of health provider sought (3 socio-economic distribution of neonatal illnesses, care-seeking behavior and out-of-pocket expenditures. Per-protocol analysis was performed. Results Five hundred and ten neonates were enrolled and 481(94.4% were followed-up. Parents of 50.3% (242/481 neonates reported at least one symptom of illness. Of these 22.3% (107/481 neonates had illnesses with at least one reported Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI danger sign. Among IMNCI illnesses, point prevalence of septicemia was 6.2% and pneumonia was 5.2% while among non-IMNCI illnesses point prevalence of upper respiratory infection was 9.5%, and diarrhea was 7%. Community based non-government dispensers (NGDs were leading health providers (37.6%. Mean monthly income of families was 2804 Indian Rupees (INR (range: 800 to 14000; n = 510, where US$ 1 = 42 INR. Mean out-of-pocket expenditure on neonatal illness was 547.5 INR (range: 1 to 15000; n = 202 and mean out-of-pocket expenditure for hospitalization was 4993 INR (range: 41 to 15000; n = 17

  5. Seeking Universal Credit Ratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the EU’s ongoing sovereign debt crisis,the current international credit rating system has been accused of aggravating the world’s economic woes.Recently,Guan Jianzhong,Chairman of the Board and President of the Beijing-based Dagong Global Credit Rating Co.Ltd.,spoke to Beijing Review reporter Yu Yan about reforms in the current international credit rating system and Dagong’s role.Dagong is the first non-Western rating agency to assess the world’s sovereign credit and risks.

  6. Appropriate health-seeking behavior and associated factors among people who had cough for at least two weeks in northwest Ethiopia: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senbeto, Meseret; Tadesse, Sebsibe; Tadesse, Takele; Melesse, Tesfahun

    2013-12-23

    Tuberculosis remains the major debilitating public health problem in Ethiopia. However, studies to understand the patients' perspectives on the illness and their health-seeking behavior have been few in the country. In this study, we seek to investigate the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior and factors associated with tuberculosis among people who had cough for at least two weeks. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to October 2012 in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia. All people aged ≥ 15 years and had cough for at least two weeks were included in the study. Data collected by using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire were entered and cleaned using the Epi Info version 2002 statistical software. The statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0 was also employed for descriptive and logistics regression analysis. Out of the 25,701 people aged ≥ 15 years surveyed, the proportion of people who had cough for at least two weeks was reported to be 843(3.3%). Appropriate health-seeking behavior towards tuberculosis was reported by 674(80.0%) of them. Factors significantly associated with health-seeking behavior for tuberculosis were being female [AOR: 0.56, 95%CI: (0.39-0.79)], high monthly real per capita income [AOR: 1.66, 95%CI: (1.15-2.38)], large family size [AOR: 0.50, 95%CI: (0.35-0.72)], and use of traditional-healing practices [AOR: 13.27, 95%CI: (9.10-25.41)]. This study showed that the magnitude of appropriate health-seeking behavior during the event of chronic cough was high. However, this doesn't mean that there will be no need for further strengthening of the intervention activities as significant proportions of the study communities still demonstrate inappropriate health-seeking behavior. So tuberculosis control programs need to emphasize factors, such as sex, family size, socioeconomic inequalities, and traditional-healing practices in resource-poor settings.

  7. Information seeking behaviour of online museum visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette

    two research projects on online museum visitors. The first case study will illustrate the information seeking and searching characteristics of online museum visitors at the National Museum of Military History in Copenhagen. Participants in this case study are characterised as special interest museum...

  8. A Principle of Uncertainty for Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes an uncertainty principle for information seeking based on the results of a series of studies that investigated the user's perspective of the information search process. Constructivist theory is discussed as a conceptual framework for studying the user's perspective, and areas for further research are suggested. (Contains 44 references.)…

  9. Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : results of the IASP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; van de Glind, Geurt; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Allsop, Steve; Auriacombe, Marc; Barta, Csaba; Bu, Eli Torild H.; Burren, Yuliya; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Carruthers, Susan; Casas, Miguel; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Dom, Geert; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fatseas, Melina; Franck, Johan; Johnson, Brian; Kapitany-Foeveny, Mate; Kaye, Sharlene; Konstenius, Maija; Levin, Frances R.; Moggi, Franz; Moller, Merete; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Schillinger, Arild; Skutle, Arvid; Verspreet, Sofie; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.

    AimsTo determine comorbidity patterns in treatment-seeking substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with an emphasis on subgroups defined by ADHD subtype, taking into account differences related to gender and primary substance of

  10. Assessing the Relationship between Community Education, Political Efficacy and Electoral Participation: A Case Study of the Asylum Seeking Community in Cork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clodagh; Murphy, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between community education and internal political efficacy. In particular it examines the association between voter/civic programmes run in advance of the 2009 local elections in Ireland and internal political efficacy amongst the asylum seeking community in Cork. A survey is used to test this relationship.…

  11. Molecular docking and simulation studies of gustatory receptor of Aedes aegypti: A potent drug target to distract host-seeking behaviour in mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kant Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: A novel effective odorant acting as inhibitor of GR is proposed based on its stability, docking score, interactions and RMSD, considering ethyl pyruvate as a standard inhibitor. Host preference and host-seeking ability of mosquito vectors play key roles in disease transmission, a clear understanding of these aspects is essential for preventing the spread of the disease.

  12. Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : results of the IASP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; van de Glind, Geurt; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Allsop, Steve; Auriacombe, Marc; Barta, Csaba; Bu, Eli Torild H.; Burren, Yuliya; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Carruthers, Susan; Casas, Miguel; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Dom, Geert; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fatseas, Melina; Franck, Johan; Johnson, Brian; Kapitany-Foeveny, Mate; Kaye, Sharlene; Konstenius, Maija; Levin, Frances R.; Moggi, Franz; Moller, Merete; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Schillinger, Arild; Skutle, Arvid; Verspreet, Sofie; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    AimsTo determine comorbidity patterns in treatment-seeking substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with an emphasis on subgroups defined by ADHD subtype, taking into account differences related to gender and primary substance of a

  13. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K. van; Glind, G. van de; Koeter, M.W.; Allsop, S.; Auriacombe, M.; Barta, C.; Bu, E.T.; Burren, Y.; Carpentier, P.J.; Carruthers, S.; Casas, M.; Demetrovics, Z.; Dom, G.; Faraone, S.V.; Fatseas, M.; Franck, J.; Johnson, B.; Kapitany-Foveny, M.; Kaye, S.; Konstenius, M.; Levin, F.R.; Moggi, F.; Moller, M.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Schillinger, A.; Skutle, A.; Verspreet, S.; Brink, W. van den; Schoevers, R.A.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To determine comorbidity patterns in treatment-seeking substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with an emphasis on subgroups defined by ADHD subtype, taking into account differences related to gender and primary substance of

  15. Children of Treatment-Seeking Depressed Mothers: A Comparison with the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Child Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…

  16. Children of Treatment-Seeking Depressed Mothers: A Comparison with the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Child Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…

  17. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic...... characterization of wind farm harmonic currents is analyzed. Specific issues addressed in the paper include the harmonic variation with the wind farm operating point and the random characteristics of their magnitude and phase angle....

  18. Zinc electrowinning: anode conditioning and current distribution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.A. [Cominco Research, Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    In the zinc electrowinning (EW) process, Pb-Ag anodes are widely used. Prior to their use in the EW process, anodes are conditioned to form a stable oxide layer that can evolve O{sub 2} without excessive Pb contamination of the cathode and MnO{sub 2} precipitation. The most widely used conditioning techniques are: passivation in a KF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolysis bath, chemical oxidation in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and sandblasting. In this paper, a comparison of these treatments using flat and corrugated anodes is presented. Laboratory and industrial-scale tests carried out at Cominco's Trail and Cajamarquilla zinc plants indicated that flat anodes should be sandblasted or electrochemically passivated before their use in the Zn electrowinning process. Further, corrugated anodes should be sandblasted or chemically conditioned in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} -electrolyte. The beneficial effects of chemical conditioning are lost if the anode is non-corrugated. Flat, chemically conditioned anodes generate up to 10 times more mud than corrugated-chemically conditioned anodes. Because anode mud growth is evenly distributed on sandblasted anodes, short-circuit frequency may decrease and anode life may increase. Sandblasting does not appear to affect anode performance. Parallel to the industrial anode conditioning tests, current distribution measurements were made. Current flow measurements were used to correct troublesome electrodes and/or bad electrical contacts. In Cajamarquilla, this technique was used in four industrial electrowinning cells and energy consumption values lower than 3000 kWh/t Zn were obtained at current efficiencies as high as 95% and at current densities up to 450 A/m{sup 2}. (author)

  19. Young learners' use of social media for information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2015-01-01

    . The challenges of using non-traditional social sources for information seeking identified in the studies raise questions of how teachers and information professionals can educate young learners to use social media competently as information seekers and authors of information.......Background. Increased use of social media for information seeking and learning calls for more research and knowledge of how these emerging technologies can support students’ learning. Objectives. The focus is on recent studies of young learners’ use of social media for information seeking...... information seeking activities, strategies and preferences can be identified when young learners use social media for information seeking in relation to course work and other study-related work tasks? 2) What motivations can be identified among young learners for using social media for information seeking...

  20. Young learners' use of social media for information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2015-01-01

    Background. Increased use of social media for information seeking and learning calls for more research and knowledge of how these emerging technologies can support students’ learning. Objectives. The focus is on recent studies of young learners’ use of social media for information seeking in an a....... The challenges of using non-traditional social sources for information seeking identified in the studies raise questions of how teachers and information professionals can educate young learners to use social media competently as information seekers and authors of information....... information seeking activities, strategies and preferences can be identified when young learners use social media for information seeking in relation to course work and other study-related work tasks? 2) What motivations can be identified among young learners for using social media for information seeking...

  1. Burden of influenza, healthcare seeking behaviour and hygiene measures during the A(H1N12009 pandemic in France: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauteren Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza surveillance systems do not allow the identification of the true burden of illness caused by influenza in the community because they are restricted to consulting cases. A study was conducted to estimate the incidence and the burden of self-defined influenza, and to describe healthcare seeking behavior for self-defined influenza during the A(H1N12009 pandemic in the French population. Methods We conducted a random-based retrospective cross-sectional telephone survey between May 2009 and April 2010 among a random sample of the French population. Results For the 10 076 people included, 107 episodes of self-defined influenza were reported. The annual incidence of self-defined influenza was estimated at 13 942 cases per 100 000 inhabitants (CI95% 10 947 – 16 961, 62.1% (CI95% 50.5 – 72.5 of cases consulted a physician and 11.3% (CI95% 5.5 - 21.7 used a face mask. Following recommendations, 37.5% (CI95% 35.5 – 39.5 of people in the survey reported washing their hands more often during the pandemic season, and there was a positive association with being vaccinated against A(H1N12009 influenza, being a women, being a child ( Conclusions Self-defined influenza causes a significant burden of illness in the French population and is a frequent cause for consultation. These results allow a more accurate interpretation of influenza surveillance data and an opportunity to adapt future health education messages.

  2. Prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among mature adults in Brazil: data from the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Duarte Moreira Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the usual frequency of sexual activity and how older individuals cope with sexual problems. The objective was to study sexual activity, prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among middle-aged and older men and women in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population survey, by Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. METHODS: Interviews were held with 1,199 Brazilians aged 40-80 years (471 men and 728 women. The standardized questionnaire investigated demographics, general health, sexual behavior, attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Overall, 92.6% of men and 58.3% of women had had sexual intercourse during the preceding year. More than half of the men and women had done so more than once a week. Early ejaculation (30.3% was the commonest male sexual problem, followed by inability to reach orgasm (14.0%, erectile difficulties (13.1% and lack of sexual interest (11.2%. For women, the commonest sexual problems were lubrication difficulties (23.4% and lack of sexual interest (22.7%. Depression was a significant correlate of sexual problems, for men and women. More women than men had sought help for sexual problem(s from a healthcare professional. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of encouraging greater use of available healthcare services, including consultation with a medical doctor regarding sexual health. This should not only enable men and women to maintain satisfactory sexual function well into their later years, but may also result in overall improvement in the quality of healthcare.

  3. Seeking markets and resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Processes of globalisation are currently changing the global activity of multinational companies (MNCs). ‘Emerging’ MNCs are competing with ‘conventional’ MNCs when investing in new markets. This article sets out to analyse the motives and strategies of Chinese and Indian MNCs investing in Zambia...

  4. Understanding of a negative bowel screening result and potential impact on future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve; Orbell, Sheina; Vedsted, Peter; Steele, Robert J C; Melia, Jane W; Moss, Sue M; Patnick, Julietta; Campbell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBt) has the potential to reduce cancer-related mortality. Symptom vigilance remains crucial as a proportion of cancers will be diagnosed between screening rounds. A negative FOBt has the potential to influence how participants respond to future symptoms of CRC. To explore (i) understanding of a negative FOBt and (ii) the potential impact of a negative FOBt upon future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour. Qualitative methodology utilizing focus groups with participants who received a negative FOBt within the National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in Coventry and Lothian. Topics explored included: experience of screening participation, interpretation and understanding of a negative result, symptom awareness and attitudes towards help-seeking. Four broad themes were identified: (i) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted as an "all clear". Some participants acknowledged the residual risk of cancer and the temporal characteristic of the result, while others were surprised that the result was not a guarantee that they did not have cancer. Participants recognized that reassurance from a negative FOBt could lead to a short-term delay in help-seeking if symptoms developed. Screening programmes should seek to emphasize the importance of the temporal nature of FOBt results with key messages about symptom recognition and prompt help-seeking behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ethnic status and engagement with health services: Attitudes toward help-seeking and intercultural willingness to interact among South East Asian students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Shanna; Steel, Zachary; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of intercultural willingness to interact; however, these investigations have yet to be applied to a health context or to compare an ethnic minority with a majority sample. Consequently, the current study sought to better understand engagement with health services by investigating both attitudes towards seeking psychological help and intercultural willingness to interact within an ethnic minority South East Asian population, relative to an Anglo Australian sample. As predicted, negative attitudes towards seeking psychological help were higher in the South East Asian sample, with this relationship persisting across generations, despite significant differences in acculturation. In contrast, intercultural willingness to interact was not associated with ethnicity status but was associated with higher anxiety, uncertainty, ethnocentrism and help-seeking, consistent with current empirical and theoretical literature. The current study also sought to examine factors associated with help-seeking attitudes and found that ethnocentrism was a significant predictor, when accounting for previous health experience.

  6. The Role of Web-Based Health Information in Help-Seeking Behavior Prior to a Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia; Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Todd, Chris

    2017-06-08

    Delays to diagnosis in lung cancer can lead to reduced chance of survival, and patients often wait for several months before presenting symptoms. The time between first symptom recognition until diagnosis has been theorized into three intervals: symptom appraisal, help-seeking, and diagnostic interval (here: "pathway to diagnosis"). Interventions are needed to reduce delays to diagnosis in lung cancer. The Web has become an important lay health information source and could potentially play a role in this pathway to diagnosis. Our overall aim was to gain a preliminary insight into whether Web-based information plays a role in the pathway to diagnosis in lung cancer in order to assess whether it may be possible to leverage this information source to reduce delays to diagnosis. Patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the 6 months before study entry completed a survey about whether (and how, if yes) they had used the Web to appraise their condition prior to diagnosis. Based on survey responses, we purposively sampled patients and their next-of-kin for semistructured interviews (24 interviews; 33 participants). Interview data were analyzed qualitatively using Framework Analysis in the context of the pathway to diagnosis model. A total of 113 patients completed the survey (age: mean 67.0, SD 8.8 years). In all, 20.4% (23/113) reported they or next-of-kin had researched their condition online before the diagnosis. The majority of searches (20/23, 87.0%) were conducted by or with the help of next-of-kin. Interview results suggest that patients and next-of-kin perceived an impact of the information found online on all three intervals in the time to diagnosis. In the appraisal interval, participants used online information to evaluate symptoms and possible causes. In the help-seeking interval, the Web was used to inform the decision of whether to present to health services. In the diagnostic interval, it was used to evaluate health care professionals' advice, to support

  7. Treating posttraumatic stress in post-conflict countries and countries that accepted refugees. Report on the STOP-study, a multi-site study on treatment seeking and treatment outcome in people suffering from posttraumatic stress following war and migration in former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützwolh, Matthias; Bravo-Mehmedbasic, Alma; Franciskovic, Tanja; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Ljubotina, Damir; McCrone, Paul; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Stephan, Priebe; Kucukalic, Abdulah

    2004-01-01

    War and migration in the Balkans caused traumatic experiences in great parts of it's population. About four million people living in former Yugoslavia as well as about 100,000 refugees living in different European countries are estimated to suffer from on-going and severe psychological symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Although in need of treatment, many of these people do not seek treatment. Given the fact that, if untreated, post-traumatic stress reactions tend to persist for many years, often resulting in impairment and disability secondary to the symptom complex, offering appropriate care is a special challenge to health services. With regard to this context, an EC-funded multi-centre study including partners from Belgrade (SCO). Dresden (D), London (UK), Rijcka (HR), Sarajevo (BIH), and Zagreb (HR) aims (a) to provide an empirical basis for designing care programmes for people suffering from post-traumatic stress following war and migration in the Balkans who currently do not seek treatment, and (b) to improve the cost-effectiveness of treatment programmes for those patients who are cared for in specialised treatment centres. The paper presents the aims and the design of the STOP study. The first results of the study will be available in 2005.

  8. Cold-Induced Thermogenesis and Inflammation-Associated Cold-Seeking Behavior Are Represented by Different Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Sites: A Three-Dimensional Functional Topography Study in Conscious Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel P; Almeida, M Camila; Shimansky, Yury P; Oliveira, Daniela L; Eales, Justin R; Coimbra, Cândido C; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2017-07-19

    In the past, we showed that large electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) promoted hypothermia in cold-exposed restrained rats, but attenuated hypothermia in rats challenged with a high dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a thermogradient apparatus. The goal of this study was to identify the thermoeffector mechanisms and DMH representation of the two phenomena and thus to understand how the same lesion could produce two opposite effects on body temperature. We found that the permissive effect of large electrolytic DMH lesions on cold-induced hypothermia was due to suppressed thermogenesis. DMH-lesioned rats also could not develop fever autonomically: they did not increase thermogenesis in response to a low, pyrogenic dose of LPS (10 μg/kg, i.v.). In contrast, changes in thermogenesis were uninvolved in the attenuation of the hypothermic response to a high, shock-inducing dose of LPS (5000 μg/kg, i.v.); this attenuation was due to a blockade of cold-seeking behavior. To compile DMH maps for the autonomic cold defense and for the cold-seeking response to LPS, we studied rats with small thermal lesions in different parts of the DMH. Cold thermogenesis had the highest representation in the dorsal hypothalamic area. Cold seeking was represented by a site at the ventral border of the dorsomedial nucleus. Because LPS causes both fever and hypothermia, we originally thought that the DMH contained a single thermoregulatory site that worked as a fever-hypothermia switch. Instead, we have found two separate sites: one that drives thermogenesis and the other, previously unknown, that drives inflammation-associated cold seeking.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cold-seeking behavior is a life-saving response that occurs in severe systemic inflammation. We studied this behavior in rats with lesions in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) challenged with a shock-inducing dose of bacterial endotoxin. We built functional maps of the DMH and found the strongest

  9. Patient reported delays in seeking treatment for Tuberculosis (TB among adult and pediatric TB patients and TB patients co-infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Paz-Soldan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n=43, within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n=11. Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of tuberculosis symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention.Conclusions: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level.

  10. A study of the current collecting sectors of a U-25B diagonal megnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V.V.; Panovka, M.Ya.; Semenov, V.D.; Sokolov, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of an experimental study and a calculated analysis of the operation of current collecting sectors of the U-25B magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The effect was studied of the parameters of the current, the coefficient of electrical loading, the disposition of the current collecting sectors (T) relative to the diagram of the magnetic field on the distribution of current along the length of the current collecting sectors. It is established that with optimal disposition of the current collecting sectors a uniform distribution of current is achieved. A simplified calculation model of the current collecting sector is developed. It is shown that the experimental and calculated relationships match well. The effect of the ballast resisters installed in the current collecting circuits on the distribution of current is examined. Their positive role in preventing current overloads on the frames and in supporting the uniform distribution of current is noted.

  11. The Study of the Geomagnetic Variation for Sq current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Du, A.

    2012-04-01

    The solar quiet variation (Sq) with a period of 24 hrs is a typical one of the quiet variations. Sq is generally caused by atmospheric tide-dynamo in ionosphere and it is controlled by the electric field, electric conductivity in ionosphere and neutral wind in middle-high altitude atmosphere. In our work, the geomagnetic field data observed by 90 ground-based observatories is used to analyze the local time variation of Sq. Sq is derived from five quiet-day geomagnetic data in every month by the FFT method. According to the pattern of geomagnetic X component in Sq, there is a prenoon-postnoon (before noon and after noon) asymmetry. This asymmetry is obvious in spring, summer and winter. The X component at 12:00-13:00 LT is about 5 nT larger than it at 11:00-12:00 LT. The ratio between the X component of daily variable amplitude and Y component of daily variable amplitude in middle and low (high) latitude regions in summer is greater (smaller) than that in winter. Used the sphere harmonic analysis method, the Sq equivalent current system is obtained. From the pattern of Sq current system, the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry may be caused by the electric field in the high latitude region. This electric field has two effects: the one is that the electric field from high latitude maps to the low latitude region; the other is this electric field penetrate to the middle latitude region directly. The combined action of these two effects makes the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry of Sq. The asymmetry also has an obvious seasonal effect. It may relate to the polar Sq and DP2 in the high latitude region.

  12. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  13. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Turu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  14. Memory complaints associated with seeking clinical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, C.; Silva, D.; Maroco, J.; Ginó, S.; Mendes, T.; Schmand, B.A.; Guerreiro, M.; de Mendonça, A.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as c

  15. Introducing “Seeking Truth in Love”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa; Carino

    2006-01-01

    An excellent guide and commentary on Bishop KH Ting’s writings by scholars from Asia, Europe and North America, the bilingual volume Seeking Truth in Love"is now available at bookstores in China. Compiled and edited by Wang Peng,Dean of Studies at Nanjing Union Theological Seminary,the 393-page book was published in February,2006 by the Reli-

  16. Understanding cultural heritage experts’ information seeking needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Amin (Alia); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda); A. van Nispen

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe report on our user study on the information seeking behavior of cultural heritage experts and the sources they use to carry out search tasks. Seventeen experts from nine cultural heritage institutes in the Netherlands were interviewed and asked to answer questionnaires about their

  17. Physicians' Internet Information-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nancy L.; Casebeer, Linda L.; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Our understanding about the role of the Internet as a resource for physicians has improved in the past several years with reports of patterns for use and measures of impact on medical practice. The purpose of this study was to begin to shape a theory base for more fully describing physicians' information-seeking behaviors as they…

  18. Multitasking Information Seeking and Searching Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…

  19. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  20. Multitasking Information Seeking and Searching Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…

  1. Seeking Harmony amid Contradictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Contradictions and harmony are two opposite states believed by ancient Chinese philosophers to coexist and complement one another. They are present in all aspects of human existence, not least within economic and social life. A current example is China's rapid economic growth in the face of its disadvantaged communities' deteriorating situation. During this year's top political gatherings - the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference - the focus was on building a fair society and narrowing the yawning gap between the rich and the poor.

  2. Medication adherence in HIV-positive African Americans: The roles of age, health beliefs, and sensation seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Sayegh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how two critical constructs, health beliefs and sensation seeking, influence combination antiretroviral therapy adherence in HIV + African Americans, and whether these factors mediate the association between age and adherence. Two hundred and eighty-six HIV + African Americans participated in this observational study. Path analyses revealed that higher levels of a specific health belief, perceived utility of treatment, and lower levels of a sensation seeking component, Thrill and Adventure Seeking, directly predicted optimal adherence. The influence of age on adherence was partially mediated by lower Thrill and Adventure Seeking levels. Depression predicted adherence via perceived utility of treatment and Thrill and Adventure Seeking, whereas current substance abuse and dependence did via Thrill and Adventure Seeking. Poorer neurocognitive function had a direct, adverse effect on adherence. Our findings suggest that supporting the development of more positive perceptions about HIV treatment utility may help increase medication adherence among African Americans. This may be particularly relevant for those with higher levels of depression symptoms, which were directly associated with negative perceptions about treatment. Additionally, clinicians can assess sensation seeking tendencies to help identify HIV + African Americans at risk for suboptimal adherence. Compensatory strategies for medication management may help improve adherence among HIV + individuals with poorer neurocognitive function.

  3. Religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use for college-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Todd; Conner, Bradley T

    2015-03-01

    Substance use has been identified as a major problem on college campuses across the country, with excessive use often leading to unintended and unwanted negative health outcomes. Sensation seeking has been shown to be a consistent predictor of engagement in various health risk behaviors, including substance use. Religiosity has been shown to negatively predict substance use. However, there is mixed evidence on the relations among these risk and protective factors. This may be due to the operational definitions of religiosity in previous research. The current study investigated religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use using robust measures of religiosity. The primary hypotheses were (a) sensation seeking would be positively associated with higher levels of heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use; (b) religiosity would be negatively associated with higher levels of substance use; and (c) religiosity would moderate the relation between sensation seeking and substance use such that, when religiosity was high, there would be no association between sensation seeking and substance use, but at low and moderate levels of religiosity, there would be a positive association between them. Religiosity was a significant moderator of the relation between risk seeking and marijuana use (p moderator between sensation seeking and heavy episodic drinking. Religiosity appears to have a stronger buffering effect for illegal drug use compared with alcohol use, perhaps in part because of the relative acceptance of alcohol consumption across major U.S. religious orientations.

  4. Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ho Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designed by simulation, in comparison with the traditional wind power control method, and the simulated dynamic response obtained by the SMESC algorithm proposed in this paper is better than the traditional hill-climbing search (HCS and extremum seeking control (ESC algorithms in the transient or steady states, validating the advantages and practicability of the method proposed in this paper.

  5. Somatization and health seeking behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vishal Garala; Mehul Brahmbhatt; Hemang Shah; Ganpat Vankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Somatization is the state of being symptomatic which is not explained medically associated with psychological distress and health-seeking behavior and is present in at least 10% to 15% in OPD. Methods...

  6. Inclusive educational provision for newly-arrived unaccompanied asylum-seeking and refugee children: a study in a single school in Kent

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, A; Durrant, I.; Meehan, C; Ali, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Recent migration flows – including those resulting from conflict, persecution and natural disaster – place a responsibility on nations to honour international and humanitarian commitments with respect to refugees. A central part of these commitments is to make provision for the educational needs of asylum-seeking and refugee children, including those whom are unaccompanied. Indeed, education and schooling play a crucial role in the complex relationship between newly-arrived immigrants and the...

  7. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  8. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  9. Healthcare seeking practices and barriers to accessing under-five child health services in urban slums in Malawi: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine

    2016-08-19

    Access to child health services is an important determinant of child health. Whereas, child health indicators are generally better in urban than rural areas, some population groups in urban areas, such as children residing in urban slums do not enjoy this urban health advantage. In the context of increasing urbanisation and urban poverty manifesting with proliferation of urban slums, the health of under-five children in slum areas remains a public health imperative in Malawi. This paper explores healthcare-seeking practices for common childhood illnesses focusing on use of biomedical health services and perceived barriers to accessing under-five child health services in urban slums of Lilongwe, Malawi's capital city. Qualitative data from 8 focus group discussions with caregivers and 11 in-depth interviews with key informants conducted from September 2012 to April 2013 were analysed using conventional content analysis. Whereas, caregivers sought care from biomedical health providers, late care-seeking also emerged as a major theme and phenomenon. Home management was actively undertaken for childhood illnesses. Various health system barriers: lack of medicines and supplies; long waiting times; late facility opening times; negative attitude of health workers; suboptimal examination of the sick child; long distance to health facility; and cost of healthcare were cited in this qualitative inquiry as critical health system factors affecting healthcare-seeking for child health services. Interventions to strengthen the health system's responsiveness to expectations are essential to promote utilisation of child health services among urban slum populations, and ultimately improve child health and survival.

  10. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  11. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Retooling the Social Studies Classroom for the Current Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth K.; Wright, Vivian H.; Inman, Christopher T.; Matherson, Lisa H.

    2011-01-01

    Digital technologies have changed the way students read and communicate. Subsequently, teachers must use technology to engage their students in learning. This article illustrates the value of using Web 2.0 tools (blogs, wikis, and digital media-sharing) in the social studies classroom. Additionally, a social studies teacher shares insights into…

  13. A Review of Current Studies on Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思雅

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces some previous studies on human capital, mainly regarding human capital’s properties and its relationship with corporate performance and capital structure. This study shows the importance of human capital and suggests that managers should pay more attention to employees.

  14. Meta-synthesis exploring barriers to health seeking behaviour among Malaysian breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Foo Qing; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta- synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system.

  15. The Information-Seeking Habits of Engineering Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Debra; Robbins, Sarah; Kulp, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of information-seeking habits of engineers focus on understanding the similarities and differences between scientists and engineers. This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic engineering faculty from twenty public research universities. This investigation includes an examination of how frequently engineer- ing…

  16. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  17. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  18. Review of current study methods for VRU safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Kamaluddin, Noor Azreena; Várhelyi, András

    written questionnaires (either online or paper-based), interviews may be performed (either face-to-face or via telephone) and people may be asked to report their accident via an app on their mobile device. The method for gaining self-reported information thus varies greatly – and so does the information...... that people are asked to give. In most studies, only the number of accidents in which the respondent was involved is relevant for the researcher. In other studies, respondents are asked about possible accident causation factors, and some studies deal with respondents’ recall of the accident details. In other...

  19. Current approaches of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Xu

    2008-01-01

    @@ With rapid advances in high-throughput genotyping technology and the great increase in information available on SNPs throughout the genuine, genuine-wide association(GWA) studies have now become feasible.

  20. Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere Akobundu; Jing Ju; Lisa Blatt; C Daniel Mullins

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods...