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  1. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  2. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  3. High-current railgap studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-03

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field-distortion-triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Image-converter streak photographs were used to study channel evolution and current division. Transient gas-pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance and lifetime are discussed. Lifetime tests of the rail gap were performed. Degradation in the channel current-sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  4. High-current railgap studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-01

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field distortion triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Channel evolution and current division were studied on image converter streak photographs. Transient gas pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance in the channel current sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  5. Revealing origin of quasi-one dimensional current transport in defect rich two dimensional materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    to a non-uniform current flow characteristic of lower dimensionality. In this work, simulations based on a finite element method together with a Monte Carlo approach are used to establish the transition from 2D to quasi-1D current transport, when applying a micro four-point probe to measure on 2D...... conductors with an increasing amount of line-shaped defects. Clear 2D and 1D signatures are observed at low and high defect densities, respectively, and current density plots reveal the presence of current channels or branches in defect configurations yielding 1D current transport. A strong correlation...

  6. Two modes of polyamine block regulating the cardiac inward rectifier K+ current IK1 as revealed by a study of the Kir2.1 channel expressed in a human cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiko; Ehara, Tsuguhisa

    2004-04-01

    The strong inward rectifier K(+) current, I(K1), shows significant outward current amplitude in the voltage range near the reversal potential and thereby causes rapid repolarization at the final phase of cardiac action potentials. However, the mechanism that generates the outward I(K1) is not well understood. We recorded currents from the inside-out patches of HEK 293T cells that express the strong inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir2.1 and studied the blockage of the currents caused by cytoplasmic polyamines, namely, spermine and spermidine. The outward current-voltage (I-V) relationships of Kir2.1, obtained with 5-10 microm spermine or 10-100 microm spermidine, were similar to the steady-state outward I-V relationship of I(K1), showing a peak at a level that is approximately 20 mV more positive than the reversal potential, with a negative slope at more positive voltages. The relationships exhibited a plateau or a double-hump shape with 1 microm spermine/spermidine or 0.1 microm spermine, respectively. In the chord conductance-voltage relationships, there were extra conductances in the positive voltage range, which could not be described by the Boltzmann relations fitting the major part of the relationships. The extra conductances, which generated most of the outward currents in the presence of 5-10 microm spermine or 10-100 microm spermidine, were quantitatively explained by a model that considered two populations of Kir2.1 channels, which were blocked by polyamines in either a high-affinity mode (Mode 1 channel) or a low-affinity mode (Mode 2 channel). Analysis of the inward tail currents following test pulses indicated that the relief from the spermine block of Kir2.1 consisted of an exponential component and a virtually instantaneous component. The fractions of the two components nearly agreed with the fractions of the blockages in Mode 1 and Mode 2 calculated by the model. The estimated proportion of Mode 1 channels to total channels was 0.9 with 0.1-10 microm

  7. Revealing origin of quasi-one dimensional current transport in defect rich two dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, Mikkel R.; Boll, Mads; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H.; Hansen, Ole; Kjær, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The presence of defects in graphene have for a long time been recognized as a bottleneck for its utilization in electronic and mechanical devices. We recently showed that micro four-point probes may be used to evaluate if a graphene film is truly 2D or if defects in proximity of the probe will lead to a non-uniform current flow characteristic of lower dimensionality. In this work, simulations based on a finite element method together with a Monte Carlo approach are used to establish the transition from 2D to quasi-1D current transport, when applying a micro four-point probe to measure on 2D conductors with an increasing amount of line-shaped defects. Clear 2D and 1D signatures are observed at low and high defect densities, respectively, and current density plots reveal the presence of current channels or branches in defect configurations yielding 1D current transport. A strong correlation is found between the density filling factor and the simulation yield, the fraction of cases with 1D transport and the mean sheet conductance. The upper transition limit is shown to agree with the percolation threshold for sticks. Finally, the conductance of a square sample evaluated with macroscopic edge contacts is compared to the micro four-point probe conductance measurements and we find that the micro four-point probe tends to measure a slightly higher conductance in samples containing defects

  8. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, H.; Muramatsu, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  9. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  10. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P; Eriksen, B; Crutzen, S [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  12. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Adrian N.; Cirelli, Claudio; Smolarski, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    the attoclock technique4 to obtain experimental information about the electron tunnelling geometry (the natural coordinates of the tunnelling current flow) and exit point. We confirm vanishing tunnelling delay time, show the importance of the inclusion of Stark shifts5, 6 and report on multi-electron effects......In the research area of strong-laser-field interactions and attosecond science1, tunnelling of an electron through the barrier formed by the electric field of the laser and the atomic potential is typically assumed to be the initial key process that triggers subsequent dynamics1, 2, 3. Here we use...... clearly identified by comparing results in argon and helium atoms. Our combined theory and experiment allows us to single out the geometry of the inherently one-dimensional tunnelling problem, through an asymptotic separation of the full three-dimensional problem. Our findings have implications for laser...

  14. Current status of studies on nodular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Satoru; Echigoya, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yutaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Takao; Yamanaka, Tuneyasu.

    1993-01-01

    The studies on nodular corrosion formed on the outer surface of BWR fuel cladding tubes were reviewed. Main factors affecting the corrosion behavior were material and environmental conditions and combined effect. The effects of such material conditions as fabrication process, alloy elements, texture and surface treatment and environmental factors as neutron irradiation, thermo-hydrodynamic, water chemistry, purity of the coolant and contact with foreign metals on the corrosion phenomena were surveyed. Out-of-reactor corrosion test methods and models for the corrosion mechanism were also reviewed. Suppression of the accumulated annealing temperature during tube reduction process improved the nodular corrosion resistance of Zircaloys. Improved resistance for the nodular corrosion was reported for the unirradiated Zircaloys with some additives. Detailed irradiation test under the BWR conditions is needed to confirm the trend. Concerning the environmental factors, boiling on the cladding surface due to heat flux reduces the nodular corrosion susceptibility, while oxidizing radical generated from dissolved oxygen accelerates the corrosion. Concerning corrosion mechanisms, importance of such phenomena as the depleted zone of alloying elements in zirconium matrix, reduction of H + to H 2 in oxide layer, electrochemical property of precipitates, crystallographic anisotropy of oxidation rates were revealed. (author) 59 refs

  15. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  16. Landmark Study Reveals Antarctic Glacier's Long History of Retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Kuska, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty Showcase Archive Article Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A major study, released in late November in the journal “Nature,” reveals the history of retreat of the massive Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in western Antarctica, widely considered one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise.

  17. Principals' Conceptions of Their Current Power Basis Revealed through Phenomenography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özaslan, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the variations in the ways that principals conceptualize their basis of power in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Phenomenography was used as the research method of this study. The interviewees consisted of 16 principals, eight from public schools and eight from private schools. Findings: The…

  18. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  19. Anode biofilm transcriptomics reveals outer surface components essential for high density current production in Geobacter sulfurreducens fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Nevin

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 microm biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley

    Full Text Available Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus. Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰ by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs, while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I; Koch, Paul L; Fiedler, Paul C; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS) by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  2. Experimental studies of coaxial plasma gun current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 μF, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated from the dielectric/vacuum interface in the AFWL system. Two gas values deliver gas in the system. The first delivers gas from the gun breech and the second optional valve delivers gas to the gun muzzle. Currents and voltages are measured by Rogowski coils, B probes and capacitive voltage probes. A O-D slug model is used to predict the current, inductance, gun voltage and plasma sheath velocity. The slug model assumes the sheath transits the gun with all mass in the sheath. In the snowplow mode, the plasma sheath is thin with a sharp current rise and drop. Our system operated in a transition mode between the snowplow and deflagration modes with early snowplow behavior and late deflagration behavior. Neutrons are produced in a plasma pinch at the gun muzzle, indicating snowplow behavior. The slug theory models overall gun behavior to experimental accuracy. Experimental results are compared to four theories for plasma sheath velocities: the Alfven collisionally limited model, the Rosenbluth model, the Fishbine saturated model and a single particle drift model. Experimental velocities vary from 10 5 to 10 6 m/s. Only the single particle drift and the slug model calculations are of the right magnitude (8 x 10 5 m/s). The Fishbine and the Rosenbluth models predict slower velocities (2 x 10 5 m/s). The Alfven model is not applicable to this system

  3. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  4. Study, design and manufacture eddy current probes for industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Phuc; Nguyen Van Thuy; Vuong Binh Duong; Do Minh Duc; Trinh Dinh Truong; Tran Trong Duc; Do Tung Khanh; Dang Quang Trung

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the studying, designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications. The main tasks of this study include: i) Describes the overview and classification of eddy current probes (which can be classified into three categories based on the mode of operation: absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe); ii) Describes the three methods of probe designing and manufacturing (including experimental, analytical and numerical designs); iii) Describes the designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications, which based on experimental and analytical methods. Based on this study, we have successfully manufactured some current probes (including absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe) for surface and tube inspections. (author)

  5. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes Riveros, M.A.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed

  6. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Riveros, M A [PELT, Puno (Peru); Gonfiantini, R [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed.

  7. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  9. Mathematics Teachers' Views of Accountability Testing Revealed through Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarema, Connie H.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of lesson study, a professional development model originating in Japan, aligns well with recommendations from research for teacher professional development. Lesson study is also an inductive research method that uncovers student thinking and, in parallel, grants teacher-educators the opportunity to study teachers' thinking about…

  10. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  11. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  12. Safety and tolerability of transcranial direct current stimulation to stroke patients - A phase I current escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Chen, Rong; Deardorff, Rachael; Dellenbach, Blair; Kautz, Steven A; George, Mark S; Feng, Wuwei

    A prior meta-analysis revealed that higher doses of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have a better post-stroke upper-extremity motor recovery. While this finding suggests that currents greater than the typically used 2 mA may be more efficacious, the safety and tolerability of higher currents have not been assessed in stroke patients. We aim to assess the safety and tolerability of single session of up to 4 mA in stroke patients. We adapted a traditional 3 + 3 study design with a current escalation schedule of 1»2»2.5»3»3.5»4 mA for this tDCS safety study. We administered one 30-min session of bihemispheric montage tDCS and simultaneous customary occupational therapy to patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. We assessed safety with pre-defined stopping rules and investigated tolerability through a questionnaire. Additionally, we monitored body resistance and skin temperature in real-time at the electrode contact site. Eighteen patients completed the study. The current was escalated to 4 mA without meeting the pre-defined stopping rules or causing any major safety concern. 50% of patients experienced transient skin redness without injury. No rise in temperature (range 26°C-35 °C) was noted and skin barrier function remained intact (i.e. body resistance >1 kΩ). Our phase I safety study supports that single session of bihemispheric tDCS with current up to 4 mA is safe and tolerable in stroke patients. A phase II study to further test the safety and preliminary efficacy with multi-session tDCS at 4 mA (as compared with lower current and sham stimulation) is a logical next step. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02763826. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of runaway current generation following disruptions in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z Y; Kim, W C; Yu, Y W; England, A C; Yoo, J W; Hahn, S H; Yoon, S W; Lee, K D; Oh, Y K; Kwak, J G; Kwon, M

    2013-01-01

    The high fraction of runaway current conversion following disruptions has an important effect on the first wall for next-generation tokamaks. Because of the potentially severe consequences of a large full current runaway beam on the first wall in an unmitigated disruption, runaway suppression is given a high priority. The behavior of runaway currents both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 massive gas injection (MGI) shutdown experiments is investigated in the KSTAR tokamak. The experiments in KSTAR show that the toroidal magnetic field threshold, B T >2 T, for runaway generation is not absolute. A high fraction of runaway current conversion following spontaneous disruptions is observed at a much lower toroidal magnetic field of B T = 1.3 T. A dedicated fast valve for high-pressure gas injection with 39.7 bar is developed for the study of disruptions. A study of runaway current parameters shows that the conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway current can reach over 80% both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 MGI shutdown experiments in KSTAR. (paper)

  14. A trade-off study revealing nested timescales of constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnants, M.L.; Cox, R.F.A; Hasselman, F.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Van Orden, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates human performance in a cyclic Fitts task at three different scales of observation, either in the presence (difficult condition) or in the absence (easy condition) of a speed–accuracy trade-off. At the fastest scale, the harmonicity of the back and forth movements, which

  15. In vitro study revealed different size behavior of different nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudien, Dirk; Knebel, Jan; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles is depending not only on the size of the primary particles but on the size of their agglomerates. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the behavior of nanoparticles after they have gotten in contact with cells. The presented study investigated the change of size of different commercially available nanoparticles after applying them to different cell lines such as A549, Calu-3, 16HBE14o and LK004 representative for the different parts of the human lung. The different nanoparticles exhibited differences in behavior of size. TiO 2 P25 showed a tendency to increase, whereas TiO 2 T805 and Printex ® 90 remained more or less at the same size. In contrast, ZnO < 50 nm particles showed a significant decrease of size.

  16. [Current status of diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in Shanghai revealed by a questionnaire analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhang, J; Cheng, Q J; Xu, J F; Jie, Z J; Jiao, Y; Huang, Y; Qu, J M

    2018-04-12

    Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among doctors in various hospitals across Shanghai, for the purpose of promoting the 2016 clinical practice guidelines for adult CAP of China. Methods: A questionnaire was designed to address the common questions in CAP management. The responses were collected via WeChat and the data were analyzed. Results: A total of 1 254 valid questionnaires were received, 46.1% from tertiary , 26.4% from secondary and 27.5% from primary care hospitals. Of these valid respondents, 31.4% were respiratory physicians and 68.6% from non-respiratory physicians. When diagnosing CAP, 78.1% of the doctors would use chest CT in more than 50% of the patients. Regarding the tools for evaluating the severity of CAP, 60.3% of the respondents would prefer CURB-65. "Respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and septic shock" were the most common criteria for admission to ICU. Blood culture was not widely used in severe CAP regardless of the level of hospitals ( P >0.05). The results of this survey showed that the top 5 pathogenic microorganisms of CAP were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Chlamydia pneumoniae. For non-severe CAP patients, all the doctors tended to select monotherapy. The most frequently used antimicrobial regimen for severe CAP was third- or fourth-generation cephalosporin monotherapy. As for combination therapy, the most frequently used regimen in tertiary hospitals was "carbapenem plus vancomycin" , while in primary and secondary hospitals it was "β-lactams plus macrolides" . More doctors from primary hospitals and non-respiratory medicine would consider "complete resolution of pulmonary opacity" as the indication to discontinue antimicrobial therapy or to discharge patients, and "prolonged high fever" , "large area consolidation" , "multiple lobe-segment involvement " as the indication for

  17. Evolutionary Meta-Analysis of Association Studies Reveals Ancient Constraints Affecting Disease Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Joel T.; Chen, Rong; Sanderford, Maxwell; Butte, Atul J.; Kumar, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide disease association studies contrast genetic variation between disease cohorts and healthy populations to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other genetic markers revealing underlying genetic architectures of human diseases. Despite scores of efforts over the past decade, many reproducible genetic variants that explain substantial proportions of the heritable risk of common human diseases remain undiscovered. We have conducted a multispecies genomic analysis of 5,831 putative human risk variants for more than 230 disease phenotypes reported in 2,021 studies. We find that the current approaches show a propensity for discovering disease-associated SNPs (dSNPs) at conserved genomic positions because the effect size (odds ratio) and allelic P value of genetic association of an SNP relates strongly to the evolutionary conservation of their genomic position. We propose a new measure for ranking SNPs that integrates evolutionary conservation scores and the P value (E-rank). Using published data from a large case-control study, we demonstrate that E-rank method prioritizes SNPs with a greater likelihood of bona fide and reproducible genetic disease associations, many of which may explain greater proportions of genetic variance. Therefore, long-term evolutionary histories of genomic positions offer key practical utility in reassessing data from existing disease association studies, and in the design and analysis of future studies aimed at revealing the genetic basis of common human diseases. PMID:22389448

  18. Despite some concerns, impact study reveals support for nuke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of 37 Hartsville, Tennessee community leaders indicates the community supports construction of a nuclear generating plant and does not see any major environmental impacts. The leaders do anticipate growth-related disruptions during the construction phase. The ERDA-sponsored social impact study is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to serve as a guide in planning future energy projects and for comparison with a coal-fired project under development in Georgia. Statistics from the survey are summarized. General observations note that the leaders tend to overestimate opposition to the nuclear plant and that local concerns focus on housing and traffic problems. The Tennessee Valley Authority is supplying funds for a mitigation plan, which is generally well received by the community

  19. Numerical study of gravity currents in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional, primitive-equation model was used to study gravity currents produced by instantaneous releases of a buoyant fluid in a rectangular channel. Without rotation, the gravity current passes through two distinct phases: an initial adjustment phase in which the front speed is constant, and an eventual self-similar phase in which the front speed decreases with time. With rotation, the gravity current is confined to the right-hand wall, forming a coastal jet. The initial front-speed is constant; however, the front speed decreases rapidly due to strong mixing at the horizontal edge of the gravity current. Also, with rotation, part of the buoyant fluid is trapped near the source region, forming an anticyclonic vortex

  20. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  1. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  2. A mechanistic understanding of ageing revealed by studying the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Erica J

    2012-03-01

    A main focus within biomedical research is to understand how adverse environmental conditions experienced during early development affects lifelong health (Barker 1992). Within this context, extensive research in rodent models and humans has shown that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) caused by nutrient restriction during early development is often followed by post-natal 'catch-up' growth when access to food resources improves. However, this accelerated growth rate seems to come at a cost, as metabolic and endocrine processes that are programmed during this time cause later-life onset of diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease (reviewed in Crespi & Denver 2005). In this issue Molecular Ecology, Geiger et al. (2012) asked what are the costs of catch-up growth in nutrient-restricted king penguin chicks (Fig. 1) by measuring lengths of telomeres, the protective DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes, before and after catch-up growth, as the amount and rate of telomere sequence loss over time has been associated with reduced lifespan in both model and nonmodel organisms (see reviews of Costantini et al. 2010; Haussmann & Marchetto 2010). Geiger et al. (2011) found that chicks entering the post-winter growth season at a smaller size exhibited increased growth rates (i.e. catch-up growth) at the cost of increased oxidative stress and reduced telomere lengths compared with the chicks entering the growth period at a larger size. Furthermore, chicks that did not survive had drastically shorter telomere lengths and reduced antioxidant capacities at the beginning of the growth period than all other chicks, thereby directly associating telomere length to mortality. These results suggest that while catch-up growth allows smaller chicks to head off into the world on equal footing with chicks that hatched at a larger size, it likely comes at the cost of a shortened lifespan. Thus, this study provides a mechanism that supports the

  3. Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Morgan, M.V.; Buechley, R.W.; Key, C.R.; Valdivia, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

  4. Study program for constant current capacitor charging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C.

    1978-10-04

    The objective of the study program was to determine the best method of charging 20,000 to 132,000 microfarads of capacitance to 22 kVdc in 14 to 15 sec. Component costs, sizes, weights, line current graphs, copies of calculations and manufacturer's data are included.

  5. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  6. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  7. A population-based study of associations between current posttraumatic stress symptoms and current fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdal, Anners; Lee, Kathryn A; Rokne, Berit; Knudsen, Øistein; Wahl, Astrid K; Dahl, Alv A

    2010-10-01

    This study explores current experience with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other variables (sociodemographic, mental distress, somatic morbidity, self-rated health, and quality of life [QoL]) in relation to fatigue. A representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 3,944) was invited to participate in a mailed survey, and 1,857 (47%) returned valid responses on the questionnaire that included the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale-10. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed a strong association with fatigue in univariate (β = .41) and multivariate analyses (β = .33). Associations between psychosocial health variables, QoL, and fatigue were confirmed. However, PTSD symptoms showed the strongest association with fatigue in the analyses. Findings need to be replicated in other population samples and in clinical samples with PTSD and fatigue.

  8. Study on current limiting characteristics of SFCL with two trigger current levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with two trigger current levels was suggested and its effectiveness through the analysis on the current limiting characteristics was described. The proposed SFCL, which consists of the triggering and the limiting components, can limit the fault current by generating the limiting impedance through two steps according to the amplitude of the initial fault current. In case that the fault happens, the lower initial fault current causes the only superconducting element of the triggering component to be quenched. On the other hand, the higher initial fault current makes both the superconducting elements comprising the triggering and the limiting components of the SFCL to be quenched, which contributes to the higher impedance of the SFCL. Therefore, the effective fault current limiting operation of the SFCL can be performed by generating the SFCL's impedance in proportion to the amplitude of the initial fault current. To confirm the current limiting operation of the proposed SFCL, the short-circuit tests of the SFCL according to the fault angle were carried out and its effective fault current limiting operations could be discussed.

  9. Study of noninductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three aspects of noninductive current generation are treated: (1) The kinetic problem, i.e., coupling between current-carrying energetic electrons on the one hand, and the electromagnetic wave and thermal particles on the other. (2). The electromagnetic problem, i.e., calculation of the wave structure produced by the antennas. (3) The study of nonthermal radiation and electrical responses. Green's functions are used to solve the kinetic problem. The electron distribution function is calculated. For the electromagnetic problem of wave structure at different wave numbers, the Green's function of the Maxwell equations in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium which is spatially and temporally scattered was calculated. Perturbation of propagation by diffusion and conversion was studied. The calculation of nonthermal radiation and of transfer of electromagnetic wave energy into magnetic energy is derived from the two preceding problems. A method to produce fusion power quasi-continuously using two inductively and thermally coupled tokamaks is proposed [fr

  10. Motor coordination and balance measurements reveal differential pathogenicity of currently spreading enterovirus 71 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Feng; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused large-scale epidemics with neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. The C4a and B5 strains are the two major genotypes circulating in many countries recently. This study used a new protocol, a motor coordination task, to assess the differential pathogenicity of C4a and B5 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice. We found that the pathogenicity of C4a viruses was more severe than that of B5 viruses. Moreover, we discovered that an increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was positively correlated with severely deficient motor function. This study provides a new method for evaluating EV71 infection in mice and distinguishing the severity of the symptoms caused by different clinical strains, which would contribute to studies of pathogenesis and development of vaccines and antivirals in EV71 infections.

  11. Contrasting Responses of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem between the Holocene and MIS5e Interglacials Revealed from Multiple Sediment Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatteci, R.; Schneider, R. R.; Blanz, T.; Martinez, P.; Crosta, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE) off Peru yields about 10% of the global fish catch, producing more fish per unit area than any other region in the world. The high productivity is maintained by the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), driven by strong trade winds. However, the potential impacts of climate change on upwelling dynamics and oceanographic conditions in the near future are uncertain, threatening local and global economies. Here, we unravel the response of the HCE to contrasting climatic conditions during the last two interglacials (i.e. Holocene and MIS5e) providing an independent insight about the relation between climatic factors and upwelling and productivity dynamics. For this purpose, we used multiple cores to reconstruct past changes in OMZ and upwelling intensity, productivity and fish biomass variability. Chronologies for the Holocene were obtained by multiple 14C ages and laminae correlations among cores, while for the MIS5e they were mainly done by correlation of prominent features in several proxies with other published records. We used a multiproxy approach including alkenones to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, δ15N as a proxy for water column denitrification, redox sensitive metals as proxies for sediment redox conditions, and diatom and fish debris assemblages to reconstruct ecological changes. The results show a very different response of the HCE to climate conditions during the last 2 interglacials, likely driven by changes in Tropical Pacific dynamics. During the Holocene we find that 1) the Late Holocene exhibits higher multi-centennial scale variability compared to the Early Holocene, 2) increased upwelling and a weak OMZ during the mid-Holocene, and 3) long term increase in productivity (diatoms and fishes) from the Early to the Late Holocene. During the MIS5e we find an 1) intense OMZ, 2) strong water column stratification, 3) high siliceous biomass, and 4) low fish biomass compared

  12. Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    detonation intense Electromagnetic Pulse Eergy (DIP) is gene - rated which could seriously affect the electronic equipment. 2-105 The intense...speciality efforts, such as integrated logistics support (ILS), human factors engineering ( HFE ), and reliability, availability and m aintainability...task analyiis is outlined in detail in Appendix C: Human Fac- tors Enqineering Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders. The HFE

  13. Study on pulsed current cathodic protection in a simulated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Milin; Li, Helin [Xi' an Jiao Tong Universitiy (China)]|[Tubular Goods Research Center of China National Petroleum Corp. (China); Qiu, Yubing; Guo, Xingpeng [Hua Zhong University of Science and Techonology (China)

    2004-07-01

    The pulsed current cathodic protection (PCCP) is a new cathodic protection (CP) technology and shows more advantages over the conventional DC cathodic protection (DCCP) in oil well casing system. However, little information about PCCP is reported. In this research, a simulated CP system was set up in a pool of 3.5 m x 2.0 m x 3.0 m size, in which the effects of the square wave pulsed current (SWPC) parameters (amplitude: IA, frequency: f, duty cycle: P), auxiliary anode distance (d) and media conductivity ({mu}) on the cathodic potential (E) distribution were studied, and the protection effects of PCCP and DCCP were compared. The results show that with increase of the square wave parameters (IA, f, P), the E distribution becomes more negative and the effects of each current parameter are relate closely to the cathode polarizing state. Only with suitable square wave parameters can the whole cathode be effectively protected. With increase of d and {mu}, the E distribution becomes more uniform. Compared with DCCP system, PCCP system has much more uniform E distribution, costs less average current, and gains much better protection effects. Further, the mechanism of PCCP was analyzed. (authors)

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Current Human Coronavirus Strains in Primary Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Reveal Differences in Target Cell Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized and hospitalized children. Studies of the fundamental aspects of these HCoV infections at the primary entry port, such as cell tropism, are seriously hampered by the lack of a universal culture system or suitable animal models. To expand the knowledge on fundamental virus-host interactions for all four HCoVs at the site of primary infection, we used pseudostratified HAE cell cultures to isolate and characterize representative clinical HCoV strains directly from nasopharyngeal material. Ten contemporary isolates were obtained, representing HCoV-229E (n = 1), HCoV-NL63 (n = 1), HCoV-HKU1 (n = 4), and HCoV-OC43 (n = 4). For each strain, we analyzed the replication kinetics and progeny virus release on HAE cell cultures derived from different donors. Surprisingly, by visualizing HCoV infection by confocal microscopy, we observed that HCoV-229E employs a target cell tropism for nonciliated cells, whereas HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63 all infect ciliated cells. Collectively, the data demonstrate that HAE cell cultures, which morphologically and functionally resemble human airways in vivo, represent a robust universal culture system for isolating and comparing all contemporary HCoV strains. PMID:23427150

  15. Experimental study of anti-tumor activity of direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1989-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of direct current combined with radiation was studied. The experiments were performed with fibrosarcomas (FSA, NFSA) syngenetic to C3H mice. Direct current (0.6mA, 120min) alone was effective to reduce the tumor sizes, but could not cure the tumors. When the direct current therapy (DC therapy) was combined with radiation the DC therapy following radiation was more effective than that before radiation. Using TCD 50 assay, the DC therapy enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.2. However, tumor control rates by the combination therapy were more improved at the smaller doses of radiation than at the larger ones. When the single DC therapy (0.6mA, 120min) was applied immediately after the first radiation of fractionated one the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both DC therapy and the radiation therapy were divided in three fractions, and the DC therapy (0.6mA, 40min) was applied after each radiation. Tumor growth retardation by the combination therapy was no different from that by radiation alone. This result suggests that there might be a minimum required dose of coulombs to show the effect of the combination therapy. (author)

  16. Wind-Forced Modeling Studies of Currents, Meanders, Eddies, and Filaments of the Canary Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    infra-red images from NOAA7 and NOAA9 and numerous in- situ measurements reveal the existence of a surface poleward flow off the northern coast of...dinamica das Aguas costeiras de Portugal. Dissertacao apresentada a Universidade de Lisboa para obtencao do grau de Doutor em Fisica, especializacao

  17. Model-independent study of light cone current commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.R.; Dicus, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to extract information on the nature of light cone current commutators (L. C. C.) in a model independent manner. Using simple assumptions on the validity of the DGS representation for the structure functions of deep inelastic scattering and using the Bjorken--Johnston--Low theorem it is shown that in principle the L. C. C. may be constructed knowing the experimental electron--proton scattering data. On the other hand the scaling behavior of the structure functions is utilized to study the consistency of a vanishing value for various L. C. C. under mild assumptions on the behavior of the DGS spectral moments. (U.S.)

  18. Current CTR-related tritium handling studies at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Bell, J.T.; Clinton, S.D.; Fisher, P.W.; Redman, J.D.; Smith, F.J.; Talbot, J.B.; Tung, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a comprehensive program concerned with plasma fuel recycle, tritium recovery from blankets, and tritium containment in fusion reactors. Two studies of most current interest are investigations of cryosorption pumping of hydrogen isotopes and measurements of tritium permeation rates through steam generator materials. Cryosorption pumping speeds have been measured for hydrogen, deuterium, and helium at pressures from 10 -8 torr to 3 x 10 -3 torr. Permeation rates through Incoloy 800 have been shown to be drastically reduced when the low pressure side of permeation tubes are exposed to steam. These results will be important considerations in the design of fusion reactor steam generators

  19. Design studies on high current and grid control electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinnan; Lu Kun; Chi Yunlong; Zhou Zusheng

    2011-01-01

    Electron gun, the source of electrons, is a kind of ultrahigh vacuum device and plays an important role in different kind of accelerators. With the irradiation accelerator demands, describes the design studies on beam optics optimization. The simulation result shows that the beam current is above 5 A with cathode voltage of 80 kV and beam emittance, gun electric field and beam waist radius meet the accelerator needs. The electron gun manufactured and installed in the test stand, the conditioning and test will be done in the near future. (authors)

  20. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  1. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha C. Mulakkal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy.

  2. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  3. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  4. Studies on fast wave current drive in the JAERI tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Fujii, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tamai, H.; Saigusa, M.; Imai, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fukuyama, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fast wave electron heating experiment (FWEH) on JFT-2M and JT-60 and analysis of fast wave current drive (FWCD) ability on JT-60U are presented. In the JFT-2M, absorption of fast waves have been investigated by using a phased four-loop antenna array. The absorption of the fast waves has been studied for various plasma parameters by using combination of other additional heating methods such as electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and ion cyclotron heating. It is shown that the absorption efficiency estimated from various methods well correlates with one calculated theoretically in single pass damping. Interaction of the fast waves with fast electrons in combination with ECH has been examined through the measurement of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The observed ECE during FWEH is well explained by the theoretical model, which indicates generation of the appreciable energetic fast electrons by the fast waves. New four-loop array antennas have been employed to improve the absorption of unidirectionally-propagating waves. Characteristics of antenna loading resistance can be reproduced by a coupling calculation code. In JT-60, FWEH experiment in combination with lower hybrid current drive was performed. Power absorption efficiency of fast wave is substantially improved in combination with LHCD of relatively low power for both phasing modes. Bulk electron heating is observed with high-k // mode and coupling with fast electron is confirmed in hard X-ray emission with low-k // mode. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction based on 1.D full wave code. Synergetic effects between FWEH and LHCD are found. Coupling calculation indicates that eight-loop antenna is favourable for keeping high directivity in the required N // -range. Current drive efficiency is calculated with 1-D full wave code including trapped particle effects and higher harmonic ion cyclotron damping

  5. Fish gut-liver immunity during homeostasis or inflammation revealed by integrative transcriptome and proteome studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Song, Yu-Long; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Wang, Ya-Li; Cheng, Ying-Yin; Chen, Dan-Dan; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Yong-An

    2016-11-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias. We found more categories of immune transcripts in gut than liver, as well as more adaptive immune in gut meanwhile more innate in liver. Interestingly reduced differential immune transcripts between gut and liver upon inflammation were also revealed. In addition, more immune proteins in bile than intestinal mucus were identified. And bile probably providing immune effectors to intestinal mucus upon inflammation was deduced. Specifically, many key immune transcripts in gut or liver as well as key immune proteins in mucus or bile were demonstrated. Accordingly, we proposed a hypothesized profile of fish gut-liver immunity, during either homeostasis or inflammation. Current data suggested that fish gut and liver may collaborate immunologically while keep homeostasis using own strategies, including potential unique mechanisms.

  6. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  7. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  8. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  9. Current measurement studies around the Cesme Peninsula (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taspinar, N.

    1989-04-01

    In order to design coastal structures and marine vehicles safely, it is required to know current climate which shows the variation of the current characteristics with time. There are a wide variety of current meters designed to measure water flow today. Each current meter is capable of recording the influence of mooring arrangement. Here we describe sea water temperatures, salinities and current velocities at offshore of Akburun, Tatlicak Burnu, Kalem Burnu and Kizil Burun areas in Cesme Peninsula 27 August, 1986 to 19 November, 1986. At the end of the investigations, measured significant maximum and average current velocities have been routinely analysed with micro-computers and also the percentages of current velocity have been calculated. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  10. DNA barcoding and morphological studies reveal two new species of waxcap mushrooms (Hygrophoraceae in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Ainsworth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous diagnostics and documentation of fungal species are fundamental to their conservation. During the course of a species-level study of UK waxcap (Hygrophoraceae diversity, two previously unrecognized species were discovered. We describe Gliophorus europerplexus sp. nov. and G. reginae sp. nov., respectively orange–brown and purple–pink waxcap mushrooms, from nutrient-poor grasslands in Britain. Both share some morphological features with specimens assigned to Gliophorus (=Hygrocybe psittacinus. However, analysis of sequences of the nuclear ITS DNA barcode region from these and related taxa confirms the phylogenetic distinctness of these lineages. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the holotype of Hygrophorus perplexus, a North American species morphologically resembling G. europerplexus, is phylogenetically divergent from all our collections. It is likely that further collections of G. europerplexus will be revealed by sequencing European material currently filed under G. perplexus and its synonyms. However, two such collections in the Kew fungarium yielded sequences that clustered together but were divergent from those of G. europerplexus, G. perplexus and G. psittacinus and may represent a further novel taxon. By contrast, G. reginae is morphologically distinct and can usually be recognized in the field by its purplish viscid pileus and relatively stout, flexuose, pale stipe. It is named to commemorate the diamond jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in 2012 and the 60th anniversary of her coronation in 2013.

  11. Rationing critical care medicine: recent studies and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas S

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the rationing of critical care resources. Although much has been written about the concept of rationing, there have been few scientific studies as to its prevalence. A recent meta-analysis reviewed all previously published studies on rationing access to intensive care units but little is known about practices within the intensive care unit. Much literature in the past few years has focused on the growing use of critical care resources and projections for the future. Several authors suggest there may be a crisis in financial or personnel resources if some rationing does not take place. Other papers have argued that the methods of rationing critical care previously proposed, such as limiting the care of dying patients or using cost-effectiveness analysis to determine care, may not be effective or viewed as ethical by some. Finally, several recent papers review how critical care is practiced and allocated in India and Asian countries that already practice open rationing in their health care systems. There is currently no published evidence that overt rationing is taking place in critical care medicine. There is growing evidence that in the future, the need for critical care may outstrip financial resources unless some form of rationing takes place. It is also clear from the literature that choosing how to ration critical care will be a difficult task.

  12. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  13. Current Highlights on ESA's Planetary Technology Reference Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, P.

    The concept of Technology Reference Studies has been introduced already at EGU05, where the Venus Entry Probe (VEP), the Jupiter Minisat Explorer (JME), the Deimos Sample Return (DSR) and the Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) have been presented in detail. At the EGU06 the new studies in reaction to the Cosmic Vision exercise have been introduced. The formulation of themes and mapping into potential future missions has been taken as basis in the planning of additional new and adaptation of existing TRS's to cover areas, which have not yet been addressed by any TRS. These new ongoing studies are progressing well and current highlights will be presented in the paper in further detail as well as an overview on supporting technology studies and Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) sessions. The Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) study investigates mission concepts with up to two Magnetospheric Orbiters placed in a highly elliptical Jovian orbit and the possibility to deploy a Jovian Entry Probe. The mission profile is based on a solar powered concept launched on a Soyuz-Fregat launcher. Mission analysis and the application of a new Jovian radiation model are supporting the study activities. The Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return (NEA-SR) concept explores the possibilities of sample return or in-situ mission profiles with visits to up to two NEA targets. Due to the assumed low cost cap a trade between a sample return and remote/in-situ exploration concept has a high attention in the study. The Cross Scale TRS (CS-TRS) is intended to simultaneously investigate magnetospheric and plasma processes in three spatial scales with a formation flight of up to 12 spacecraft, orbiting on deep elliptical orbits around Earth. One of the major challenges is the launch of that number of spacecraft on a single launcher and the collisionless deployment of the formation at the target orbit. The scope if the GeoSail TRS is to demonstrate deployment, attitude control and navigation concepts for a

  14. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-30

    Sep 30, 2010 ... problematic currents in the English-speaking world and that we find ourselves in the context of developing postmodern, post-analytic and post-empiricist approaches. Even so, analytic philosophy of religion is still the most representative current in the discipline within the English-speaking world.

  15. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    We have shown the existence and made a study of the current oscillations produced in high-resistivity gallium arsenide by a strong electric field. The oscillations are associated with the slow travelling of a region of high electrical field across the whole sample. An experimental study of the properties of these instabilities has made it possible for us to distinguish this phenomenon from the Gunn effect, from acoustic-electric effects and from contact effects. In order to account for this type of instability, a differential trapping mechanism involving repulsive impurities is proposed; this mechanism can reduce the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band at strong electrical fields and can lead to the production of a high-field domain. By developing this model qualitatively we have been able to account for all the properties of high-resistance gallium arsenide crystals subjected to a strong electrical field: increase of the Hall constant, existence of a voltage threshold for these oscillations, production of domains of high field, low rate of propagation of these domains, and finally the possibility of inverting the direction of the propagation of the domain without destroying the latter. A quantitative development of the model makes it possible to calculate the various characteristic parameters of these instabilities. Comparison with experiment shows that there is a good agreement, the small deviations coming especially from the lack of knowledge concerning transport properties in gallium arsenide subjected to high fields. From a study of this model, it appears that the instability phenomenon can occur over a wide range of repulsive centre concentrations, and also for a large range of resistivities. This is the reason why it appears systematically in gallium arsenide of medium and high resistivity. (authors) [fr

  16. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  17. Study of non inductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of non-thermal bremsstrahlung during lower hybrid current drive is considered. The proposed method shows the role of the Compton effects at low frequencies and allows us to establish the link between the emitted power and the absorbed power at high frequency. The non-thermal emission is considered as a kinematical mode conversion between the absorbed radio-frequency mode and the emitted X ray photons. The fast electrons diagnostics and the ways to reach the wave structure are shown. Kinetic and electromagnetic problems concerning current generation are described. The plasma properties and diagnostics in the case of a non inductive current generation are discussed [fr

  18. Modulation of enrofloxacin binding in OmpF by Mg2+ as revealed by the analysis of fast flickering single-porin current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauser, Annemarie; Schroeder, Indra; Gutsmann, Thomas; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    One major determinant of the efficacy of antibiotics on Gram-negative bacteria is the passage through the outer membrane. During transport of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin through the trimeric outer membrane protein OmpF of Escherichia coli, the antibiotic interacts with two binding sites within the pore, thus partially blocking the ionic current. The modulation of one affinity site by Mg2+ reveals further details of binding sites and binding kinetics. At positive membrane potentials, the slow blocking events induced by enrofloxacin in Mg2+-free media are converted to flickery sojourns at the highest apparent current level (all three pores flickering). This indicates weaker binding in the presence of Mg2+. Analysis of the resulting amplitude histograms with β distributions revealed the rate constants of blocking (kOB) and unblocking (kBO) in the range of 1,000 to 120,000 s−1. As expected for a bimolecular reaction, kOB was proportional to blocker concentration and kBO independent of it. kOB was approximately three times lower for enrofloxacin coming from the cis side than from the trans side. The block was not complete, leading to a residual conductivity of the blocked state being ∼25% of that of the open state. Interpretation of the results has led to the following model: fast flickering as caused by interaction of Mg2+ and enrofloxacin is related to the binding site at the trans side, whereas the cis site mediates slow blocking events which are also found without Mg2+. The difference in the accessibility of the binding sites also explains the dependency of kOB on the side of enrofloxacin addition and yields a means of determining the most plausible orientation of OmpF in the bilayer. The voltage dependence suggests that the dipole of the antibiotic has to be adequately oriented to facilitate binding. PMID:22689827

  19. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  20. Theoretical study of a flat eddy current probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.; Dumont-Fillon, J.; Labbe, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the computation of the impedance of an eddy current probe has been determined in the case of flat product testing. Various applications are discussed with particular emphasis on ferromagnetic materials [fr

  1. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  2. Transport properties of triarylamine based dendrimers studied by space charge limited current transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Marek Z.; Kulszewicz-Bajer, Irena; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Djurado, David

    2012-08-01

    We have studied hole transport in triarylamine based dendrimer using space-charge-limited current transient technique. A mobility of 8 × 10-6 cm2/(V s) and a characteristic detrapping time of about 100 ms have been obtained. We found that quasi-ohmic contact is formed with gold. The obtained mobility differs from the apparent one given by the analysis of stationary current-voltage characteristics because of a limited contact efficiency. The comparison between transients obtained from fresh and aged samples reveals no change in mobility with aging. The deterioration of electrical properties is exclusively caused by trap formation and accumulation of ionic conducting impurities. Finally, repeated transient measurements have been applied to analyze the dynamics of charge trapping process.

  3. Crane RF accelerator for high current radiation damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Anamkath, H.; Evans, K.; Lyons, S.; Palmer, D.; Miller, R.; Treas, P.; Zante, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron accelerator was designed and built for the Naval Weapons Support Center for transient radiation effects on electronics experiments and testing. The Crane L Band RF Electron Linac was designed to provide high currents over a wide range of pulse widths and energies. The energy extends to 60 MeV and pulse widths vary from a few ns to 10 μsec. Beam currents range from 20 amps in the short pulse case to 1.5 amps in the long pulse case. This paper describes the linac, its architecture, the e-gun and pulser, waveguides, klystrons and modulator, vacuum system, beam transport, and control systems. fig., tab

  4. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits...

  5. West Virginia Women Business Owners: Current Study and Trends Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Linda L.; FitzGerald, Kathleen M.

    This report profiles current West Virginia women business owners and notes significant trends in the last eight years. It highlights a subgroup of women business owners, specifically low income, single women with children. These survey areas are discussed: industry sector, type of ownership, reasons for going/not going into business, planning…

  6. A revealed-preference study of behavioural impacts of real-time traffic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.S.A.; Tseng, Y.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of real-time traffic information on traveller behaviour by using repeated day-to-day revealed-preference (RP) observations from a reward experiment. We estimate a trip scheduling model of morning peak behaviour that allows us to determine the impact of

  7. Study of non-inductive current drive using high energy neutral beam injection on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) current drive was experimentally studied. The N-NB driven current density was determined over a wide range of electron temperatures by using the motional Stark effect spectroscopy. Theoretical prediction of the NB current drive increasing with beam energy and electron temperature was validated. A record value of NB current drive efficiency 1.55 x 10 19 Am -2 W -1 was achieved simultaneously with high confinement and high beta at at a plasma current of 1.5 MA under a fully non-inductively current driven condition. The experimental validation of NB current drive theory for MHD quiescent plasmas gives greater confidence in predicting the NB current drive in future reactors. However, it was also found that MHD instabilities caused a degradation of NB current drive. A beam-driven instability expelled N-NB fast ions carrying non-inductive current from the central region. The lost N-NB driven current was estimated to be 7% of the total N-NB driven current. For the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), comparisons of the measured neutron yield and fast ion pressure profile with transport code calculations revealed that the loss of fast ions increases with the NTM activity and that fast ions at higher energies suffer larger transport than at lower energies. (author)

  8. Automated Studies of Continuing Current in Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Claros, Jose

    Continuing current (CC) is a continuous luminosity in the lightning channel that lasts longer than 10 ms following a lightning return stroke to ground. Lightning flashes following CC are associated with direct damage to power lines and are thought to be responsible for causing lightning-induced forest fires. The development of an algorithm that automates continuing current detection by combining NLDN (National Lightning Detection Network) and LEFA (Langmuir Electric Field Array) datasets for CG flashes will be discussed. The algorithm was applied to thousands of cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 40 km of Langmuir Lab, New Mexico measured during the 2013 monsoon season. It counts the number of flashes in a single minute of data and the number of return strokes of an individual lightning flash; records the time and location of each return stroke; performs peak analysis on E-field data, and uses the slope of interstroke interval (ISI) E-field data fits to recognize whether continuing current (CC) exists within the interval. Following CC detection, duration and magnitude are measured. The longest observed C in 5588 flashes was 631 ms. The performance of the algorithm (vs. human judgement) was checked on 100 flashes. At best, the reported algorithm is "correct" 80% of the time, where correct means that multiple stations agree with each other and with a human on both the presence and duration of CC. Of the 100 flashes that were validated against human judgement, 62% were hybrid. Automated analysis detects the first but misses the second return stroke in many cases where the second return stroke is followed by long CC. This problem is also present in human interpretation of field change records.

  9. Functional interaction between right parietal and bilateral frontal cortices during visual search tasks revealed using functional magnetic imaging and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ellison

    Full Text Available The existence of a network of brain regions which are activated when one undertakes a difficult visual search task is well established. Two primary nodes on this network are right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC and right frontal eye fields. Both have been shown to be involved in the orientation of attention, but the contingency that the activity of one of these areas has on the other is less clear. We sought to investigate this question by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to selectively decrease activity in rPPC and then asking participants to perform a visual search task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with a condition in which sham tDCS was applied revealed that cathodal tDCS over rPPC causes a selective bilateral decrease in frontal activity when performing a visual search task. This result demonstrates for the first time that premotor regions within the frontal lobe and rPPC are not only necessary to carry out a visual search task, but that they work together to bring about normal function.

  10. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  11. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  12. Study of rare earth separation by counter current electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Sergio Machado

    1995-08-01

    The counter current electromigration (CCEM) is an electrophoretic technique where the charged species migrate on an electrical field toward an electrolytic flux. Usually this electrolyte is a complexing agent and is necessary to increase the small differences between the species mobilities. A new column was developed, all made of acrylic, in a cylindrical shape. A set of experiments was carried out with the species Na + /K + , K + /Sm +3 , K + /Eu +3 and K + /Sm +3 /Eu +3 using the α-hydrox i-isobutyric acid o,01 M as the counter current electrolytic flux. From a synthetic mixture of 90% of samarium and 10% of europium was obtained the samarium ion in a purity better than 99,9% where the concentration of Eu was determined by the polarography technique. The potassium ion was used as a leading electrolyte. It was also measured the mobilities of the involved species in the α-HIBA medium. Two models are proposed, a stationary model and a dynamic one. A simulator of a simplified stationary model, prepared in FORTRAN language, was developed and tested toward experimental results. (author)

  13. Study of the 'non-Abelian' current algebra of a non-linear σ-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2006-01-01

    A particular form of non-linear σ-model, having a global gauge invariance, is studied. The detailed discussion on current algebra structures reveals the non-Abelian nature of the invariance, with field dependent structure functions. Reduction of the field theory to a point particle framework yields a non-linear harmonic oscillator, which is a special case of similar models studied before in [J.F. Carinena et al., Nonlinearity 17 (2004) 1941, math-ph/0406002; J.F. Carinena et al., in: Proceedings of 10th International Conference in Modern Group Analysis, Larnaca, Cyprus, 2004, p. 39, math-ph/0505028; J.F. Carinena et al., Rep. Math. Phys. 54 (2004) 285, hep-th/0501106]. The connection with non-commutative geometry is also established

  14. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.R.; Dodd, C.V.

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs

  15. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, J. R.; Dodd, C. V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs.

  16. Studies of current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR) and current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin

    2005-08-01

    We present two CPP-MR studies of spin-valves based upon ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (F/N/F) trilayers. We measure the spin-diffusion lengths of N = Pd, Pt, and Au at 4.2K, and both the specific resistances (sample area A times resistance R) and spin-memory-loss of N/Cu interfaces. Pd, Pt and Au are of special device interest because they give perpendicular anisotropy when sandwiching very thin Co layers. Comparing our spin-memory-loss data at Pd/Cu and Pt/Cu interfaces with older data for Nb/Cu and W/Cu gives insight into the importance of spin-orbit coupling in producing such loss. We reproduce and extend prior studies by Eid of 'magnetic activity' at the interface of Co and N-metals (or combinations of N-metals), when the other side of the N-metal contacts a superconductor (S). Our data suggest that magnetic activity may require strong spin-flipping at the N/S interface. We present five studies of a new phenomenon, CIMS, in F1/N/F2 trilayers, with F1 a thick 'polarizing' layer and F2 a thin 'switching' layer. In all prior studies of CIMS, positive current caused the magnetization of F2 to switch from parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) to that of F1- 'normal' switching. By judicious addition of impurities to F-metals, we are able to controllably produce both 'normal' and 'inverse' switching- where positive current switches the magnetization of F2 from AP to P to that of F1. In the samples studied, whether the switching is normal or inverse is set by the 'net polarization' produced by F1 and is independent of the properties of F2. As scattering in the bulk of F1 and F2 is essential to producing our results, these results cannot be described by ballistic models, which allow scattering only at interfaces. Most CIMS experiments use Cu as the N-layer due to its low resistivity and long spin-diffusion length. We show that Ag and Au have low enough resistivities and long enough spin-diffusion lengths to be useful alternatives to Cu for some devices. While

  17. A Comparative Study of Voltage, Peak Current and Dual Current Mode Control Methods for Noninverting Buck-Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Č. Bošković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of voltage mode control (VMC and two current mode control (CMC methods of noninverting buck-boost converter. The converter control-to-output transfer function, line-to-output transfer function and the output impedance are obtained for all methods by averaging converter equations over one switching period and applying small-signal linearization. The obtained results are required for the design procedure of feedback compensator to keep a system stable and robust. A comparative study of VMC, peak current mode control (PCMC and dual-current mode control (DCMC is performed. Performance evaluation of the closed-loop system with obtained compensator between these methods is performed via numerical simulations.

  18. Current Experimental Studies of Gene Therapy in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-ya Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD was characterized by late-onset, progressive dopamine neuron loss and movement disorders. The progresses of PD affected the neural function and integrity. To date, most researches had largely addressed the dopamine replacement therapies, but the appearance of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia hampered the use of the drug. And the mechanism of PD is so complicated that it's hard to solve the problem by just add drugs. Researchers began to focus on the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's disease, searching for new method that may affect the neurodegeneration processes in it. In this paper, we reviewed current delivery methods used in gene therapies for PD, we also summarized the primary target of the gene therapy in the treatment of PD, such like neurotrophic factor (for regeneration, the synthesis of neurotransmitter (for prolong the duration of L-dopa, and the potential proteins that might be a target to modulate via gene therapy. Finally, we discussed RNA interference therapies used in Parkinson's disease, it might act as a new class of drug. We mainly focus on the efficiency and tooling features of different gene therapies in the treatment of PD.

  19. Current research efforts of EP study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    After the successful demonstration of H mode on KSTAR, the problem of fast-ion driven MHD modes such as Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) and the reverse effects on fast ions of MHD modes is under study in KSTAR. In this paper, I will briefly describe some recent efforts of KSTAR on energetic particle physics study. (J.P.N.)

  20. Study on the Swiss electricity market - the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N. O.

    2007-01-01

    This short article discusses the results of a study made on the opinions of energy suppliers in Switzerland with respect to future power generation in Switzerland. In particular, questions concerning new nuclear power stations and gas-fueled generating facilities are examined. The study was commissioned to tackle questions concerning the liberalisation of the electricity market, a future possible gap in supply, mains regulation and changes in market structure. The article discusses the findings of the study, in which 87 utilities took part, and lists strategic areas for action to be taken by electricity utilities such as efficiency analysis, regulation management, co-operative sourcing and possible mergers and acquisitions

  1. Remote Sensing Studies Of The Current Martian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F. W.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Moroz, V. I.

    A systematic and detailed experimental study of the Martian atmosphere remains to be carried out, despite many decades of intense interest in the nature of the Martian climate system, its interactions, variability and long-term stability. Such a study is planned by the 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, using limb-scanning infrared radiometric techniques similar to those used to study trace species in the terrestrial stratosphere. For Mars, the objectives are temperature, humidity, dust and condensate abundances with high vertical resolution and global coverage in the 0 to 80 km height range. The paper will discuss the experiment and its methodology and expectations for the results.

  2. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of ...

  3. Objectives and current status of the study Mobi-kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Eastman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. Mobi-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL Barcelona, is underway in 15 countries to assess potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communications technology (RF and extremely low frequency (ELF) fields) on brain tumour risk. The study aims to recruit over 2,000 cases of brain tumours aged 10 to 24 years and their respective controls (300 cases and 600 controls from Spain). The project builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. Hospital based controls are being selected to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates of population-based controls, validation of questionnaire responses with recross from network operators will allow characterization of possible recall errors. Extensive work has gone into characterising and modelling ELF and RF exposure from different types of mobile and cordless phones, from different communication systems, and from other environmental sources of EMF. The study will address a public health problem of increasing importance in Spain and provide information on potential health risks from mobile telephone use as well as from EMF in general. (Author) 21 refs.

  4. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  5. Study of efficiency and current use of respiratory protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Kalos, F.

    1984-12-01

    The efficiency of a helmet-type powered air-purifying respirator was studied in the work environment of an underground uranium mine. Workplace protection factors (WPF) were measured, using approximately 30-minute air sampling periods and repeated sampling throughout the work shifts for six miners during three shifts each. The WPF of the modified Racal AH-5 helmet was 17.8 (geometric mean) with new filters in the respirator; the WPF dropped to 5.3 when four-day-old filters were used. The WPF results were lognormally distributed. The test population appeared to be a homogeneous set: there was no significant difference in the mean WPFs of individual test subjects. The study could not resolve any effect of elapsed time within the work shift or of ambient Working Level on the WPF. The actual use levels and the problems associated with respirator use were studied at the same time, principally via a user survey. The respirators have a high level of acceptance among the user population of underground uranium miners and 72.5 percent of the 207 survey respondents stated six or more hours use with the visor in the correct 'down' position per shift

  6. The current status of glass leaching studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, F.

    1983-11-01

    Glass has been selected in France as the material used to confine the activity of fission product solutions, and a continuous vitrification process has been developed at the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM), the first industrial plant. Borosilicate glass was chosen in various compositions for its properties: it is a homogeneous, non-porous material that incorporates appreciable quantities of most of the fission product oxides, and is only alterable at the surface interface layer. Glass thus constitutes the primary radioactivity containment barrier, and it is essential to determine its long-term behavior. Water constitutes the principal hazard during temporary or definitive storage of the glass blocks. Two types of inherent material properties are studied from the standpoint of glass stability under leaching conditions: - chemical durability; - radioactive containability with regard to the various radionuclides, fission products and especially the actinides. Durability tests are carried out in SOXHLET devices and the alteration rates are measured by the weight loss. The containability is measured by the leach rate, i.e. by the rate of activity loss into the water. Leaching tests are conducted for several major objectives: - selection of glass compositions (leach rates); - leaching mechanism studies (hydrolyzed layer characteristics, effects of temperature, pressure, pH, etc.); - long-term behavior studies (glass specimens doped with alpha-emitters); - simulation of geological repository environments [fr

  7. Quantitative proteomic study of Aspergillus Fumigatus secretome revealed deamidation of secretory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-04-24

    Aspergillus sp. plays an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and is also exploited as cell factories for the production of industrial enzymes. This study profiled the secretome of Aspergillus fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch by high throughput quantitative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Post translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a critical role in protein functions. However, our understanding of the PTMs in secretory proteins is limited. Here, we present the identification of PTMs such as deamidation of secreted proteins of A. fumigatus. This study quantified diverse groups of extracellular secreted enzymes and their functional classification revealed cellulases and glycoside hydrolases (32.9%), amylases (0.9%), hemicellulases (16.2%), lignin degrading enzymes (8.1%), peptidases and proteases (11.7%), chitinases, lipases and phosphatases (7.6%), and proteins with unknown function (22.5%). The comparison of quantitative iTRAQ results revealed that cellulose and xylan stimulates expression of specific cellulases and hemicellulases, and their abundance level as a function of substrate. In-depth data analysis revealed deamidation as a major PTM of key cellulose hydrolyzing enzymes like endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and glucosidases. Hemicellulose degrading endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, monosidases, xylosidases, lignin degrading laccase, isoamyl alcohol oxidase and oxidoreductases were also found to be deamidated. The filamentous fungi play an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus were also exploited as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. In this study, extracellular proteins secreted by thermophilic A. fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch were profiled using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) by

  8. Simultaneous mapping of membrane voltage and calcium in zebrafish heart in vivo reveals chamber-specific developmental transitions in ionic currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Hou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac action potential (AP and the consequent cytosolic Ca2+ transient are key indicators of cardiac function. Natural developmental processes, as well as many drugs and pathologies change the waveform, propagation, or variability (between cells or over time of these parameters. Here we apply a genetically encoded dual-function calcium and voltage reporter (CaViar to study the development of the zebrafish heart in vivo between 1.5 and 4 days post fertilization (dpf. We developed a high-sensitivity spinning disk confocal microscope and associated software for simultaneous three-dimensional optical mapping of voltage and calcium. We produced a transgenic zebrafish line expressing CaViar under control of the heart-specific cmlc2 promoter, and applied ion channel blockers at a series of developmental stages to map the maturation of the action potential in vivo. Early in development, the AP initiated via a calcium current through L-type calcium channels. Between 90 – 102 hours post fertilization (hpf, the ventricular AP switched to a sodium-driven upswing, while the atrial AP remained calcium driven. In the adult zebrafish heart, a sodium current drives the AP in both the atrium and ventricle. Simultaneous voltage and calcium imaging with genetically encoded reporters provides a new approach for monitoring cardiac development, and the effects of drugs on cardiac function.

  9. Study of charged current reactions induced by muon antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huss, D.

    1979-07-01

    We present in this work a study of antineutrino reactions on light targets. We have used the Gargamelle cloud chamber with a propane-freon mix. In the 2 first chapters we give a brief description of the experimental setting and we present the selection criteria of the events. In the third chapter we analyse the data for the reaction anti-ν + p → μ + + n that preserves strangeness. We have deduced the values of the axial (M A ) and vector (M V ) form factors: M A = (O.92 ± 0.08) GeV and M V = (0.86 ± 0.04) GeV. In the fourth chapter we study reactions in which strange particles appear (ΔS = 1) and we have determined their production cross-sections. The elastic reaction: anti-ν + p → μ + + Λ is studied in a more accurate manner thanks to a 3-constraint adjustment that enables the selection of events occurring on free protons. We have deduced from our data the longitudinal, orthogonal and transverse polarization of Λ, we have got respectively P l = -0.06 ± 0.44; P p = 0.29 ± 0.41; P t 1.05 ± 0.30. We have also deduced the values of the total cross-section as a function of the incident antineutrino energy E: σ (0.27 ± 0.02)*E*10 -38 cm -2 . E has been assessed from the energy deposited in the cloud chamber and we have adjusted the cross-section with a straight line as it is expected under the assumption of scale invariance. (A.C.)

  10. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  11. Current tritium chemical studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.J.; Redman, J.D.; Strehlow, R.A.; Bell, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures of hydrogen isotopes in the Li-LiH-H 2 , Li-LiD-D 2 and Li-LiT-T 2 systems are being measured. The solubility of hydrogen in lithium was studied and the data are in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The Li-LiD-D 2 system is now being studied. The first experimental measurements of the equilibrium pressures of tritium between 700 and 1000 0 C as a function of the LiT concentration in the Li-LiT-T 2 system have also been completed. The permeation of tritium through clean metals and through metals under simulated steam generator conditions is being investigated. Measurements of tritium permeation through clean nickel at temperatures between 636 and 910 0 K were made using a mixed isotope technique. The tritium permeability, DK/sub s/', as a function of temperature was determined to be ln DK/sub s/' [cc(NTP).mm.min -1 .torr/sup -1/2/.cm -2 ] = -0.906 - 6360/T( 0 K). The measured permeation activation energy was 12.6 +- 0.4 kcal/mole. (MOW)

  12. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Pain Distress Tolerance: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y; van't Wout, Mascha; Jacobson, Benjamin L; Garnaat, Sarah L; Kirschner, Jason L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2015-08-01

    Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal ("inhibitory") stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli vs anodal stimulation. Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal vs anodal stimulation (P = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (P = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (P = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all P tDCS (P = 0.072). Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  14. Molecular structure-adsorption study on current textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örücü, E; Tugcu, G; Saçan, M T

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the adsorption of a diverse set of textile dyes onto granulated activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for 33 anthraquinone and azo dyes. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted more adequately to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model. Added to a qualitative analysis of experimental results, multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) methods were used to develop quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models with the novel adsorption data. The data were divided randomly into training and test sets. The predictive ability of all models was evaluated using the test set. Descriptors were selected with a genetic algorithm (GA) using QSARINS software. Results related to QSPR models on the adsorption capacity of GAC showed that molecular structure of dyes was represented by ionization potential based on two-dimensional topological distances, chromophoric features and a property filter index. Comparison of the performance of the models demonstrated the superiority of the BPNN over GA-MLR and SVR models.

  15. Current Research at the Endeavour Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Ridge 2000 Community, R.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated geophysical, geological, chemical, and biological studies are being conducted on the Endeavour segment with primary support from NSF, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and NSERC (Canada). The research includes a seismic network, physical and chemical sensors, high-precision mapping and time-series sampling. Several research expeditions have taken place at the Endeavour ISS in the past year. In June 2003, an NSF-sponsored cruise with R.V. al T.G.Thompson/ROV al Jason2 installed microbial incubators in drill-holes in the sides of active sulfide chimneys and sampled rocks, fluids, and microbes in the Mothra and Main Endeavour Field (MEF). In July 2003, with al Thompson/Jason2, an NSF-LEXEN project at Baby Bare on Endeavour east flank conducted sampling through seafloor-penetrating probes, plus time-series sampling of fluids, microbes, and rocks at the MEF. In September 2003, with al Thompson/ROV al ROPOS, the Keck Proto-Neptune project installed a seismic network consisting of 1 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers, installation of chemical/physical sensors and time-series samplers for chemistry and microbiology in the MEF and Clam Bed sites, collection of rocks, fluids, animals, and microbes. In May/June 2004, an NSF-sponsored al Atlantis/Alvin cruise recovered sulfide incubators installed in 2003, redeployed a sulfide incubator, mapped MEF and Mothra vent fields with high-resolution Imagenix sonar, sampled fluids from MEF, Mothra, and Clam Bed, recovered year-long time-series fluid and microbial samplers from MEF and Clam Bed, recovered and installed hot vent temperature-resistivity monitors, cleaned up the MEF and deployed new markers at major sulfide structures. In August 2004, there were two MBARI/Keck-sponsored cruises with R.V. al Western Flyer/ROV al Tiburon. The first cruise completed the seismic network with addition of two more broadband seismometers and serviced all 7 short-period seismometers. al Tiburon then performed microbial and chemical

  16. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V. [Fermilab; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. A. [Fermilab; Sukhanov, A. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  17. Evaluation of current and new biomarkers in severe preeclampsia: a microarray approach reveals the VSIG4 gene as a potential blood biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Textoris

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a placental disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women, and it is associated with a high maternal and neonatal morbidity. However, circulating biomarkers that are able to predict the prognosis of preeclampsia are lacking. Thirty-eight women were included in the current study. They consisted of 19 patients with preeclampsia (13 with severe preeclampsia and 6 with non-severe preeclampsia and 19 gestational age-matched women with normal pregnancies as controls. We measured circulating factors that are associated with the coagulation pathway (including fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein S and protein C, endothelial activation (such as soluble endoglin and CD146, and the release of total and platelet-derived microparticles. These markers enabled us to discriminate the preeclampsia condition from a normal pregnancy but were not sufficient to distinguish severe from non-severe preeclampsia. We then used a microarray to study the transcriptional signature of blood samples. Preeclampsia patients exhibited a specific transcriptional program distinct from that of the control group of women. Interestingly, we also identified a severity-related transcriptional signature. Functional annotation of the upmodulated signature in severe preeclampsia highlighted two main functions related to "ribosome" and "complement". Finally, we identified 8 genes that were specifically upmodulated in severe preeclampsia compared with non-severe preeclampsia and the normotensive controls. Among these genes, we identified VSIG4 as a potential diagnostic marker of severe preeclampsia. The determination of this gene may improve the prognostic assessment of severe preeclampsia.

  18. Talaromyces marneffei Genomic, Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal Mechanisms for Environmental Adaptations and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K. P. Lau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus. Among the 14 Mp1p homologs, only Mp1p is a virulence factor binding a variety of host proteins, fatty acids and lipids. There are 23 polyketide synthase genes, one for melanin and two for mitorubrinic acid/mitorubrinol biosynthesis, which are virulence factors. Another polyketide synthase is for biogenesis of the diffusible red pigment, which consists of amino acid conjugates of monascorubin and rubropunctatin. Novel microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs and processing proteins are present. The dicer protein, dcl-2, is required for biogenesis of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, which are more highly expressed in hyphal cells. Comparative transcriptomics showed that tandem repeat-containing genes were overexpressed in yeast phase, generating protein polymorphism among cells, evading host’s immunity. Comparative proteomics between yeast and hyphal cells revealed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, up-regulated in hyphal cells, is an adhesion factor for conidial attachment.

  19. Equity perceptions and marital satisfaction in former and current marriage: A study among the remarried

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, A.P.; Mutsaers, W

    A study among 290 remarried individuals examined equity perceptions in the former and the current marriage. The results showed that equity in the former and the current marriage were not related to each other. In general, respondents perceived much more inequity in the former than in the current

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reveals a dissociation between SNARC and MARC effects: Implication for the polarity correspondence account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Bardi, Lara; Umiltà, Carlo; Masina, Fabio; Forgione, Margherita; Mapelli, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    The concept of stimulus response compatibility (SRC) refers to the existence of a privileged association between a specific stimulus feature and a specific response feature. Two examples of SRC are the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) and the Markedness Association of Response Codes (MARC) effects. According to the polarity correspondence principle, these two SRC effects occur because of a match between the most salient dimensions of stimulus and response. Specifically, the SNARC effect would be caused by a match between right-sided responses and large numbers, while a match between right-sided responses and even numbers would give rise to the MARC effect. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of the polarity correspondence principle in explaining these two SRC effects. To this end, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over left and right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which is thought to be the neural basis of salience processing, during a parity judgement task. Results showed that cathodal tDCS over the PPC significantly reduced the MARC effect but did not affect the SNARC effect, suggesting a dissociation between the two effects. That is, the MARC would rely on a salience processing mechanism, whereas the SNARC would not. Despite this interpretation is in need of further experimental confirmations (i.e., testing different tasks or using different tDCS montages), our results suggest that the polarity correspondence principle can be a plausible explanation only for the MARC effect but not for the SNARC effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Revealed Preference Methods for Studying Bicycle Route Choice—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pritchard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental aspect of promoting utilitarian bicycle use involves making modifications to the built environment to improve the safety, efficiency and enjoyability of cycling. Revealed preference data on bicycle route choice can assist greatly in understanding the actual behaviour of a highly heterogeneous group of users, which in turn assists the prioritisation of infrastructure or other built environment initiatives. This systematic review seeks to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the empirical approaches for evaluating whole journey route choices of bicyclists. Two electronic databases were systematically searched for a selection of keywords pertaining to bicycle and route choice. In total seven families of methods are identified: GPS devices, smartphone applications, crowdsourcing, participant-recalled routes, accompanied journeys, egocentric cameras and virtual reality. The study illustrates a trade-off in the quality of data obtainable and the average number of participants. Future additional methods could include dockless bikeshare, multiple camera solutions using computer vision and immersive bicycle simulator environments.

  2. A passionate way of being: A qualitative study revealing the passion spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna M. Halonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Being engaged in an activity one is passionate about has been tied to feeling life is worth living for. Existing research in passion has explored this phenomenon purely using quantitative research methodology, and by tying an individual’s passion to a specific activity. In this study, passion was explored in semi-structured interviews with 12 participants. The qualitative grounded theory analysis revealed a passionate way of being, with passion being located in the individual rather than in a specific activity. A new phenomenon to positive psychology, a passionate way of being is about having a purpose, creating positive impact, and pursuing variety. These key elements, amongst others, created a reinforcing, self-sustaining spiral, which offered a route to hedonic and eudaimonic happiness, generally serving to enhance life (though it could also detract from life if it became overpowering.

  3. Microspectroscopic Study of Liposome-to-cell Interaction Revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefimova, Svetlana L; Kurilchenko, Irina Yu; Tkacheva, Tatyana N; Kavok, Nataliya S; Todor, Igor N; Lukianova, Nataliya Yu; Chekhun, Vasyl F; Malyukin, Yuriy V

    2014-03-01

    We report the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-labeling of liposomal vesicles as an effective approach to study in dynamics the interaction of liposomes with living cells of different types (rat hepatocytes, rat bone marrow, mouse fibroblast-like cells and human breast cancer cells) and cell organelles (hepatocyte nuclei). The in vitro experiments were performed using fluorescent microspectroscopic technique. Two fluorescent dyes (DiO as the energy donor and DiI as an acceptor) were preloaded in lipid bilayers of phosphatidylcholine liposomes that ensures the necessary distance between the dyes for effective FRET. The change in time of the donor and acceptor relative fluorescence intensities was used to visualize and trace the liposome-to-cell interaction. We show that FRET-labeling of liposome vesicles allows one to reveal the differences in efficiency and dynamics of these interactions, which are associated with composition, fluidity, and metabolic activity of cell plasma membranes.

  4. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on pain distress tolerance: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y.; Wout, Mascha van’t; Jacobson, Benjamin L.; Garnaat, Sarah L.; Kirschner, Jason L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal (“inhibitory”) stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli versus anodal stimulation. Methods Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal versus anodal stimulation (p = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (p = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (p = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all p Pain intensity ratings increased acutely after cold pressor and pressure algometer tasks (both p pain ratings tended to rise less after cathodal versus anodal tDCS (p = 0.072). Conclusions Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. PMID:26115372

  5. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  7. Surface phenomena revealed by in situ imaging: studies from adhesion, wear and cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Mahato, Anirban; Yeung, Ho; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    2017-03-01

    Surface deformation and flow phenomena are ubiquitous in mechanical processes. In this work we present an in situ imaging framework for studying a range of surface mechanical phenomena at high spatial resolution and across a range of time scales. The in situ framework is capable of resolving deformation and flow fields quantitatively in terms of surface displacements, velocities, strains and strain rates. Three case studies are presented demonstrating the power of this framework for studying surface deformation. In the first, the origin of stick-slip motion in adhesive polymer interfaces is investigated, revealing a intimate link between stick-slip and surface wave propagation. Second, the role of flow in mediating formation of surface defects and wear particles in metals is analyzed using a prototypical sliding process. It is shown that conventional post-mortem observation and inference can lead to erroneous conclusions with regard to formation of surface cracks and wear particles. The in situ framework is shown to unambiguously capture delamination wear in sliding. Third, material flow and surface deformation in a typical cutting process is analyzed. It is shown that a long-standing problem in the cutting of annealed metals is resolved by the imaging, with other benefits such as estimation of energy dissipation and power from the flow fields. In closure, guidelines are provided for profitably exploiting in situ observations to study large-strain deformation, flow and friction phenomena at surfaces that display a variety of time-scales.

  8. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    The spatially explicit land use and land cover information provided by Landsat moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is needed to more efficiently balance the production of goods and services over landscapes. For example, economic trade-offs are needed to provide both clean groundwater resources and other non-environmental goods and services produced by activities that affect the vadose zone and thus contribute to contamination of groundwater. These trade-off choices are made by numerous economic agents and are constrained by many social institutions including governmental regulations at many levels, contractual obligations and traditions. In effect, on a social level, society acts as if it values groundwater by foregoing other goods to protect these resources. The result of the protection afforded to groundwater resources is observable by measuring contamination in well samples. This observed level of groundwater contamination risk is the revealed preference of society as a whole for clean groundwater. We observed the risk of groundwater contamination in a sampling of well data from our study area (35 counties of Eastern Iowa.) We used a proportional hazard model to quantify the nitrate contamination survival implied by the panel of 19,873 well data, where remaining below a 10 mg/ml maximum contamination level (MCL) is defined as survival. We tested the data for evidence that the levels of protection provided to these resources is correlated with aquifer and vadose zone characteristics and geographic location and whether it changed over time and with economic and other conditions. We demonstrate the use of a nitrate conditioned hazard function for projecting the survival of wells based on nitrate exposure information over the 1940 to 2010 time period. We discuss results of simulations of the survival process that demonstrate the economic significance of this approach. We find that aquifer survival has been significantly improving over time. The principle of

  9. On combining revealed and stated preferences to forecast customer behaviour: three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMany companies collect stated preference data (SP) like intentions and satisfaction as well as revealed preference data (RP) like actual purchasing behavior. It seems relevant to examine the predictive usefulness of this information for future revealed preferences, that is, customer

  10. A second life for old data: Global patterns in pollution ecology revealed from published observational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V., E-mail: mikoz@utu.fi [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Zvereva, Elena L. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    A synthesis of research on the responses of terrestrial biota (1095 effect sizes) to industrial pollution (206 point emission sources) was conducted to reveal regional and global patterns from small-scale observational studies. A meta-analysis, in combination with other statistical methods, showed that the effects of pollution depend on characteristics of the specific polluter (type, amount of emission, duration of impact on biota), the affected organism (trophic group, life history), the level at which the response was measured (organism, population, community), and the environment (biome, climate). In spite of high heterogeneity in responses, we have detected several general patterns. We suggest that the development of evolutionary adaptations to pollution is a common phenomenon and that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms. We argue that community- and ecosystem-level responses to pollution should be explored directly, rather than deduced from organism-level studies. - Research synthesis demonstrated that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms.

  11. Study of morphological variation of northern Neotropical Ariidae reveals conservatism despite macrohabitat transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2018-03-27

    Morphological convergence triggered by trophic adaptations is a common pattern in adaptive radiations. The study of shape variation in an evolutionary context is usually restricted to well-studied fish models. We take advantage of the recently revised systematics of New World Ariidae and investigate skull shape evolution in six genera of northern Neotropical Ariidae. They constitute a lineage that diversified in the marine habitat but repeatedly adapted to freshwater habitats. 3D geometric morphometrics was applied for the first time in catfish skulls and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses were performed to test for the impact of habitat on skull diversification after habitat transition in this lineage. We found that skull shape is conserved throughout phylogeny. A morphospace analysis revealed that freshwater and marine species occupy extreme ends of the first principal component axis and that they exhibit similar Procrustes variances. Yet freshwater species occupy the smallest shape space compared to marine and brackish species (based on partial disparity), and marine and freshwater species have the largest Procrustes distance to each other. We observed a single case of shape convergence as derived from 'C-metrics', which cannot be explained by the occupation of the same habitat. Although Ariidae occupy such a broad spectrum of different habitats from sea to freshwater, the morphospace analysis and analyses of shape and co-variation with habitat in a phylogenetic context shows that conservatism dominates skull shape evolution among ariid genera.

  12. A second life for old data: Global patterns in pollution ecology revealed from published observational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Zvereva, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    A synthesis of research on the responses of terrestrial biota (1095 effect sizes) to industrial pollution (206 point emission sources) was conducted to reveal regional and global patterns from small-scale observational studies. A meta-analysis, in combination with other statistical methods, showed that the effects of pollution depend on characteristics of the specific polluter (type, amount of emission, duration of impact on biota), the affected organism (trophic group, life history), the level at which the response was measured (organism, population, community), and the environment (biome, climate). In spite of high heterogeneity in responses, we have detected several general patterns. We suggest that the development of evolutionary adaptations to pollution is a common phenomenon and that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms. We argue that community- and ecosystem-level responses to pollution should be explored directly, rather than deduced from organism-level studies. - Research synthesis demonstrated that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms.

  13. A study of the variability in the Benguela Current volume transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sudip; Schmid, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    The Benguela Current forms the eastern limb of the subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic and transports a blend of relatively fresh and cool Atlantic water and relatively warm and salty Indian Ocean water northwestward. Therefore, it plays an important role not only for the local freshwater and heat budgets but for the overall meridional heat and freshwater transport in the South Atlantic. Historically, the Benguela Current region is relatively data sparse, especially with respect to long-term velocity observations. A new three-dimensional data set of the horizontal velocity in the upper 2000 m that covers the years 1993 to 2015 is used to analyze the variability in the Benguela Current. This data set was derived using observations from Argo floats, satellite sea surface height, and wind fields. Since Argo floats do not cover regions shallower than 1000 m, the data set has gaps inshore. The main features of the horizontal circulation observed in this data set are in good agreement with those from earlier studies based on limited observations. Therefore, it can be used for a more detailed study of the flow pattern as well as the variability in the circulation in this region. It is found that the mean meridional transport in the upper 800 m between the continental shelf of Africa and 3° E, decreases from 23 ± 3 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) at 31° S to 11 ± 3 Sv at 28° S. In terms of variability, the 23-year long time series at 30 and 35° S reveals phases with large energy densities at periods of 3 to 7 months, which can be attributed to the occurrence of Agulhas rings in this region. The prevalence of Agulhas rings is also behind the fact that the energy density at 35° S at the annual period is smaller than at 30° S because the former latitude is closer to Agulhas Retroflection and therefore more likely to be impacted by the Agulhas rings. In agreement with this, the energy density associated with mesoscale variability at 30° S is weaker than at 35° S. With

  14. Laboratory simulation of the magnetosphere, magnetotail reconnection and the study of field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yur, G.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory simulation of the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. A wide plasma beam with plasma density ∼ 10 13 cm -3 , velocity ∼ 10 7 cm/s, temperature ∼ 10 eV and pulse duration ∼ 100μs simulates the solar wind plasma. An externally applied magnetic field throughout the interaction chamber is varied between -300 to +300 G to simulate the interplanetary magnet field (IMF). Detailed characterization of the flow of this plasma across the IMF shows various degrees of diamagnetism and rvec E x rvec B propagation. This magnetized plasma beam interacts with a spherical dipole magnetic field that simulates the planetary field to form a planetary type plasma sphere. Cusp structures and particle precipitations are studied with optical time exposure photographs of the simulated magnetosphere. The structure is strongly controlled by the polarity of the IMF. The global structure of the magnetosphere is measured in detail for different values of the IMF at various locations in the magnetosphere. Particularly, the magnetic field measurements in the tail reveal interesting reconnection processes and above the polar region, the structure of field aligned currents that are similar to the ones obtained from the satellites above the polar region of the Earth. The main experimental parameters are selected in such a way that, at least, MHD scaling is satisfied

  15. Neoclassical current studies in high beta plasmas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-September 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    During the 12-month period, October 1, 1982 to September 30, 1983 the Levitated Octupole has been dedicated to a study of neoclassical currents. At beta values of a few percent, both the Pfirsch-Schlueter current and the bootstrap current have been observed and compared with theoretical predictions. The spatial variation of the current both radially and poloidally are found to agree with the prediction over a wide range of collisionality. A four megawatt ICRH capability exists for sustaining the current in steady state

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Natural Variations Contributing to Drought Resistance in Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crops are often cultivated in regions where they will face environmental adversities; resulting in substantial yield loss which can ultimately lead to food and societal problems. Thus, significant efforts have been made to breed stress tolerant cultivars in an attempt to minimize these problems and to produce more stability with respect to crop yields across broad geographies. Since stress tolerance is a complex and multi-genic trait, advancements with classical breeding approaches have been challenging. On the other hand, molecular breeding, which is based on transgenics, marker-assisted selection and genome editing technologies; holds great promise to enable farmers to better cope with these challenges. However, identification of the key genetic components underlying the trait is critical and will serve as the foundation for future crop genetic improvement. Recently, genome-wide association studies have made significant contributions to facilitate the discovery of natural variation contributing to stress tolerance in crops. From these studies, the identified loci can serve as targets for genomic selection or editing to enable the molecular design of new cultivars. Here, we summarize research progress on this issue and focus on the genetic basis of drought tolerance as revealed by genome-wide association studies and quantitative trait loci mapping. Although many favorable loci have been identified, elucidation of their molecular mechanisms contributing to increased stress tolerance still remains a challenge. Thus, continuous efforts are still required to functionally dissect this complex trait through comprehensive approaches, such as system biological studies. It is expected that proper application of the acquired knowledge will enable the development of stress tolerant cultivars; allowing agricultural production to become more sustainable under dynamic environmental conditions.

  17. Field study of charitable giving reveals that reciprocity decays over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Amanda; Kessler, Judd B.

    2018-01-01

    We examine how reciprocity changes over time by studying a large quasiexperiment in the field. Specifically, we analyze administrative data from a university hospital system. The data include information about over 18,000 donation requests made by the hospital system via mail to a set of its former patients in the 4 months after their first hospital visit. We exploit quasiexperimental variation in the timing of solicitation mailings relative to patient hospital visits and find that an extra 30-day delay between the provision of medical care and a donation solicitation decreases the likelihood of a donation by 30%. Our findings have important implications for models of economic behavior, which currently fail to incorporate reciprocity’s sensitivity to time. The fact that reciprocal behavior decays rapidly as time passes also suggests the importance of capitalizing quickly on opportunities to benefit from a quid pro quo. PMID:29437955

  18. Serum and urine metabolomics study reveals a distinct diagnostic model for cancer cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan‐Jun; Zhao, Jiang‐Rong; Hao, Juan; Li, Bin; Huo, Yan; Han, Yong‐Long; Wan, Li‐Li; Li, Jie; Huang, Jinlu; Lu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome with high morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced cancer. The diagnosis of cancer cachexia depends on objective measures of clinical symptoms and a history of weight loss, which lag behind disease progression and have limited utility for the early diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In this study, we performed a nuclear magnetic resonance‐based metabolomics analysis to reveal the metabolic profile of cancer cachexia and establish a diagnostic model. Methods Eighty‐four cancer cachexia patients, 33 pre‐cachectic patients, 105 weight‐stable cancer patients, and 74 healthy controls were included in the training and validation sets. Comparative analysis was used to elucidate the distinct metabolites of cancer cachexia, while metabolic pathway analysis was employed to elucidate reprogramming pathways. Random forest, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to select and validate the biomarker metabolites and establish a diagnostic model. Results Forty‐six cancer cachexia patients, 22 pre‐cachectic patients, 68 weight‐stable cancer patients, and 48 healthy controls were included in the training set, and 38 cancer cachexia patients, 11 pre‐cachectic patients, 37 weight‐stable cancer patients, and 26 healthy controls were included in the validation set. All four groups were age‐matched and sex‐matched in the training set. Metabolomics analysis showed a clear separation of the four groups. Overall, 45 metabolites and 18 metabolic pathways were associated with cancer cachexia. Using random forest analysis, 15 of these metabolites were identified as highly discriminating between disease states. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to create a distinct diagnostic model with an area under the curve of 0.991 based on three metabolites. The diagnostic equation was Logit(P) = −400.53 – 481.88

  19. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Yao, Licheng; Xia, Tingting; Liao, Xuebin; Zhu, Deyu; Xiang, Ye

    2018-04-01

    The human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (hKMO) is a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative and neurologic disorders. Inhibition of KMO by Ro 61-8048, a potent, selective, and the most widely used inhibitor of KMO, was shown effective in various models of neurodegenerative or neurologic disorders. However, the molecular basis of hKMO inhibition by Ro 61-8048 is not clearly understood. Here, we report biochemistry studies on hKMO and crystal structures of an hKMO homolog, pfKMO from Pseudomonas fluorescens, in complex with the substrate l-kynurenine and Ro 61-8048. We found that the C-terminal ∼110 aa are essential for the enzymatic activity of hKMO and the homologous C-terminal region of pfKMO folds into a distinct, all-α-helical domain, which associates with the N-terminal catalytic domain to form a unique tunnel in proximity to the substrate-binding pocket. The tunnel binds the Ro 61-8048 molecule, which fills most of the tunnel, and Ro 61-8048 is hydrogen bonded with several completely conserved residues, including an essential catalytic residue. Modification of Ro 61-8048 and biochemical studies of the modified Ro 61-8048 derivatives suggested that Ro 61-8048 inhibits the enzyme in an allosteric manner by affecting the conformation of the essential catalytic residue and by blocking entry of the substrate or product release. The unique binding sites distinguish Ro 61-8048 as a noncompetitive and highly selective inhibitor from other competitive inhibitors, which should facilitate further optimization of Ro 61-8048 and the development of new inhibitory drugs to hKMO.-Gao, J., Yao, L., Xia, T., Liao, X., Zhu, D., Xiang, Y. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

  20. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows......Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo...... the distribution of particulate matter outwards from the sediment outflow. By calibrating a VoRT it is possible to control sedimentation rate by manipulating water and air flow rates. As an example application, three VoRTs were maintained under different sediment loadings to assess the sediment fraction...

  1. Cartilaginous Metabolomic Study Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Osteophyte Formation in Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongwei; Chen, Tingmei; Luo, Jiao; Ding, Shijia; Gao, Sichuan; Zhang, Jian

    2017-04-07

    Osteophyte is one of the inevitable consequences of progressive osteoarthritis with the main characteristics of cartilage degeneration and endochondral ossification. The pathogenesis of osteophyte formation is not fully understood to date. In this work, metabolomic approaches were employed to explore potential mechanisms of osteophyte formation by detecting metabolic variations between extracts of osteophyte cartilage tissues (n = 32) and uninvolved control cartilage tissues (n = 34), based on the platform of ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as the use of multivariate statistic analysis and univariate statistic analysis. The osteophyte group was significantly separated from the control group by the orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models, indicating that metabolic state of osteophyte cartilage had been changed. In total, 28 metabolic variations further validated by mass spectrum (MS) match, tandom mass spectrum (MS/MS) match, and standards match mainly included amino acids, sulfonic acids, glycerophospholipids, and fatty acyls. These metabolites were related to some specific physiological or pathological processes (collagen dissolution, boundary layers destroyed, self-restoration triggered, etc.) which might be associated with the procedure of osteophyte formation. Pathway analysis showed phenylalanine metabolism (PI = 0.168, p = 0.004) was highly correlative to this degenerative process. Our findings provided a direction for targeted metabolomic study and an insight into further reveal the molecular mechanisms of ostophyte formation.

  2. Structural Studies Reveal the Functional Modularity of the Scc2-Scc4 Cohesin Loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C.H. Chao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable accuracy of eukaryotic cell division is partly maintained by the cohesin complex acting as a molecular glue to prevent premature sister chromatid separation. The loading of cohesin onto chromosomes is catalyzed by the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex. Here, we report the crystal structure of Scc4 bound to the N terminus of Scc2 and show that Scc4 is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR superhelix. The Scc2 N terminus adopts an extended conformation and is entrapped by the core of the Scc4 superhelix. Electron microscopy (EM analysis reveals that the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex comprises three domains: a head, body, and hook. Deletion studies unambiguously assign the Scc2N-Scc4 as the globular head domain, whereas in vitro cohesin loading assays show that the central body and the hook domains are sufficient to catalyze cohesin loading onto circular DNA, but not chromatinized DNA in vivo, suggesting a possible role for Scc4 as a chromatin adaptor.

  3. Multicohort Genomewide Association Study Reveals a New Signal of Protection Against HIV-1 Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limou, Sophie; Delaneau, Olivier; van Manen, Daniëlle; An, Ping; Sezgin, Efe; Le Clerc, Sigrid; Coulonges, Cédric; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Spadoni, Jean-Louis; Taing, Lieng; Labib, Taoufik; Montes, Matthieu; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Schachter, François; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Buchbinder, Susan; van Natta, Mark L.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Froguel, Philippe; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Winkler, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. To date, only mutations in CCR5 have been shown to confer resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and these explain only a small fraction of the observed variability in HIV susceptibility. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis between 2 independent European genomewide association studies, each comparing HIV-1 seropositive cases with normal population controls known to be HIV uninfected, to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the HIV-1 acquisition phenotype. SNPs exhibiting P < 10−5 in this first stage underwent second-stage analysis in 2 independent US cohorts of European descent. Results. After the first stage, a single highly significant association was revealed for the chromosome 8 rs6996198 with HIV-1 acquisition and was replicated in both second-stage cohorts. Across the 4 groups, the rs6996198-T allele was consistently associated with a significant reduced risk of HIV-1 infection, and the global meta-analysis reached genomewide significance: Pcombined = 7.76 × 10−8. Conclusions. We provide strong evidence of association for a common variant with HIV-1 acquisition in populations of European ancestry. This protective signal against HIV-1 infection is the first identified outside the CCR5 nexus. First clues point to a potential functional role for a nearby candidate gene, CYP7B1, but this locus warrants further investigation. PMID:22362864

  4. A genome-wide study reveals rare CNVs exclusive to extreme phenotypes of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Legallic, Solenn; Wallon, David; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Martinaud, Olivier; Bombois, Stéphanie; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Michon, Agnès; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jérémie; Puel, Michèle; Paquet, Claire; Croisile, Bernard; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Vercelletto, Martine; Lévy, Richard; Frébourg, Thierry; Hannequin, Didier; Campion, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Studying rare extreme forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) may prove to be a useful strategy in identifying new genes involved in monogenic determinism of AD. Amyloid precursor protein (APP), PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations account for only 85% of autosomal dominant early-onset AD (ADEOAD) families. We hypothesised that rare copy number variants (CNVs) could be involved in ADEOAD families without mutations in known genes, as well as in rare sporadic young-onset AD cases. Using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation, we assessed the presence of rare CNVs in 21 unrelated ADEOAD cases, having no alteration on known genes, and 12 sporadic AD cases, with an age of onset younger than 55 years. The analysis revealed the presence of 7 singleton CNVs (4 in ADEOAD and 3 in sporadic cases) absent in 1078 controls and 912 late-onset AD cases. Strikingly, 4 out of 7 rearrangements target genes (KLK6, SLC30A3, MEOX2, and FPR2) encoding proteins that are tightly related to amyloid-β peptide metabolism or signalling. Although these variants are individually rare and restricted to particular subgroups of patients, these findings support the causal role, in human pathology, of a set of genes coding for molecules suspected for a long time to modify Aβ metabolism or signalling, and for which animal or cellular models have already been developed.

  5. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan, Yunyun, E-mail: xiaoyun81.love@163.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); He, Yong, E-mail: yong.h.he@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yu, Chunshui, E-mail: csyuster@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: jun_wang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Jing, E-mail: sainthj@126.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Ye, Jing, E-mail: jingye.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Parizel, Paul M., E-mail: paul.parizel@ua.ac.be [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, 8 Belgium (Belgium); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shu, Ni, E-mail: nshu55@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS.

  6. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jing; Ye, Jing; Parizel, Paul M.; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS

  7. Revealing the control of migratory fueling: An integrated approach combining laboratory and field studies in northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BAIRLEIN,Volker DIERSCHKE, Julia DELINGAT, Cas EIKENAAR, Ivan MAGGINI, Marc BULTE, Heiko SCHMALJOHANN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory birds rely on fueling prior to migratory flights. Fueling in migrants is controlled by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. From captive studies we have started understanding the internal mechanisms controlling bird migration. Field studies have demonstrated the effects of external factors, such as food availability, weather, competitors, parasites or diseases, on the stopover behavior of migrants. However, an integrated approach is still missing to study coherently how the innate migration program interacts with the varying environmental cues and to estimate the contribution of the innate migration program and the environment to realized migration. The northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe offers a unique opportunity for integrated studies. It breeds across almost the whole Holarctic with just a “gap” between eastern Canada and Alaska. All breeding populations overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the northern wheatear one of the most long-distant migratory songbirds with extraordinary long non-stop flights across oceans. It is a nocturnal migrant which travels without parental or social aid/guidance. Thus, young birds rely entirely on endogenous mechanisms of timing, route selection and fueling on their first outbound migration. By establishing indoor housing under controlled conditions the endogenous control mechanisms of northern wheatear migration could be revealed. At the same time, environmental factors controlling fueling could be investigated in the field. On migration wheatears occur in a variety of habitats with sparse vegetation where their stopover behavior could be quantitatively studied in the light of “optimal migration” theory by the use of remote balances, radio-tagging and even experimentally manipulated food availability. The present paper summarizes our approach to understand the control of migration in northern wheatears by combining field and laboratory studies at various spatial and temporal

  8. Temporal characteristics of coherent flow structures generated over alluvial sand dunes, Mississippi River, revealed by acoustic doppler current profiling and multibeam echo sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, John A.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Best, Jim L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Simmons, S. M.; Johnson, K.K.; Malzone, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the flow in the lee of a large sand dune located at the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, USA. Stationary profiles collected from an anchored boat using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were georeferenced with data from a real-time kinematic differential global positioning system. A multibeam echo sounder was used to map the bathymetry of the confluence and provided a morphological context for the ADCP measurements. The flow in the lee of a low-angle dune shows good correspondence with current conceptual models of flow over dunes. As expected, quadrant 2 events (upwellings of low-momentum fluid) are associated with high backscatter intensity. Turbulent events generated in the lower lee of a dune near the bed are associated with periods of vortex shedding and wake flapping. Remnant coherent structures that advect over the lower lee of the dune in the upper portion of the water column, have mostly dissipated and contribute little to turbulence intensities. The turbulent events that occupy most of the water column in the upper lee of the dune are associated with periods of wake flapping.

  9. The Humboldt Current System: Ecosystem components and processes, fisheries, and sediment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Vivian; Lange, Carina B.

    2009-12-01

    In the Humboldt Current System (HCS), biological and non-biological components, ecosystem processes, and fisheries are known to be affected by multi-decadal, inter-annual, annual, and intra-seasonal scales. The interplay between atmospheric variability, the poleward undercurrent, the shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and the fertilizing effect of coastal upwelling and overall high primary production rates drive bio-physical interactions, the carbon biomass, and fluxes of gases and particulate and dissolved matter through the water column. Coastal upwelling (permanent and seasonally modulated off Peru and northern Chile, and markedly seasonal between 30°S and 40°S) is the key process responsible for the high biological productivity in the HCS. At present, the western coast of South America produces more fish per unit area than any other region in the world ocean (i.e. ∼7.5 × 10 6 t of anchoveta were landed in 2007). Climate changes on different temporal scales lead to alterations in the distribution ranges of anchoveta and sardine populations and shifts in their dominance throughout the HCS. The factors affecting the coastal marine ecosystem that reverberate in the fisheries are crucial from a social perspective, since the economic consequences of mismanagement can be severe. Fish remains are often well-preserved in sediment settings under the hypoxic conditions of the OMZ off Peru and Chile, and reveal multi-decadal variability and centennial-scale changes in fish populations. Sediment studies from the Chilean continental margin encompassing the last 20,000 years of deposition reveal changes in sub-surface conditions in the HCS during deglaciation, interpreted to include: a major reorganization of the OMZ; a deglacial increase in denitrification decoupled from local marine productivity; and higher deglacial and Holocene paleoproductivities compared to the Last Glacial Maximum in central-south Chile (35-37°S) while this scheme is reversed for north

  10. Anatomy of a turbidity current: Concentration and grain size structure of a deep-sea flow revealed by multiple-frequency acoustic profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Paull, C. K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gwiazda, R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Maier, K. L.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are responsible for transporting large volumes of sediment to the deep ocean, yet remain poorly understood due to the limited number of field observations of these episodic, high energy events. As part of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment high resolution, sub-minute acoustic velocity and backscatter profiles were acquired with downward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) distributed along the canyon on moorings at depths ranging from 270 to 1,900 m over a period of 18 months. Additionally, three upward-looking ADCPs on different frequencies (300, 600 and 1200 kHz) profiled the water column above a seafloor instrument node (SIN) at 1850 m water depth. Traps on the moorings collected sediment carried by the flows at different heights above the seafloor and sediment cores were taken to determine the depositional record produced by the flows. Several sediment-laden turbidity flows were observed during the experiment, three of which ran out for more than 50 km to water depths of greater than 1,900 m and were observed on all of the moorings. Flow speeds of up to 6 m/s were observed and individual moorings, anchored by railroad wheels, moved up to 7.8 km down-canyon during these powerful events. We present results based on a novel analysis of the multiple-frequency acoustic data acquired by the ADCPs at the SIN integrated with grain size data from the sediment traps, close to the deepest mooring in the array where the flow thickened to the 70 m height of the ADCP above the bed. The analysis allows, for the first time, retrieval of the suspended sediment concentration and vertical distribution of grain size structure within a turbidity in spectacular detail. The details of the stratification and flow dynamics will be used to re-evaluate and discuss our existing models for these deep-sea flows.

  11. Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents, and footprints of postglacial recolonization routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Marie; Petit, Eric J; El-Bahloul, Yasmina; Liso, Camille; Fournet, Sylvain; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology and ecological genetics. We examined the relative importance of historical and ecological features in shaping the present-day spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we surveyed 93 populations from Brittany (France) to Morocco - the southern limit of their species' range distribution. Whereas B. macrocarpa showed a genotypic structure and a high level of genetic differentiation indicative of selfing, the population genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima was consistent with an outcrossing mating system. We further showed (1) a strong geographic clustering in coastal B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that highlighted the influence of marine currents in shaping different lineages and (2) a peculiar genetic structure of inland B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations that could indicate the admixture of distinct evolutionary lineages and recent expansions associated with anthropogenic disturbances. Spatial patterns of nuclear diversity and differentiation also supported a stepwise recolonization of Europe from Atlantic-Mediterranean refugia after the last glacial period, with leading-edge expansions. However, cytoplasmic diversity was not impacted by postglacial recolonization: stochastic long-distance seed dispersal mediated by major oceanic currents may mitigate the common patterns of reduced cytoplasmic diversity observed for edge populations. Overall, the patterns we documented here challenge the general view of reduced genetic diversity at the edge of a species' range distribution and provide clues for understanding how life-history and major geographic features interact to shape the distribution of genetic diversity.

  12. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  13. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Marie; Giaquinto, Carlo; Gothefors, Leif; Huelsse, Christel; Huet, Frédéric; Littmann, Martina; Maxwell, Melanie; Talayero, José M P; Todd, Peter; Vila, Miguel T; Cantarutti, Luigi; Van Damme, Pierre

    2010-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL), conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, > or = 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale). Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  14. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayero José MP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL, conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ≥ 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  15. Comparative study of human mitochondrial proteome reveals extensive protein subcellular relocalization after gene duplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene and genome duplication is the principle creative force in evolution. Recently, protein subcellular relocalization, or neolocalization was proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for the retention of duplicated genes. This hypothesis received support from the analysis of yeast genomes, but has not been tested thoroughly on animal genomes. In order to evaluate the importance of subcellular relocalizations for retention of duplicated genes in animal genomes, we systematically analyzed nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins in the human genome by reconstructing phylogenies of mitochondrial multigene families. Results The 456 human mitochondrial proteins selected for this study were clustered into 305 gene families including 92 multigene families. Among the multigene families, 59 (64% consisted of both mitochondrial and cytosolic (non-mitochondrial proteins (mt-cy families while the remaining 33 (36% were composed of mitochondrial proteins (mt-mt families. Phylogenetic analyses of mt-cy families revealed three different scenarios of their neolocalization following gene duplication: 1 relocalization from mitochondria to cytosol, 2 from cytosol to mitochondria and 3 multiple subcellular relocalizations. The neolocalizations were most commonly enabled by the gain or loss of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signals. The majority of detected subcellular relocalization events occurred early in animal evolution, preceding the evolution of tetrapods. Mt-mt protein families showed a somewhat different pattern, where gene duplication occurred more evenly in time. However, for both types of protein families, most duplication events appear to roughly coincide with two rounds of genome duplications early in vertebrate evolution. Finally, we evaluated the effects of inaccurate and incomplete annotation of mitochondrial proteins and found that our conclusion of the importance of subcellular relocalization after gene duplication on

  16. The geography of demography: long-term demographic studies and species distribution models reveal a species border limited by adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhart, V M; Geber, M A; Morris, W F; Fabio, E S; Tiffin, P; Moeller, D A

    2011-10-01

    Potential causes of species' geographic distribution limits fall into two broad classes: (1) limited adaptation across spatially variable environments and (2) limited opportunities to colonize unoccupied areas. Combining demographic studies, analyses of demographic responses to environmental variation, and species distribution models, we investigated the causes of range limits in a model system, the eastern border of the California annual plant Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana. Vital rates of 20 populations varied with growing season temperature and precipitation: fruit number and overwinter survival of 1-year-old seeds declined steeply, while current-year seed germination increased modestly along west-to-east gradients in decreasing temperature, decreasing mean precipitation, and increasing variation in precipitation. Long-term stochastic finite rate of increase, λ(s), exhibited a fourfold range and varied among geologic surface materials as well as with temperature and precipitation. Growth rate declined significantly toward the eastern border, falling below 1 in three of the five easternmost populations. Distribution models employing demographically important environmental variables predicted low habitat favorability beyond the eastern border. Models that filtered or weighted population presences by λ(s) predicted steeper eastward declines in favorability and assigned greater roles in setting the distribution to among-year variation in precipitation and to geologic surface material. These analyses reveal a species border likely set by limited adaptation to declining environmental quality.

  17. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Michele Devido; Gagliardi,Rubens José; Mac-Kay,Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio,Paulo Sergio; Lianza,Roberta; Fregni,Felipe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ...

  18. Study of single pion production in antineutrino induced charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese, Teresa.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the exclusive charged current antineutrino production of one pion using the data of the Gargamelle propane experiment at CERN PS. The isospin structure of the charged weak current is studied as well as the energy dependence of the total cross section for π - antineutrino production, which is compared with the prediction of Adler's model [fr

  19. Study on classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Soheil; Hojjat, Yousef [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Karafi, Mohammad Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In the present paper, classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D are studied and effects of magnetic field frequency, peak of magnetic flux density and diameter of Terfenol-D on the eddy currents losses are investigated. To provide reliable data for the purpose of the paper, an experimental laboratory is fabricated and used to obtain major and minor hysteresis loops of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. In theoretical study, initially an analytical model based on uniform distribution of magnetic flux is developed which yields to calculation of classical eddy currents losses. Then, another eddy currents model based on non-uniform distribution of magnetic flux and nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields is presented. The difference between output values of the two models is identified as excess eddy currents losses. Obtained results show that the values of excess losses are generally larger than classical losses and applying just classical model leads to wrong calculation of actual value of eddy currents losses. For the results obtained from two above models, empirical models with respect to the magnetic field frequency and the peak value of magnetic flux density are achieved which can predict the eddy currents losses precisely. To validate the empirical relations, experiments are repeated at a new frequency and values of power losses calculated from analytical equations are compared with the predicted values of the empirical models. The results point towards possibility to use the obtained empirical relations in order to calculate the classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D at the frequencies below 200 Hz and different values of magnetic flux density. - Highlights: • Classical eddy currents loss of Terfenol-D is studied using Maxwell's laws. • Excess eddy currents loss of Terfenol-D is studied using Mayergoyz nonlinear model. • Effects of Terfenol-D geometry on the eddy currents losses are investigated. • Power

  20. Effect of current density on the anodic behaviour of zircaloy-4 and niobium: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath Reddy, G.; Lavanya, A.; Ch Anjaneyulu

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of anodic oxidation of zircaloy-4 and niobium have been studied at current densities ranging from 2 to 14 mA.cm -2 at room temperature in order to investigate the dependence of ionic current density on the field across the oxide film. Thickness of the anodic films were estimated from capacitance data. The formation rate, current efficiency and differential field were found to increase with increase in the ionic current density for both zircaloy-4 and niobium. Plots of the logarithm of formation rate vs. logarithm of the current density are fairly linear. From linear plots of logarithm of ionic current density vs. differential field, and applying the Cabrera-Mott theory, the half-jump distance and the height of the energy barrier are deduced and compared. (author)

  1. Time-dependent flux from pulsed neutrons revealed by superconducting Nb current-biased kinetic inductance detector with "1"0B converter operated at 4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Narukami, Yoshito; Shishido, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Naohito; Ishida, Takekazu; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a new superconducting detector for a neutron based on Nb superconductor meanderline with a "1"0B conversion layer. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meanderline, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response. The thickness of Nb meanderlines is 40 nm and widths are 3 μm, 1 μm, and 0.6 μm. The CB-KIDs are fabricated at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm and the total area of CB-KIDs covers 8 mm × 8 mm. The chip was cooled to a temperature lower than 4 K below the transition temperature of Nb using a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler. The Nb CB-KIDs with a "1"0B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons at the material life science experimental facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) center. The response time of CB-KIDs is about a few tens ns. We have also obtained the time dependence of neutron flux generated from pulsed neutrons using a CB-KID. Experimental results were in good agreement with the simulated results. (author)

  2. Identification of Promising Mutants Associated with Egg Production Traits Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Egg number (EN, egg laying rate (LR and age at first egg (AFE are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.

  3. Doppler HF Radar Application for the Study of Spatial Structure of Currents in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Gorbatskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the surface current spatial structure observations performed by SeaSonde Doppler HF radar (operating frequency is 25 MHz in the Black Sea region adjacent to the city of Gelendzhik are represented. The observations imply a special technique consisting in successive measurements at two selected points of the coastline. Initially, the measurements are carried out in the first of two selected coastal points during two hours. Then the radar system is transferred to the second point on the coast where the procedure is repeated. At that the velocity field is assumed to remain unchanged during the total measurement period (including the time of the radar displacement from both points. The measurement results are shown in a form of a spatial map of the current velocity vectors in the research region (with 20 × 20 km dimensions. Some features of the current spatial and temporal variability in the coastal waters are revealed. Particularly, the eddy-like formations (the diameter is a few kilometers which rapidly move and collapse. Since similar eddies are detected using the contact measurement methods, complex and variable structure of the surface currents measured by a radar does not seem to be an artifact. Nevertheless, reliability of the data resulted from the radar measurements of the surface current velocity field should be verified in future by comparing it with the results of the quasi-synchronous velocity field measurements performed by stationary, drifting and towed velocity meters.

  4. Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Brucella Typing Reveals Multiple Lineages in Brucella melitensis Currently Endemic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. In China, brucellosis is recognized as a reemerging disease mainly caused by Brucella melitensis specie. To better understand the currently endemic B. melitensis strains in China, three Brucella genotyping methods were applied to 110 B. melitensis strains obtained in past several years. By MLVA genotyping, five MLVA-8 genotypes were identified, among which genotypes 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2 was recognized as the predominant genotype, while genotype 63 (1-5-3-13-2-3-3-2 and a novel genotype of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 were second frequently observed. MLVA-16 discerned a total of 57 MLVA-16 genotypes among these Brucella strains, with 41 genotypes being firstly detected and the other 16 genotypes being previously reported. By BruMLSA21 typing, six sequence types (STs were identified, among them ST8 is the most frequently seen in China while the other five STs were firstly detected and designated as ST137, ST138, ST139, ST140, and ST141 by international multilocus sequence typing database. Whole-genome sequence (WGS-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based typing and phylogenetic analysis resolved Chinese B. melitensis strains into five clusters, reflecting the existence of multiple lineages among these Chinese B. melitensis strains. In phylogeny, Chinese lineages are more closely related to strains collected from East Mediterranean and Middle East countries, such as Turkey, Kuwait, and Iraq. In the next few years, MLVA typing will certainly remain an important epidemiological tool for Brucella infection analysis, as it displays a high discriminatory ability and achieves result largely in agreement with WGS-SNP-based typing. However, WGS-SNP-based typing is found to be the most powerful and reliable method in discerning Brucella strains and will be popular used in the future.

  5. Opening the Big Black Box: European study reveals visitors' impressions of science laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "On 29 - 30 March the findings of 'Inside the Big Black Box'- a Europe-wide science and society project - will be revealed during a two-day seminar hosted by CERN*. The principle aim of Inside the Big Black Box (IN3B) is to determine whether a working scientific laboratory can capture the curiosity of the general public through visits" (1 page)

  6. Choice experiments versus revealed choice models : a before-after study of consumer spatial shopping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, H.J.P.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare a set of multinomial logit models derived from revealed choice data and a decompositional choice model derived from experimental data in terms of predictive success in the context of consumer spatial shopping behavior. Data on consumer shopping choice

  7. The Studies of a Vacuum Gap Breakdown after High-Current Arc Interruption with Increasing the Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. V.; Popov, S. A.; Batrakov, A. V.; Dubrovskaya, E. L.; Lavrinovich, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Vacuum-gap breakdown has been studied after high-current arc interruption with a subsequent increase in the transient recovery voltage across a gap. The effects of factors, such as the rate of the rise in the transient voltage, the potential of the shield that surrounds a discharge gap, and the arc burning time, have been determined. It has been revealed that opening the contacts earlier leads to the formation of an anode spot, which is the source of electrode material vapors into the discharge gap after current zero moment. Under the conditions of increasing voltage, this fact results in the breakdown. Too late opening leads to the breakdown of a short gap due to the high electric fields.

  8. Quantitative ligand and receptor binding studies reveal the mechanism of interleukin-36 (IL-36) pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Todorovic, Viktor; Kakavas, Steve; Sielaff, Bernhard; Medina, Limary; Wang, Leyu; Sadhukhan, Ramkrishna; Stockmann, Henning; Richardson, Paul L; DiGiammarino, Enrico; Sun, Chaohong; Scott, Victoria

    2018-01-12

    IL-36 cytokines signal through the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) and a shared subunit, IL-1RAcP (IL-1 receptor accessory protein). The activation mechanism for the IL-36 pathway is proposed to be similar to that of IL-1 in that an IL-36R agonist (IL-36α, IL-36β, or IL-36γ) forms a binary complex with IL-36R, which then recruits IL-1RAcP. Recent studies have shown that IL-36R interacts with IL-1RAcP even in the absence of an agonist. To elucidate the IL-36 activation mechanism, we considered all possible binding events for IL-36 ligands/receptors and examined these events in direct binding assays. Our results indicated that the agonists bind the IL-36R extracellular domain with micromolar affinity but do not detectably bind IL-1RAcP. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we found that IL-1RAcP also does not bind IL-36R when no agonist is present. In the presence of IL-36α, however, IL-1RAcP bound IL-36R strongly. These results suggested that the main pathway to the IL-36R·IL-36α·IL-1RAcP ternary complex is through the IL-36R·IL-36α binary complex, which recruits IL-1RAcP. We could not measure the binding affinity of IL-36R to IL-1RAcP directly, so we engineered a fragment crystallizable-linked construct to induce IL-36R·IL-1RAcP heterodimerization and predicted the binding affinity during a complete thermodynamic cycle to be 74 μm The SPR analysis also indicated that the IL-36R antagonist IL-36Ra binds IL-36R with higher affinity and a much slower off rate than the IL-36R agonists, shedding light on IL-36 pathway inhibition. Our results reveal the landscape of IL-36 ligand and receptor interactions, improving our understanding of IL-36 pathway activation and inhibition. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. FISH-BOL and seafood identification: geographically dispersed case studies reveal systemic market substitution across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Robert; Becker, Sven; Ivanova, Natalia V; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-10-01

    The Fish Barcode of Life campaign involves a broad international collaboration among scientists working to advance the identification of fishes using DNA barcodes. With over 25% of the world's known ichthyofauna currently profiled, forensic identification of seafood products is now feasible and is becoming routine. Driven by growing consumer interest in the food supply, investigative reporters from five different media establishments procured seafood samples (n = 254) from numerous retail establishments located among five Canadian metropolitan areas between 2008 and 2010. The specimens were sent to the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding for analysis. By integrating the results from these individual case studies in a summary analysis, we provide a broad perspective on seafood substitution across Canada. Barcodes were recovered from 93% of the samples (n = 236), and identified using the Barcode of Life Data Systems "species identification" engine ( www.barcodinglife.org ). A 99% sequence similarity threshold was employed as a conservative matching criterion for specimen identification to the species level. Comparing these results against the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's "Fish List" a guideline to interpreting "false, misleading or deceptive" names (as per s 27 of the Fish Inspection regulations) demonstrated that 41% of the samples were mislabeled. Most samples were readily identified; however, this was not true in all cases because some samples had no close match. Others were ambiguous due to limited barcode resolution (or imperfect taxonomy) observed within a few closely related species complexes. The latter cases did not significantly impact the results because even the partial resolution achieved was sufficient to demonstrate mislabeling. This work highlights the functional utility of barcoding for the identification of diverse market samples. It also demonstrates how barcoding serves as a bridge linking scientific nomenclature with approved market names

  10. Studies of non-inductive current drive in the CDX-U tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of novel, non-inductive current drive concepts for starting-up and maintaining tokamak discharges, dc-helicity injection and internally-generated pressure-driven currents, have been developed on the CDX-U tokamak. To study the equilibrium and transport of these plasmas, a full set of magnetic diagnostics was installed. By applying a finite element method and a least squares error fitting technique, internal plasma current distributions are reconstructed from the measurements. Electron density distributions were obtained from 2 mm interferometer measurements by a similar least squares error technique utilizing magnetic flux configurations obtained by the magnetic analysis. Neoclassical pressure-driven currents in ECH plasmas are modeled with the reconstructed magnetic structure, using the electron density distribution and the electron temperature profile measured by a Langmuir probe. In the dc-helicity injection scheme, the need to increase injection current and maintain plasma equilibrium restricts possible arrangements. Several injection configurations were investigated, with the best found to be outside injection with a single divertor configuration, where the cathode is placed at the low field side of the x-point. Both pressure-driven and dc-helicity injected tokamaks show the importance of plasma equilibrium in obtaining high plasma current. Programmed vertical field operation has proven to be very important in achieving high plasma current. These non-inductive current drive techniques show great potential as efficient current drive methods for future steady-state and/or long-pulse fusion reactors

  11. A scoping study for an environmental impact field programme in tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study to identify the environmental impacts of tidal current energy with the aim of prioritising research. The background to the study is traced, and the interaction between tidal current energy technology and the marine environment, the modeling of the consequences of the environmental interactions, the quantification of the environmental impacts of key environmental interactions, and the formulation of a programme of research are discussed. Recommendations are given and research needs are highlighted.

  12. Study of leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted surface of ceramic insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Reddy, B.; Nagabhushana, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observed that there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage. The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV. Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flow as the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dray band and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, here also, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages. Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis-the leakage currents are lower in the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutant layer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a direct quantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized

  13. Study of a twisted ATLAS SCT Barrel deformation as revealed by a photogrammetric survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, E; Heinemann, F; Karagoz-Unel, M

    2007-01-01

    A photogrammetry survey on the SCT barrels was performed as an engineering check on the structure of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) shortly after construction. Analysis of the data obtained revealed small scale elliptical deformation as well as a twist of the structure. The results of the survey are presented as well as interpolation of the measured targets to the module positions and a comparison with track based alignment measurements.

  14. Shifts in river-floodplain relationship reveal the impacts of river regulation: A case study of Dongting Lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cai; Jia, Yifei; Jing, Lei; Zeng, Qing; Lei, Jialin; Zhang, Shuanghu; Lei, Guangchun; Wen, Li

    2018-04-01

    Better understanding of the dynamics of hydrological connectivity between river and floodplain is essential for the ecological integrity of river systems. In this study, we proposed a regime-switch modelling (RSM) framework, which integrates change point analysis with dynamic linear regression, to detect and date change points in linear regression, and to quantify the relative importance of natural variations and anthropogenic disturbances. The approach was applied to the long-term hydrological time series to investigate the evolution of river-floodplain relation in Dongting Lake in the last five decades, during which the Yangtze River system experienced unprecedented anthropogenic manipulations. Our results suggested that 1) there were five distinct regimes during which the influence of inflows and local climate on lake water level changed significantly. The detected change points were well corresponding to the major events occurred upon the Yangtze; 2) although the importance of inflows from the Yangtze was greater than that of the tributaries flows over the five regimes, the relative contribution gradually decreased from regime 1 to regime 5. The weakening of hydrological forcing from the Yangtze was mainly attributed to the reduction in channel capacity resulting from sedimentation in the outfalls and water level dropping caused by river bed scour in the mainstream; 3) the effects of local climate was much smaller than these of inflows; and 4) since the operation of The Three Gorges Dam in 2006, the river-floodplain relationship entered a new equilibrium in that all investigated variables changed synchronously in terms of direction and magnitude. The results from this study reveal the mechanisms underlying the alternated inundation regime in Dongting Lake. The identified change points, some of which have not been previously reported, will allow a reappraisal of the current dam and reservoir operation strategies not only for flood/drought risk management but

  15. Feasibility of the current-duration approach to studying human fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slama, Rémy; Ducot, Béatrice; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    of unprotected intercourse was defined for 69 women (5.7%). An additional 15 women (1.2%) were planning to start trying to become pregnant within the next 6 months. Parametric methods allowed, based on current duration of unprotected intercourse, estimation of fecundity as if the couples had been followed...... up (current-duration design). To illustrate the feasibility of the current-duration design, we contacted a random sample of 1204 French women age 18 to 44 years in 2004 and recruited those who were currently having unprotected sexual intercourse. The current duration since the beginning...... prospectively. The estimated proportion of couples not pregnant after 12 months of unprotected intercourse was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15-54%). The accelerated-failure time model allows study of the influence of environmental factors on fecundity. As an illustration, tobacco smoking by the woman...

  16. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    system, all the antennas could provide data for us. In addition, we improved the level of detail by using the Pie Town, NM, antenna of the Very Long Baseline Array, as part of an expanded system," Lim said. The implementation and improvement of the 43 GHz receiving system was a collaborative program among the German Max Planck Institute, the Mexican National Autonomous University, and the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Two popular theoretical models for the formation of multiple-star systems are, first, that the two protostars and their surrounding dusty disks fragment from a larger parent disk, and, second, that the protostars form independently and then one captures the other into a mutual orbit. "Our new study shows that the disks of the two main protostars are aligned with each other, and also are aligned with the larger, surrounding disk. In addition, their orbital motion resembles the rotation of the larger disk. This is a 'smoking gun' supporting the fragmentation model," Lim said. However, the new study also revealed a third young star with a dust disk. "The disk of this one is misaligned with those of the other two, so it may be the result of either fragmentation or capture," Takakuwa said. The misalignment of the third disk could have come through gravitational interactions with the other two, larger, protostars, the scientists said. They plan further observations to try to resolve the question. "We have a very firm indication that two of these protostars and their dust disks formed from the same, larger disk-like cloud, then broke out from it in a fragmentation process. That strongly supports one theoretical model for how multiple-star systems are formed. The misalignment of the third protostar and its disk leaves open the possibility that it could have formed elsewhere and been captured, and we'll continue to work on reconstructing the history of this fascinating system," Lim summarized. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of

  17. A genome-wide association study by ImmunoChip reveals potential modifiers in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Fabrice; Fozza, Claudio; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Mulas, Antonella; Corda, Giovanna; Contini, Salvatore; Dore, Fausto; Galleu, Antonio; Di Tucci, Anna Angela; Caocci, Giovanni; Gaviano, Eleonora; Latte, Giancarlo; Gabbas, Attilio; Casula, Paolo; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; La Nasa, Giorgio; Angelucci, Emanuele; Cucca, Francesco; Longinotti, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    Because different findings suggest that an immune dysregulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we analyzed a large cohort of patients from a homogeneous Sardinian population using ImmunoChip, a genotyping array exploring 147,954 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) localized in genomic regions displaying some degree of association with immune-mediated diseases or pathways. The population studied included 133 cases and 3,894 controls, and a total of 153,978 autosomal markers and 971 non-autosomal markers were genotyped. After association analysis, only one variant passed the genome-wide significance threshold: rs71325459 (p = 1.16 × 10 -12 ), which is situated on chromosome 20. The variant is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs35640778, an untested missense variant situated in the RTEL1 gene, an interesting candidate that encodes for an ATP-dependent DNA helicase implicated in telomere-length regulation, DNA repair, and maintenance of genomic stability. The second most associated signal is composed of five variants that fall slightly below the genome-wide significance threshold but point out another interesting gene candidate. These SNPs, with p values between 2.53 × 10 -6 and 3.34 × 10 -6 , are situated in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. The most associated of these variants, rs1537514, presents an increased frequency of the derived C allele in cases, with 11.4% versus 4.4% in controls. MTHFR is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle and genetic variations in this gene have been strongly associated with the risk of neoplastic diseases. The current understanding of the MDS biology, which is based on the hypothesis of the sequential development of multiple subclonal molecular lesions, fits very well with the demonstration of a possible role for RTEL1 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms, both of which are related to a variable risk of genomic instability. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International

  18. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Exploratory Study of the Current Status of the Rights and Welfare of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The study revealed that there is a robust legislative and policy environment for pursuing ... Ghana are still threatened by early and forced marriages, deficit in political ..... international women‟s organizations since the ..... revised version to Parliament for consideration to ..... Also in theory the cost of pregnancy and delivery.

  20. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Sharon D.; Wildeman, Maarten A.; Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R.; Herdini, Camelia; Wildeman, Pieter L.; van Diessen, Judi N. A.; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Tan, I. Bing

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI) and the

  1. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, S.D.; Wildeman, M.A.; Fles, R.; Indrasari, S.R.; Herdini, C.; Wildeman, P.L.; van Diessen, J.N.A.; Tjoknagoro, M.; Tan, I.B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy

  2. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  3. Study of plasma equilibrium during the AC current reversal phase in STOR-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, C.

    2002-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) tokamak operation and equilibrium studies have been performed on the STOR-M tokamak. The recent experiments have achieved consistent smooth current reversal through the implementation of a hybrid digital-analog position controller and by careful density control. In order to study the plasma equilibrium during the current reversal phase with negligible rotational transform, a segmented limiter with four isolated conducting plates has been installed. The plates can be connected outside the vacuum vessel, which allows measurements of currents flowing between limiter plates. When the current reversal is smooth with zero dwell time, the hydrogen line emission level and electron density remain finite, indicating a finite particle confinement. The current from the top to the bottom limiter plate is also finite and its direction is consistent with that of the grad-B drift. The observation suggests that the limiter and other conducting structures surrounding the plasmas plays the role, during the current reversal phase of AC tokamak operation, to short out the charge separation arising from the grad-B drift and to maintain a finite particle confinement. (author)

  4. A Numerical Modeling for Study Marine Current in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parabelem Tinno Dolf Rompas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is investigating about marine currents provided electrical energy through the numerical model. The objective of this study is to know the available power distributions in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Manado Bay was width 2200 m with 79 m of depth. In computation, we are made grids in x and y horizontal were 7 m respectively, also for z vertical of four layers. The results shown that the available power distributions in the Manado Bay at 0.1 Sv were 0.00-20.00 kW/m2 when low tide currents and when high tide currents were 0.00-105 kW/m2. The values will enable for marine currents power plant in the Manado Bay to future.

  5. Small angle X-ray scattering study of calreticulin reveals conformational plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Katrine Nørgaard; Larsen, Nanna; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2008-01-01

    . The data from the calreticulin monomer reveal the shape of calreticulin in solution: The previously structurally un-described C-terminal is seen as a globular domain, and the P-domain beta-hairpin extends from the N-domain in a spiral like conformation. In the calreticulin solution dimer, the N-, C-, and P......-domains are easily identified, and the P-domain is in an extended conformation connecting to the second calreticulin molecule. The SAXS solution data enables the construction of a medium-resolution model of calreticulin. In the light of the unresolved chaperone mechanism of calreticulin and calnexin, we discuss...

  6. Stimulating thought: a functional MRI study of transcranial direct current stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; O'Daly, Owen; Tracy, Derek K; Daniju, Yusuf; Hodsoll, John; Valdearenas, Lorena; Rothwell, John; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel neuromodulatory technique with emerging evidence of potential pro-cognitive effects; however, there is limited understanding of its mechanism. This was a double-blind randomized sham controlled pilot study of transcranial direct current stimulation on a working memory (n-back) and executive function (Stroop) task in 28 individuals with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Study participants received 30 min of real or sham transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the left frontal cortex. The 'real' and 'sham' groups did not differ in online working memory task performance, but the transcranial direct current stimulation group demonstrated significant improvement in performance at 24 h post-transcranial direct current stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with increased activation in the medial frontal cortex beneath the anode; showing a positive correlation with consolidated working memory performance 24 h post-stimulation. There was reduced activation in the left cerebellum in the transcranial direct current stimulation group, with no change in the middle frontal gyrus or parietal cortices. Improved performance on the executive function task was associated with reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulated functional activation in local task-related regions, and in more distal nodes in the network. Transcranial direct current stimulation offers a potential novel approach to altering frontal cortical activity and exerting pro-cognitive effects in schizophrenia. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  7. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, Laura [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation for depression in Alzheimer's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Zui; Yokoi, Yuma

    2017-06-19

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease frequently elicit neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as cognitive deficits. Above all, depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease but antidepressant drugs have not shown significant beneficial effects on it. Moreover, electroconvulsive therapy has not ensured its safety for potential severe adverse events although it does show beneficial clinical effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be the safe alternative of neuromodulation, which applies weak direct electrical current to the brain. Although transcranial direct current stimulation has plausible evidence for its effect on depression in young adult patients, no study has explored it in older subjects with depression in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we present a study protocol designed to evaluate the safety and clinical effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on depression in Alzheimer's disease in subjects aged over 65 years. This is a two-arm, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial, in which patients and assessors will be blinded. Subjects will be randomized to either an active or a sham transcranial direct current stimulation group. Participants in both groups will be evaluated at baseline, immediately, and 2 weeks after the intervention. This study investigates the safety and effect of transcranial direct current stimulation that may bring a significant impact on both depression and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and may be useful to enhance their quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02351388 . Registered on 27 January 2015. Last updated on 30 May 2016.

  9. An image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation system: a pilot phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Daejeong; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation (IG-tDCS) system that can deliver an increased stimulation current to a target brain area without the need to adjust the location of an active electrode was implemented. This IG-tDCS system was based on the array-type tDCS concept, which was validated through computer simulations in a previous study. Unlike a previous study, the present IG-tDCS system adopts a single reference electrode and an active electrode array consisting of 16 (4 × 4) sub-electrodes. The proposed IG-tDCS system is capable of shaping current flow inside the human head by controlling the input currents of the arrayed electrodes. Once a target brain area has been selected, the optimal injection current of each arrayed sub-electrode is evaluated automatically using a genetic algorithm in order to deliver the maximum available current to the target area. The operation of our pilot system was confirmed through a simple phantom experiment. (paper)

  10. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA, 01854 (United States); Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman, E-mail: vikas_kaushal@student.uml.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, NY, 14627 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics{sup TM} (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  11. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin; Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics TM (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  12. Experimental study on the evolution of Peregrine breather with uniform-depth adverse currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B.; Ma, Y.; Ma, X.; Dong, G.

    2018-05-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed to study the evolution of Peregrine breather (PB) in a wave flume in finite depth, and wave trains were initially generated in a region of quiescent water and then propagated into an adverse current region for which the current velocity strength gradually increased from zero to an approximately stable value. The PB is often considered as a prototype of oceanic freak waves that can focus wave energy into a single wave packet. In the experiment, the cases were selected with the relative water depths k0h (k0 is the wave number in quiescent water and h is the water depth) varying from 3.11 through 8.17, and the initial wave steepness k0a0 (a0 is the background wave amplitude) ranges between 0.065 and 0.120. The experimental results show the persistence of the breather evolution dynamics even in the presence of strong opposing currents. We have shown that the characteristic spectrum of the PB persists even on strong currents, thus making it a viable characteristic for prediction of freak waves. It was also found that the adverse currents tend to shift the focusing point upstream compared to the cases without currents. Furthermore, it was found that uniform-depth adverse currents can reduce the breather extension in time domain.

  13. A study of direct- and pulse-current chromium electroplating on rotating cylinder electrode (RCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.H.; Hsu, F.Y.; Liao, M.J.; Huang, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct- and pulse-current (DC and PC) chromium electroplating on Cr-Mo steel were performed in a sulfate-catalyzed chromic acid solution at 50 deg. C using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). The electroplating cathodic current densities were at 30, 40, 50 and 60 A dm -2 , respectively. The relationship between electroplating current efficiency and the rotating speed of the RCE was studied. The cross-sectional microstructure of Cr-deposit was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that DC-plating exhibited higher current efficiency than the PC-plating under the same conditions of electroplating current density and the rotating speed. We found the critical rotating speed of RCE used in the chromium electroplating, above this rotating speed the chromium deposition is prohibited. At the same plating current density, the critical rotating speed for DC-plating was higher than that for PC-plating. The higher plating current density is, the larger difference in critical rotating speeds appears between DC- and PC-electroplating. Equiaxed grains, in a nanoscale size with lower dislocation density, nucleate on the cathodic surface in both DC- and PC-electroplating. Adjacent to the equiaxed grains, textured grains were found in other portion of chromium deposit. Fine columnar grains were observed in the DC-electroplated deposit. On the other hand, very long slender grains with high degree of preferred orientation were detected in PC-electroplated deposit

  14. Numerical and experimental studies of stack shunt current for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Cong; Guo, Shaoyun; Fang, Honglin; Liu, Jiayi; Li, Yang; Tang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional model of VRB cell stack is developed. • Shunt current of the stack is studied with the model and experiment. • Increased electrolyte resistance in channel and manifold lowers the shunt current. • Shunt current loss increases with stack cell number nonlinearly. - Abstract: The stack shunt current of VRB (vanadium redox flow battery) was investigated with experiments and 3D (three-dimensional) simulations. In the proposed model, cell voltages and electrolyte conductivities were calculated based on electrochemical reaction distributions and SOC (state of charge) values, respectively, while coulombic loss was estimated according to shunt current and vanadium ionic crossover through membrane. Shunt current distributions and coulombic efficiency are analyzed in terms of electrolyte conductivities and stack cell numbers. The distributions of cell voltages and shunt currents calculated with proposed model are validated with single cell and short stack tests. The model can be used to optimize VRB stack manifold and channel designs to improve VRB system efficiency

  15. Tin Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Study their Particle Size at Different Current Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzan A. Omar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by electrochemical reduction method using tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as structure directing agent in an organic medium viz. tetrahydrofuran (THF and acetonitrile (ACN in 4:1 ratio by optimizing current density and molar concentration of the ligand. The reduction process takes place under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen over a period of 2 h. Such nanoparticles are prepared by using a simple electrolysis cell in which the sacrificial anode as a commercially available in tin metal sheet and platinum (inert sheet act as a cathode. The parameters such as current density, solvent polarity, distance between electrodes and concentration of stabilizers are used to control the size of nanoparticles. The synthesized tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by using UV–Visible, FT-IR and SEM–EDS analysis techniques. UV-Visible spectroscopy has revealed the optical band gap to be 4.13, 4.16 and 4.24 ev for (8, 10 and 12 mA/cm2 and the effect of current density on theirs particle size, respectively.

  16. Study of local currents in low dimension materials using complex injecting potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenglai; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2018-04-01

    A complex potential is constructed to inject electrons into the conduction band, mimicking electron currents in nanoscale systems. The injected electrons are time propagated until a steady state is reached. The local current density can then be calculated to show the path of the conducting electrons on an atomistic level. The method allows for the calculation of the current density vectors within the medium as a function of energy of the conducting electron. Using this method, we investigate the electron pathway of graphene nanoribbons in various structures, molecular junctions, and black phosphorus nanoribbons. By analyzing the current flow through the structures, we find strong dependence on the structural geometry and the energy of the injected electrons. This method may be of general use in the study of nano-electronic materials and interfaces.

  17. Numerical studies on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by radio frequency current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, X.D.; Guenter, S.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical modeling on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by localized radio frequency (rf) current drive has been carried out to study the effects of various wave and plasma parameters on the stabilization and the associated physics. The change of the rf current profile due to the magnetic island has been taken into account by modeling the two-dimensional transport of the fast electrons induced by the rf wave. It is found that, when the rf deposition width is much larger than the island width, the modulated rf current drive to deposit the rf current around the island's o point has a stronger stabilizing effect than a nonmodulated one. The slowing down time of the fast electrons and the initial island width when applying the rf wave are also found to be important in determining the stabilizing effect

  18. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  19. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Michele Devido; Gagliardi, Rubens José; Mac-Kay, Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio, Paulo Sergio; Lianza, Roberta; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034), naming (P = 0.041) and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038). Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  20. Finding Order in Randomness: Single-Molecule Studies Reveal Stochastic RNA Processing | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a functional eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) requires the coordinated activity of several large protein complexes to initiate transcription, elongate nascent transcripts, splice together exons, and cleave and polyadenylate the 3’ end. Kinetic competition between these various processes has been proposed to regulate mRNA maturation, but this model could lead to multiple, randomly determined, or stochastic, pathways or outcomes. Regulatory checkpoints have been suggested as a means of ensuring quality control. However, current methods have been unable to tease apart the contributions of these processes at a single gene or on a time scale that could provide mechanistic insight. To begin to investigate the kinetic relationship between transcription and splicing, Daniel Larson, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues employed a single-molecule RNA imaging approach to monitor production and processing of a human β-globin reporter gene in living cells.

  1. Novel Polyurethane Matrix Systems Reveal a Particular Sustained Release Behavior Studied by Imaging and Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiñez, María Dolores; Caraballo, Isidoro; Puchkov, Maxim; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data. The obtained results showed that the polymers exhibited a surprisingly high ability for controlling drug release at low excipient concentrations (only 10% w/w of excipient controlled the release of drug during almost 8 h). The mesoscopic in silico model helped to reveal how the novel biopolymers were controlling drug release. The mechanism was found to be a special geometrical arrangement of the excipient particles, creating an almost continuous barrier surrounding the drug in a very effective way, comparable to lipid or waxy excipients but with the advantages of a much higher compactability, stability, and absence of excipient polymorphism.

  2. Revealing a room temperature ferromagnetism in cadmium oxide nanoparticles: An experimental and first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Bououdina, Mohamed

    2015-03-26

    We obtain a single cadmium oxide phase from powder synthesized by a thermal decomposition method of cadmium acetate dehydrate. The yielded powder is annealed in air, vacuum, and H2 gas in order to create point defects. Magnetization-field curves reveal the appearance of diamagnetic behavior with a ferromagnetic component for all the powders. Powder annealing under vacuum and H2 atmosphere leads to a saturation magnetization 1.15 memu g-1 and 1.2 memu g-1 respectively with an increase by 45% and 16% compared to the one annealed in air. We show that annealing in vacuum produces mainly oxygen vacancies while annealing in H2 gas creates mainly Cd vacancy leading to room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) component together with known diamagnetic properties. Ab initio calculations performed on the CdO nanoparticles show that the magnetism is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Cd d and O p orbitals together with the vacancy. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  3. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TAL effectors (TALEs contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE.

  4. Field aligned current study during the solar declining- extreme minimum of 23 solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepolian, Jeni Victor; Kumar, Anil; C, Panneerselvam

    Field Aligned Current (FAC) density study has been carried out during the solar declining phase from 2004 to 2006 of the 23rd solar cycle and the ambient terrestrial magnetic field of the extended minimum period of 2008 and 2009. We mainly depended on CHAMP satellite data (http://isdc.gfz-potsdam.de/) for computing the FAC density with backup of IGRF-10 model. The study indicates that, the FAC is controlled by quasi-viscous processes occurring at the flank of the earth’s magnetosphere. The dawn-dusk conventional pattern enhanced during disturbed days. The intensity of R1 current system is higher than the R2 current system. Detailed results will be discussed in the conference.

  5. Study of the antineutrino-induced elastic semi-leptonic neutral current reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racca, C.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the elastic neutral current reaction antiνsub(μ)p→antiνsub(μ)p has been done using Gargamelle filled with propane and the antineutrino beam of the CERN P.S. The space-time structure of the weak neutral current is discussed, the predictions of various V-A models for the ratio of neutral to charged current elastic cross-sections Rsup(antiν) are given. The experimental set-up, the scanning criteria and the program of reconstruction are described. The background due to the contamination by the reaction np→np principally is studied. Cuts are defined to resorbe these backgrounds and corrections are made for other backgrounds and losses. The results are compared with those of the reaction antiνsub(μ)p→μ + n and the ratio Rsup(antiν) is calculated. An upper limit of this ratio is given and the results are discussed [fr

  6. Diffuse CO2 degassing studies to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Perez, N. M.; García-Merino, M.; Padron, E.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Cótchico, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Canary Islands, owing to their recent volcanism, are the only Spanish territory with potential high enthalpy geothermal resources. The final goal of geothermal exploration in a specific area is to locate and define the size, shape, structure of hidden geothermal resources, and determine their characteristics (fluid type, temperature, chemical composition an ability to produce energy). At those areas where there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system) the geochemical methods for geothermal exploration must include soil gas surveys. This is the case of five mining licenses for geothermal exploration in the Canay Islands, four in Tenerife and one in Gran Canaria Island. We report herein the results of diffuse CO2 emission studies in the five mining licenses during 2011-2014. The primary objective of the study was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. The criterion used to sort the different areas was the contribution of volcano-hydrothermal CO2 in the degassing at each study area. Several hundreds of measurements of diffuse CO2 emission, soil CO2 concentration and isotopic composition were performed at each study area. Based in three different endmembers (biogenic, atmospheric and deep-seated CO2) with different CO2 concentrations (100, 0.04 and 100% respectively) and isotopic compositions (-20, -8 and -3 per mil vs. VPDB respectively) a mass balance to distinguish the different contribution of each endmember in the soil CO2 at each sampling site was made. The percentage of the volcano-hydrothermal contribution in the current diffuse CO2 degassing was in the range 2-19%.The Abeque mining license, that comprises part of the north-west volcanic rift of Tenerife, seemed to show the highest geothermal

  7. A STUDY ABOUT CELL ACTIVITY ON ANODIZED Ti-6Al-4V BY MEANS OF PULSED CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUANA M. R. VASCONCELLOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and some of its alloys exhibit excellent anti-corrosive and biocompatibility properties due to rapid formation of a passive film on their surfaces when exposed to the atmosphere. However, such materials presentpoor osteoindutive properties. Surfaces modified via anodization are being proposed in this study to promote a chemical interaction between implants and bone cells. For this purpose, samples in Ti-6Al-4V alloy discs were anodized in a phosphoric acid solution using pulsed current for being applied in orthopaedic implants. The pulsed current is based on duty cycle (DC, which was supplied by a square wave pulse rectifier at 100 Hz and maximum tension of 30 V. A scanning electron microscope was used to obtain images of the anodized surfaces, thus revealing the presence of uniformly distributed pores over the entire surface, measuring approximately 2 m in diameter. Osteogenic cells grown on the surface of the control and anodized samples were assayed for cytotoxicity and mineralized matrix formation. The anodized surfaces presented a higher rate of viable cells after 10 days, as well as a higher amount of nodules (p = 0.05. In conclusion, these results suggest that the nanotopography promoted by anodization using pulsed current induces beneficial modulatory effects on osteoblastic cells.

  8. Current and future prospects for the application of systematic theoretical methods to the study of problems in physical oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, A., E-mail: adrian.constantin@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Johnson, R.S., E-mail: r.s.johnson@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mathematics & Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Highlights: • Systematic theoretical methods in studies of equatorial ocean dynamics. • Linear wave-current interactions in stratified flows. • Exact solutions – Kelvin waves, azimuthal non-uniform currents. • Three-dimensional nonlinear currents. • Hamiltonian formulation for the governing equations and for structure-preserving/enhancing approximations. - Abstract: This essay is a commentary on the pivotal role of systematic theoretical methods in physical oceanography. At some level, there will always be a conflict between theory and experiment/data collection: Which is pre-eminent? Which should come first? This issue appears to be particularly marked in physical oceanography, to the extreme detriment of the development of the subject. It is our contention that the classical theory of fluids, coupled with methods from the theory of differential equations, can play a significant role in carrying the subject, and our understanding, forward. We outline the philosophy behind a systematic theoretical approach, highlighting some aspects of equatorial ocean dynamics where these methods have already been successful, paving the way for much more in the future and leading, we expect, to the better understanding of this and many other types of ocean flow. We believe that the ideas described here promise to reveal a rich and beautiful dynamical structure.

  9. Analysis techniques of charging damage studied on three different high-current ion implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felch, S. B.; Larson, L. A.; Current, M. I.; Lindsey, D. W.

    1989-02-01

    One of the Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group's recent activities has been to sponsor a round-robin on charging damage, where identical wafers were implanted on three different state-of-the-art, high-current ion implanters. The devices studied were thin-dielectric (250 Å SiO2), polysilicon-gate MOS capacitors isolated by thick field oxide. The three implanters involved were the Varian/Extrion 160XP, the Eaton/Nova 10-80, and the Applied Materials PI9000. Each implanter vendor was given 48 wafers to implant with 100 keV As+ ions at a dose of 1 × 1016 cm-2. Parameters that were varied include the beam current, electron flood gun current, and chamber pressure. The charge-to-breakdown, breakdown voltage, and leakage current of several devices before anneal have been measured. The results from these tests were inconclusive as to the physical mechanism of charging and as to the effectiveness of techniques to reduce its impact on devices. However, the methodology of this study is discussed in detail to aid in the planning of future experiments. Authors' industrial affiliations: S.B. Felch, Varian Research Center, 611 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA; L.A. Larson, National Semiconductor Corp., P.O. Box 58090, Santa Clara, CA 95052-8090, USA; M.I. Current, Applied Materials, 3050 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA; D.W. Lindsey, Eaton/NOVA, 931 Benicia Ave, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA.

  10. Vesicle Encapsulation Studies Reveal that Single Molecule Ribozyme Heterogeneities Are Intrinsic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, Burak; Wilson, Timothy J.; Lilley, David M. J.; Ha, Taekjip

    2004-01-01

    Single-molecule measurements have revealed that what were assumed to be identical molecules can differ significantly in their static and dynamic properties. One of the most striking examples is the hairpin ribozyme, which was shown to exhibit two to three orders of magnitude variation in folding kinetics between molecules. Although averaged behavior of single molecules matched the bulk solution data, it was not possible to exclude rigorously the possibility that the variations around the mean values arose from different ways of interacting with the surface environment. To test this, we minimized the molecules' interaction with the surface by encapsulating DNA or RNA molecules inside 100- to 200-nm diameter unilamellar vesicles, following the procedures described by Haran and coworkers. Vesicles were immobilized on a supported lipid bilayer via biotin-streptavidin linkages. We observed no direct binding of DNA or RNA on the supported bilayer even at concentrations exceeding 100 nM, indicating that these molecules do not bind stably on the membrane. Since the vesicle diameter is smaller than the resolution of optical microscopy, the lateral mobility of the molecules is severely constrained, allowing long observation periods. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, nuclease digestion, and external buffer exchange to show that the molecules were indeed encapsulated within the vesicles. When contained within vesicles, the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme exhibited 50-fold variation in both folding and unfolding rates in 0.5 mM Mg2+, which is identical to what was observed from the molecules tethered directly on the surface. This strongly indicates that the observed heterogeneity in dynamic properties does not arise as an artifact of surface attachment, but is intrinsic to the nature of the molecules. PMID:15454471

  11. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  12. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  13. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  14. To What Extent Does Current Scientific Research and Textbook Content Align? A Methodology and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Schwartz, Renee S.; Gill, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in education recommend science curricula to be based on central ideas instead of a larger number of topics and for alignment between current scientific research and curricula. Because alignment is rarely studied, especially for central ideas, we developed a methodology to discover the extent of alignment between primary…

  15. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  16. Correlations and currents in 3He studied with the (e, e'pp) reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groep, David Leo

    2000-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon correlations, especially those of short-range character, can be well studied with electron-induced two-nucleon knockout reactions at intermediate electron energies. However, these reactions are not only driven by one-body currents, i.e., coupling of the virtual photon to one of

  17. Parametric study of lower-hybrid current drive in the FED-A design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, H.; Ehst, D.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-08-01

    In the FED-A concept, a quasi-steady-state operating scenario is conceived in which the plasma current is maintained by the transformer coil during burn at high density and by the lower hybrid wave during transformer recharge at low density. A parametric study is carried out to obtain optimum plasma and wave parameters in the recharging phase

  18. MSE measurements for sawtooth and non-inductive current drive studies in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Park, H.; Bea, Y. S.; Chung, J.; Jeon, Y. M.

    2016-10-01

    Two major topics where the measurement of the magnetic-field-line rotational transform profiles in toroidal plasma systems include the long-standing issue of complete versus incomplete reconnection model of the sawtooth instability and the issue with future reactor-relevant tokamak devices in which non-inductive steady state current sustainment is essential. The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the photoelastic-modulator (PEM) approach is one of the most reliable means to measure the internal magnetic pitch, and thus the rotational transform, or its reciprocal (q), profiles. The MSE system has been commissioned for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) along with the development of various techniques to minimize systematic offset errors such as Faraday rotation and mis-alignment of the bandpass filters. The diagnostic has revealed the central q is well correlated with the sawtooth oscillation, maintaining its value above unity during the MHD quiescent period and that the response of the q profile to external current drive such as electron cyclotron wave injection not only involves the local change of the pitch angle gradient but also a significant shift of the magnetic topology due to the wave energy transport. Work supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea.

  19. An experimental study of particle-driven gravity currents on steep slopes with entrainment of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rastello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of laboratory experiments are presented in which a finite suspension of sawdust particles was released instantaneously into a rectangular channel immersed in a water tank. Two kinds of gravity currents were studied: currents with or without entrainment of particles from the bed. Experiments were repeated for two slopes: 30° and 45°. We observed that the velocity of the front was significantly in-creased as particle entrainment occurred. In addition, our experiments showed that the front kept a quasi-constant velocity for both runs. This might suggest that the flow regime corresponded to the "slumping regime" or "adjustment phase" described earlier by Huppert and Simpson (1980.

  20. Study on ICT specification devices compared with needs and current technologies at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fauzi Haris; Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Hafez Mohd Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In line with current development of ICT, Malaysian government has planned and introduced several initiatives based on ICT strategies. In Economic Transformation Programs, these matters were mentioned in Chapter 13 entitled Communication Content and Infrastructure. In order to make these plans successful, sustainability and preparedness of ICT are required. ICT devices were not focused only on computer but also others components that supported and increased the performance of computer itself. This paper discussed on data produced from study of current ICT needs in line with technology and in future hopefully it can support all the planning made by the government. (author)

  1. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... and sustainability. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR....

  2. Comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, S.

    2009-07-01

    During the past two decades, active power filters have increasingly grown their popularity as a viable method for improving electric power quality. The main reasons for this have been the advent of fast self-commutating solid-state devices, the progression of digital technology and the improved sensor technology. Four-wire active power filters provide an efficient solution for improving the quality of supply in grounded three-phase systems or three-phase systems with neutral conductors, which are commonly used for powering residential, office and public buildings. Four-wire active power filters are applicable in compensating current harmonics, reactive power, neutral current and load phase imbalance.This thesis presents a comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters. The study includes two voltage source topologies and a current source topology with two different dc-link energy storage structures, which are compared on the basis of their filtering properties, filtering performance and efficiency. The obtained results are used for determining the suitability of current source technology for four-wire active power filtering and finding the most viable four-wire shunt active power filter topology. One commonly recognized disadvantage of the current source active power filter has always been the bulky dc-link inductor. To reduce the size of the dc-link inductor, an alternative dc-link structure for current source active power filters was introduced in the late 80's. The hybrid energy storage consists of both inductive and capacitive energy storage elements, two diodes and two controllable semiconductor switching devices. Since the capacitive element is used as a main storage unit, the inductance of the dc-link inductor can be considerably reduced. However, the original dc current control method proposed is not able to utilize the full potential of the hybrid energy storage and the inductance

  3. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  4. Computational Approaches for Revealing the Structure of Membrane Transporters: Case Study on Bilitranslocase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Venko

    Full Text Available The structural and functional details of transmembrane proteins are vastly underexplored, mostly due to experimental difficulties regarding their solubility and stability. Currently, the majority of transmembrane protein structures are still unknown and this present a huge experimental and computational challenge. Nowadays, thanks to X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy over 3000 structures of membrane proteins have been solved, among them only a few hundred unique ones. Due to the vast biological and pharmaceutical interest in the elucidation of the structure and the functional mechanisms of transmembrane proteins, several computational methods have been developed to overcome the experimental gap. If combined with experimental data the computational information enables rapid, low cost and successful predictions of the molecular structure of unsolved proteins. The reliability of the predictions depends on the availability and accuracy of experimental data associated with structural information. In this review, the following methods are proposed for in silico structure elucidation: sequence-dependent predictions of transmembrane regions, predictions of transmembrane helix–helix interactions, helix arrangements in membrane models, and testing their stability with molecular dynamics simulations. We also demonstrate the usage of the computational methods listed above by proposing a model for the molecular structure of the transmembrane protein bilitranslocase. Bilitranslocase is bilirubin membrane transporter, which shares similar tissue distribution and functional properties with some of the members of the Organic Anion Transporter family and is the only member classified in the Bilirubin Transporter Family. Regarding its unique properties, bilitranslocase is a potentially interesting drug target. Keywords: Membrane proteins, Bilitranslocase, 3D protein structure, Transmembrane region predictors, Helix–helix interactions

  5. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  6. Metabolomic and Genome-wide Association Studies Reveal Potential Endogenous Biomarkers for OATP1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, S W; Giacomini, M M; Hsueh, C-H; Weitz, D; Liang, X; Goswami, S; Kinchen, J M; Coelho, A; Zur, A A; Mertsch, K; Brian, W; Kroetz, D L; Giacomini, K M

    2016-11-01

    Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a major cause of drug toxicities. Using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the human metabolome, we identified 20 metabolites associated with genetic variants in organic anion transporter, OATP1B1 (P acids and fatty acid dicarboxylates were among the metabolites discovered using both GWAS and CSA administration. In vitro studies confirmed tetradecanedioate (TDA) and hexadecanedioate (HDA) were novel substrates of OATP1B1 as well as OAT1 and OAT3. This study highlights the use of multiple datasets for the discovery of endogenous metabolites that represent potential in vivo biomarkers for transporter-mediated DDIs. Future studies are needed to determine whether these metabolites can serve as qualified biomarkers for organic anion transporters. Quantitative relationships between metabolite levels and modulation of transporters should be established. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Mechanistic studies of anticancer aptamer AS1411 reveal a novel role for nucleolin in regulating Rac1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, E Merit; Šalipur, Francesca R; Shams, Mitra; Forsthoefel, Matthew K; Bates, Paula J

    2015-08-01

    AS1411 is a G-rich quadruplex-forming oligodeoxynucleotide that binds specifically to nucleolin, a protein found on the surface and in the cytoplasm of most malignant cells but absent from the surface/cytoplasm of most normal cells. AS1411 has shown promising clinical activity and is being widely used as a tumor-targeting agent, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that AS1411 is taken up in cancer cells by macropinocytosis (fluid phase endocytosis) and subsequently stimulates further macropinocytosis by a nucleolin-dependent mechanism. In the current study, we have investigated the significance and molecular mechanisms of AS1411-induced macropinocytosis. Our results indicate that the antiproliferative activity of AS1411 in various cell lines correlated with its capacity to stimulate macropinocytosis. In DU145 prostate cancer cells, AS1411 induced activation of EGFR, Akt, p38, and Rac1. Activation of Akt and p38 were not critical for AS1411 activity because Akt activation was not observed in all AS1411-responsive cell lines and knockdown of p38 had no effect on AS1411's ability to inhibit proliferation. On the other hand, activation of EGFR and Rac1 appeared to play a role in AS1411 activity in all cancer cell lines examined (DU145, MDA-MB-468, A549, LNCaP) and their inhibition significantly reduced AS1411-mediated macropinocytosis and AS1411 antiproliferative activity. Interestingly, downregulation of nucleolin expression by siRNA also produced a substantial increase in activated Rac1, revealing a previously unknown role for nucleolin as a negative regulator of Rac1 activation. Our results are consistent with a model whereby AS1411 binding to nucleolin leads to sustained activation of Rac1 and causes methuosis, a novel type of nonapoptotic cell death characterized by hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis. We speculate that methuosis is a tumor/metastasis suppressor mechanism that opposes the malignant functions of Rac1 and that

  8. The mental wellbeing of current and retired professional cricketers: an observational prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Nannet; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Gray, Janine; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in professional cricket is non-existent. Consequently, the aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and the 6 months incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD: distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol use) among current and former professional cricketers and to explore the association of potential stressors (significant injury, surgery, adverse life events, career dissatisfaction) and CMD. An observational prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 6 months was conducted among current and former professional cricketers from South Africa. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders as well as several stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by the South African Cricketers Association (SACA). A total of 116 participants enrolled at baseline (overall response rate of 33%) and 76 of those participants completed the 6 month follow-up (follow up rate of 66%). The prevalence of symptoms of CMD in current professional cricketers was 38% for distress, 38% for sleep disturbance, 37% for anxiety/depression and 26% for adverse alcohol use. Among former professional cricketers, baseline prevalence as was 26% for distress, 24% for anxiety/depression, 21% for sleep disturbance and 22% for adverse alcohol use. Career dissatisfaction led to an increased risk of distress, anxiety/depression and sleep disturbance in current professional cricketers. Surgeries and adverse life events led to an increase in reported symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression in current professional cricketers. It was concluded that symptoms of CMD are prevalent in both current and former professional cricketers and the association with surgery, adverse life events and cricket career dissatisfaction may provide some insight into possible mechanisms.

  9. The shady past of female boxers – what case studies in the USA reveal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Gems, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to rectify the invisibility of female boxers and to narrow a research gap by examining the careers of four prominent female champions who managed to excel in the sport despite the social, psychological and physical restrictions imposed by the gender order of American society...... in the nineteenth century. The little studied roles of female boxers present some historiographical issues detailed in the study, which examines and analyses the social construction of gender, and the rejection of prescribed roles by the female boxers, who used the vaudeville and theatrical stages to negotiate...... a transition in gender roles, particularly the notion of females as a ‘weaker sex’. The lives of such courageous women presented an incremental change in the restrictive practices of society, leading to a greater measure of female liberation in succeeding years....

  10. Omic studies reveal the pathogenic lipid droplet proteins in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an epidemic metabolic condition driven by an underlying lipid homeostasis disorder. The lipid droplet (LD, the main organelle involved in neutral lipid storage and hydrolysis, is a potential target for NAFLD therapeutic treatment. In this review, we summarize recent progress elucidating the connections between LD-associated proteins and NAFLD found by genome-wide association studies (GWAS, genomic and proteomic studies. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism by which the protein 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (17β-HSD13 may promote the development of NAFLD.

  11. Study of cosmic rays reveals secrets of solar-terrestrial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    For many years cosmic rays provided the most important source of energetic particles for studies of subatomic physics. Today, cosmic rays are being studied as a natural phenomenon that can tell us much about both the Earth's environment in space and distant astrophysical processes. Cosmic rays are naturally occurring energetic particles—mainly ions—with kinetic energies extending from just above thermal energies to more than 1020 electron volts (eV). They constantly bombard the Earth from all directions, with more than 1018 particles having energies >1 MeV striking the top of the Earth's atmosphere each second. Figure 1 illustrates the continuous cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  12. Effect of cytosolic pH on inward currents reveals structural characteristics of the proton transport cycle in the influenza A protein M2 in cell-free membrane patches of Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia L DiFrancesco

    Full Text Available Transport activity through the mutant D44A of the M2 proton channel from influenza virus A was measured in excised inside-out macro-patches of Xenopus laevis oocytes at cytosolic pH values of 5.5, 7.5 and 8.2. The current-voltage relationships reveal some peculiarities: 1. "Transinhibition", i.e., instead of an increase of unidirectional outward current with increasing cytosolic H(+ concentration, a decrease of unidirectional inward current was found. 2. Strong inward rectification. 3. Exponential rise of current with negative potentials. In order to interpret these findings in molecular terms, different kinetic models have been tested. The transinhibition basically results from a strong binding of H(+ to a site in the pore, presumably His37. This assumption alone already provides inward rectification and exponential rise of the IV curves. However, it results in poor global fits of the IV curves, i.e., good fits were only obtained for cytosolic pH of 8.2, but not for 7.5. Assuming an additional transport step as e.g. caused by a constriction zone at Val27 resulted in a negligible improvement. In contrast, good global fits for cytosolic pH of 7.5 and 8.2 were immediately obtained with a cyclic model. A "recycling step" implies that the protein undergoes conformational changes (assigned to Trp41 and Val27 during transport which have to be reset before the next proton can be transported. The global fit failed at the low currents at pHcyt = 5.5, as expected from the interference of putative transport of other ions besides H(+. Alternatively, a regulatory effect of acidic cytosolic pH may be assumed which strongly modifies the rate constants of the transport cycle.

  13. The study of fkbp and ubiquitin reveals interesting aspects of Artemia stress history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-08-01

    Research on stress responses in animals has increased greatly during the last decades. Though most studies focus on the cellular and molecular bases of the stress response mechanisms, the ecological and evolutionary aspects of stress responses gain more and more interest. Here, we use species and parthenogenetic strains of the genus Artemia, an extremophile model organism, to study, for the first time, a protein well known for its chaperone activity and its involvement in stress responses. More specifically, transcription and protein accumulation of an FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP) homologue were investigated under heat and salt stresses. Additionally, the mRNA levels of ubiquitin, a heat-inducible protein related to the proteasomal pathway, were quantitated under these conditions. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses showed that the studied FKBP orthologue is a typical representative of the family that clusters with other crustacean sequences. The expression was increased in both fkbp and ubiquitin genes after salt and heat stresses. However, our results in combination with the fact that Artemia species and parthenogenetic strains, selected for this study, exhibit different heat or salt tolerance provide useful hints about the evolutionary significance of FKBP and ubiquitin. Regarding FKBP, mRNA expression and protein accumulation seem to depend on the environmental conditions and the evolutionary history of each Artemia population while ubiquitin has a clear and more conserved role under heat shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How Can We Explain Poverty? Case Study of Dee Reveals the Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Many theories have been offered to explain why people are impoverished. This article by Karen Seccombe uses the case study of "Dee," a newly single mother, to explore four of the most common: individualism, social structuralism, the culture of poverty, and fatalism. She concludes that poverty is a highly complex phenomenon, and it is likely that…

  15. A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Richards (Brent); D. Waterworth (Dawn); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); J.R.B. Perry (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); R.K. Semple (Robert); N. Soranzo (Nicole); K. Song (Kijoung); N. Rocha (Nuno); E. Grundberg (Elin); J. Dupuis (Josée); J.C. Florez (Jose); C. Langenberg (Claudia); I. Prokopenko (Inga); R. Saxena (Richa); R. Sladek (Rob); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); D.M. Evans (David); G. Waeber (Gérard); M.S. Burnett; N. Sattar (Naveed); J. Devaney (Joseph); C. Willenborg (Christina); A. Hingorani (Aroon); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); P. Vollenweider (Peter); B. Glaser (Beate); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); D. Melzer (David); K. Stark (Klaus); J. Deanfield (John); J. Winogradow (Janina); M. Grassl (Martina); A.S. Hall (Alistair); J.M. Egan (Josephine); J.R. Thompson (John); S.L. Ricketts (Sally); I.R. König (Inke); W. Reinhard (Wibke); S.M. Grundy (Scott); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); P. Barter (Phil); R. Mahley (Robert); Y.A. Kesaniemi (Antero); D.J. Rader (Daniel); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); A.F.R. Stewart (Alexandre); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); H. Schunkert (Heribert); K.A. Burling (Keith); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); T. Pastinen (Tomi); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); R. McPherson (Ruth); G.D. Smith; T.M. Frayling (Timothy); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.B. Meigs (James); V. Mooser (Vincent); T.D. Spector (Timothy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531) and sought validation of

  16. A Metabolome-Wide Study of Dry Eye Disease Reveals Serum Androgens as Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Hysi, Pirro G.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    Purpose: To test the association between serum metabolites and dry eye disease (DED) using a hypothesisfree metabolomics approach. Design: Cross-sectional association study. Participants: A total of 2819 subjects from the population-representative TwinsUK cohort in the United Kingdom, with a mean

  17. Flow chemistry kinetic studies reveal reaction conditions for ready access to unsymmetrical trehalose analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitul K; Davis, Benjamin G

    2010-10-07

    Monofunctionalization of trehalose, a widely-found symmetric plant disaccharide, was studied in a microreactor to give valuable kinetic insights that have allowed improvements in desymmetrization yields and the development of a reaction sequence for large scale monofunctionalizations that allow access to probes of trehalose's biological function.

  18. Cerebrovascular accident and abnormal focus of hyperactivity revealed by dynamic study in scintiangioencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, C.A.; Perez, R.; Lebourges, J.

    1980-01-01

    A 75-year-old female was admitted to the hospital for suspicion of a cerebrovascular accident. An important focus of hyperactivity was noted during a dynamic study by scintiangioencephalography, consistent with a highly vascular tumor, but corresponding in fact to a focal transitory hyperfusion with accompanying intense neuronal activity. (orig.)

  19. Four studies of economic behavior : integrating revealed and stated preferences data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis estimates equivalence scales for Indonesia, proposes a new type of test of the life-cycle model, shows how important economic and demographic characteristics of Dutch households evolve over age, cohorts and time, and studies the decision problem to when and how much to work, save and

  20. Trends that FCS Education Should Address: A Delphi Study Reveals Top 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Karen L.; Davis, Kimberlee

    2011-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to identify trends of importance to family and consumer sciences (FCS) education. A panel of 21 FCS education experts identified 16 trends and evaluated them by importance, desirability, feasibility, and confidence in validity of the trend. Nutrition appeared as a top priority, followed by consumer economics. The…

  1. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond K.; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura M.; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Adan, RAH

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Method: Following uniformquality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in

  2. Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kas, Martinus J.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. METHOD: Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3)

  3. Studies of Current Induced Magnetization reversal and generation of GHz radiation in magnetic nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajdarwish, Mustafa Yousef

    This thesis describes studies of two phenomena: Current-Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS), and Current-Induced Generation of GHz Radiation. The CIMS part contains results of measurements of current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) and CIMS behavior on Ferromagnetic/Nonmetal/Ferromagnetic (F1/N/F2) nanopillars. Judicious combinations of F1 and F2 metals with different bulk scattering asymmetries, and with F1/N and N/F2 interfaces having different interfacial scattering asymmetries, are shown to be able to controllably, and independently, 'invert' both the CPP-MR and the CIMS. In 'normal' CPP-MR, R(AP) > R(P), where R(AP) and R(P) are the nanopillar resistances for the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) orientations of the Fi and F2 magnetic moments. In 'inverse' CPP-MR, R(P) > R(AP). In 'normal' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from the P to the AP state. In 'inverse' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from AP to P. All four possible combinations of CPP-MR and CIMS---(a) 'normal'-'normal', (b) 'normal'- 'inverse', 'inverse'-'normal', and (d) 'inverse'-'inverse' are shown and explained. These results rule out the self-Oersted field as the switching source, since the direction of that field is independent of the bulk or interfacial scattering asymmetries. Successful use of impurities to reverse the bulk scattering asymmetry shows the importance of scattering off of impurities within the bulk F1 and F2 metals---i.e. that the transport must be treated as 'diffusive' rather than 'ballistic'. The GHz studies consist of five parts: (1) designing a sample geometry that allows reliable measurements; (2) making nanopillar samples with this geometry; (3) constructing a system for measuring frequencies up to 12 GHz and measuring current-driven GHz radiation data with it; (4) showing 'scaling' behavior of GHz data with the critical fields and currents for nominally identical (but actually slightly different) samples, and

  4. Studies of Polar Current Systems Using the IMS Scandinavian Magnetometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiedt, J.; Baumjohann, W.

    1993-09-01

    As a contribution to the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS, 1976 1979) a two-dimensional array of 42 temporary magnetometer stations was run in Scandinavia, supplementary to the permanent observatories and concentrated in the northern part of the region. This effort aimed at the time-dependent (periods above about 100 s) determination of the two-dimensional structure of substorm-related magnetic fields at the Earth's surface with highest reasonable spatial resolution (about 100 km, corresponding to the height of the ionosphere) near the footpoints of field-aligned electric currents that couple the disturbed magnetosphere to the ionosphere at auroral latitudes. It has been of particular advantage for cooperative studies that not only simultaneous data were available from all-sky cameras, riometers, balloons, rockets, and satellites, but also from the STARE radar facility yielding colocated two-dimensional ionospheric electric field distributions. In many cases it therefore was possible to infer the three-dimensional regional structure of substorm-related ionospheric current systems. The first part of this review outlines the basic relationships and methods that have been used or have been developed for such studies. The second short part presents typical equivalent current patterns observed by the magnetometer array in the course of substorms. Finally we review main results of studies that have been based on the magnetometer array observations and on additional data, omitting studies on geomagnetic pulsations. These studies contributed to a clarification of the nature of auroral electrojets including the Harang discontinuity and of ionospheric current systems related to auroral features such as the break-up at midnight, the westward traveling surge, eastward drifting omega bands, and spirals.

  5. A Study on the Current Oil and Gas Price Formula and Its Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Won; Lee, Young Koo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest some improvements on current price formulas on oil and gas which have been pivotal roles in the process of Korean economic growth. This study first examines basic frames and transition of oil and gas pricing in Korea and then finds some suggestions on them by scrutinizing their theoretical backgrounds. This study finds several problems on oil and gas pricing formulas. (a) In a model that is now studied to evaluate the current domestic oil price, the costs associated with oil security such as oil stockpile are fully penetrated into oil price without their fair evaluations. There is no evaluation principle on the costs occurred in oil supply security. (b) The Rate Of Equity(ROE), a crucial factor in town-gas pricing which is strictly controlled, is directly connected to the average interest rate on saving accounts of domestic commercial banks. Some arguments may have rise about inclusion a risk factor on ROE in order to compensate the uncertainty of town-gas business. (c) New demand for natural gas which is generated by new technologies or machinery and tools can help reduce the costs occurred from seasonal imbalance between power sector and gas sector. So it is also important to decide how to include the beneficiary of cost reduction in town-gas pricing. In order to evaluate the proper price levels, this study tests energy supply security by adopting methodologies such as Herfindahl Index and Portfolio Variance Risk. They can help develop the method to effectively improve the energy security and include the proper energy security costs into energy prices. This study also provides some suggestions for betterment of current ROE decision rule in town-gas business and for improvement of current town-gas policy that government subsidizes newly developed demand for strengthening price competitiveness in the early stage. (author). 145 refs., 16 figs., 49 tabs.

  6. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  7. Helix-length compensation studies reveal the adaptability of the VS ribozyme architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix-Labonté, Julie; Girard, Nicolas; Lemieux, Sébastien; Legault, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Compensatory mutations in RNA are generally regarded as those that maintain base pairing, and their identification forms the basis of phylogenetic predictions of RNA secondary structure. However, other types of compensatory mutations can provide higher-order structural and evolutionary information. Here, we present a helix-length compensation study for investigating structure–function relationships in RNA. The approach is demonstrated for stem-loop I and stem-loop V of the Neurospora VS riboz...

  8. Frequent Chromosome Aberrations Revealed by Molecular Cytogenetic Studies in Patients with Aniridia

    OpenAIRE

    Crolla, John A.; van Heyningen, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients with aniridia, referred for cytogenetic analysis predominantly to assess Wilms tumor risk, were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), through use of a panel of cosmids encompassing the aniridia-associated PAX6 gene, the Wilms tumor predisposition gene WT1, and flanking markers, in distal chromosome 11p13. Thirty patients were found to be chromosomally abnormal. Cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions involving 11p13 were found in 13 patients, 11 o...

  9. A Qualitative Study Revealing the Relationship Between Cultural Indicators and Attitudes Toward the Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The companies, in International markets, are required to examine the attitudes and the behaviours to recognize the consumer to be able to make their products preferable under constantly growing competitive conditions. Therefore, it is of great importance to know cultural values of the customers in the country's where global brands compete and to shape ads which is one of the marketing communication tools in this direction. In this respect, knowing the cultural similarities or differences of the countries where the ads are used (such as that country's religion, language, norms and cultural values gains importance. The consumer attitudes towards the ads change in accordance with their cultural similarities or dissimilarities and this attitude change determines the tendency of shopping. According to Geert Hofstede, social anthropologist who analyzes the cultural levels and the relationships among them the basic elements of the culture consists of symbols, heroes, rituals and values underlying them. Thorough symbols, a number of cultural values are conveyed to ads. The problem of this study which was carried out in order to determine attitude change towards the ads including cultural differences is “Is there a difference in the attitudes towards the ads including different cultural symbols? How it is distributed according to gender differences?" In this study, a qualitative research method was applied and interviewed with 20 test subject. 20 students studying in one of the universities in Turkey were selected with formal sampling, they were asked questions, and it was tried to determine the difference between the ad of Doğuş Çay-a tea brand which uses the symbols and local accent of Black sea region in Turkey in its ads- and the ad of Lipton which is an international British tea brand. At the end of the study, it was found out that sample’s the attitude was positive towards ad of Doğuş Çay, not Lipton.

  10. Continuous acoustic studies of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus reveal flexible behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, I

    2012-09-19

    The clupeid fish Sprattus sprattus was studied in a 150 m deep Norwegian fjord throughout an entire overwintering period during which the fjord froze over and a major water renewal occurred. A bottom-mounted (upward-facing) echosounder provided continuous high-resolution data and enabled studies of swimming speed and behavior of individual sprat in addition to population behavior. The continuous acoustic studies were supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. The sprat displayed different behavioral modes with changing environmental conditions. During the first part of the winter, the majority of the population occurred in deep waters during both day and night, yet exhibited a shallower night-time distribution. Individual sprat swam alternately up and down, a ‘rise and sink’ behavior likely a compensation for negative buoyancy because of swim bladder compression. Because feeding was negligible in deep waters, the swimming pattern was not inferred as prey search behavior. Another part of the population schooled at shallower depths during the day and carried out vertical migration to upper waters at night. However, individuals were observed as they switched between these behavioral groups. A sudden change in both swimming behavior and vertical distribution occurred as the fjord became ice covered. Near-bottom ‘rise and sink’ swimming was replaced by schooling in mid-water during the day, and the sprat aggregated in dense layers near the surface at night. We suggest that the ice made the sprat shift their antipredator strategy from hiding at depth to hiding in schools in the darker waters below the ice. This long-term acoustic study has shown that sprat have a flexible behavioral repertoire, displaying different overwintering strategies within a population, depending on environmental conditions.

  11. Assembly of Collagen Matrices as a Phase Transition Revealed by Structural and Rheologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Forgacs, Gabor; Newman, Stuart A.; Hinner, Bernhard; Maier, Christian W.; Sackmann, Erich

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the structural and viscoelastic properties of assembling networks of the extracellular matrix protein type-I collagen by means of phase contrast microscopy and rotating disk rheometry. The initial stage of the assembly is a nucleation process of collagen monomers associating to randomly distributed branched clusters with extensions of several microns. Eventually a sol-gel transition takes place, which is due to the interconnection of these clusters. We analyzed this transition...

  12. Effective binding of perhalogenated closo-borates to serum albumins revealed by spectroscopic and ITC studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Marina V.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Bykov, Alexander Yu.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.; Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolay T.; Varzatskii, Oleg A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.

    2017-08-01

    The interactions of boron cluster compounds closo-borates with biomolecules are widely studied due to their efficiency as agents for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. In present work the binding abilities of anionic halogen closo-borates [B10Hal10]2- (Hal = Cl, Br, I) and [B12Hal12]2- (Hal = Cl, I) towards bovine and human serum albumins were investigated by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods. The protein fluorescence quenching method and ITC studies confirmed the complex formation. The degree of protein fluorescence quenching increased from chlorine to iodine boron derivatives that is attributed to external heavy atom effect. The ITC data point on the existence in the protein structure of two types of binding sites: with higher and lower affinity to closo-borates. Albumin-closo-borate complex binding ratio, n (4-5 anions per protein molecule) is higher than for the parent hydrogen closo-borates (2 anions per protein molecule). Binding constants estimated by fluorescent and ITC methods indicate higher affinity of halogen closo-borates to albumins (K in the range of 104-106 M-1) comparing to that of the hydrogen closo-borate (K about 103 M-1). Due to their high affinity and high binding ratio to albumins halogen closo-borates are proposed for further studies as agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

  13. Current State and Prospects of Studying Sources on the History of Crimean Khanate in Turkish Archives »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh.E. Seit-Mametov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: to consider the current state of the study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate in Turkish archives and determine the prospects for the study of this issue. Research materials: works of domestic and foreign Orientalists in the study of the Crimean sources in Turkish archives. Results and novelty of the research: the author analyzed the current state of the study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate in Turkish archives. The works of such prominent scholars as A. Bennigsen, Ö. Gokbilgin, A.N. Kurat, Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, V.D. Smirnov and others deserve the most attention. Sophisticated paleography (age and conditions of documents of the Ottoman sources and difficulties with their translation were the main reason for their insufficient use. In their studies, Orientalists presents facsimiles of the originals of letters and their translations, give the transcript values of complex or controversial words, solve problems with the translation of dates into the modern chronology and also produce a detailed external criticism of documents: they describe their length, quality of the paper, handwriting and also decode the khans’ seals. This enables modern researchers to get acquainted with some of the earliest sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate. The author has revealed a number of new challenges that need to be addressed in the further study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate: translation of foreign Orientalists’ works into Russian as well as synthesis and integration of predecessors’ works, since each individual work does not cover all the documents of interest to modern scholars. The study of sources on the history of the Crimean Khanate remains a promising challenge for modern researchers, since in Turkish archives are stored unpublished documents waiting for their turn to enter into scholarly circulation.

  14. A study of three-dimensional gravity currents on a uniform slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew N.; Linden, P. F.; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2002-02-01

    In many geophysical, environmental and industrial situations, a finite volume of fluid with a density different to the ambient is released on a sloping boundary. This leads to the formation of a gravity current travelling up, down and across the slope. We present novel laboratory experiments in which the dense fluid spreads both down-slope (and initially up-slope) and laterally across the slope. The position, shape and dilution of the current are determined through video and conductivity measurements for moderate slopes (5° to 20°). The entrainment coefficient for different slopes is calculated from the experimental results and is found to depend very little on the slope. The value agrees well with previously published values for entrainment into gravity currents on a horizontal surface. The experimental measurements are compared with previous shallow-water models and with a new wedge integral model developed and presented here. It is concluded that these simplified models do not capture all the significant features of the flow. In the models, the current takes the form of a wedge which travels down the slope, but the experiments show the formation of a more complicated current. It is found that the wedge integral model over-predicts the length and width of the gravity current but gives fair agreement with the measured densities in the head. The initial stages of the flow, during which time the wedge shape develops, are studied. It is found that although the influence of the slope is seen relatively quickly for moderate slopes, the time taken for the wedge to develop is much longer. The implications of these findings for safety analysis are briefly discussed.

  15. Theoretical study of electronic transfer current rate at dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; AlMaadhede, Taif Saad; Hassooni, Mohsin A.; Sadoon, Abbas K.; Ashweik, Ahmed M.; Mahdi, Hind Abdlmajeed; Ghadhban, Rawnaq Qays

    2018-05-01

    In this research, we present a theoretical study of electronic transfer kinetics rate in N719/TiO2 and N719/ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) systems using a simple model depending on the postulate of quantum mechanics theory. The evaluation of the electronic transition current rate in DSSC systems are function of many parameters such that; the reorientation transition energies ΛSe m D y e , the transition coupling parameter ℂT(0), potential exponential effect e-(E/C-EF ) kBT , unit cell volume VSem, and temperature T. Furthermore, the analysis of electronic transfer current rate in N719/TiO2 and N719/ZnO systems show that the rate upon dye-sensitization solar cell increases with increases of transition coupling parameter, decreasing potential that building at interface a results of different material in this devices and increasing with reorientation transition energy. On the other hand, we can find the electronic transfer behavior is dependent of the dye absorption spectrum and mainly depending on the reorientation of transition energy. The replacement of the solvents in both DSSC system caused increasing of current rates dramatically depending on polarity of solvent in subset devices. This change in current rate of electron transfer were attributed to much more available of recombination sites introduced by the solvents medium. The electronic transfer current dynamics are shown to occurs in N719/TiO2 system faster many time compare to ocuures at N719/ZnO system, this indicate that TiO2 a is a good and active material compare with ZnO to using in dye sensitized solar cell devices. In contrast, the large current rate in N719/TiO2 comparing to ZnO of N719/ZnO systems indicate that using TiO2 with N719 dye lead to increasing the efficiency of DSSC.

  16. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  17. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Traits Reveals Novel Gene-Metabolite-Disease Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Andrew W.; Salek, Reza M.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Montoliu, Ivan; Da Silva, Laeticia; Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Rezzi, Serge; Steinbeck, Christoph; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Le Coutre, Johannes; Mooser, Vincent; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K.; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on 1H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10−8) and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P = 6.9×10−44) and lysine (rs8101881, P = 1.2×10−33), respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers. PMID:24586186

  19. In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53. Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.

  20. Earthquake studies reveal the magmatic plumbing system of the Katmai volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford; Murphy, Rachel; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.; Bennington, Ninfa; Powell, Lee; Paskievitch, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The 1912 eruption of Novarupta was the largest of the 1900s (Fierstein and Hildreth 2001, Hildreth et al. 2003). A century later, fundamental questions remain regarding the source of the magma for that eruption. A previous seismic study of the Katmai area (Jolly et al. 2007) identified a single large area of anomalous structure in the subsurface centered beneath Katmai Pass (Figure 2), but the magma source for the 1912 eruption is thought to have been beneath Mt. Katmai (Hildreth et al. 2003). This mystery was a prime motivation for the research project described here.

  1. Cell-Specific PEAR1 Methylation Studies Reveal a Locus that Coordinates Expression of Multiple Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Izzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal interactions connect distant enhancers and promoters on the same chromosome, activating or repressing gene expression. PEAR1 encodes the Platelet-Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1, a contact receptor involved in platelet function and megakaryocyte and endothelial cell proliferation. PEAR1 expression during megakaryocyte differentiation is controlled by DNA methylation at its first CpG island. We identified a PEAR1 cell-specific methylation sensitive region in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that showed strong chromosomal interactions with ISGL20L2, RRNAD1, MRLP24, HDGF and PRCC, using available promoter capture Hi-C datasets. These genes are involved in ribosome processing, protein synthesis, cell cycle and cell proliferation. We next studied the methylation and expression profile of these five genes in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs and megakaryocyte precursors. While cell-specific PEAR1 methylation corresponded to variability in expression for four out of five genes, no methylation change was observed in their promoter regions across cell types. Our data suggest that PEAR1 cell-type specific methylation changes may control long distance interactions with other genes. Further studies are needed to show whether such interaction data might be relevant for the genome-wide association data that showed a role for non-coding PEAR1 variants in the same region and platelet function, platelet count and cardiovascular risk.

  2. Transcriptome and Proteome Studies Reveal Candidate Attachment Genes during the Development of the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Aqeel, Sarah; Ryu, Tae Woo; Zhang, Huoming; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI, and cyprid) from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41%. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004679.

  3. Transcriptome and proteome studies reveal candidate attachment genes during the development of the barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Al-Aqeel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI and cyprid from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41‰. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1,387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development.

  4. Long-stay psychiatric patients: a prospective study revealing persistent antipsychotic-induced movement disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Roberto Bakker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of persistent drug-induced movement disorders namely, tardive dyskinesia (TD, parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia in a representative sample of long-stay patients with chronic severe mental illness. METHOD: Naturalistic study of 209, mainly white, antipsychotic-treated patients, mostly diagnosed with psychotic disorder. Of this group, the same rater examined 194 patients at least two times over a 4-year period, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 years, with validated scales for TD, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dystonia. RESULTS: The frequencies of persistent movement disorders in the sample were 28.4% for TD, 56.2% for parkinsonism, 4.6% for akathisia and 5.7% for tardive dystonia. Two-thirds of the participants displayed at least one type of persistent movement disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent movement disorder continues to be the norm for long-stay patients with chronic mental illness and long-term antipsychotic treatment. Measures are required to remedy this situation.

  5. A large study reveals no Association between APOE and Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, Monica; Jimenez-Rolando, Belen; Nalls, Michael A; Singleton, Andrew B

    2012-01-01

    Background Research focusing on the role of APOE in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been largely inconclusive, creating a broad discrepancy in association studies. Objective To elucidate the role of APOE alleles in PD risk by studying a large sample size and controlling for population substructure. Patients and Methods In total, 3465 case and control samples were genotyped, obtained from the NINDS Neurogenetics repository. Results No significant differences in ε4 dosages exist between PD cases and controls. The frequency of ε4 carriers differed slightly between cases and controls at 24% (580/2412) and 26% (270/1053), respectively. Likewise, mean dosages of APOE ε2 were not significantly different between cases and controls. APOE ε2 carriers were observed at a frequency of 13.6% (329/2412) among cases and 15% (158/1053) among controls. Logistic regression models evaluating PD as possibly associated with ε4 or ε2 carrier status and allele dosages yielded no significant results. The mean MMSE score among all PD cases was 28.35 (SD = 2.58) and memory loss was reported in only 11.9% (105/879) of cases. Linear regression models comparing MMSE scores as predicted by ε4 or ε2 carrier status and allele dosages were not significant. Conclusions There is no association between APOE epsilon alleles and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22349451

  6. Transcriptome and Proteome Studies Reveal Candidate Attachment Genes during the Development of the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Aqeel, Sarah

    2016-09-21

    The acorn barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. In the present study we profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI, and cyprid) from the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41%. We identified 65,784 expressed contigs, and a total of 1387 expressed proteins measured by quantitative proteomics. We found that osmotic stress, salt stress, hyperosmotic response and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated during the planktonic stage, while the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development genes were down-regulated. In the transition stage between the nauplius VI and the cyprid, genes that are involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development and eggshell formation were highly up-regulated, while the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding response in marine invertebrates, was down-regulated. We are able to report for the first time that sound sensory system proteins are highly abundant in the nauplius VI stage, implying that these proteins are good targets for the development of new antifouling compounds. The results presented here together with the new genome-wide datasets for a non-model specie represent an important resource for the study of biofouling and development. Proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004679.

  7. [Changing to a career in general practice - a qualitative study reveals motives of specialists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwill, Simon; Magez, Julia; Jäger, Cornelia; von Meißner, Wolfgang Cg; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Flum, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the national German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) published guidelines for a slim-lined training program in general practice (Quereinstieg) for qualified medical specialists in other fields (e. g., surgeons, internists or anesthesiologists). This step is part of a strategy to prevent further shortages of general practitioners in Germany. In the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, qualified medical specialists are allowed to complete their general practice training in approximately two years instead of five. The aim of this study was to understand the reasons of specialists for changing to a career in general practice. The postgraduate training program Verbundweiterbildung plus Baden-Württemberg had 597 trainees at the time of the study in December 2015. Previously qualified specialists in another medical discipline were identified and invited to participate in this study. Qualitative data was gathered using semi-structured interviews with content analysis of the interviews performed by three independent members of the research team. In total, 36 out of 597 trainees were identified as previously qualified specialists in another medical discipline. All 36 were invited to take part and 15 agreed to participate in this study. Overall, 15 interviews were performed, with a mean time of 24.19minutes. Participants with a median age of 40 years (33-59 years) - mainly anesthesiologists (n=7), surgeons (n=3) and internists (n=3) - presented with an average of 6.5 years of professional experience in their specialty. First, the participants' motivation to switch career arose from the wish to intensify the quality of patient contacts with a holistic approach including family and social background and from the infinite variety of general practice. Another reason given for a career change was self-employment opportunities. Finally, feelings of frustration over poor working conditions in hospitals resulted in a job search elsewhere in medicine, taking account of

  8. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  9. A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brent Richards

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and coronary heart disease (CHD. We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531 and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202. Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P< or =5x10(-8. We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P< or =0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2x10(-19 for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733. A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined = 2.9x10(-8, n = 14,733. This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = 8.5x10(-6, n = 22,421 more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR = 1.11, P = 3.2x10(-3, n = 10,128, and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk.

  10. The Study of Iodine Status among Schoolchildren from Kyiv and Ways to Correct the Revealed Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Stroi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Lack of iodine in the environment is one of the topical medico-social problems in many countries of the world. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for the developmental delay, memory loss, or the ability for analysis and abstract thinking. Traditionally in Ukraine the problem of iodine deficiency was relevant in Western regions, but recent studies indicate the existence of moderate iodine deficiency in all areas. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status of primary schoolchildren from Kyiv. Materials and methods. The examination of 52 children aged 6–12 years was performed, which involved a survey of families on awareness of the consequences of iodine deficiency and frequency of consumption of foods containing iodine, objective and ultrasound thyroid investigation, determination of urine iodine content in single portions of urine. Results. Iodine deficiency was detected in 87 % of pupils, mostly mild. Diffuse goiter grade 1 was diagnosed in 23 % of patients. To correct iodine deficiency, we have used new generation product — jodis-concentrate as an aqueous solution. Conclusions. Research of iodine status in schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in Kyiv showed the presence of mild iodine deficiency in 87 % of them (in 68 and 19 %, respectively. In 12 (23 % children, we have diagnosed thyroid volume increase under normal echogenicity and homogeneous echostructure. Lack of iodine nutrition is caused by poor nutrition, lack of mass, group and individual iodine prophylaxis, low sanitary hygienic culture of the population. Pupils with iodine deficiency were administered an individual subsidy of iodine in the form of an aqueous solution of jodis-concentrate for 12 months, which has significantly improved the iodine status of children, normalized the level of urine iodine content. Early detection of iodine deficiency and its correction are the promising directions of modern pediatrics in terms of the prevention of thyroid

  11. Current status of regional hydrogeological studies and numerical simulations on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Ishido, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    Current status of regional hydrogeological studies on geological disposal including hydrogeological modeling using numerical simulators is reviewed in this report. A regional scale and boundary conditions of numerical models are summarized mainly from the results of the RHS (regional hydrogeological study) project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in the Tono area. We also refer to the current conceptual modes of hydrology and numerical models of unsaturated zone flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Understanding behavior of a freshwater-saltwater transition zone seems to play a key role in the hydrogeological modeling in a coastal region. Technical features of a numerical simulator as a tool for geothermal reservoir modeling is also briefly described. (author)

  12. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  13. Studying long-term, large-scale grassland restoration outcomes to improve seeding methods and reveal knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1) Considerable research is currently focused on restoring the World’s degraded grasslands by introducing species from seed. The research is continually providing valuable new insights into early seeded plant establishment, but more emphasis on longer, larger studies is needed to better quantify s...

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  15. Current-mode detector for neutron time-of-flight studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Szymanski, J.J.; Yuan, V.W.; Bowman, C.D.; Silverman, A.; Zhu, X.

    1990-01-01

    A system for the detection of high-intensity neutron bursts with instantaneous rates as high as 10 11 Hz is presented. This system uses a transient digitizer to sample the output voltage of a high-current photomultiplier tube as a function of time. The coutput voltage is proportional to the number of neutrons striking the detector. This detector is used at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center to study fundamental symmetries. Design considerations, construction details and performance benchmarks are presented. (orig.)

  16. Phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies reveal evidence of multiple past recombination events between infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV have been shown to have arisen from independent recombination events between different commercial ILTV vaccines. In this study we sequenced the genomes of additional ILTV strains and also utilized other recently updated complete genome sequences of ILTV to confirm the existence of a number of ILTV recombinants in nature. Multiple recombination events were detected in the unique long and repeat regions of the genome, but not in the unique short region. Most recombinants contained a pair of crossover points between two distinct lineages of ILTV, corresponding to the European origin and the Australian origin vaccine strains of ILTV. These results suggest that there are two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV and that these commonly recombine in the field.

  17. Revealing transboundary and local air pollutant sources affecting Metro Manila through receptor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Santos, Flora L.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5) levels at the Metro Manila air sampling stations of the Philippine Nuclear Research Research Institute were found to be above the WHO guideline value of 10 μg m 3 indicating, in general, very poor air quality in the area. The elemental components of the fine particulate matter were obtained using the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Positive matrix factorization, a receptor modelling tool, was used to identify and apportion air pollution sources. Location of probable transboundary air pollutants were evaluated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) while location of probable local air pollutant sources were determined using the conditional probability function (CPF). Air pollutant sources can either be natural or anthropogenic. This study has shown natural air pollutant sources such as volcanic eruptions from Bulusan volcano in 2006 and from Anatahan volcano in 2005 to have impacted on the region. Fine soils was shown to have originated from China's Mu US Desert some time in 2004. Smoke in the fine fraction in 2006 show indications of coming from forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo. Fine particulate Pb in Valenzuela was shown to be coming from the surrounding area. Many more significant air pollution impacts can be evaluated with the identification of probable air pollutant sources with the use of elemental fingerprints and locating these sources with the use of HYSPLIT and CPF. (author)

  18. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-11-14

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.

  19. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale replication study reveals a limit on probabilistic prediction in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Heyselaar, Evelien; Segaert, Katrien; Darley, Emily; Kazanina, Nina; Von Grebmer Zu Wolfsthurn, Sarah; Bartolozzi, Federica; Kogan, Vita; Ito, Aine; Mézière, Diane; Barr, Dale J; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Ferguson, Heather J; Busch-Moreno, Simon; Fu, Xiao; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Kulakova, Eugenia; Husband, E Matthew; Donaldson, David I; Kohút, Zdenko; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Huettig, Falk

    2018-04-03

    Do people routinely pre-activate the meaning and even the phonological form of upcoming words? The most acclaimed evidence for phonological prediction comes from a 2005 Nature Neuroscience publication by DeLong, Urbach and Kutas, who observed a graded modulation of electrical brain potentials (N400) to nouns and preceding articles by the probability that people use a word to continue the sentence fragment ('cloze'). In our direct replication study spanning 9 laboratories ( N =334), pre-registered replication-analyses and exploratory Bayes factor analyses successfully replicated the noun-results but, crucially, not the article-results. Pre-registered single-trial analyses also yielded a statistically significant effect for the nouns but not the articles. Exploratory Bayesian single-trial analyses showed that the article-effect may be non-zero but is likely far smaller than originally reported and too small to observe without very large sample sizes. Our results do not support the view that readers routinely pre-activate the phonological form of predictable words. © 2018, Nieuwland et al.

  1. Studies on food organisms of pelagic fishes as revealed by the 1979 North Atlantic Eel Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, S.

    1982-09-01

    The extent to which pelagic fishes occurring in the Sargasso Sea and adjacent parts of the Atlantic prey on leptocephali (Anguilliformes) was investigated. Most of the fishes examined (c. 95%) were collected using a commercial pelagical trawl. The stomach contents of about 1000 fishes (25 species of 10 families), mostly belonging to the suborders Myctophoidei, Stomiatoidei and the order Anguilliformes, were examined. The remains of invertebrates, mainly crustaceans, molluscs, tunicates, chaetognaths, and siphonophores were found in 28.8 % of the stomachs. Fishes, mostly myctophids or fish remains, were observed in 11.2 % of the stomachs; 18.7 % contained unidentified items and 40.6 % were empty. Leptocephali ( Ariosoma spp. and Gnathophis sp.) were found in the alimentary tract of 0.5 % of the fishes examined, exclusively represented by the myctophid, Ceratoscopelus warmingii. This report indicates that the Sargasso Sea population of Anguilla leptocephali, economically the most important eel, is not seriously affected by predation of oceanic fish species considered in this study.

  2. Assembly of collagen matrices as a phase transition revealed by structural and rheologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgacs, Gabor; Newman, Stuart A; Hinner, Bernhard; Maier, Christian W; Sackmann, Erich

    2003-02-01

    We have studied the structural and viscoelastic properties of assembling networks of the extracellular matrix protein type-I collagen by means of phase contrast microscopy and rotating disk rheometry. The initial stage of the assembly is a nucleation process of collagen monomers associating to randomly distributed branched clusters with extensions of several microns. Eventually a sol-gel transition takes place, which is due to the interconnection of these clusters. We analyzed this transition in terms of percolation theory. The viscoelastic parameters (storage modulus G' and loss modulus G") were measured as a function of time for five different frequencies ranging from omega = 0.2 rad/s to 6.9 rad/s. We found that at the gel point both G' and G" obey a scaling law, with the critical exponent Delta = 0.7 and a critical loss angle being independent of frequency as predicted by percolation theory. Gelation of collagen thus represents a second order phase transition.

  3. Epizoanthus spp. associations revealed using DNA markers: a case study from Kochi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, James Davis; Hirose, Mamiko; Nishisaka, Taiki; Sinniger, Frederic; Itani, Gyo

    2010-09-01

    Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) of the genus Epizoanthus are often found in association with other marine invertebrates, including gastropods and hermit crabs. However, little information exists on the specificity and nature of these associations due to a lack of investigation into Epizoanthus species diversity, and the taxonomy of Epizoanthus is therefore confused. In this study, analyses of morphological data (tentacle number, polyp size, etc) and molecular data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 = COI, 16S ribosomal DNA = 16S rDNA) were used to examine Epizoanthus specimens from Tosa Bay, Kochi, Japan. The Epizoanthus specimens were found on both live gastropods (Gemmula unedo) and hermit crabs (Paguristes palythophilus) inhabiting G. unedo and G. cosmoi shells. While morphological analyses did not show clear differences between examined specimens, both COI and mt 16S rDNA clearly divided the specimens into two groups, one associated only with hermit crabs (= Epizoanthus sp. C), and another associated only with living gastropods (= Epizoanthus sp. S). Unexpectedly, DNA sequences from both groups did not match with two previously reported Epizoanthus species from Japan (E. indicus, E. ramosus), indicating they both may be undescribed species. These results highlight the utility of DNA "barcoding" of unknown zoanthids, and will provide a foundation for re-examinations of Epizoanthus species diversity and specificity, which will be critical in understanding the evolution of these unique marine invertebrates.

  4. Simulation studies of current transport in metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky barrier diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, Subhash; Bala, Saroj

    2007-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes with an interfacial insulator layer are analysed by numerical simulation. The current-voltage data of the metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky diode are simulated using thermionic emission diffusion (TED) equation taking into account an interfacial layer parameter. The calculated current-voltage data are fitted into ideal TED equation to see the apparent effect of interfacial layer parameters on current transport. Results obtained from the simulation studies shows that with mere presence of an interfacial layer at the metal-semiconductor interface the Schottky contact behave as an ideal diode of apparently high barrier height (BH), but with same ideality factor and series resistance as considered for a pure Schottky contact without an interfacial layer. This apparent BH decreases linearly with decreasing temperature. The effects giving rise to high ideality factor in metal-insulator-semiconductor diode are analysed. Reasons for observed temperature dependence of ideality factor in experimentally fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes are analysed and possible mechanisms are discussed

  5. Metastatic breast cancer: do current treatments improve quality of life? A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Amado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In metastatic breast cancer cases, the currently available therapeutic approaches provide minimal improvement in survival. As such, quality of life (QOL becomes one of the main objectives of treatment. It is not known whether current treatments derived from trials improve QOL. The aim was to evaluate changes in QOL among metastatic breast cancer patients receiving treatment derived from trials. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational QOL survey in a tertiary cancer center. METHODS: To evaluate the influence of current treatments on patients' QOL, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied on three occasions: before starting treatment and at the 6th and 12th weeks, to consecutive metastatic breast cancer patients over a one-year period. RESULTS: We found an improvement in QOL in the sample evaluated (n = 40, expressed by changes in the overall SF-36 score (p = 0.002 and the BDI (p = 0.004. Taken individually, the SF-36 components Pain, Social Functioning and Mental Health also improved significantly. Patients with worse initial performance status and secondary symptoms displayed greater improvement than those with better initial performance status and asymptomatic disease (p < 0.001. Patients who received more than one type of therapy showed larger gains than those given only one type (p = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: In our environment, current metastatic breast cancer treatments can improve QOL, especially among symptomatic patients and those with low performance status.

  6. Study of the nonequilibrium state of superconductors by large quasiparticle injection from an external current source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, I.

    1977-01-01

    We have studied the nonequilibrium state of superconductors by injecting large numbers of quasiparticles from an external current source into a superconducting film of a tunnel junction with low tunnel resistance (typically 0.1--1 Ω for junction area approx. = 10 -4 cm 2 ). It was observed that there was a critical tunnel current density at which a voltage appeared locally in the part of a superconducting film confined to the junction area. Its values ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 A/cm 2 for bath temperatures well below T/sub c/. Followed by this voltage onset, a transition region corresponding to the nonequilibrium intermediate resistive state was also observed. For further increase of the tunnel current, the local film resistance developed beyond the value of its normal resistance, suggesting that the nonequilibrium state extends far beyond the voltage onset point. A theory based on the modified Rothwarf-Taylor equations and Parker's T* model is presented to compare with the experimental results. The calculated critical current density yielded almost the same order of magnitude as those found experimentally. The detailed behavior, however, deviates from the theoretical predictions although the film makes a second-order transition in the broad range of temperatures. It is also shown using four-terminal analysis that our observations and those by Wong, Yeh, and Langenberg are essentially the same

  7. Microarray studies on lager brewer's yeasts reveal cell status in the process of autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weina; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we performed DNA microarray studies on lager brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus to investigate changes in gene expression in the process of autolysis. The two strains we used were Qing2 and 5-2. Strain 5-2 is a mutant of Qing2 and autolyzes much more slowly than its parent strain. Four samples of these two strains during different autolysis stages (0% and 15%) were tested using DNA microarray containing > 10,000 yeast's genes. Analysis of genes with the same transcription pattern (up- or down-regulated in both strains) showed that the same 99 genes were up-regulated (transcription levels were increased), and the same 97 genes were down-regulated (transcription levels were decreased) by fivefold or more during autolysis. Genes involved in energy production/utilization, protein anabolism, and stress response were down-regulated. Genes related to cell wall organization and biogenesis, starvation response and DNA damage response were up-regulated. Analysis of genes with opposite transcription patterns (up-regulated in one strain and down-regulated in the other one) showed that 246 genes were up-regulated in 5-2 (autolyzes slowly) and down-regulated in Qing2 (autolyzes rapidly). Another 18 genes had opposite transcription levels, indicating that the strain which autolyzes slowly had better cell vitality despite the same autolysis stage. These findings might further promote the global understanding of autolysis in yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exome-wide association study reveals novel susceptibility genes to sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Esslinger

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is an important cause of heart failure with a strong familial component. We performed an exome-wide array-based association study (EWAS to assess the contribution of missense variants to sporadic DCM.116,855 single nucleotide variants (SNVs were analyzed in 2796 DCM patients and 6877 control subjects from 6 populations of European ancestry. We confirmed two previously identified associations with SNVs in BAG3 and ZBTB17 and discovered six novel DCM-associated loci (Q-value<0.01. The lead-SNVs at novel loci are common and located in TTN, SLC39A8, MLIP, FLNC, ALPK3 and FHOD3. In silico fine mapping identified HSPB7 as the most likely candidate at the ZBTB17 locus. Rare variant analysis (MAF<0.01 demonstrated significant association for TTN variants only (P = 0.0085. All candidate genes but one (SLC39A8 exhibit preferential expression in striated muscle tissues and mutations in TTN, BAG3, FLNC and FHOD3 are known to cause familial cardiomyopathy. We also investigated a panel of 48 known cardiomyopathy genes. Collectively, rare (n = 228, P = 0.0033 or common (n = 36, P = 0.019 variants with elevated in silico severity scores were associated with DCM, indicating that the spectrum of genes contributing to sporadic DCM extends beyond those identified here.We identified eight loci independently associated with sporadic DCM. The functions of the best candidate genes at these loci suggest that proteostasis regulation might play a role in DCM pathophysiology.

  9. Genomic markers reveal introgressive hybridization in the Indo-West Pacific mangroves: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems is difficult to assess, at least partly due to lack of genetic verification of morphology-based documentation of species. Natural hybridization, on the one hand, plays an important role in evolution as a source of novel gene combinations and a mechanism of speciation. However, on the other hand, recurrent introgression allows gene flow between species and could reverse the process of genetic differentiation among populations required for speciation. To understand the dynamic evolutionary consequences of hybridization, this study examines genomic structure of hybrids and parental species at the population level. In the Indo-West Pacific, Bruguiera is one of the dominant mangrove genera and species ranges overlap extensively with one another. Morphological intermediates between sympatric Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Bruguiera sexangula have been reported as a variety of B. sexangula or a new hybrid species, B. × rhynchopetala. However, the direction of hybridization and extent of introgression are unclear. A large number of species-specific inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were found in B. gymnorrhiza and B. sexangula, and the additive ISSR profiling of B. × rhynchopetala ascertained its hybrid status and identified its parental origin. The varying degree of scatterness among hybrid individuals in Principal Coordinate Analysis and results from NewHybrids analysis indicate that B. × rhynchopetala comprises different generations of introgressants in addition to F(1s. High genetic relatedness between B. × rhynchopetala and B. gymnorrhiza based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences suggests preferential hybrid backcrosses to B. gymnorrhiza. We conclude that B. × rhynchopetala has not evolved into an incipient hybrid species, and its persistence can be explained by recurrent hybridization and introgression. Genomic data provide insights into the hybridization dynamics of mangrove plants. Such information

  10. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  11. A comparative phylogeographic study reveals discordant evolutionary histories of alpine ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, an island with three major mountain ranges, provides an ideal topography to study mountain-island effect on organisms that would be diversified in the isolation areas. Glaciations, however, might drive these organisms to lower elevations, causing gene flow among previously isolated populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to depict the possible refugia for alpine organisms during glaciations. Nunatak hypothesis suggests that alpine species might have stayed in situ in high mountain areas during glaciations. Massif de refuge, on the other hand, proposes that alpine species might have migrated to lower ice-free areas. By sampling five sympatric carabid species of Nebria and Leistus, and using two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes, we evaluated the mountain-island effect on alpine carabids and tested the two proposed hypotheses with comparative phylogeographic method. Results from the phylogenetic relationships, network analysis, lineage calibration, and genetic structure indicate that the deep divergence among populations in all L. smetanai, N. formosana, and N. niitakana was subjected to long-term isolation, a phenomenon in agreement with the nunatak hypothesis. However, genetic admixture among populations of N. uenoiana and some populations of L. nokoensis complex suggests that gene flow occurred during glaciations, as a massif de refuge depicts. The speciation event in N. niitakana is estimated to have occurred before 1.89 million years ago (Mya), while differentiation among isolated populations in N. niitakana, N. formosana, L. smetanai, and L. nokoensis complex might have taken place during 0.65-1.65 Mya. While each of the alpine carabids arriving in Taiwan during different glaciation events acquired its evolutionary history, all of them had confronted the existing mountain ranges.

  12. Genome association study through nonlinear mixed models revealed new candidate genes for pig growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genome association analyses have been successful in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs for pig body weights measured at a single age. However, when considering the whole weight trajectories over time in the context of genome association analyses, it is important to look at the markers that affect growth curve parameters. The easiest way to consider them is via the two-step method, in which the growth curve parameters and marker effects are estimated separately, thereby resulting in a reduction of the statistical power and the precision of estimates. One efficient solution is to adopt nonlinear mixed models (NMM, which enables a joint modeling of the individual growth curves and marker effects. Our aim was to propose a genome association analysis for growth curves in pigs based on NMM as well as to compare it with the traditional two-step method. In addition, we also aimed to identify the nearest candidate genes related to significant SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The NMM presented a higher number of significant SNPs for adult weight (A and maturity rate (K, and provided a direct way to test SNP significance simultaneously for both the A and K parameters. Furthermore, all significant SNPs from the two-step method were also reported in the NMM analysis. The ontology of the three candidate genes (SH3BGRL2, MAPK14, and MYL9 derived from significant SNPs (simultaneously affecting A and K allows us to make inferences with regards to their contribution to the pig growth process in the population studied.

  13. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  14. A Metabolome-Wide Study of Dry Eye Disease Reveals Serum Androgens as Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehof, Jelle; Hysi, Pirro G; Hammond, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    To test the association between serum metabolites and dry eye disease (DED) using a hypothesis-free metabolomics approach. Cross-sectional association study. A total of 2819 subjects from the population-representative TwinsUK cohort in the United Kingdom, with a mean age of 57 years (range, 17-82 years). We tested associations between 222 known serum metabolites and DED. All subjects underwent nontargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma samples using gas and liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (Metabolon Inc., Durham, NC). Dry eye disease was defined from the validated Short Questionnaire for Dry Eye Syndrome (SQDES) as a previous diagnosis of DED by a clinician or "often" or "constant" symptoms of dryness and irritation. Analyses were performed with linear mixed effect models that included age, BMI, and sex as covariates, corrected for multiple testing. Primary outcome was DED as defined by the SQDES, and secondary outcomes were symptom score of DED and a clinical diagnosis of DED. Prevalence of DED as defined by the SQDES was 15.5% (n = 436). A strong and metabolome-wide significant association with DED was found with decreased levels of the metabolites androsterone sulfate (P = 0.00030) and epiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.00036). Three other metabolites involved in androgen metabolism, 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1 and 2, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, were the next most strongly associated of the 222 metabolites, but did not reach metabolome-wide significance. Dryness and irritation symptoms, as opposed to a clinical diagnosis, were particularly strongly associated with decreased androgen steroid metabolites, with all reaching metabolome-wide significance (androsterone sulfate, P = 0.000000029; epiandrosterone sulfate, P = 0.0000040; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1, P = 0.000016; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 2, P = 0.000064; and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, P = 0.00011). Of these 5

  15. A Snapshot Study of Current Practices among Sellers of Translation Services between Japanese and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stephen Crabbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-part study was launched in light of the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement in its guide, 翻訳で失敗しないために翻訳発注の手引き [lit. For not getting it wrong with translation: a guide to ordering translation], that “外国語の文書を母国語に翻訳するのがプロの原則です” [lit. It is a fundamental principle that professional translators work into their native languages] (Japan Translation Federation, 2012, p. 15. The key goal is to gauge the extent to which this 2012 statement is reflected in current practices among the sellers and buyers of translation services between Japanese and English. In this paper, which describes the first part of the study, the focus is on the practices of sellers of translation services between Japanese and English: specifically, professional freelance translators. Twenty-four professional freelance translators completed an online questionnaire. The results of this questionnaire, first, suggest that current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English are consistent with the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement and, second, broadly support secondary literature on L1 translation (translation into the first language and L2 translation (translation into the second language. Whilst this is only a snapshot of current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English, the overall results are informative. In the second, follow-up part of the study the focus will be on the current practices of buyers of translation services between Japanese and English.

  16. [A review of current studies on leisure activities performed by community-dwelling elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2010-02-01

    This article reviewed and summarized the findings of previously published studies on the leisure activities of community elders over 55 years of age. A total of 17 related articles, published before 2008, were identified in the search of electronic databases, which included the Chinese Periodical Table of Contents Index Image System, CEPS, Medline and Ageline. Leisure activities measurements used in this study consisted of recoding activities either categorically or by frequency. The majority of research indicated that elderly engage in primarily static activities and that participation in leisure activities had positive effects on cognitive and psychological health. However, inconsistencies in results were found due to differences in measurement tools and sample populations used among studies, making it difficult to conduct a valid comparison of specific features of elderly leisure activities. Most current leisure activity studies utilize cross-sectional research methodologies with restricted topics, which result in limited applicability of research results. In conclusion, we suggest that future studies should develop instruments to assess leisure activities that correspond to local conditions identified through qualitative research. With such, researchers can study different age groups by applying relevant ageing theories to construct empirical data related to current elderly leisure activities.

  17. The study of dynamics of electrons in the presence of large current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.

    2007-11-01

    The runaway electron effect is considered in different fields: nuclear fusion, or the heating of the solar corona. In this thesis, we are interested in runaway electrons in the ionosphere. We consider the issue of electrons moving through an ionospheric gas of positive ions and neutrals under the influence of a parallel electric field. We develop a kinetic model of collisions including electrons/electrons, electrons/ions and electrons/neutrals collisions. We use a Fokker-Planck approach to describe binary collisions between charged particles with a long-range interaction. A computational example is given illustrating the approach to equilibrium and the impact of the different terms. Then, a static electric field is applied in a new sample run. In this run, the electrons move in the z direction, parallel to the electric field. The first results show that all the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian. Furthermore, runaway electrons can carry a significant part of the total current density up to 20% of the total current density. Nevertheless, we note that the divergence free of the current density is not conserved. We introduce major changes in order to take into account the variation of the different moments of the ion distribution functions. We observe that the electron distribution functions are still non-Maxwellian. Runaway electrons are created and carry the current density. The core distribution stay at rest. As these electrons undergo less collisions, they increase the plasma conductivity. We make a parametric study. We fit the electron distribution function by two Maxwellian. We show that the time to reach the maximal current density is a key point. Thus, when we increase this time, we modify the temperatures. The current density plays a primary role. When the current density increases, all the moments of the distributions increase: electron density and mean velocity of the suprathermal distribution and the electron temperature of the core and

  18. A Study of Frequency Mixing Approaches for Eddy Current Testing of Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hee Jun; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Dae Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The multifrequency eddy current testing(ECT) have been proposed various frequency mixing algorithms. In this study, we compare these approaches to frequency mixing of ECT signals from steam generator tubes; time-domain optimization, discrete cosine transform-domain optimization. Specifically, in this study, two different frequency mixing algorithms, a time-domain optimization method and a discrete cosine transform(DCT) optimization method, are investigated using the experimental signals captured from the ASME standard tube. The DCT domain optimization method is computationally fast but produces larger amount of residue.

  19. The current status of studies on mitochondrial DNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Sang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial plays a very important role in sustaining the normal physiological function, because it is the center of energy making and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the only genetic material outside the nuclear. The result of studies showed that many diseases have a close relationship with mtDNA mutation and deletion. This article reviewed the current status of research on mtDNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging, in order to initiate the application study of mtDNA in the circle of radiation medicine

  20. Study on practical of eddy current testing of core and core support graphite components in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Ooka, Norikazu; Shindo, Yoshihisa; Kawae, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Motomitsu; Kambe, Mamoru; Takahashi, Masaaki; Ide, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Core and core support graphite components in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) are mainly made of nuclear-grade IG-110 and PGX graphites. Nondestructive inspection with Eddy Current Testing (ECT) is planned to be applied to these components. The method of ECT has been already established for metallic components, however, cannot be applied directly to the graphite ones, because the characteristics of graphite are quite different in micro-structure from those of metals. Therefore, ECT method and condition were studied for the application of the ECT to the graphite components. This paper describes the study on practical method and conditions of ECT for above mentioned graphite structures. (author)

  1. Studies of currents and electric fields in the auroral zone ionosphere using radar auroral backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the 1970s several advances have been made in the understanding of radar aurora. Recent VHF studies have shown that Doppler data obtained from radar auroral backscatter can be used to measure the E-region electron drift velocity, the F-region plasma velocity, and the ionospheric electric field. This type of measurement is particularly valuable when it is made with dual auroral radar systems similar to STARE (Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment). Over the past two years STARE has been used to study electric field patterns associated with electrojet and field-aligned currents, magnetospheric convection, the Harang discontinuity, Pc5 micropulsations, and the substorm expansion phase. (Auth.)

  2. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oded; Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Bennet-Back, Odeya; David, Jonathan; Gebodh, Nigel; Adair, Devin; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy. HD-tDCS was administered over 10 intervention days spanning two weeks including pre- and post-intervention video-EEG monitoring. There were no serious adverse events or side effects related to the HD-tDCS intervention. Frequency of clinical seizures was not significantly reduced. However, interictal sharp wave amplitudes were significantly lower during the post-intervention period versus baseline. Vital signs and blood biochemistry remained stable throughout the entire study. These exploratory findings support the safety and feasibility of 4 × 1 HD-tDCS in early onset epileptic encephalopathy and provide the first evidence of HD-tDCS effects on paroxysmal EEG features in electroclinical cases under the age of 36 months. Extending HD-tDCS treatment may enhance electrographic findings and clinical effects.

  3. Current therapeutic interventions in the glycation pathway: evidence from clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, L; Stehouwer, C D A; Schalkwijk, C G

    2013-08-01

    The increased formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) constitutes a potential mechanism of hyperglycaemia-induced micro- and macrovascular disease in diabetes. In vitro and animal experiments have shown that various interventions can inhibit formation and/or actions of AGEs, in particular the specific AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine and the AGEs crosslink breaker alagebrium, and the B vitamins pyridoxamine and thiamine, and the latter's synthetic derivative, benfotiamine. The potential clinical value of these interventions, however, remains to be established. The present review provides, from the clinical point of view, an overview of current evidence on interventions in the glycation pathway relating to (i) the clinical benefits of specific AGE inhibitors and AGE breakers and (ii) the potential AGE-inhibiting effects of therapies developed for purposes unrelated to the glycation pathway. We found that safety and/or efficacy in clinical studies with the specific AGE inhibitor, aminoguanidine and the AGE breaker, alagebrium, appeared to be a concern. The clinical evidence on the potential AGE-inhibiting effects of B vitamins is still limited. Finally, current evidence for AGE inhibition by therapies developed for purposes unrelated to glycation is limited due to a large heterogeneity in study designs and/or measurement techniques, which have often been sub-optimal. We conclude that, clinical evidence on interventions to inhibit formation and/or action of AGEs is currently weak and unconvincing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  5. Variable influx of West Greenland Current water into the Labrador Current through the last 8000 years, based on a multiproxy study from Trinity Bay, NE Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Frandsen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This multi-proxy study of marine sediment gravity core AI07-06G from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, recorded changes in the strength of the Labrador Current (LC) during the Holocene. From ca. 8-5 cal kyr BP, Trinity Bay's seafloor was influenced by cooled Atlantic water derived from the West Greenland...

  6. Swimming Behavior and Flow Geometry: A Fluid Mechanical Study of the Feeding Currents in Calanoid Copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Meneveau, Charles; Osborn, Thomas R.

    2003-11-01

    Copepods are small crustaceans living in oceans and fresh waters and play an important role in the marine and freshwater food webs. As they are the biggest biomass in the oceans some call them "the insects of the sea". Previous laboratory observations have shown that the fluid mechanical phenomena occurring at copepod body scale are crucial for the survival of copepods. One of the interesting phenomena is that many calanoid copepods display various behaviors to create the feeding currents for the purpose of capturing food particles. We have developed a fluid mechanical model to study the feeding currents. The model is a self-propelled body model in that the Navier-Stokes equations are properly coupled with the dynamic equations for the copepod's body. The model has been solved both analytically using the Stokes approximation with a spherical body shape and numerically using CFD with a realistic body shape.

  7. Numerical studies of the flux-to-current ratio method in the KIPT neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical assembly has to be monitored continuously in order to assure its safe operation. In this paper, the flux-to-current ratio method has been studied as an approach to provide the on-line reactivity measurement of the subcritical system. Monte Carlo numerical simulations have been performed using the KIPT neutron source facility model. It is found that the reactivity obtained from the flux-to-current ratio method is sensitive to the detector position in the subcritical assembly. However, if multiple detectors are located about 12 cm above the graphite reflector and 54 cm radially, the technique is shown to be very accurate in determining the k eff this facility in the range of 0.75 to 0.975. (authors)

  8. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  9. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  10. Gate-controlled current and inelastic electron tunneling spectrum of benzene: a self-consistent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y Y; Chen, H; Mizuseki, H; Kawazoe, Y

    2011-04-14

    We use density functional theory based nonequilibrium Green's function to self-consistently study the current through the 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). The elastic and inelastic tunneling properties through this Au-BDT-Au molecular junction are simulated, respectively. For the elastic tunneling case, it is found that the current through the tilted molecule can be modulated effectively by the external gate field, which is perpendicular to the phenyl ring. The gate voltage amplification comes from the modulation of the interaction between the electrodes and the molecules in the junctions. For the inelastic case, the electron tunneling scattered by the molecular vibrational modes is considered within the self-consistent Born approximation scheme, and the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum is calculated.

  11. Ballistic current transport studies of ferromagnetic multilayer films and tunnel junctions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippard, W. H.; Perrella, A. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Three applications of ballistic electron microscopy are used to study, with nanometer-scale resolution, the magnetic and electronic properties of magnetic multilayer thin films and tunnel junctions. First, the capabilities of ballistic electron magnetic microscopy are demonstrated through an investigation of the switching behavior of continuous Ni 80 Fe 20 /Cu/Co trilayer films in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Next, the ballistic, hot-electron transport properties of Co films and multilayers formed by thermal evaporation and magnetron sputtering are compared, a comparison which reveals significant differences in the ballistic transmissivity of thin film multilayers formed by the two techniques. Finally, the electronic properties of thin aluminum oxide tunnel junctions formed by thermal evaporation and sputter deposition are investigated. Here the ballistic electron microscopy studies yield a direct measurement of the barrier height of the aluminum oxide barriers, a result that is invariant over a wide range of oxidation conditions. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  13. A study on characteristic of glass dosimeter according to grade change of tube current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin Hyun; Kim, Seong Ho; Mun, Hyun Jun; Kim, Lyun Kyun; Son, In Hwa; Kim, Young Jun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study was evaluated the linearity and reproducibility according to dose, and reproducibility according to delay time by changing tube current amount (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively, which are low energy radiations) using Glass Dosimeter (GD) and piranha semiconductor dosimeter which are used for measuring exposure dose. Measurements of radiation dose were performed using external detector of piranha 657 which is multi-function QA device (RTI Electronic, Sweden). Conditions of measurement were 80 kVp, SSD 100 and exposure region is 10 cm x 10 cm. Glass dosimeter was exposed to radiation. Twenty-four glass dosimeters were divided into six groups (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively), then measured. This study was resulted by measuring the linearity and reproducibility according to change of tube current in low energy field. In dose characteristic of GD, this study could be useful as previous study with regard to dose characteristic according to change of tube voltage in low energy field.

  14. Using means-end chain analysis to reveal consumers' motivation for buying local foods: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Arsil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article utilizes and discusses specific aspects of Means-End Chain (MEC analysis for understanding of the motives of Indonesian consumers who are involved in purchasing local foods. The MEC theory is used as a measure of attributes, consequences, and values of locally produced products involving specific aspects of this theory namely laddering methods of administration, content analysis procedure, constructing and interpreting Hierarchy Value Map (HVM. The results of the study indicate that MEC approach is a powerful method to reveal consumer motivation of local foods when associated with the various cultural groupings identified by the study particular between Javanese and Non-Javanese consumers. This study offers a practical implication and source of knowledge for other future studies and policies in term of (a a new approach for understanding the motives behind purchasing local foods for Indonesia consumers, and (b developing new categories of attributes, consequences and values of local foods.

  15. Large-eddy simulation study of oil/gas plumes in stratified fluid with cross current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Xiao, Shuolin; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Dynamics of the oil/gas plume from a subsea blowout are strongly affected by the seawater stratification and cross current. The buoyant plume entrains ambient seawater and lifts it up to higher elevations. During the rising process, the continuously increasing density difference between the entrained and ambient seawater caused by the stable stratification eventually results in a detrainment of the entrained seawater and small oil droplets at a height of maximum rise (peel height), forming a downward plume outside the rising inner plume. The presence of a cross current breaks the plume's axisymmetry and causes the outer plume to fall along the downstream side of the inner plume. The detrained seawater and oil eventually fall to a neutral buoyancy level (trap height), and disperse horizontally to form an intrusion layer. In this study, the complex plume dynamics is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). Various laboratory and field scale cases are simulated to explore the effect of cross current and stratification on the plume dynamics. Based on the LES data, various turbulence statistics of the plume are systematically quantified, leading to some useful insights for modeling the mean plume dynamics using integral plume models. This research is made possible by a RFP-V Grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  16. Temperature sensitivity study of eddy current and digital gauge probes for nuclear fuel rod oxide measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Faith R.; Lind, R. Paul; Smith, James A.

    2018-04-01

    Novel fuels are part of the nationwide effort to reduce the enrichment of Uranium for energy production. Performance of such fuels is determined by irradiating their surfaces. To test irradiated samples, the instrumentation must operate remotely. The plate checker used in this experiment at Idaho National Lab (INL) performs non-destructive testing on fuel rod and plate geometries with two different types of sensors: eddy current and digital thickness gauges. The sensors measure oxide growth and total sample thickness on research fuels, respectively. Sensor measurement accuracy is crucial because even 10 microns of error is significant when determining the viability of an experimental fuel. One parameter known to affect the eddy current and thickness gauge sensors is temperature. Since both sensor accuracies depend on the ambient temperature of the system, the plate checker has been characterized for these sensitivities. The manufacturer of the digital gauge probes has noted a rather large coefficient of thermal expansion for their linear scale. It should also be noted that the accuracy of the digital gauge probes are specified at 20°C, which is approximately 7°C cooler than the average hot-cell temperature. In this work, the effect of temperature on the eddy current and digital gauge probes is studied, and thickness measurements are given as empirical functions of temperature.

  17. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ∼ few mm), high current density (J ∼ several tens of mA/cm 2 ) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield ( ) at different operating conditions are presented for K + and Cs + contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K + beam of ∼90 mA/cm 2 were observed in 2.3 (micro)s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (∼ 1 (micro)s), high current densities (∼ 100 mA/cm 2 ) and low operating pressures ( e psilon) n (le) 0.006 π mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ∼ 5mA) by about a factor of 10

  18. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Golcher, Edwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ~ few mm), high current density (J ~ several tens of mA/cm2) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K+ and Cs+ contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K+ beam of ~90 mA/cm2 were observed in 2.3 μs pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (~ 1 μs), high current densities (~ 100 mA/cm+) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured (εn ≤ 0.006 π· mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ~ 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  19. Ex-vivo diffusion MRI reveals microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions: A chronic mild stress recovery study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and causes significant microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions. However, the potential recovery of these microstructural alterations has not previously been investigated, which we, therefore, set out to do using diffusion...... MRI (d-MRI) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression. This study reveals significant microstructural alterations after 8 weeks of recovery, in the opposite direction to change induced by stress in the acute phase of the experiment. Such findings may be useful in the prognosis...... of depression or for monitoring treatment response....

  20. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...... is important for understanding the mechanism of activation and for the stability and activity of the pharmaceutical product. However, crystal structures of FVIIa in complex with TF and of truncated free FVIIa reveal different overall conformations while previous small-angle scattering studies suggest FVIIa...... causing resistance to activation, thereby emphasizing the connection between the distribution of different conformations of FVII and the mechanism of activation....

  1. Confinement studies of a high current density RFP in the Extrap T1 Upgrade device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.; Brzozowski, J.H.; Brunsell, P.; Hellblom, G.; Karlsson, P.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.; Welander, A.; Zastrow, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Confinement studies have been carried out on the Extrap T1 device operated in the reversed field pinch (RFP) mode. Extrap T1 is a small device with a major radius of R=0.5 m and a high aspect ratio, R/a=8.9. For these experiments, the device has been operated with a resistive shell with measured, toroidally-averaged flux penetration times of τ sv = 500μs (vertical) and τ sR =300μs (radial). The pulse lengths are about 600 μs, which is slightly longer than the shell penetration time. The purpose of these experiments is to study energy confinement in a high aspect-ratio, high current-density RFP device with a resistive shell. The device can be operated with high current densities which exceed 20 MAm -2 on axis. For these discharges, the average electron density is relatively high, ≅ 1x10 20 m -3 . Therefore, although the average current density exceeds 5 MAm -2 , the important parameter / ≅ I/N is maintained less than 1x10 -13 Am, where N is the line density. The plasma diagnostics for the device include a single chord CO 2 laser interferometer ( ), single point Thomson scattering (T e , n o ), VUV and visible spectroscopy (T e , Z eff ) surface barrier diodes for soft X-ray measurements (T e ), bolometry (P rad ), surface probes (Γ p ,T i ) and comprehensive magnetic diagnostics for both equilibrium and magnetic fluctuation studies. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Katsuki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for vμ → vx oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance (vμN → μ-+) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus (vμA → μ-+), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, vμ 12C → μ-12+, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 1020 protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 1020 protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio

  3. Endoscopic and histological pitfalls in the diagnosis of celiac disease: a multicentre study assessing the current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostami-Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: the diagnosis of celiac disease requires small bowel biopsies to identify the characteristic mucosal changes. The current biopsy practice among endoscopists for celiac disease is in most part unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic policies in various centers in their current practice. Method: information from a total of 931 confirmed celiac disease patients was retrospectively obtained retrospectively from nine centers in European and Middle Eastern countries. The number of small-bowel biopsies obtained from the duodenal bulb and the second part of the duodenum was compared among different centers. Results: the most frequent stage of mucosal changes amongst Iranian subjects was Marsh IIIa whereas in the rest of the study population was Marsh IIIc. Marsh I and Marsh II were more prevalent in adults (P < 0.05 and Marsh IIIc was significantly higher in pediatric ages between 1 and 15 (P < 0.05. The most common number of biopsy specimens obtained from Romanian subjects was 1 (52% of cases, followed by 2 for Iranian (56%, 3 for Lithuanian (66.7% and British patients (65% and 4 for Italian patients (48.3%. For majority of cases, anemia was the most prevalent symptom (18.7% followed by malabsorption (10.5%, diarrhea (9.3% and dyspepsia (8.2%, respectively. Conclusions: despite the evidence-based recommendations, this study revealed a poor compliance with major guidelines on diagnosis of celiac disease. We emphasize that taking adequate number of duodenal biopsies should be implemented for an accurate diagnosis and also for the exclusion of celiac disease.

  4. Endoscopic and histological pitfalls in the diagnosis of celiac disease: A multicentre study assessing the current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Hogg-Kollars, Sabine; Volta, Umberto; Manenti, Stefania; Reza-Zali, Mohammad; Caio, Giacomo; Giovenali, Paolo; Barakauskiene, Ausrine; Kazenaite, Edita; Becheanu, Gabriel; Diculescu, Mircea; Pellegrino, Salvatore; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Casella, Giovanni; Di-Bella, Camillo; Decarli, Nicola; Biancalani, Mauro; Bassotti, Gabrio; Rostami, Kamran

    2013-07-01

    the diagnosis of celiac disease requires small bowel biopsies to identify the characteristic mucosal changes. The current biopsy practice among endoscopists for celiac disease is in most part unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic policies in various centers in their current practice. information from a total of 931 confirmed celiac disease patients was retrospectively obtained retrospectively from nine centers in European and Middle Eastern countries. The number of small-bowel biopsies obtained from the duodenal bulb and the second part of the duodenum was compared among different centers. the most frequent stage of mucosal changes amongst Iranian subjects was Marsh IIIa whereas in the rest of the study population was Marsh IIIc. Marsh I and Marsh II were more prevalent in adults (P < 0.05) and Marsh IIIc was significantly higher in pediatric ages between 1 and 15 (P < 0.05). The most common number of biopsy specimens obtained from Romanian subjects was 1 (52% of cases), followed by 2 for Iranian (56%), 3 for Lithuanian (66.7%) and British patients (65%) and 4 for Italian patients (48.3%). For majority of cases, anemia was the most prevalent symptom (18.7%) followed by malabsorption (10.5%), diarrhea (9.3%) and dyspepsia (8.2%), respectively. despite the evidence-based recommendations, this study revealed a poor compliance with major guidelines on diagnosis of celiac disease. We emphasize that taking adequate number of duodenal biopsies should be implemented for an accurate diagnosis and also for the exclusion of celiac disease.

  5. Outdoor air pollution, exhaled 8-isoprostane and current asthma in adults: the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Anaïs; Zerimech, Farid; Sanchez, Margaux; Siroux, Valérie; Le Moual, Nicole; Brunekreef, Bert; Stempfelet, Morgane; Künzli, Nino; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Matran, Régis; Nadif, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma in adults are still scarce, and the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to study the associations between 1) long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and current asthma, 2) exhaled 8-isoprostane (8-iso; a biomarker related to oxidative stress) and current asthma, and 3) outdoor air pollution and exhaled 8-iso.Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 608 adults (39% with current asthma) from the first follow-up of the French case-control and family study on asthma (EGEA; the Epidemiological study of the Genetic and Environmental factors of Asthma). Data on nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with a diameter ≤10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), road traffic, and ozone (O 3 ) were from ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and IFEN (French Institute for the Environment) assessments. Models took account of city and familial dependence.The risk of current asthma increased with traffic intensity (adjusted (a)OR 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.18) per 5000 vehicles per day), with O 3 exposure (aOR 2.04 (95% CI 1.27-3.29) per 10 µg·m -3 ) and with exhaled 8-iso concentration (aOR 1.50 (95% CI 1.06-2.12) per 1 pg·mL -1 ). Among participants without asthma, exhaled 8-iso concentration increased with PM 2.5 exposure (adjusted (a)β 0.23 (95% CI 0.005-0.46) per 5 µg·m -3 ), and decreased with O 3 and O 3-summer exposures (aβ -0.20 (95% CI -0.39- -0.01) and aβ -0.52 (95% CI -0.77- -0.26) per 10 µg·m -3 , respectively).Our results add new insights into a potential role of oxidative stress in the associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma in adults. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  6. Study on ac losses of HTS coil carrying ac transport current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Taozhen; Tang Yuejin; Li Jingdong; Zhou Yusheng; Cheng Shijie; Pan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ac loss has an important influence on the thermal performances of HTS coil. It is necessary to quantify ac loss to ascertain its impact on coil stability and for sizing the coil refrigeration system. In this paper, we analyzed in detail the ac loss components, hysteresis loss, eddy loss and flux flow loss in the pancake HTS coil carrying ac transport current by finite element method. We also investigated the distribution of the ac losses in the coil to study the effects of magnetic field distribution on ac losses

  7. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. (author)

  8. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  9. The use of thermally stimulated depolarization currents to study grain growth in ceramic thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Campos, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    Depolarization Current Spectra resulting from the destruction of the thermoelectret state in polycrystalline ThO 2 samples have been detected in the temperature range 100K-350K. The induced polarization is found to be due to migration of charge carriers over microscopic distances in the bulk of the specimens with trapping at grain boundaries. Moreover the density of charge carriers released from trapping sites, upon heating the cooled previously dc biased specimen decreases for increasing sintering temperature, suggesting the use of the technique to the study of grain growth in the bulk of ceramic oxides. (Author) [pt

  10. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, Gratien; Jeppesen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls...... of thymus is compatible with increased thymic activity and emission of T lymphocytes....

  11. Atlas of physical oceanographic data for current surge studies on the Grand Bark of Newfoundland, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, H; Elliott, J A [Physical and Chemical Sciences Branch, Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    1989-04-01

    This is the fourth in a series of atlases prepared to study the incidence of tidally generated large amplitude internal waves and associated current surges along east coast continental shelves. This atlas covers CSS DAWSON cruise 85-024 to the edge of the Grand Banks in the vicinity and to the east of the Hibernia exploration area. The field data were collected near the shelf edge and extending into Flemish Pass centered on 47 N latitude from August 13-28, 1985. Two moorings were deployed and recovered. CTD, BATFISH, Ametek Straza Acoustc Doppler Current Profiler, and 12 kHz Raytheon Sounder equipment were operated from the ship. SLAR (Side Looking Aperture Radar) flights during the summer of 1984 had indicated the presence of groups of high amplitude internal waves near the shelf edge, similar to those on the Scotian Shelf studied during earlier cruises. This cruise studied the nature of the internal tide and the short waves and compared the process to that in the Scotian Gulf and near the Gully, being cognizant of the contrasting density profiles and bathymetry. 5 refs, 451 figs.

  12. Study of a new direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielniak, B. [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fiedler, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this study a new DC-APGD operated in He was developed and characterized. The discharge is operated at 0.9 kV and about 25-35 mA and at a gas flow of 100 ml/min. The source was spectroscopically studied and parameters such as the rotational temperature (T{sub rot}), the excitation temperature (T{sub exc}), the ionization temperature (T{sub ion}) and the electron number density (n{sub e}) were determined. The current-voltage characteristic of the source was studied as well. At optimized conditions the discharge operates in the normal region of the current-voltage characteristic. Rotational and excitation temperatures determined with the use of OH band and Fe I lines as thermometric species were of the order of about 900-1200 and 4500-5500 K, respectively. This indicates that despite of the atmospheric pressure, the discharge is not in LTE. Spatially resolved temperature measurements were performed with axial as well as radial resolution and showed relatively flat profiles. Axially resolved emission intensity profiles for several species such as H, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, OH, He and Hg were determined. It also was found that H{sub 2} introduced into the He by electrolysis of acid solutions such as in ECHG considerably increases the spectroscopically measured gas temperatures but decreases the analyte line intensities, as shown for Hg.

  13. Study of a new direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielniak, B.; Fiedler, T.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study a new DC-APGD operated in He was developed and characterized. The discharge is operated at 0.9 kV and about 25-35 mA and at a gas flow of 100 ml/min. The source was spectroscopically studied and parameters such as the rotational temperature (T rot ), the excitation temperature (T exc ), the ionization temperature (T ion ) and the electron number density (n e ) were determined. The current-voltage characteristic of the source was studied as well. At optimized conditions the discharge operates in the normal region of the current-voltage characteristic. Rotational and excitation temperatures determined with the use of OH band and Fe I lines as thermometric species were of the order of about 900-1200 and 4500-5500 K, respectively. This indicates that despite of the atmospheric pressure, the discharge is not in LTE. Spatially resolved temperature measurements were performed with axial as well as radial resolution and showed relatively flat profiles. Axially resolved emission intensity profiles for several species such as H, N 2 , N 2 + , OH, He and Hg were determined. It also was found that H 2 introduced into the He by electrolysis of acid solutions such as in ECHG considerably increases the spectroscopically measured gas temperatures but decreases the analyte line intensities, as shown for Hg.

  14. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S.; Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N.; Allemand, N.; Riberon, J.; Jaffrezo, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM 10 , PM 2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  15. Current status and future of non-invasive studies of human brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Currently available non-invasive studies are divided into two groups: electrophysiological studies and functional neuroimaging based on the hemodynamic principle. The former includes electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation, and the latter includes functional MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and near-infrared spectroscopy. The hemodynamic response has been shown to be correlated with neuronal electrical activity, especially with synaptic activity rather than spiking activity, within a certain range. Since each technique has advantage and disadvantage, it is important to apply the most appropriate technique to solve each specific question. The combined use of more than one techniques of different principles, if possible, provides data of higher spatial and temporal resolution. Functional connectivity among different brain areas can be studied by using some of these techniques either alone or in combination. (author)

  16. Current study on ionizing radiation-induced mitochondial DNA damage and mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Wang Zhenhua; Zhang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Current advance in ionizing radiation-induced mitochondrial DNA damage and mutations is reviewed, in addition with the essential differences between mtDNA and nDNA damage and mutations. To extent the knowledge about radiation induced mitochondrial alterations, the researchers in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences developed some technics such as real-time PCR, long-PCR for accurate quantification of radiation induced damage and mutations, and in-depth investigation about the functional changes of mitochondria based on mtDNA damage and mutations were also carried out. In conclusion, the important role of mitochondrial study in radiation biology is underlined, and further study on mitochondrial study associated with late effect and metabolism changes in radiation biology is pointed out. (authors)

  17. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  18. The study of human bodies' impedance networks in testing leakage currents of electrical equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Xiaofei

    2006-11-01

    In the testing of electrical equipments' leakage currents, impedance networks of human bodies are used to simulate the current's effect on human bodies, and they are key to the preciseness of the testing result. This paper analyses and calculates three human bodies' impedance networks of measuring electric burn current, perception or reaction current, let-go current in IEC60990, by using Matlab, compares the research result of current effect thresholds' change with sine wave's frequency published in IEC479-2, and amends parameters of measuring networks. It also analyses the change of perception or reaction current with waveform by Multisim.

  19. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  20. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Maarten A; Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R; Herdini, Camelia; Wildeman, Pieter L; van Diessen, Judi N A; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Tan, I Bing

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI) and the extended overall treatment time of radiotherapy (OTT). This study reveals insight why the OTT and DTI are prolonged. All patients treated with curative intent radiotherapy for NPC between July 2011 until October 2012 were included. During radiotherapy a daily diary was kept, containing information on DTI, missed radiotherapy days, the reason for missing and length of OTT. Sixty-eight patients were included. The median DTI was 106 days (95% CI: 98-170). Fifty-nine patients (87%) finished the treatment. The median OTT for radiotherapy was 57 days (95% CI: 57-65). The main reason for missing days was an inoperative radiotherapy machine (36%). Other reasons were patient's poor condition (21%), public holidays (14%), adjustment of the radiation field (7%), power blackout (3%), inoperative treatment planning system (2%) and patient related reasons (9%). Patient's insurance type was correlated to DTI in disadvantage for poor people. Yogyakarta has a lack of sufficient radiotherapy units which causes a delay of 3-4 months, besides the OTT is extended by 10-12 days. This influences treatment outcome to a great extend. The best solution would be creating sufficient radiotherapy units and better management in health care for poor patients. The growing economy in Indonesia will expectantly in time enable these solutions, but in the meantime solutions are needed. Solutions can consist of radiation outside office hours, better maintenance of the facilities and more effort from patient, doctor and nurse to finish treatment in time. These results are valuable when improving cancer care in low and middle income countries.

  1. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon D Stoker

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI and the extended overall treatment time of radiotherapy (OTT. This study reveals insight why the OTT and DTI are prolonged. METHOD: All patients treated with curative intent radiotherapy for NPC between July 2011 until October 2012 were included. During radiotherapy a daily diary was kept, containing information on DTI, missed radiotherapy days, the reason for missing and length of OTT. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were included. The median DTI was 106 days (95% CI: 98-170. Fifty-nine patients (87% finished the treatment. The median OTT for radiotherapy was 57 days (95% CI: 57-65. The main reason for missing days was an inoperative radiotherapy machine (36%. Other reasons were patient's poor condition (21%, public holidays (14%, adjustment of the radiation field (7%, power blackout (3%, inoperative treatment planning system (2% and patient related reasons (9%. Patient's insurance type was correlated to DTI in disadvantage for poor people. CONCLUSION: Yogyakarta has a lack of sufficient radiotherapy units which causes a delay of 3-4 months, besides the OTT is extended by 10-12 days. This influences treatment outcome to a great extend. The best solution would be creating sufficient radiotherapy units and better management in health care for poor patients. The growing economy in Indonesia will expectantly in time enable these solutions, but in the meantime solutions are needed. Solutions can consist of radiation outside office hours, better maintenance of the facilities and more effort from patient, doctor and nurse to finish treatment in time. These results are valuable when improving cancer care in low and middle income countries.

  2. Current debates on end-of-life sedation: an international expert elicitation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Evangelia Evie; Payne, Sheila; Brearley, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    End-of-life sedation, though increasingly prevalent and widespread internationally, remains one of the most highly debated medical practices in the context of palliative medicine. This qualitative study aims to elicit and record the perspectives of leading international palliative care experts on current debates. Twenty-one professionals from diverse backgrounds, sharing field-specific knowledge/expertise defined by significant scholarly contribution on end-of-life sedation, were recruited. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews, following a topic-oriented structure reflecting on current debates, were conducted. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Three main aspects of sedation were identified and discussed as potentially problematic: (a) continuous deep sedation as an extreme facet of end-of-life sedation, (b) psycho-existential suffering as an ambivalent indication for sedation and (c) withdrawal or withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as potentially life-shortening. On these grounds, concerns were reported over end-of-life sedation being morally equivalent to euthanasia. Considerable emphasis was placed on intentions as the distinguishing factor between end-of-life acts, and protective safeguards were introduced to distance sedation from euthanasia. This study shows that, despite the safeguards introduced, certain aspects of sedation, including the intentions associated with the practice, are still under question, parallels being drawn between end-of-life sedation and euthanasia. This reaffirms the existence of a grey area surrounding the two practices, already evidenced in countries where euthanasia is legalized. More clarity over the issues that generate this grey area, with their causes being uncovered and eliminated, is imperative to resolve current debates and effectively inform research, policy and practice of end-of-life sedation.

  3. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  4. Construction of natural radiation exposure study network - overview and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    A new project entitled 'Construction of natural radiation exposure study network' was adopted in the Program of Promotion of International Joint Research under the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology operated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. Eight institutions were involved in this project and the project will continue until March, 2012. The aims of the project are to assess the dose for natural radiation exposures using state-of- the-art measurement techniques in four Asian countries (China, India, Korea and Thailand) and their outcomes will be distributed worldwide. Throughout the project, conventional measurement techniques will be improved and be optimized. More scientific data and results will be obtained as well. In particular, the following advanced technologies for inhalation exposures will be introduced: (1) Discriminative measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) gases, (2) Evaluation of thoron decay products concentration, (3) Simple but effective particle size distribution measurements. In China, we are conducting a case-control study of radon and lung cancer in Gansu, China. This Gansu area was investigated in the past for the case-control study. New data are being accumulated. In India, we focused on Orissa in order to carry out radiation measurements in this project. In parallel, Kerala is currently involved as the comparative study area. In Korea, we are now measuring radon and thoron in radon/thoron prone areas. These results will give us new information for further understanding of exposure due to radon and thoron. In Thailand, we are carrying out comprehensively radiation measurements in NORM industries. Not only these surveys but also quality assurance of radon measurements are being addressed in Japan. We have managed an international intercomparison exercise of passive radon detectors at NIRS. This study presents an overview of the project and current status

  5. The study of Zn–Co alloy coatings electrochemically deposited by pulse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milorad V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition by pulse current of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel was examined, with the aim to find out whether pulse plating could produce alloys that could offer a better corrosion protection. The influence of on-time and the average current density on the cathodic current efficiency, coating morphology, surface roughness and corrosion stability in 3% NaCl was examined. At the same Ton/Toff ratio the current efficiency was insignificantly smaller for deposition at higher average current density. It was shown that, depending on the on-time, pulse plating could produce more homogenous alloy coatings with finer morphology, as compared to deposits obtained by direct current. The surface roughness was the greatest for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with direct current, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with pulse current, for both examined average current densities. It was also shown that Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited by pulse current could increase the corrosion stability of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel. Namely, alloy coatings deposited with pulse current showed higher corrosion stability, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with direct current, for almost all examined cathodic times, Ton. Alloy coatings deposited at higher average current density showed greater corrosion stability as compared with coatings deposited by pulse current at smaller average current density. It was shown that deposits obtained with pulse current and cathodic time of 10 ms had the poorest corrosion stability, for both investigated average deposition current density. Among all investigated alloy coatings the highest corrosion stability was obtained for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with pulsed current at higher average current density (jav = 4 A dm-2.

  6. Molecular shape and binding force of Mycoplasma mobile's leg protein Gli349 revealed by an AFM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoil, Charles [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsutacho 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Nonaka, Takahiro [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Osada, Toshiya [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsutacho 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Afrin, Rehana [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsutacho 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Biofrontier Center, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsutacho 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Ikai, Atsushi, E-mail: ikai.a.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsutacho 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Recent studies of the gliding bacteria Mycoplasma mobile have identified a family of proteins called the Gli family which was considered to be involved in this novel and yet fairly unknown motility system. The 349 kDa protein called Gli349 was successfully isolated and purified from the bacteria, and electron microscopy imaging and antibody experiments led to the hypothesis that it acts as the 'leg' of M. mobile, responsible for attachment to the substrate as well as for gliding motility. However, more precise evidence of the molecular shape and function of this protein was required to asses this theory any further. In this study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used both as an imaging and a force measurement device to provide new information about Gli349 and its role in gliding motility. AFM images of the protein were obtained revealing a complex structure with both rigid and flexible parts, consistent with previous electron micrographs of the protein. Single-molecular force spectroscopy experiments were also performed, revealing that Gli349 is able to specifically bind to sialyllactose molecules and withstand unbinding forces around 70 pN. These findings strongly support the idea that Gli349 is the 'leg' protein of M. mobile, responsible for binding and also most probably force generation during gliding motility.

  7. Molecular shape and binding force of Mycoplasma mobile's leg protein Gli349 revealed by an AFM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesoil, Charles; Nonaka, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Osada, Toshiya; Miyata, Makoto; Afrin, Rehana; Ikai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the gliding bacteria Mycoplasma mobile have identified a family of proteins called the Gli family which was considered to be involved in this novel and yet fairly unknown motility system. The 349 kDa protein called Gli349 was successfully isolated and purified from the bacteria, and electron microscopy imaging and antibody experiments led to the hypothesis that it acts as the 'leg' of M. mobile, responsible for attachment to the substrate as well as for gliding motility. However, more precise evidence of the molecular shape and function of this protein was required to asses this theory any further. In this study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used both as an imaging and a force measurement device to provide new information about Gli349 and its role in gliding motility. AFM images of the protein were obtained revealing a complex structure with both rigid and flexible parts, consistent with previous electron micrographs of the protein. Single-molecular force spectroscopy experiments were also performed, revealing that Gli349 is able to specifically bind to sialyllactose molecules and withstand unbinding forces around 70 pN. These findings strongly support the idea that Gli349 is the 'leg' protein of M. mobile, responsible for binding and also most probably force generation during gliding motility.

  8. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  9. A study of current world telecommunications and a projection of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Costas

    1992-09-01

    Telecommunications today are important factors in economic and social progress. The last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st have been characterized as the Information Age. Telecommunications, the movement of information through distances, is absolutely critical to the economic and military survival of nations. This thesis is an attempt to predict the future of telecommunications, by studying and analyzing the past and present. First it examines the meaning of telecommunications today and some basics of information transmission. The current status of telecommunications is then presented, by examining the regional profiles as they are divided by the International Telecommunications Union. A number of statistical studies are given, which present a thorough picture of current world telecommunications. In an effort to predict future industry trends, the competition among the three largest telecommunications markets, U.S.A., Japan and the European Community, is also considered by looking at their present telecommunications industry, the efforts they make to improve their technology, and their plans for future investment. Finally, some major technological trends including BISDN, the use of fiber technology in the communications loop, and the use of solitons are examined. The new Metropolitan Area Network Protocol, FDDI-2 is also reviewed.

  10. Neurocognitive Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Arithmetic Learning and Performance: A Simultaneous tDCS-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tobias U; Rütsche, Bruno; Wurmitzer, Karoline; Brem, Silvia; Ruff, Christian C; Grabner, Roland H

    A small but increasing number of studies suggest that non-invasive brain stimulation by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate arithmetic processes that are essential for higher-order mathematical skills and that are impaired in dyscalculic individuals. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such stimulation effects, and whether they are specific to cognitive processes involved in different arithmetic tasks. We addressed these questions by applying tDCS during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were solving two types of complex subtraction problems: repeated problems, relying on arithmetic fact learning and problem-solving by fact retrieval, and novel problems, requiring calculation procedures. Twenty participants receiving left parietal anodal plus right frontal cathodal stimulation were compared with 20 participants in a sham condition. We found a strong cognitive and neural dissociation between repeated and novel problems. Repeated problems were solved more accurately and elicited increased activity in the bilateral angular gyri and medial plus lateral prefrontal cortices. Solving novel problems, in contrast, was accompanied by stronger activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulci and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Most importantly, tDCS decreased the activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while solving novel (compared to repeated) problems, suggesting that the cathodal stimulation rendered this region unable to respond to the task-specific cognitive demand. The present study revealed that tDCS during arithmetic problem-solving can modulate the neural activity in proximity to the electrodes specifically when the current demands lead to an engagement of this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the current state of water quality in the Segamat River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razelan, Faridah Mohd; Tahir, Wardah; E. M Yahaya, Nasehir Khan

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, pollution has become a major concern in developed and developing countries. In a study on the current state of Segamat River water quality; on-site data collection and observation and also laboratory data analysis have been implemented. Studies showed that the downstream of the Segamat River has recorded a significant reduction in quality of water during the dry season compared to the wet season. The deterioration of water quality is caused by the activities along the river such as palm oil plantation, municipal waste and waste from settlements. It was also recorded that the point sources were dominating the pollution at Segamat River during the dry season. However, during the wet season, the water quality was impaired by the non-point sources which originated from the upstream of the river.

  12. Counter-current extraction studies for the recovery of neptunium by the Purex process. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, N.; Nadkarni, M. N.; Kumar, S. V.; Kartha, P. K.S.; Sonavane, R. R.; Ramaniah, M. V.; Patil, S. K.

    1974-07-01

    It is proposed to recover neptunium-237, along with uranium and plutonium, during the fuel reprocessing in the PREFRE plant at Tarapur. Counter-current extraction studies, relevant to the code contamination (HA) and partitioning (IA) cycles of the purex process, were carried out to arrive at suitable chemical flowsheet conditions which would enable the co-extraction of neptunium along with uranium and plutonium. The results of the studies carried out using a laboratory mixer-settler unit and synthetic mixtures of neptunium and uranium are reported here. Based on these results, the chemical flowsheet conditions are proposed for the co-extraction of neptunium even if it exists as Np(V) in the aqueous feed solution. (auth)

  13. Radioligands for PET studies of central benzodiazepine receptors and PK (peripheral benzodiazepine) binding sites -current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.; Osman, S.; Shah, F.; Turton, D.R.; Waters, S.L.; Crouzel, C.; Nutt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The status of the radiochemical development and biological evaluation of radioligands for PET studies of central benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors and the so-called peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, here discriminated and referred to as PK binding sites, is reviewed against current pharmacological knowledge, indicating those agents with present value and those with future potential. Practical recommendations are given for the preparation of two useful radioligands for PET studies, [N-methyl- 11 C]flumazenil for central BZ receptors, and [N-methyl- 11 C]PK 11195 for PK binding sites. Quality assurance and plasma metabolite analysis are also reviewed for these radioligands and practical recommendations are given on methodology for their performance. (Author)

  14. Current studies related to the use of burnup credit in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, Jerome; Lavarenne, Caroline; Barreau, Anne; Riffard, Cecile; Roque, Benedicte; Bioux, Philippe; Doucet, Michel; Guillou, Eric; Leka, Georges; Toubon, Herve

    2003-01-01

    In order to avoid criticality risks, a large number of facilities using spent fuels have been designed considering the fuel as fresh. This choice has obviously led to considerable safety margins. In the early 80's, a method was accepted by the French Safety Authorities allowing to consider the changes in the fuel composition during the depletion with some very pessimistic hypothesis: only actinides were considered and the amount of burnup used in the studies was equal to the mean burnup in the 50-least-irradiated centimeters. As many facilities still want to optimize their processes (e.g. transportation, storage, fuel reprocessing), the main companies involved in the French nuclear industry, researchers and IRSN set up a Working Group in order to study the way burnup could be taken into account in the criticality calculations, considering some fission products and a more realistic axial profile of burnup. The first of this article introduces the current French method used to take burnup into account in the criticality studies. The second part is devoted to the studies achieved by the Working Group to improve this method, especially concerning the consideration of the neutron absorption of some fission products and of an axial profile of burnup: for that purpose, some results are presented related to the steps of the process like the depletion calculations, the definition of an axial profile and the criticality calculation. In the third part, some results (keff) obtained with fission products and an axial profile are compared to those obtained with the current one. The conclusions presented are related to the present state of knowledge and may differ from the final conclusions of the Working Group. (author)

  15. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: An Empirical Study of Current Management Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apte, Aruna U; Apte, Uday M; Rendon, Rene G

    2008-01-01

    .... Specifically, we studied the current management practices in such areas as life cycle approach, project management, organization/ management structure, and training provided to services acquisition personnel...

  16. A review study of the current research on energy hub for energy positive neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.W.W.; Labeodan, T.; Maassen, W.H.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Energy positive neighborhoods and cities are emerging concepts aimed at addressing the current energy and environmental sustainability challenges. In this paper, the concept and current research on energy hubs relating to energy positive neighborhoods are presented. In addition to discussing

  17. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulate sensory perception and pain? A meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2014-09-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy individuals and pain levels (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for a-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was examined using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) increases both STh (Psensory cortex (S1) (P<0.05 with an effect size of 4.34). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of a-tDCS to both the M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The average decrease in visual analogue score was 14.9% and 19.3% after applying a-tDCS on the M1 and DLPFC. Moreover, meta-analysis showed that in all subgroups (except a-tDCS of S1) active a-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences. This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of a-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy group and decreasing PL in patients. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted cautiously. Given the level of blinding did not considered in inclusion criteria, the result of current study should be interpreted with caution. Site of stimulation should have a differential effect over pain relief. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical atherosclerosis: results of the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, S; Backé, E; Liebers, F; Schulz, A; Hegewald, J; Garthus-Niegel, S; Nübling, M; Blankenberg, S; Pfeiffer, N; Lackner, K J; Beutel, M; Blettner, M; Münzel, T; Wild, P S; Seidler, A; Letzel, S; Latza, U

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the association between exposure to current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis. Participants of a population-based cohort study (the Gutenberg Health Study, N = 15,010) aged 35-64 years were examined at baseline (2007-2012). Investigations included measurements of arterial stiffness, vascular function [reactive hyperaemia (RH) index], and intima media thickness (IMT). Also, a complete job history (including up to 15 periods), occupational exposures, a variety of lifestyle, and dispositional variables were enquired. Night shift work was performed by 1071 out of 8065 currently employed individuals. The strongest association after adjustment for age, sex, job complexity level, being a manager, overtime work, and noise appeared for more than 660 night shifts within the last 10 years and a significantly increased arterial stiffness of 0.33 m/s. This reflects a 4 % flow velocity increase for individuals with more than 660 night shifts compared to non-night workers. Regarding the entire professional life, night shift workers showed a significantly decreased vascular function by -0.054 RH index points by using the same adjustment. IMT values did not differ statistically from non-night workers. Lifestyle and dispositional factors showed an influence on all used subclinical atherosclerosis parameters. The cross-sectional results demonstrate an association between night work and detrimental changes in the atherosclerotic process. The association is more pronounced with more years in night shift and is partly explained by lifestyle and dispositional factors. Longitudinal analyses are necessary to confirm the results.

  19. Feedback from physical activity monitors is not compatible with current recommendations: A recalibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dylan; Batterham, Alan M; Peacock, Oliver J; Western, Max J; Booso, Rahuman

    2016-10-01

    Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735 minutes per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000 minutes per week, which represents ~15% of waking time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Group study of an "undercover" test for visuospatial neglect: invisible cancellation can reveal more neglect than standard cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciulik, E; Rorden, C; Clarke, K; Husain, M; Driver, J

    2004-09-01

    Visual neglect is a relatively common deficit after brain damage, particularly strokes. Cancellation tests provide standard clinical measures of neglect severity and deficits in daily life. A recent single-case study introduced a new variation on standard cancellation. Instead of making a visible mark on each target found, the patient made invisible marks (recorded with carbon paper underneath, for later scoring). Such invisible cancellation was found to reveal more neglect than cancellation with visible marks. Here we test the generality of this. Twenty three successive cases with suspected neglect each performed cancellation with visible or invisible marks. Neglect of contralesional targets was more pronounced with invisible marks. Indeed, about half of the patients only showed neglect in this version. For cases showing more neglect with invisible marks, stronger neglect of contralesional targets correlated with more revisits to ipsilesional targets for making additional invisible marks upon them. These results indicate that cancellation with invisible marks can reveal more neglect than standard cancellation with visible marks, while still providing a practical bedside test. Our observations may be consistent with recent proposals that demands on spatial working memory (required to keep track of previously found items only when marked invisibly) can exacerbate spatial neglect.

  1. Integrative Analysis of Subcellular Quantitative Proteomics Studies Reveals Functional Cytoskeleton Membrane-Lipid Raft Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anup D; Inder, Kerry L; Shah, Alok K; Cristino, Alexandre S; McKie, Arthur B; Gabra, Hani; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-10-07

    Lipid rafts are dynamic membrane microdomains that orchestrate molecular interactions and are implicated in cancer development. To understand the functions of lipid rafts in cancer, we performed an integrated analysis of quantitative lipid raft proteomics data sets modeling progression in breast cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. This analysis revealed that cancer development is associated with increased membrane raft-cytoskeleton interactions, with ∼40% of elevated lipid raft proteins being cytoskeletal components. Previous studies suggest a potential functional role for the raft-cytoskeleton in the action of the putative tumor suppressors PTRF/Cavin-1 and Merlin. To extend the observation, we examined lipid raft proteome modulation by an unrelated tumor suppressor opioid binding protein cell-adhesion molecule (OPCML) in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. In agreement with the other model systems, quantitative proteomics revealed that 39% of OPCML-depleted lipid raft proteins are cytoskeletal components, with microfilaments and intermediate filaments specifically down-regulated. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network and simulation analysis showed significantly higher interactions among cancer raft proteins compared with general human raft proteins. Collectively, these results suggest increased cytoskeleton-mediated stabilization of lipid raft domains with greater molecular interactions as a common, functional, and reversible feature of cancer cells.

  2. An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Yusaku

    The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.

  3. An electron beam induced current study of gallium nitride and diamond materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, A.D.; Moore, D.J.; Scott, C.S.; Green, R.

    1995-01-01

    The continual need for microelectronic devices that operate under severe electronic and environmental conditions (high temperature, high frequency, high power, and radiation tolerance) has sustained research in wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The properties suggest these wide-bandgap semiconductor materials have tremendous potential for military and commercial applications. High frequency bipolar transistors and field effect transistors, diodes, and short wavelength optical devices have been proposed using these materials. Although research efforts involving the study of transport properties in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Diamond have made significant advances, much work is still needed to improve the material quality so that the electrophysical behavior of device structures can be further understood and exploited. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements can provide a method of understanding the transport properties in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Diamond. This technique basically consists of measuring the current or voltage transient response to the drift and diffusion of carriers created by a short-duration pulse of radiation. This method differs from other experimental techniques because it is based on a fast transient electron beam probe created from a high speed, laser pulsed photoemission system

  4. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  5. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  6. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  7. The Current Studies of Education for a Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the current tradition and complementary medicine (T&CM) education in Malaysia. We referred to literature regarding to traditional medicine education in Malaysia, and collected the information via website or interview with faculty of T&CM in universities/colleges and Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. T&CM education in Malaysia has been following China’s T&CM systems for 50 years. Currently, Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health; and Ministry of Higher Education has approved 11 institutions to offer T&CM education. Students may major in Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, or other T&CM subjects. Generally, clinical training programs in China, Taiwan, or Australia include substantial proportion of clinical training. We report on the general information of T&CM education in Malaysia. This result would be the first-stage information for the establishment of a strategy regarding the enhancement of T&CM education in Malaysia. PMID:28853309

  8. Nutrigenomics in human intervention studies: current status, lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jonas; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Hoeft, Birgit; Bendik, Igor; Weber, Peter; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-03-01

    Nutrigenomics applications comprise transcript-, proteome- and metabolome-profiling techniques in which responses to diets or individual ingredients are assessed in biological samples. They may also include the characterization of heterogeneity in relevant genes that affect the biological processes. This review explores various areas of nutrition and food sciences in which transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-analyses have been applied in human intervention studies, including nutrigenetics aspects and discusses the advantages and limitations of the methodologies. Despite the power of the profiling techniques to generate huge data sets, a critical assessment of the study outcomes emphasizes the current constraints in data interpretation, including huge knowledge gaps, the need for improved study designs and more comprehensive phenotyping of volunteers before selection for study participation. In this respect, nutrigenomics faces the same problems as all other areas of the life sciences, employing the same tools. However, there is a growing trend toward systemic approaches in which different technologies are combined and applied to the same sample, allowing physiological changes to be assessed more robustly throughout all molecular layers of mRNA, protein and metabolite changes. Nutrigenomics is thereby maturing as a branch of the life sciences and is gaining significant recognition in the scientific community. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Focal Hand Dystonia in Musicians: A Two-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marceglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Focal hand dystonia (FHD in musicians is a movement disorder causing abnormal movements and irregularities in playing. Since weak electrical currents applied to the brain induce persistent excitability changes in humans, cathodal tDCS was proposed as a possible non-invasive approach for modulating cortical excitability in patients with FHD. However, the optimal targets and modalities have still to be determined. In this pilot study, we delivered cathodal (2 mA, anodal (2 mA and sham tDCS over the motor areas bilaterally for 20 min daily for five consecutive days in two musicians with FHD. After cathodal tDCS, both patients reported a sensation of general wellness and improved symptoms of FHD. In conclusion, our pilot results suggest that cathodal tDCS delivered bilaterally over motor-premotor (M-PM cortex for 5 consecutive days may be effective in improving symptoms in FHD.

  10. Electron-beam-induced current study of small-angle grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Sekiguchi, T.; Xie, R.; Ahmet, P.; Chikyo, T.; Yang, D.; Ito, S.; Yin, F.

    2005-01-01

    Recombination activity of small-angle grain boundaries (SA GBs) in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) was studied by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. In the as-grown mc-Si, the EBIC contrasts of special Σ and random GBs were weak at both 300 and 100 K, whereas those of SA GBs were weak (<3%) at 300 K and strong (30-40%) at 100 K. In the contaminated mc-Si, SA GBs showed stronger EBIC contrast than Σ and R GBs at 300 K. It is indicated that SA GBs possess high density of shallow levels and are easily contaminated with Fe compared to other GBs

  11. Study of the neutral current properties in the semileptonic inclusive neutrino and antineutrino nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, B.

    1981-01-01

    In the dechromatic neutron beam of the CERN-SPS results obtained with the CHARM detector from the deep inelastic inclusive neutrino-nucleon scattering were analyzed according to following reactions: #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->μ - (μ + ) + hadrons and #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->#betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ)) + hadrons. The aim of these studies was the determination of the coupling of neutral currents in the weak interaction. All data can be well described by the standard model for the unification of the electrogmagnetic and weak interaction in connection with the quarkparton model, if a Weinberg angle of sin 2 deltasub(w)=0.222+-0.016 is assumed. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Experimental study on flaw detectability of remote field eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, T.; Fukui, S.; Iwahashi, Y.; Yamada, H.

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of comprehending the effect in practical use of the remote field eddy current (RFEC) testing that becomes noticeable for the ISI technique of steel tubes, its flaw detectability was clarified through a model test. This study used straight and bending tubes of 3.8 mm in wall thickness and 31.8 mm in outside diameter. These tubes were inspected from their inside. After relations among the pickup coil output, coil distance, testing frequency, etc. were measured, a probe of the practical use type was manufactured to investigate its flaw detectability by means of simulated flaws. The authors discuss how it has been found that light local wall thinning on the outside surfaces can be detected by this technique and its effect in practical use can be expected with small influences due to magnetic permeability variations of tube materials, bending of tubes, etc

  13. Development techniques and electron optical studies of high voltage, high current electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, L.M.; Mahadevan, S.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The progress of the electron gun design, limiting to axially symmetric geometries is discussed here with a view to utilise such guns for electron accelerators. The mechanical design features leading to the physical configuration of the gun with stringent tolerances are outlined. Vacuum processing is done at pressures of 1.3x10 -5 Pa. The gun employs W-filament emitter or a cathode pellet with bombarder service. A water cooled compact faraday cup is used to measure the electron current. Electron gun geometries have been studied using the computer programme. The preveance of the gun is 0.7x10 -7 A/Vsup(1.5) at 80 kV. Developmental techniques of such pulsed electron guns are described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  14. Current recommendations for the study of carotid stenosis by doppler ultrasound and other imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Matamoros, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has been one of the most frequent causes of death from chronic disease, as well as cause of long-term disabilities, in both the United States, and in Latin American countries during recent years. It is therefore, important to know about it. An updated review of international recommendations to the Costa Rican health system is performed for carotid imaging study in patients at risk of accidents and ischemic cerebrovascular disease; with special emphasis on carotid Doppler ultrasonography, due to its wide availability in the medical field Costa Rican. Furthermore, certain relevant concepts of other imaging techniques currently available are listed to determine the appropriate choice of each method according to the individual patient's condition, such as conventional angiography and tomographic angiography [es

  15. Study of Chromium Multilayers Properties Obtained by Pulsed Current Density: Residual Stress and Microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta TORRES-GONZÁLEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium multilayers deposits were obtained from three different bath solutions, they were prepared by switching current density between 10 and 70 Adm-2. Two temperatures were studied, 35°C and 55°C. At 35°C two different microstructures are alternated: columnar obtained at 10 Adm-2 and equiaxial obtained at 70 Adm-2. At 55°C only the columnar type microstructure is present, at 10 and 70 Adm-2, the only difference among the layers is a slight disorientation of grains. The properties of these chromium multilayers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. In general the deposits are microcracked with a high microhardness, high residual stress and a small grain size.

  16. Study of current and planned high occupancy vehicle lane use: performance and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.; Westbrook, F.

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of a nationwide study of HOV lanes: their characteristics and performance as traffic congestion mitigating and rideshare enhancing facilities. The study took the form of telephone interviews with a variety of planning agencies in each of the 48 contiguous states and Hawaii over the period April through June 1985, with subsequent receipt of the most current documentation on regional HOV lane operations. The most up-to-date evidence on each lane's performance is presented: its hourly and peak period person throughput vis-a-vis the highway's adjacent, conventional mixed traffic lane(s), its vehicle throughput and occupancy, travel speed and travel time savings for HOVs, lane rule violation rates, lane construction and maintenance costs and accident data. Estimates are provided of the growth in ridesharing over the life of the HOV-only lanes, of the number of vehicles removed from the highway through ridesharing, and of the subsequent fuel savings attributable to HOV lane projects. The relationship between bus patronage and carpool/vanpool mode adoption is looked at, and it is concluded that both forms of HOV can do well on properly planned lanes. The authors also point out the very partial nature of the existing evidence upon which to base HOV lane project evaluation, and the subsequent difficulty associated with ''selling'' the HOV lane concept to many planners and members of the public. They identify those characteristics associated with clearly successful HOV lane projects. Finally, the current state of planning for new HOV lanes in cities around the nation is described, and the major reasons given for rejection or abandonment of HOV lane projects are discussed.

  17. Modulation of Isometric Quadriceps Strength in Soccer Players With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Valentine Z; Baptista, Abrahão F; Pereira, Guilherme O C; Pochini, Alberto C; Ejnisman, Benno; Santos, Marcelo B; João, Silvia M A; Hazime, Fuad A

    2018-05-01

    Vargas, VZ, Baptista, AF, Pereira, GOC, Pochini, AC, Ejnisman, B, Santos, MB, João, SMA, and Hazime, FA. Modulation of isometric quadriceps strength in soccer players with transcranial direct current stimulation: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1336-1341, 2018-The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the maximum isometric muscle contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors in soccer players at the preprofessional level. Twenty female soccer players aged 15-17 years (mean = 16.1; SD = 0.9) with 5.2 ± 2.6 years of training were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive either active or sham tDCS in a single session (2 mA; 0.057 mA·cm). The MVIC of the knee extensors was evaluated in both lower limbs by manual dynamometry in 5 sets of contractions divided into 4 blocks: (a) prestimulation, (b) during tDCS, (c) 30 minutes after tDCS, and (d) 60 minutes after tDCS. After an interval of 7 days, the groups were evaluated again, and the type of initial stimulation was inverted between participants. The MVIC of the knee extensors increased significantly during active tDCS (dominant limb (DL) = 0.4; IC = 0.1-0.8 N·Kg), 30 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 0.9; IC 0.4-1.4 N·Kg), and 60 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 1.0; IC 0.3-1.6 N·Kg) but not for sham tDCS. Our conclusion was that tDCS temporarily increases isometric quadriceps strength in adolescent female soccer players, which may be useful for both strength training and rehabilitation.

  18. Numerical study of induced current perturbations in the vicinity of excitable cells exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Noha; Chatterjee, Indira; Publicover, Nelson G; Craviso, Gale L

    2003-01-01

    Realistic three-dimensional cell morphologies were modelled to determine the current density induced in excitable cell culture preparations exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields and to identify important factors that can influence the responses of cells to these fields. Cell morphologies representing single spherical adrenal chromaffin cells, single elongated smooth muscle cells and chromaffin cell aggregates in a Petri dish containing culture medium were modelled using the finite element method. The computations for a spherical cell revealed alterations in the magnitude and spatial distribution of the induced current density in the immediate vicinity of the cell. Maxima occurred at the equatorial sides and minima at the poles. Proximity of cells to each other as well as cell aggregate shape, size and orientation with respect to the induced current influenced the magnitude and spatial distribution of the induced current density. For an elongated cell, effects on the induced current density were highly dependent on cell orientation with respect to the direction of the induced current. These results provide novel insights into the perturbations in induced current that occur in excitable cell culture preparations and lay a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of interaction with extremely low frequency magnetic fields at the tissue level

  19. Combining physical training with transcranial direct current stimulation to improve gait in Parkinson's disease: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, D; Dominguez, R O; Allum, J H; Islam, A F; Bronstein, A M

    2014-11-01

    To improve gait and balance in patients with Parkinson's disease by combining anodal transcranial direct current stimulation with physical training. In a double-blind design, one group (physical training; n = 8) underwent gait and balance training during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS; real/sham). Real stimulation consisted of 15 minutes of 2 mA transcranial direct current stimulation over primary motor and premotor cortex. For sham, the current was switched off after 30 seconds. Patients received the opposite stimulation (sham/real) with physical training one week later; the second group (No physical training; n = 8) received stimulation (real/sham) but no training, and also repeated a sequential transcranial direct current stimulation session one week later (sham/real). Hospital Srio Libanes, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Sixteen community-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease. Transcranial direct current stimulation with and without concomitant physical training. Gait velocity (primary gait outcome), stride length, timed 6-minute walk test, Timed Up and Go Test (secondary outcomes), and performance on the pull test (primary balance outcome). Transcranial direct current stimulation with physical training increased gait velocity (mean = 29.5%, SD = 13; p transcranial direct current stimulation alone. There was no isolated benefit of transcranial direct current stimulation alone. Although physical training improved gait velocity (mean = 15.5%, SD = 12.3; p = 0.03), these effects were comparatively less than with combined tDCS + physical therapy (p stimulation-related improvements were seen in patients with more advanced disease. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation during physical training improves gait and balance in patients with Parkinson's disease. Power calculations revealed that 14 patients per treatment arm (α = 0.05; power = 0.8) are required for a definitive trial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. THE CURRENT STATE OF STUDY OF PLANTS OF HEDYSARUM L. FLORAE OF THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Imachuyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the ecological-botanical research and the current state of knowledge of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.The aim of the study was the review of the information contained in open sources about the basic ecological and Botanical characteristics, geographic specie of habitat and phytocoenotic specie of species of the genus Hedysarum growing in the Caucasus.Materials and methods. The study was conducted using information retrieval (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, RGB, VINITI, SOCIONET, ReseachGate, PubMed, Web of Sciences, SCOPUS, RNMJ.RU, UlrichsWEB, EBSCO, Scientific library of the Botanical Institute of RAS as well as the results of our research.Results: the review study of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.Conclusion: the results of the analysis of regional floras, morphological characteristics, the main ecological and botanical characteristics of these 16 species, the geographic specie of habitat, phytocenotic specie are presented.

  1. Safety Improvements on Wood Chippers Currently in Use: A Study on Feasibility in the Italian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Bagagiolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following formal opposition by France, the harmonized safety standards regarding manually-loaded wood chippers (EN 13525:2005+A2:2009 which presumed compliance with the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR required by the Machine Directive (Directive 2006/42/EC, have recently been withdrawn, and a new draft of the standard is currently under revision. In order to assess the potential impact of the expected future harmonized standards within the Italian context, this study has examined the main issues in implementing EHSRs on wood chippers already being used. Safety issues regarding wood chippers already in use were identified in an analysis of the draft standard, through the observation of a number of case studies, and qualitative analysis of the essential technical interventions. A number of agricultural and forestry operators and companies participated in the study, pointing out the technical and economic obstacle facing the safety features requested by the pending new standard. It emerged that the main safety issues concerned the implementation of the reverse function, the stop bar, and the protective devices, the infeed chute dimension, the emergency stop function, and the designated feeding area. The possibility of adopting such solutions mainly depends on technical feasibility and costs, but an important role is also played by the attitude towards safety and a lack of adequate information regarding safety obligations and procedures among users.

  2. The medium-term effects of diadynamic currents in chronic low back pain; TENS versus diadynamic currents: A randomised, follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayilir, Selcuk; Yildizgoren, Mustafa Turgut

    2017-11-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the medium-term effects of diadynamic (DD) currents on relieving symptoms/improving physical functionality in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and to compare the efficacy of DD versus TENS. The patients were divided into two groups as the TENS group (n = 26) and the DD group (n = 29). Additional treatment of hot pack + therapeutic ultrasound was applied to all patients. The therapy programs were administered as a total of 10 sessions over a period of 2 weeks. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), Oswestry Disability Index and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) values were recorded. Both groups showed significant improvements in VAS and RDQ scores after one month of the therapies (all p TENS and DD currents in chronic LBP can lead to reduced pain, and improved physical functions. Hence, DD currents can be used as an adjuvant therapy for rehabilitation of chronic LBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: zychen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Chen, Z.P., E-mail: zpchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2012-05-14

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2} due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2}.

  4. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.Y.; Chen, Z.P.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G.

    2012-01-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 .

  5. Exploring current and potential roles of Australian community pharmacists in gout management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Allyce B; Nguyen, Amy D; Baysari, Melissa T; Kannangara, Diluk R W; McLachlan, Andrew J; Day, Richard O

    2018-05-09

    Gout is an increasingly prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis. Although effective treatments for gout exist, current management is suboptimal due to low medication adherence rates and treatments that are non-concordant with guidelines. Medications are the mainstay and most effective form of gout management. Thus, there is potential for community pharmacists to play an important primary health care role in gout management, however their current role and their potential to improve management of gout treatment is currently unclear. The purpose of the study is to explore the views of Australian pharmacists on their roles in gout management and to identify factors influencing their involvement in gout management. A convenience sample of community pharmacists were invited to participate using a snowballing recruitment strategy. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 pharmacists of varying age, gender and pharmacy experience. Interviews focused on pharmacists' experiences of managing gout, interactions with people living with gout and their perceived roles and responsibilities in gout management. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and independently analysed by two reviewers to identify themes. The main role of pharmacists reported in gout management was providing patient education. The greatest facilitator to pharmacists involvement in gout management was identified to be pharmacists' good understanding of gout and its management. Barriers to pharmacists involvement were identified to be difficulties in monitoring adherence to gout medications, low priority given to gout in the pharmacy compared to other chronic health conditions, and lack of specific training and/or continuing education in gout prevention and management. Pharmacists can expand their primary health care role in gout management, particularly in the area of ongoing provision of education to people living with gout and in monitoring medication adherence in patients. However, a

  6. Current clinical nutrition practices in critically ill patients in Latin America: a multinational observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Karin Papapietro; Martínez, Carolina Méndez; Matos Adames, Alfredo A; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa; Nogales, Guillermo Carlos Contreras; Paz, Roger Enrique Riofrio; Perman, Mario Ignacio; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2017-08-25

    Malnutrition in critically ill adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality. Adequate nutrition therapy is crucial to optimise outcomes. Currently, there is a paucity of such data in Latin America. Our aims were to characterise current clinical nutrition practices in the ICU setting in Latin America and evaluate whether current practices meet caloric and protein requirements in critically ill patients receiving nutrition therapy. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru). Eligible patients were critically ill adults hospitalised in the ICU and receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) on the Screening Day and the previous day (day -1). Caloric and protein balance on day -1, nutritional status, and prescribed nutrition therapy were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of reaching daily caloric and protein targets. The analysis included 1053 patients from 116 hospitals. Evaluation of nutritional status showed that 74.1% of patients had suspected/moderate or severe malnutrition according to the Subjective Global Assessment. Prescribed nutrition therapy included EN alone (79.9%), PN alone (9.4%), and EN + PN (10.7%). Caloric intake met >90% of the daily target in 59.7% of patients on day -1; a caloric deficit was present in 40.3%, with a mean (±SD) daily caloric deficit of -688.8 ± 455.2 kcal. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that combined administration of EN + PN was associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of meeting >90% of daily caloric and protein targets compared with EN alone (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.39; p = 0.038). In the ICU setting in Latin America, malnutrition was highly prevalent and caloric

  7. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  8. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  9. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  10. Direct Current Combined With Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation: An Ex Vivo Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Penzkofer, Tobias; Isfort, Peter; Bruners, Philipp; Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Junker, Elmar; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with direct current (DC) is a promising strategy to improve the efficiency of RFA. However, DC-enhanced monopolar RFA is limited by electrolytic injury at the positive-electrode site. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the DC-enhanced bipolar RFA. To obviate the need for the subcutaneous positive electrode, the DC circuit was combined with a commercially available bipolar RFA system, in which both poles of the DC circuit are connected to a single RF probe. DC was applied for 15 min and followed by RFA in bovine livers using the following various DC currents: (1) no DC (control), (2) 3V continued until the end of RFA, (3) 5V continued until the end of RFA, (4) 10V continued until the end of RFA, (5) 5V continued in the circuit with reversed pole, (6) 3V stopped after initiation of RFA, and (7) 5V stopped. Coagulation volume, temperatures at a distance of 5, 10, and 15 mm from the RF probe, mean amperage, ablation duration, applied energy, minimum impedance, and degree of tissue charring were assessed and compared (analysis of variance, Student–Newman–Keuls test). All combined DC and RFA groups did increase coagulation volume. The 10V continued group showed significantly lower applied energy, shortest ablation duration, highest minimum impedance, and highest degree of charring with the lowest coagulation volume (p < 0.05). DC-enhanced bipolar RFA with both poles of the DC circuit on a single probe appears to be ineffective.

  11. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  12. Study of the inhomogeneity of critical current under in-situ tensile stress for YBCO tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. P.; Chen, W.; Zhang, H. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Pan, X. F.; Yang, X. S.; Zhao, Y.

    2018-07-01

    A Hall sensor system was used to measure the local critical current of YBCO tape with high spatial resolution under in-situ tensile stress. The hot spot generation and minimum quench energy of YBCO tape, which depended on the local critical current, was calculated through the thermoelectric coupling model. With the increase in tensile stress, the cracks which have different dimensions and critical current degradation arose more frequently and lowered the thermal stability of the YBCO tape.

  13. Numerical Study of the Cascading Energy Conversion of the Reconnecting Current Sheet in Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J.; Lin, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Shen, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a resistive magnetohydrodynamical study (2D) of the CME eruption based on the Lin & Forbes model (2000) regarding the cascading reconnection by a high-order Godunov scheme code, to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the internal structure of the current sheet (CS) and the high reconnection rate. The main improvements of this work include: 1) large enough spatial scale consistent with the stereo LASCO data that yields an observable current sheet 2) A realistic plasma environment (S&G, 1999) adopted rather than an isothermal atmosphere and higher resolution inside CS 3) The upper boundary condition set to be open. The simulation shows a typical acceleration below 2 R⊙, then its speed slightly fluctuated, and the flux rope velocity is estimated to be 100 km/s-250 km/s for a slow CME. The reconnection rates are around 0.02 estimated from inflow and outflow velocities. The dynamic features show a great consistence with the LASCO observations. Looking into the fine structure of CS, magnetic reconnection initializes with a Sweet-Parker stage, and undergoes the time-dependent Petschek/fractural patterns. While the CME continues climbing up, the outflow region becomes turbulent which enhances the reconnection rates furthermore. The local reconnection rates present a simple linear dependence with the length-width ratio of multiple small-scale CSs. The principal X-point is close to the Sun's surface during the entire eruption, causing the energy partition to be unequal. Energy conversion in the vicinity of the principal X-point has also been addressed by simply employing energy equations. And we demonstrate that the dominant energy transfer consists of a conversion of the incoming Poynting flux to enthalpy flux in the sunward direction and bulk kinetic energy in the CME direction. The spectrum of magnetic energy doesn't follow a simple power law after secondary islands appear, and the spectrum index varies from 1.5 to 2

  14. Cross-study and cross-omics comparisons of three nephrotoxic compounds reveal mechanistic insights and new candidate biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheis, Katja A.; Com, Emmanuelle; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Guerreiro, Nelson; Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans; Sposny, Alexandra; Hewitt, Philip; Amberg, Alexander; Boernsen, Olaf; Riefke, Bjoern; Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela; Kalkuhl, Arno; Suter, Laura; Dieterle, Frank; Staedtler, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The European InnoMed-PredTox project was a collaborative effort between 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 small and mid-sized enterprises, and 3 universities with the goal of delivering deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of kidney and liver toxicity and to identify mechanism-linked diagnostic or prognostic safety biomarker candidates by combining conventional toxicological parameters with 'omics' data. Mechanistic toxicity studies with 16 different compounds, 2 dose levels, and 3 time points were performed in male Crl: WI(Han) rats. Three of the 16 investigated compounds, BI-3 (FP007SE), Gentamicin (FP009SF), and IMM125 (FP013NO), induced kidney proximal tubule damage (PTD). In addition to histopathology and clinical chemistry, transcriptomics microarray and proteomics 2D-DIGE analysis were performed. Data from the three PTD studies were combined for a cross-study and cross-omics meta-analysis of the target organ. The mechanistic interpretation of kidney PTD-associated deregulated transcripts revealed, in addition to previously described kidney damage transcript biomarkers such as KIM-1, CLU and TIMP-1, a number of additional deregulated pathways congruent with histopathology observations on a single animal basis, including a specific effect on the complement system. The identification of new, more specific biomarker candidates for PTD was most successful when transcriptomics data were used. Combining transcriptomics data with proteomics data added extra value.

  15. Sustained attention in skilled and novice martial arts athletes: a study of event-related potentials and current sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Fernandez, Thalia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Research on sports has revealed that behavioral responses and event-related brain potentials (ERP) are better in expert than in novice athletes for sport-related tasks. Focused attention is essential for optimal athletic performance across different sports but mainly in combat disciplines. During combat, long periods of focused attention (i.e., sustained attention) are required for a good performance. Few investigations have reported effects of expertise on brain electrical activity and its neural generators during sport-unrelated attention tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of expertise (i.e., skilled and novice martial arts athletes) analyzing the ERP during a sustained attention task (Continuous Performance Task; CPT) and the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density, using the sLORETA technique. Methods. CPT consisted in an oddball-type paradigm presentation of five stimuli (different pointing arrows) where only one of them (an arrow pointing up right) required a motor response (i.e., target). CPT was administered to skilled and novice martial arts athletes while EEG were recorded. Amplitude ERP data from target and non-target stimuli were compared between groups. Subsequently, current source analysis for each ERP component was performed on each subject. sLORETA images were compared by condition and group using Statistical Non-Parametric Mapping analysis. Results. Skilled athletes showed significant amplitude differences between target and non-target conditions in early ERP components (P100 and P200) as opposed to the novice group; however, skilled athletes showed no significant effect of condition in N200 but novices did show a significant effect. Current source analysis showed greater differences in activations in skilled compared with novice athletes between conditions in the frontal (mainly in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus) and limbic (mainly in the Anterior Cingulate Gyrus) lobes

  16. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  17. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa-bolic risk factors. Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu-lar diseases.

  18. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  19. Pathology analysis for mesothelioma study in the United Kingdom: Current practice and historical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, B W

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the largest case-control study of malignant mesothelioma yet performed, investigators at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine assessed 1732 male and 670 female cases as of May 2013. Epidemiological findings of a subset of these were published previously, excluding patients who died or who refused to be interviewed. Pathology reports were collected for subjects, including those both eligible and ineligible for epidemiology study based on vital status. The current investigation examined 860 cases having pathology reports available. Sixty-one cases were diagnosed using cytology only, often with equivocal diagnoses, while 799 reported at least a biopsy of the tumor. Of these, 748 had pathology sufficiently detailed for evaluation. These reports were examined for basis of diagnosis, differences between study cases and ineligible cases, pathology characteristics, and immunohistochemical and other tests used. The most prominent subtype was epithelioid (64% of study cases but only 49% of ineligible cases). Biphasic subtype was present in 10% of study cases and 16% of those ineligible. Sarcomatoid subtype was present in 7% of study cases and 19% of ineligible cases, most of whom died. Twelve percent of study cases displayed no specified subtype, versus 7% of ineligible cases. Of recorded immunohistochemical stains specific for mesothelial cell origin, calretinin (95%) and CK 5/6 or CK5 alone (84%) were by far the most common. Calretinin and CK 5/6 or CK 5 alone were also most sensitive and positive in 92% of cases presenting with surgical pathology report. Ninety percent of cases had at least one immunohistochemical marker for possible lung carcinoma applied, with BER-Ep4 and TTF-1 the most frequent at 68% and CEA at 58%. TTF-1 and CEA were positive in 1% or less of cases. Patterns of use and positive and negative results for each of these as well as other immunohistochemical stains are presented and discussed, along with a brief historical

  20. Correlations and currents in 3He studied with the (e, e'pp) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groep, David Leo

    2000-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon correlations, especially those of short-range character, can be well studied with electron-induced two-nucleon knockout reactions at intermediate electron energies. However, these reactions are not only driven by one-body currents, i.e., coupling of the virtual photon to one of the nucleons of a correlated pair, a process that directly probes NN-correlations. Also two-body currents, resulting from intermediate Delta-excitation and coupling to exchanged mesons, as well as final state interactions, influence the experimental cross section. Exclusive measurements of the three-body breakup of 3He offer the opportunity to compare data to microscopic calculations. The relative importance of competing two-proton knockout mechanisms can be investigated by varying the energy and momentum of the virtual photon. The experiment was performed with the electron beam extracted from the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) at NIKHEF; the incident electron energy was 564 MeV. A cryogenic, high-pressure 3He gas target was used with a thickness of 270 mg/cm^2. Scattered electrons were detected in the QDQ magnetic spectrometer and both emitted protons in the HADRON plastic scintillator arrays. Cross sections were determined for three values of the three-momentum transfer of the virtual photon (q=305, 375, and 445 MeV/c) at an energy transfer value omega of 220 MeV. At q=375 MeV/c, measurements were performed over a continuous range in energy transfer from 170 to 290 MeV. The data are compared to results of continuum-Faddeev calculations performed by Golak et al., that account for rescattering among the emitted nucleons. Various potential models were used in the calculations: Bonn-B, CD-Bonn, Nijmegen-93 and Argonne v18 . Presentation of the data as a function of the missing or neutron momentum, pm, shows that the cross section decreases exponentially as a function of pm. Calculations performed with only a one-body hadronic current operator show fair agreement with data

  1. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation of the lumbar and sacral spinal cord: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sofia R.; Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; de Carvalho, Mamede; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Our aim was to perform a computational study of the electric field (E-field) generated by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied over the thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord, in order to assess possible neuromodulatory effects on spinal cord circuitry related with lower limb functions. Approach. A realistic volume conductor model of the human body consisting of 14 tissues was obtained from available databases. Rubber pad electrodes with a metallic connector and a conductive gel layer were modelled. The finite element (FE) method was used to calculate the E-field when a current of 2.5 mA was passed between two electrodes. The main characteristics of the E-field distributions in the spinal grey matter (spinal-GM) and spinal white matter (spinal-WM) were compared for seven montages, with the anode placed either over T10, T8 or L2 spinous processes (s.p.), and the cathode placed over right deltoid (rD), umbilicus (U) and right iliac crest (rIC) areas or T8 s.p. Anisotropic conductivity of spinal-WM and of a group of dorsal muscles near the vertebral column was considered. Main results. The average E-field magnitude was predicted to be above 0.15 V m-1 in spinal cord regions located between the electrodes. L2-T8 and T8-rIC montages resulted in the highest E-field magnitudes in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (>0.30 V m-1). E-field longitudinal component is 3 to 6 times higher than the ventral-dorsal and right-left components in both the spinal-GM and WM. Anatomical features such as CSF narrowing due to vertebrae bony edges or disks intrusions in the spinal canal correlate with local maxima positions. Significance. Computational modelling studies can provide detailed information regarding the electric field in the spinal cord during tsDCS. They are important to guide the design of clinical tsDCS protocols that optimize stimulation of application-specific spinal targets.

  2. Studies of low current back-discharge in point-plane geometry with dielectric layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworek, A.; Rajch, E.; Czech, T.; Lackowski, M

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results of spectroscopic investigations of back-discharge generated in the point-plane electrode geometry in air at atmospheric pressure, with the plane covered with fly ash layer. Four forms of the discharges were studied: onset streamers, glow, breakdown streamers and low-current back-arc discharge. Both polarities of the active discharge electrode, positive and negative, were tested. The back discharge is a type of DC electrical discharge, which take place when the passive plane electrode is covered with a dielectric layer. The layer can be made of solid material or a packed bed of dust or powder of low conductivity. The charge produced due to ionisation processes in the vicinity of the active point electrode is accumulated on the dielectric surface, and generates high electric field through this layer. When critical electric field through the layer is attained an electrical breakdown of the layer take place. The point of breakdown becomes a new source of ions of polarity opposite to those generated by the active electrode. The dielectric layer on the passive electrode causes that gaseous discharges such as breakdown streamers or arc start at lower voltages than they could in the case of normal corona discharge. The visual forms of the discharge were recorded and correlated with the current-voltage characteristics and optical emission spectra. Emission spectra of the discharge were measured in the light wavelength range of 200 to 600 nm to get information about excitation and ionisation processes. The light spectra were analysed by monochromator SPM-2 Karl-Zeiss-Jena with diffraction grating of 1302 grooves/mm and photomultiplier R375 (Hamamatsu) and signal preamplifier unit C7319 (Hamamatsu). The spectral analysis showed that the nitrogen molecular bands were dominant, but the emission of negative ions from the dielectric layer material were also detected. The most noticeable light emission in the range from 280 to 490 nm due to second

  3. Use DNA to learn from the past: how modern and ancient DNA studies may help reveal the past and predict the future distribution of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. E.; Alsos, I. G.; Sjögren, P.; Coissac, E.; Gielly, L.; Yoccoz, N.; Føreid, M. K.; Taberlet, P.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of how climate change affected species distribution in the past may help us predict the effect of ongoing environmental changes. We explore how the use of modern (AFLP fingerprinting techniques) and ancient DNA (metabarcoding P6 loop of chloroplast DNA) help to reveal past distribution of vascular plant species, dispersal processes, and effect of species traits. Based on studies of modern DNA combined with species distribution models, we show the dispersal routes and barriers to dispersal throughout the circumarctic/circumboreal region, likely dispersal vectors, the cost of dispersal in term of loss of genetic diversity, and how these relates to species traits, dispersal distance, and size of colonized region. We also estimate the expected future distribution and loss of genetic diversity and show how this relates to life form and adaptations to dispersal. To gain more knowledge on time lags in past range change events, we rely on palaeorecords. Current data on past distribution are limited by the taxonomic and time resolution of macrofossil and pollen records. We show how this may be improved by studying ancient DNA of lake sediments. DNA of lake sediments recorded about half of the flora surrounding the lake. Compared to macrofossil, the taxonomic resolution is similar but the detection rate is considerable improved. By taking into account main determinants of founder effect, dispersal vectors, and dispersal lags, we may improve our ability to forecast effects of climate change, whereas more studies on ancient DNA may provide us with knowledge on distribution time lags.

  4. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  5. A numerical study of the South China Sea Warm Current during winter monsoon relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Ding, Yang; Bao, Xianwen; Bi, Congcong; Li, Ruixiang; Zhang, Cunjie; Shen, Biao; Wan, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Using a Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model, we investigated the dynamic mechanism of the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) during winter monsoon relaxation. The model reproduces the mean surface circulation of the NSCS during winter, while model-simulated subtidal currents generally capture its current pattern. The model shows that the current over the continental shelf is generally southwestward, under a strong winter monsoon condition, but a northeastward counter-wind current usually develops between 50-and 100-m isobaths, when the monsoon relaxes. Model experiments, focusing on the wind relaxation process, show that sea level is elevated in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS), related to the persistent northeasterly monsoon. Following wind relaxation, a high sea level band builds up along the mid-shelf, and a northeastward current develops, having an obvious vertical barotropic structure. Momentum balance analysis indicates that an along-shelf pressure gradient provides the initial driving force for the SCSWC during the first few days following wind relaxation. The SCSWC subsequently reaches a steady quasi-geostrophic balance in the cross-shelf direction, mainly linked to sea level adjustment over the shelf. Lagrangian particle tracking experiments show that both the southwestward coastal current and slope current contribute to the northeastward movement of the SCSWC during winter monsoon relaxation.

  6. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies on ionic currents in nanopore-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Chu; Ma, Jian; Wu, Yingdong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2014-12-01

    Novel generation of analytical technology based on nanopores has provided possibilities to fabricate nanofluidic devices for low-cost DNA sequencing or rapid biosensing. In this paper, a simplified model was suggested to describe DNA molecule's translocation through a nanopore, and the internal potential, ion concentration, ionic flowing speed and ionic current in nanopores with different sizes were theoretically calculated and discussed on the basis of Poisson-Boltzmann equation, Navier-Stokes equation and Nernst-Planck equation by considering several important parameters, such as the applied voltage, the thickness and the electric potential distributions in nanopores. In this way, the basic ionic currents, the modulated ionic currents and the current drops induced by translocation were obtained, and the size effects of the nanopores were carefully compared and discussed based on the calculated results and experimental data, which indicated that nanopores with a size of 10 nm or so are more advantageous to achieve high quality ionic current signals in DNA sensing.

  8. Study on paralleled inverters with current-sharing coupled inductors on J-TEXT Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, J.; Rao, B., E-mail: borao@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, M.; Ma, S.X.; Liang, X.; Yu, K.X.; Pan, Y.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A modification scheme of heating field power supply system for plasma current modulation. • High-power fast control power supply with multilevel cascade circuit. • Restraining circulating current with coupled inductors in cyclic symmetric structure. • Analysis on the topology with current-sharing coupled inductors. - Abstract: The coupled inductors in paralleled inverters are applied to restrain the high frequency circulating current on J-TEXT Tokamak. Compared with individual inductor, this method has the benefit of high voltage utilization, less volume and weight of the inductor. In this paper, circuit topology of coupled inductors in cyclic symmetry structure for steady-state operation is analyzed and then the design of the inductor is introduced. The maximum circulating current is related to number of parallel branch, DC side voltage, self-inductance of the inductor and the frequency of carrier wave. The simulation and prototype experiment results verify the design.

  9. Study on possibility of plasma current profile determination using an analytical model of tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Hiraki, Naoji

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of determining the current profile of tokamak plasma from the external magnetic measurements alone is investigated using an analytical model of tokamak equilibrium. The model, which is based on an approximate solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation, can set a plasma current profile expressed with four free parameters of the total plasma current, the poloidal beta, the plasma internal inductance and the axial safety factor. The analysis done with this model indicates that, for a D-shaped plasma, the boundary poloidal magnetic field prescribing the external magnetic field distribution is dependent on the axial safety factor in spite of keeping the boundary safety factor and the plasma internal inductance constant. This suggests that the plasma current profile is reversely determined from the external magnetic analysis. The possibility and the limitation of current profile determination are discussed through this analytical result. (author)

  10. HIV-1 adaptation studies reveal a novel Env-mediated homeostasis mechanism for evading lethal hypermutation by APOBEC3G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumasa Ikeda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 replication normally requires Vif-mediated neutralization of APOBEC3 antiviral enzymes. Viruses lacking Vif succumb to deamination-dependent and -independent restriction processes. Here, HIV-1 adaptation studies were leveraged to ask whether viruses with an irreparable vif deletion could develop resistance to restrictive levels of APOBEC3G. Several resistant viruses were recovered with multiple amino acid substitutions in Env, and these changes alone are sufficient to protect Vif-null viruses from APOBEC3G-dependent restriction in T cell lines. Env adaptations cause decreased fusogenicity, which results in higher levels of Gag-Pol packaging. Increased concentrations of packaged Pol in turn enable faster virus DNA replication and protection from APOBEC3G-mediated hypermutation of viral replication intermediates. Taken together, these studies reveal that a moderate decrease in one essential viral activity, namely Env-mediated fusogenicity, enables the virus to change other activities, here, Gag-Pol packaging during particle production, and thereby escape restriction by the antiviral factor APOBEC3G. We propose a new paradigm in which alterations in viral homeostasis, through compensatory small changes, constitute a general mechanism used by HIV-1 and other viral pathogens to escape innate antiviral responses and other inhibitions including antiviral drugs.

  11. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  12. Study of Co-Current and Counter-Current Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through Packed Bed in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Shripad T.

    2002-11-01

    The main goal of the project is to obtain new experimental data and development of models on the co-current and counter-current gas-liquid two-phase flow through a packed bed in microgravity and characterize the flow regime transition, pressure drop, void and interfacial area distribution, and liquid hold up. Experimental data will be obtained for earth gravity and microgravity conditions. Models will be developed for the prediction of flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration, which are key parameters to characterize the packed bed performance. Thus the specific objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) Develop experiments for the study of the gas liquid two-phase flow through the packed bed with three different flow combinations: co-current down flow, co-current upflow and counter current flow. (2) Develop pore scale and bed scale two-phase instrumentation for measurement of flow regime transition, void distribution and gas-liquid interfacial area concentration in the packed bed. (3) Obtain database on flow regime transition, pressure drop, void distribution, interfacial area concentration and liquid hold up as a function of bed characteristics such as bed particle size, porosity, and liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension. (4) Develop mathematical model for flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration for co-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions.(4) Develop mathematical model for the flooding phenomena in counter-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions. The present proposal addresses the most important topic of HEDS-specific microgravity fluid physics research identified by NASA 's one of the strategic enterprises, OBPR Enterprise. The proposed project is well defined and makes efficient use of the ground-based parabolic flight research aircraft facility. The

  13. Spintronics with metals: Current perpendicular-to-the-plane magneto-transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    In this thesis, we present studies to produce new information about three topics: current perpendicular to the plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR), spin transfer torque (STT), and antiferromagnetic spintronics. Large values of CPP-MR interface parameters---specific interface resistance (Area times resistance), 2AR*, and scattering asymmetry, gamma---are desirable for the use of CPP-MR in devices. Stimulated by a nanopillar study by the Cornell Group, we first discovered that Py/Al had an unusually large 2AR*, but a small gamma. In the hope of finding metal pairs with large values of both the interface parameters, the Py/Al studies led us to study the following interfaces: (a) F/Al with F: Py (= Ni84Fe16). Co, Fe, Co91Fe9, and (b) F/N: Py/Pd, Fe/V, Fe/Nb and Co/Pt. None of the metal pairs looks better for CPP-MR devices. The Cornell group also found that bracketing Al with thin Cu in Py/Al/Py nanopillars, gave an MR similar to Py/Al/Py rather than to Py/Cu/Py. To try to understand this result, we studied the effect of Cu/Al/Cu spacers on ADeltaR = AR(AP) - AR(P) of Py exchange biased spin valves (EBSVs). Here AR(AP) and AR(P) are the specific resistances in the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) configurations of the F layers. Intriguingly, fixing the Al thickness tAl = 10 nm and varying tCu has no effect on ADeltaR, but fixing tCu = 10 nm and varying t Al significantly affected ADeltaR. These unusual behaviors are probably due to strong Al and Cu intermixing, with probable formation of some fraction of ordered alloys. Recent calculations predicted that 2AR of Al/Ag interfaces would vary substantially with orientation and with alloying. The latter is a special potential problem, because Al and Ag interdiffuse at room temperature. To compare with the calculations, we determined 2AR of sputtered Al/Ag interfaces with (111) orientation. Our estimate agrees with calculations that assume 4 monolayers of interfacial disorder, consistent with modest intermixing. To aid in

  14. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection....

  15. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eUlm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

  16. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John Fp; Gallego, Gisselle; Blauvelt, Barri M

    2011-07-28

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary), de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1) Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2) Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3) Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  17. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Gunnison Basin: A Geographical Study of Current Versus Historical Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.; Townsend, A.; Alexander, K.

    2005-05-01

    We compared the stonefly diversity sampled from 11 selected sites in the Gunnison River Basin over the last three years to the stonefly diversity recorded by Knight (1965) from the same or nearby sites. The 11 sites in this study were chosen from the 22 sites reported by Knight (1965) because they represented mainstem Gunnison River sites that would be predicted to experience the most alteration due to anthropogenic changes such as the construction of impoundments, differences in land use patterns, and effects from the increase in human population of the region. We have been unable to locate ten of the stonefly species that were historically found and we presume that they have gone locally extinct or have become increasingly rare. We have also found six species present today that were not historically reported from Knight (1965). Maps showing current and historical stonefly diversity and distribution have been produced using ArcGIS and analyzed with relevant geographical data to form hypotheses to account for specific changes in the stonefly fauna of the basin.

  18. Private Finance Initiative (PFI for Road Projects in UK: Current Practice with a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Akbiyikli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainable provision of new and high quality maintained road stock is vitally important, especially in times of economic constraint such as Europe is currently experiencing. The Private Finance Initiative (PFI is one method of financing such large-scale, capital intensive projects. An important aspect of this form of financing projects is that the risks are borne not only by the sponsors but are shared by different types of investors such as equity holders, debt providers, and quasi-equity investors. Consequently, a comprehensive and heuristic risk management process is essential for the success of the project. The proposition made within this paper is that the PFI mechanism provides a Value-for-Money and effective mechanism to achieve this. The structure of this PFI finance and investment on a particular road project therefore enables all project stakeholders to take a long-term perspective. This long-term perspective is reflected in the mechanism of a case study of UK – Class A trunk roads which are examined in detail. This paper presents a novel solution to a modern dilemma.

  19. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  20. A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, K.; Fell, C. J.; Zhou, X.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects

  1. A characterization of the current communication patterns in Danish community pharmacies - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Mygind, Anna; Saleem, Sahdia

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacies have been trying to expand their core function by counseling customers at the counter. This has been challenging given that customers' interest in receiving counseling may be limited. To characterize the current pharmacist-customer communication patterns to inform future studies and models of communication. Non-participant structured observations based on the works of Stevenson et al. were conducted. A random selection of one hundred encounters in five pharmacies in Denmark was obtained. Type of encounter, type of medicine purchased and the age and gender of the customer were observed, and associations between the parameters identified. Customers initiated 13% of the dialogs, whereas 60% were initiated by the staff (with 38% of the customers declining the offer). 26% of the encounters saw no communication about the medicine. The customers' level of interest in counseling varied significantly and more with the type of medicine purchased than the level of encouragement from the staff to initiate a dialog. The customers' interest in dialog, in contrast with the staff behavior, depended significantly on age and gender. Customers' interest in counseling varies significantly. Pharmacy staff should take this into consideration when trying to optimize communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design Studies for a High Current Bunching System for CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Thiery, Y.; Le Duff, J.

    2000-01-01

    A bunching system is proposed for the initial stage of CTF3 which consists of one (two) 3 GHz prebunchers and one 3 GHz travelling wave (TW) buncher with variable phase velocities. The electron beam is emitted from a 140 KV DC gun. Since the macropulse beam current (3.5 A) at the exit of the TW buncher is rather high, inside the TW buncher one has to take the beam loading effect into consideration. By using PARMELA, it is shown numerically that the bunching system can provide the bunches whose properties satisfy the design requirement of CTF3. The 0.8 m long TW buncher working at 2pi/3 mode has two phase velocities, 0.75 and 1. The dimensions of the caities in the two phase velocity regions are proposed considering the beam loading effect. The transient beam loading effect and the multibunch transverse instabilities are studied numerically, and it is concluded that higher order mode couplers should be installed in the TW buncher with the loaded quality factor of the dipole mode lower than 80.

  3. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: data from the Rijnmond Collective Cardiology Research (CCR) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetgin, T; van der Linden, M M J M; de Vries, A G; Smits, P C; van Mechelen, R; Yap, S C; Boersma, E; Zijlstra, F; van Geuns, R-J M

    2014-01-01

    Medical discharge management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains suboptimal outside randomised trials and constitutes an essential quality benchmark for ACS. We sought to evaluate the rates of key guideline-recommended pharmacological agents after ACS and characteristics associated with optimal treatment at discharge. The Rijnmond Collective Cardiology Research (CCR) registry is an ongoing prospective, observational study in the Netherlands that aims to enrol 4000 patients with ACS. We examined discharge and 1-month follow-up medication use among the first 1000 patients enrolled in the CCR registry. Logistic regression was performed to identify patient and hospital characteristics associated with collective guideline-recommended pharmacotherapy at hospital discharge. At discharge, 94 % of patients received aspirin, 100 % thienopyridines, 80 % angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers, 87 % β-blockers, 96 % statins, and 65 % the combination of all 5 agents. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and enrolment in an interventional centre were positive independent predictors of 5-drug combination therapy at discharge. Negative independent predictors were unstable angina and advanced age. Current data from the CCR registry reflect a high quality of care for ACS discharge management in the Rotterdam-Rijnmond region. However, potential still remains for further optimisation.

  4. Homogeneous Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John

    2011-09-01

    We now know of over 500 planets orbiting stars other than our Sun. The jewels in the crown are the transiting planets, for these are the only ones whose masses and radii are measurable. They are fundamental for our understanding of the formation, evolution, structure and atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets. However, their characterization is not straightforward, requiring extremely high-precision photometry and spectroscopy as well as input from theoretical stellar models. I summarize the motivation and current status of a project to measure the physical properties of all known transiting planetary systems using homogeneous techniques (Southworth 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 in preparation). Careful attention is paid to the treatment of limb darkening, contaminating light, correlated noise, numerical integration, orbital eccentricity and orientation, systematic errors from theoretical stellar models, and empirical constraints. Complete error budgets are calculated for each system and can be used to determine which type of observation would be most useful for improving the parameter measurements. Known correlations between the orbital periods, masses, surface gravities, and equilibrium temperatures of transiting planets can be explored more safely due to the homogeneity of the properties. I give a sneak preview of Homogeneous Studies Paper 4, which includes the properties of thirty transiting planetary systems observed by the CoRoT, Kepler and Deep Impact space missions. Future opportunities are discussed, plus remaining problems with our understanding of transiting planets. I acknowledge funding from the UK STFC in the form of an Advanced Fellowship.

  5. Current Trends in the Studies of Allelochemicals for Their Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen V.Viter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The allelochemicals have been largely used in agriculture, forestry, landscape design and ornamental plant growing for many decades. However, there is a lack of the comprehensive studies, where existing publications are analyzed and synthesized with regards to the theoretic aspects for such usage. The objective of this paper was to systemize the advances in the research on allelochemicals’ application in practice. Numerous novel methodological propositions have risen recently. We classified them into the physical, chemical, biological, biotechnological and cropgrowing approaches. The allelochemicals consist of the wide diversity of the substances according to their chemical nature. Among these substances we outlined, firstly, the unidentified plant exudates and the products of green manuring, secondly, the chemically characterized or purified substances, which include alcohols, organic acids, aliphatic compounds, aromatic, alicyclic and nitrogen-contain organic compounds. Several groups of the biotic sources of allelochemicals were described: dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, particularly under their colonization by non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum, marine flora and fungi, which exhibit the herbicidal activity. Different targets of the allelochemical application were listed in the paper and they were categorized into several groups: higher flora, animals, unicellular and multi-cellular fungi. We concluded that there is lack of the modern multifaceted knowledge bases for the information about the allelochemical application. Those knowledge bases must be useful in order to choose the appropriate biological method for solving each particular problem of plant cultivation. To that end we systemized the results of current investigation about the usage of allelochemicals in practice.

  6. A Study on the Current Status and Prospects of Development of the Tourism Services Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk Mariia V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the world trends in the developmet of services market, and it has been determined that the service sector is about 70% of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP. It has been noted that the tourism sector is one of the largest in the world economy, and its market in terms of investment efficiency is among the highly profitable markets along with the gas and oil producing, industrial, and automotive markets. The tourism market in Ukraine is only about 2% of the country’s GDP, but has great potential for innovation development and tourism perspectives. Such a situation requires constant monitoring and analyzing, which makes the selected study relevant. The purpose of the article was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current status of the market for tourism services in Ukraine and to determine the main tendencies in its further development. It has been found that the tourism industry sector in Ukraine is formed by three components: outbound (international, internal, and inbound (foreign tourism, the quantitative increase of which will increase the efficiency of the country’s tourism potential and reinforce its positive image abroad.

  7. Simulation models: a current indispensable tool in studies of the continuous water-soil-plant - atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Gonzalez, Felicita; Cid, G.; Osorio, Maria de los A.; Ruiz, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This work assesses the current use of simulation models as a tool useful and indispensable for the advancement in the research and study of the processes related to the continuous water-soil - plant-atmosphere. In recent years they have reported in the literature many jobs where these modeling tools are used as a support to the decision-making process of companies or organizations in the agricultural sphere and in Special for the design of optimal management of irrigation and fertilization strategies of the crops. Summarizes some of the latest applications reported with respect to the use of water transfers and solutes, such simulation models mainly to nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination problems. On the other hand also summarizes important applications of simulation models of growth of cultivation for the prediction of effects on the performance of different conditions of water stress, and finally some other applications on the management of the different irrigation technologies as kingpins, superfiail irrigation and drip irrigation. Refer also the main work carried out in Cuba. (author)

  8. [Current provision of cardiac rehabilitation intervention in the Lombardy Region, Italy: a benchmark study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Marco; Porazzi, Emanuele; Diaco, Tommaso; Febo, Oreste; Tramarin, Roberto; Malinverni, Claudio; Zaniboni, Daniela; Passera, Martina; Marchetti, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Benchmarking is a process of comparison between the performance characteristics of separate, often competing organizations, intended to enable each participant to improve its own performance in the marketplace. Benchmarking could be translated to the health system from the management field, in order to improve quality and health outcomes. This benchmarking study focused on structural and process aspects regarding the current delivery of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) interventions in the Lombardy Region. Data for analysis were derived from the ISYDE-2008 (Italian Survey on Cardiac Rehabilitation) project of the Italian Association for Cardiovascular Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Epidemiology. Thirty-eight CR units accepted to provide open information about types of supply of CR interventions, organization, location, number of active beds, personnel, duty services, expectancy days before admission, and complexity of patient populations. As a major finding, in-hospital programs actually represent the largest part of CR interventions delivered in the Lombardy Region, generally in well-defined cardiovascular departments, and patients are mostly referred in the short period after a major cardiovascular event. This model could help healthcare organizations to understand where they have strengths and weaknesses depending upon changes in supply, demand and market conditions.

  9. Experimental study of a high-current FEM with a broadband microwave system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.; Ginzburg, N.S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    One of the main features of FELs and FEMs is the possibility of fast and wideband tuning of the resonant frequency of active media, which can be provided by changing the particle energy. For a frequency adjustable FEM-oscillator, a broadband microwave system, which is simply combined with an electron-optical FEM system and consists of an oversized waveguide and reflectors based on the microwave beams multiplication effect has been proposed and studied successfully in {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} measurements. Here, the operating ability of a cavity, that includes some key elements of the broadband microwave system, was tested in the presence of an electron beam. To provide large particle oscillation velocities in a moderate undulator field and the presence of a guide magnetic field, the FEM operating regime of double resonance was chosen. In this regime the cyclotron as well as undulator resonance conditions were satisfied. The FEM-oscillator was investigated experimentally on a high-current accelerator {open_quotes}Sinus-6{close_quotes} that forms an electron beam with particle energy 500keV and pulse duration 25ns. The aperture with a diameter 2.5mm at the center of the anode allows to pass through only the central fraction of the electron beam with a current about 100A and a small spread of longitudinal velocities of the particles. Operating transverse velocity was pumped into the electron beam in the pulse plane undulator of a 2.4cm period. The cavity with a frequency near 45GHz consists of a square waveguide and two reflectors. The broadband up-stream reflector based on the multiplication effect had the power reflectivity coefficient more than 90% in the frequency band 10% for the H{sup 10} wave of the square waveguide with the maximum about 100% at a frequency 45GHz. The down-stream narrow-band Bragg reflector had the power reflection coefficient approximately 80% in the frequency band of 4% near 45GHz for the operating mode.

  10. Study on the low leakage current of an MIS structure fabricated by ICP-CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S-Y; Hon, M-H [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, 701 Taiwan (China); Lu, Y-M, E-mail: ymlumit@yahoo.com.tw

    2008-03-15

    As the dimensions of electric devices continue to shrink, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how to obtain good quality gate oxide film materials wilth higher carrier mobility, lower leakage current and greater reliability. All of them have become major concerns in the fabrication of thin film oxide transistors. A novel film deposition method called Inductively Coupled Plasma-Chemical Vapor Deposition (ICP-CVD) has received attraction in the semiconductor industry, because it can be capable of generating high density plasmas at extremely low temperature, resulting in less ion bombardment of the material surface. In this work, we present the results of crystallized silicon dioxide films deposited by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition technique at an extremely low temperature of 90 deg. C. The value of the refractive index of the crystallized ICP-CVD SiO{sub 2} film depends on the r.f. power of the ICP system, and approximates to be 1.46. This value is comparable to that of SiO{sub 2} films prepared by thermal oxidation. As the r.f. power of ICP applied more than 1250 Watts, still only the (111) diffraction peak is observed by XRD, which implies a very strong preferred orientation or single crystal structure. Too low or too high r.f. power both produces amorphous SiO{sub 2} films. From the I-V curve, the MIS device with a SiO{sub 2} dielectric film has a lower leakage current density of 6.8x10{sup -8}A/cm{sup 2} at 1V as the film prepared at 1750 watts. The highest breakdown field in this study is 15.8 MV/cm. From the FTIR analysis, it was found that more hydrogen atoms incorporate into films and form Si-OH bonds as the r.f. power increases. The existence of Si-OH bonds leads to a poor reliability of the MIS device.

  11. Preliminary Studies on Aerodynamic Control with Direct Current Discharge at Hypersonic Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasumasa; Takama, Yoshiki; Imamura, Osamu; Watanuki, Tadaharu; Suzuki, Kojiro

    A new idea of an aerodynamic control device for hypersonic vehicles using plasma discharges is presented. The effect of DC plasma discharge on a hypersonic flow is examined with both experiments and CFD analyses. It is revealed that the surface pressure upstream of plasma area significantly increases, which would be preferable in realizing a new aerodynamic control devices. Such pressure rise is also observed in the result of analyses of the Navier-Stokes equations with energy addition that simulates the Joule heating of a plasma discharge. It is revealed that the pressure rise due to the existence of the plasma discharge can be qualitatively explained as an effect of Joule heating.

  12. Current status and perceived needs of information technology in Critical Access Hospitals: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demiris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The US Congress established the designation of Critical Access Hospitals in 1997, recognising rural hospitals as vital links to health for rural and underserved populations. The intent of the reimbursement system is to improve financial performance, thereby reducing hospital closures. Informatics applications are thought to be tools that can enable the sustainability of such facilities. The aim of this study is to identify the current use of information and communication technology in Critical Access Hospitals, and to assess their readiness and receptiveness for the use of new software and hardware applications and their perceived information technology (IT needs. A survey was mailed to the administrators of all Critical Access Hospitals in one US state (Missouri and a reminder was mailed a few weeks later. Twenty-seven out of 33 surveys were filled out and returned (response rate 82%. While most respondents (66.7% stated that their employees have been somewhat comfortable in using new technology, almost 15% stated that their employees have been somewhat uncomfortable. Similarly, almost 12% of the respondents stated that they themselves felt somewhat uncomfortable introducing new technology. While all facilities have computers, only half of them have a specific IT plan. Findings indicate that Critical Access Hospitals are often struggling with lack of resources and specific applications that address their needs. However, it is widely recognised that IT plays an essential role in the sustainability of their organisations. The study demonstrates that IT applications have to be customised to address the needs and infrastructure of the rural settings in order to be accepted and properly utilised.

  13. Current level of training, experience and perceptions of emergency physicians as expert witnesses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Nicola Y; Weiland, Tracey J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine emergency physicians' training, experience and perceptions as expert witnesses. Emergency physicians of an adult tertiary referral and teaching hospital participated in a pilot survey regarding their experiences in report writing and in court as expert witnesses. The 28-item survey also examined the amount of formalized forensic medical teaching that emergency physicians had received during their training. Of the participants, 41% (95% CI 21.6-64.1; 7/17) had never received any undergraduate or postgraduate training in forensic medicine, 11/17 (65%, 95% CI 41.2-82.8) had provided a written expert opinion for court, and 12/17 (71%, 95% CI 46.6-87.0) had attended court as an expert witness. All participants considered themselves 'skilled in attending an emergency resuscitation', whereas 3/13 (23%, 95% CI 7.5-50.9) considered themselves 'skilled in attending a courtroom trial'. Nearly 90% (95% CI 64.7-98.0; 15/17) thought that medical evidence training should be a requirement of emergency speciality training. The most commonly preferred forms of medical evidence training were mock court sessions (76%, 95% CI 52.2-91.0; 13/17) and forensic workshops (76%, 95% CI 52.2-91.0; 13/17). From 10 non-technical skills required of an EP, 'appearing in court as an expert witness' was perceived to be the second most difficult skill by most respondents. Emergency physicians in this pilot study have limited training for the role of expert witness and see it as one of the most difficult non-technical skills they have to perform. Further research is required regarding the current and future scope of forensic training.

  14. A study of direct-current surface discharge plasma for a Mach 3 supersonic flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jichul

    A direct-current, non-equilibrium surface glow discharge plasma in the presence of a Mach 2.85 flow is studied experimentally for flow control applications. The discharge is generated with pin-like electrodes flush mounted on a ceramic plate with sustaining currents from 25 mA to 300 mA. In the presence of a supersonic flow, two distinct discharge modes - diffuse and constricted - are observed depending on the flow and discharge operating conditions. In cathode upstream location, both diffuse and constricted discharges are observed while in cathode downstream location, the discharge mostly exhibits either constricted mode or bistable mixed mode. The effect of the discharge on the flow ("plasma actuation'') is characterized by the appearance of a weak shock wave in the vicinity of the discharge. The shock is observed at low powers (˜10 W) for the diffuse discharge mode but is absent for the higher power (˜100 W) constricted mode. High speed laser schlieren imaging suggests that the diffuse mode plasma actuation is rapid as it occurs on a time scale that is less than 100 microsec. Rotational (gas) and vibrational temperatures within the discharge are estimated by emission spectral line fits of N 2 and N+2 rovibronic bands near 365-395 nm. The electronic temperatures are estimated by using the Boltzmann plot method for Fe(I) atomic lines. Rotational temperatures are found to be high (˜1500 K) in the absence of a flow but drop sharply (˜500 K) in the presence of a supersonic flow for both the diffuse and constricted discharge modes. The vibrational and electronic temperatures are measured to be about 3000 K and 1.25 eV (14500 K), respectively, and these temperatures are the same with and without flow. The gas (rotational) temperature spatial profiles above the cathode surface are found to be similar for the diffuse and constricted modes indicating that dilatational effects due to gas heating are similar. However, complete absence of flow actuation for the

  15. Experimental study of the surface thermal signature of gravity currents: application to the assessment of lava flow effusion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

    2011-12-01

    During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flows advance and its velocity. As the spreading of lava flows is mainly controlled by its rheology and the eruptive mass flux, the key question is how to evaluate them during the eruption (rather than afterwards.) A relationship between the heat flux lost by the lava at its surface and the eruption rate is likely to exist, based on the first-order argument that higher eruption rates should correspond to larger power radiated by a lava flow. The semi-empirical formula developed by Harris and co-workers (e.g. Harris et al., Bull. Volc. 2007) is currently used to estimate lava flow rate from satellite surveys yielding the surface temperatures and area of the lava flow field. However, this approach is derived from a static thermal budget of the lava flow and does not explicitly model the time-evolution of the surface thermal signal. Here we propose laboratory experiments and theoretical studies of the cooling of a viscous axisymmetric gravity current fed at constant flux rate. We first consider the isoviscous case, for which the spreading is well-know. The experiments using silicon oil and the theoretical model both reveal the establishment of a steady surface thermal structure after a transient time. The steady state is a balance between surface cooling and heat advection in the flow. The radiated heat flux in the steady regime, a few days for a basaltic lava flow, depends mainly on the effusion rate rather than on the viscosity. In this regime, one thermal survey of the radiated power could provide a consistent estimate of the flow rate if the external cooling conditions (wind) are reasonably well constrained. We continue to investigate the relationship between the thermal radiated heat flux and the effusion rate by using in the experiments fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity (glucose syrup) or undergoing solidification while cooling (PEG wax). We observe a

  16. Detection and study of photo-generated spin currents in nonmagnetic semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish; Kityk, I.V.; Gray, E. MacA.

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal current in Si-doped gallium arsenide was spin-polarized using circularly polarized light. The spin current was detected by the extraordinary Hall effect. An enhancement of Hall conductivity with increasing moderately Si-doping was found, indicating that the introduction of dopants increases the electronic spin polarization. This finding may provide an opportunity for controlling and manipulating nonmagnetic semiconductors via electron spin for operating device applications. Band energy calculations using pseudopotentials confirm the influence of Si content and electron-phonon interaction on the behaviour of the spin current and hence on the spin-dependent Hall voltage

  17. Detection and study of photo-generated spin currents in nonmagnetic semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au; Kityk, I.V. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University Czestochowa, PL-42201 Czestochowa (Poland); Gray, E. MacA. [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2007-10-15

    The longitudinal current in Si-doped gallium arsenide was spin-polarized using circularly polarized light. The spin current was detected by the extraordinary Hall effect. An enhancement of Hall conductivity with increasing moderately Si-doping was found, indicating that the introduction of dopants increases the electronic spin polarization. This finding may provide an opportunity for controlling and manipulating nonmagnetic semiconductors via electron spin for operating device applications. Band energy calculations using pseudopotentials confirm the influence of Si content and electron-phonon interaction on the behaviour of the spin current and hence on the spin-dependent Hall voltage.

  18. One meson π0 final state study in neutral current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtet, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral pion production by weak neutral currents was observed in the CERN-GARGAMELLE neutrino experiment. The aim of the analysis was the measurement of the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections. The background due to neutron interactions was computed. A lower and an upper limit of the background was obtained. Bounds on the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) are given using these limits: 0.11 [fr

  19. A study of different types of current mirrors using polysilicon TFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, I; Nalpantidis, L; Kalenteridis, V; Siskos, S; Dimitriadis, C A; Hatzopoulos, A A

    2005-01-01

    Polysilicon thin-film technology has become of great interest due to the demand for large area electronic devices. Active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) and active matrix organic light emitting displays (AMOLEDs) are among the fields where polysilicon thin-film transistors (poly-Si TFTs) are most commonly used. Such devices, generally, require analog signal processing. This fact makes the performance of basic analog blocks, such as current mirrors implemented with poly-Si TFTs, crucial. This paper examines the performance of various current mirror designs through simulation. Finally, a novel design of a current mirror is proposed aimed to be used in low voltage applications

  20. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  1. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation, and Their Combination on Brain Oscillations in Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain: A Pilot Crossover Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Aurore; Russo, Cristina; Hurtado-Puerto, Aura Maria; Morales-Quezada, Jorge Leon; Deitos, Alícia; Petrozza, John Christopher; Freedman, Steven; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain (CVP) syndromes are persistently painful disorders with a remarkable lack of effective treatment options. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different neuromodulation techniques in patients with CVP on cortical activity, through electreocephalography (EEG) and on pain perception, through clinical tests. A pilot crossover randomized controlled study. Out-patient. Adults with CVP (>3 months). Participants received four interventions in a randomized order: (1) transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined, (2) tPCS alone, (3) tDCS alone, and (4) sham condition. Resting state quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) and pain assessments were performed before and after each intervention. Results were compared with a cohort of 47 healthy controls. We enrolled six patients with CVP for a total of 21 visits completed. Compared with healthy participants, patients with CVP showed altered cortical activity characterized by increased power in theta, alpha and beta bands, and a significant reduction in the alpha/beta ratio. Regarding tES, the combination of tDCS with tPCS had no effect on power in any of the bandwidths, nor brain regions. Comparing tPCS with tDCS alone, we found that tPCS induced higher increase in power within the theta and alpha bandwidths. This study confirms that patients with CVP present abnormal EEG-indexed cortical activity compared with healthy controls. Moreover, we showed that combining two types of neurostimulation techniques had no effect, whereas the two interventions, when applied individually, have different neural signatures.

  2. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation, and Their Combination on Brain Oscillations in Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain: A Pilot Crossover Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveChronic visceral pain (CVP syndromes are persistently painful disorders with a remarkable lack of effective treatment options. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different neuromodulation techniques in patients with CVP on cortical activity, through electreocephalography (EEG and on pain perception, through clinical tests.DesignA pilot crossover randomized controlled study.SettingsOut-patient.SubjectsAdults with CVP (>3 months.MethodsParticipants received four interventions in a randomized order: (1 transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS and active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS combined, (2 tPCS alone, (3 tDCS alone, and (4 sham condition. Resting state quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and pain assessments were performed before and after each intervention. Results were compared with a cohort of 47 healthy controls.ResultsWe enrolled six patients with CVP for a total of 21 visits completed. Compared with healthy participants, patients with CVP showed altered cortical activity characterized by increased power in theta, alpha and beta bands, and a significant reduction in the alpha/beta ratio. Regarding tES, the combination of tDCS with tPCS had no effect on power in any of the bandwidths, nor brain regions. Comparing tPCS with tDCS alone, we found that tPCS induced higher increase in power within the theta and alpha bandwidths.ConclusionThis study confirms that patients with CVP present abnormal EEG-indexed cortical activity compared with healthy controls. Moreover, we showed that combining two types of neurostimulation techniques had no effect, whereas the two interventions, when applied individually, have different neural signatures.

  3. Molecular modelling studies of kdr mutations in voltage gated sodium channel revealed significant conformational variations contributing to insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Gopal, Jeyakodi; Kasinathan, Gunasekaran; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2018-06-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) of mosquito vectors are the primary targets of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other synthetic pyrethroids used in public health programmes. The knockdown resistant (kdr) mutations in VGSC are associated with the insecticide resistance especially in Anophelines. The present study is aimed to emphasize and demarcate the impact of three kdr-mutations such as L1014S, L1014F and L1014H on insecticide resistance. The membrane model of sodium transport domain of VGSC (STD-VGSC) was constructed using de novo approach based on domain and trans-membrane predictions. The comparative molecular modelling studies of wild type and mutant models of STD-VGSC revealed that L1014F mutant was observed to be near native to the wild type model in all the respects, but, L1014S and L1014H mutations showed drastic variations in the energy levels, root mean square fluctuations (RMSF) that resulted in conformational variations. The predicted binding sites also showed variable cavity volumes and RMSF in L1014S and L1014H mutants. Further, DDT also found be bound in near native manner to wild type in L1014F mutant and with variable orientation and affinities in L1014S and L1014H mutants. The variations and fluctuations observed in mutant structures explained that each mutation has its specific impact on the conformation of VGSC and its binding with DDT. The study provides new insights into the structure-function-correlations of mutant STD-VGSC structures and demonstrates the role and effects of kdr mutations on insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors.

  4. Inhibition of thrombin by functionalized C60 nanoparticles revealed via in vitro assays and in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Fu, Jianjie; Pan, Wenxiao; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Xian; Zhang, Aiqian

    2018-01-01

    The studies on the human toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) are far behind the rapid development of engineered functionalized NPs. Fullerene has been widely used as drug carrier skeleton due to its reported low risk. However, different from other kinds of NPs, fullerene-based NPs (C 60 NPs) have been found to have an anticoagulation effect, although the potential target is still unknown. In the study, both experimental and computational methods were adopted to gain mechanistic insight into the modulation of thrombin activity by nine kinds of C 60 NPs with diverse surface chemistry properties. In vitro enzyme activity assays showed that all tested surface-modified C 60 NPs exhibited thrombin inhibition ability. Kinetic studies coupled with competitive testing using 3 known inhibitors indicated that six of the C 60 NPs, of greater hydrophobicity and hydrogen bond (HB) donor acidity or acceptor basicity, acted as competitive inhibitors of thrombin by directly interacting with the active site of thrombin. A simple quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship model relating the surface substituent properties to the inhibition potential was then established for the six competitive inhibitors. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the intermolecular HB interactions were important for the specific binding of C 60 NPs to the active site canyon, while the additional stability provided by the surface groups through van der Waals interaction also play a key role in the thrombin binding affinity of the NPs. Our results suggest that thrombin is a possible target of the surface-functionalized C 60 NPs relevant to their anticoagulation effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Measurement of current distribution in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with various flow arrangements – A parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaefour, Ibrahim; Karimi, G.; Jiao, Kui; Li, X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial local current distributions in a single PEMFC are measured. ► Effects of key operating conditions on the local current density are investigated. ► Increasing air and hydrogen stoichiometries improves local current density distributions. ► Operating pressure and temperature have negligible impact on local current distribution. - Abstract: Understanding of current distributions in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is crucial for designing cell components such as the flow field plates and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this study, the spatial current density distributions in a single PEMFC with three serpentine flow channels are measured using a segmented bipolar plate and printed circuit board technique. The effects of key operating conditions such as stoichiometry ratios, inlet humidity levels, cell pressure and temperature on the local current density distributions for co-, counter-, and cross-flow arrangements are examined. It is observed that the local current density distribution over the MEA is directly affected by the cell operating conditions along with the configuration of the flow arrangement. It is also found that among the different flow configurations tested under the various operating conditions, the counter flow arrangement provides the optimum average current density and the lowest variations in the local current densities along the flow channels.

  6. Comparative study on current limiting characteristics of flux-lock type SFCL with series or parallel connection of two coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the current limiting characteristics of the flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with series or parallel connection of two coils. These two flux-lock type SFCLs with magnetically coupled two coils have the same operational principle that the fault current can be limited by the magnetic flux generated between two coils of the SFCL when a fault happens. In addition, the inductance ratio and the winding direction of two coils in both the SFCLs are the major design parameters that affect the fault current limiting characteristics of the SFCL. On the other hand, the operational current and the limiting impedance of both the SFCLs under the same design condition have the different tendency, which results from the different winding methods of two coils on an iron core. Therefore, the comparative study for both the SFCLs from the current limiting performance of the SFCL point of view is needed. To compare the current limiting characteristics of both the SFCLs, the operational current and the limiting impedance of the SFCL, which describes the performance of the SFCL, were derived from each SFCL's electrical equivalent circuit. Through the analysis for the fault current limiting experiments of both the SFCLs, the different current limiting characteristics of both the SFCLs were discussed

  7. A study on DC hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter for a power distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Hongtian; Satoh, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Satoh, Takao; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of protecting electric power system, many researches and developments of fault current limiters are being performed. The authors studied a dc hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter (FCLI) composed of a superconducting reactor and an S/N transition element, connected in series each other. The dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter can limit a fault current by means of the inductance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil together with the normal transition of HTS bulk material (HTSB). In the case of an accident, the normal transition of the bulk material can be accelerated by the magnetic field of the HTS coil. In this paper, the dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter for 5.5 km long 6.6 kV-600 A power distribution system is analyzed, and performances of fault current limitation and interruption are confirmed. Moreover, a reclosing operation is discussed for this power distribution system

  8. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  9. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  10. A population study of killer viruses reveals different evolutionary histories of two closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Microbes have evolved ways of interference competition to gain advantage over their ecological competitors. The use of secreted killer toxins by yeast cells through acquiring double-stranded RNA viruses is one such prominent example. Although the killer behaviour has been well studied in laboratory yeast strains, our knowledge regarding how killer viruses are spread and maintained in nature and how yeast cells co-evolve with viruses remains limited. We investigated these issues using a panel of 81 yeast populations belonging to three Saccharomyces sensu stricto species isolated from diverse ecological niches and geographic locations. We found that killer strains are rare among all three species. In contrast, killer toxin resistance is widespread in Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces eubayanus populations. Genetic analyses revealed that toxin resistance in S. paradoxus is often caused by dominant alleles that have independently evolved in different populations. Molecular typing identified one M28 and two types of M1 killer viruses in those killer strains. We further showed that killer viruses of the same type could lead to distinct killer phenotypes under different host backgrounds, suggesting co-evolution between the viruses and hosts in different populations. Taken together, our data suggest that killer viruses vary in their evolutionary histories even within closely related yeast species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Rice Chlorophyll Content Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanxiu; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Hongkun; Yan, Ju; Meng, Xiangzhou; Li, Xinglei; Fu, Xiangkui; Xu, Jiuyue; Lian, Xingming; Yu, Sibin; Xing, Yongzhong; Wang, Gongwei

    2015-06-01

    Chlorophyll content is one of the most important physiological traits as it is closely related to leaf photosynthesis and crop yield potential. So far, few genes have been reported to be involved in natural variation of chlorophyll content in rice (Oryza sativa) and the extent of variations explored is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a diverse worldwide collection of 529 O. sativa accessions. A total of 46 significant association loci were identified. Three F2 mapping populations with parents selected from the association panel were tested for validation of GWAS signals. We clearly demonstrated that Grain number, plant height, and heading date7 (Ghd7) was a major locus for natural variation of chlorophyll content at the heading stage by combining evidence from near-isogenic lines and transgenic plants. The enhanced expression of Ghd7 decreased the chlorophyll content, mainly through down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and chloroplast. In addition, Narrow leaf1 (NAL1) corresponded to one significant association region repeatedly detected over two years. We revealed a high degree of polymorphism in the 5' UTR and four non-synonymous SNPs in the coding region of NAL1, and observed diverse effects of the major haplotypes. The loci or candidate genes identified would help to fine-tune and optimize the antenna size of canopies in rice breeding. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Azadirachtin(A) distinctively modulates subdomain 2 of actin - novel mechanism to induce depolymerization revealed by molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravin Kumar, R; Roopa, L; Sudheer Mohammed, M M; Kulkarni, Naveen

    2016-12-01

    Azadirachtin(A) (AZA), a potential insecticide from neem, binds to actin and induces depolymerization in Drosophila. AZA binds to the pocket same as that of Latrunculin A (LAT), but LAT inhibits actin polymerization by stiffening the actin structure and affects the ADP-ATP exchange. The mechanism by which AZA induces actin depolymerization is not clearly understood. Therefore, different computational experiments were conducted to delineate the precise mechanism of AZA-induced actin depolymerization. Molecular dynamics studies showed that AZA strongly interacted with subdomain 2 and destabilized the interactions between subdomain 2 of one actin and subdomains 1 and 4 of the adjacent actin, causing the separation of actin subunits. The separation was observed between subdomain 3 of subunit n and subdomain 4 of subunit n + 2. However, the specific triggering point for the separation of the subunits was the destabilization of direct interactions between subdomain 2 of subunit n (Arg39, Val45, Gly46 and Arg62) and subdomain 4 of subunit n + 2 (Asp286, Ile287, Asp288, Ile289, Asp244 and Lys291). These results reveal a unique mechanism of an actin filament modulator that induces depolymerization. This mechanism of AZA can be used to design similar molecules against mammalian actins for cancer therapy.

  13. Ultra-low input transcriptomics reveal the spore functional content and phylogenetic affiliations of poorly studied arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Denis; Chen, Eric C H; Mathieu, Stephanie; Yildirir, Gokalp; Ndikumana, Steve; Dalpé, Yolande; Séguin, Sylvie; Farinelli, Laurent; Stajich, Jason E; Corradi, Nicolas

    2017-12-02

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a group of soil microorganisms that establish symbioses with the vast majority of land plants. To date, generation of AMF coding information has been limited to model genera that grow well axenically; Rhizoglomus and Gigaspora. Meanwhile, data on the functional gene repertoire of most AMF families is non-existent. Here, we provide primary large-scale transcriptome data from eight poorly studied AMF species (Acaulospora morrowiae, Diversispora versiforme, Scutellospora calospora, Racocetra castanea, Paraglomus brasilianum, Ambispora leptoticha, Claroideoglomus claroideum and Funneliformis mosseae) using ultra-low input ribonucleic acid (RNA)-seq approaches. Our analyses reveals that quiescent spores of many AMF species harbour a diverse functional diversity and solidify known evolutionary relationships within the group. Our findings demonstrate that RNA-seq data obtained from low-input RNA are reliable in comparison to conventional RNA-seq experiments. Thus, our methodology can potentially be used to deepen our understanding of fungal microbial function and phylogeny using minute amounts of RNA material. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  14. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalková, Katarina; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Flórez, Martha G; Jami, Mohammad S; Paniagua, Miguel A; Martín, Juan F

    2012-01-10

    The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold) in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs), whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  16. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy L. García-Arias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII, fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO, and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST, in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF < 4%, to be used as parents in cape gooseberry breeding program. In addition, the accessions were also characterized using Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS. We discovered 27,982 and 36,142 informative SNP markers based on the alignment against the two cape gooseberry references transcriptomes. Besides, 30,344 SNPs were identified based on alignment to the tomato reference genome. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population could be divided into two or three sub-groups, corresponding to landraces-anther culture and wild accessions for K = 2 and wild, landraces, and anther culture plants for K = 3. Association analysis was carried out using a Mixed Linear Model (MLM and 34 SNP markers were significantly associated. These results reveal the basis of the genetic control of important agronomic traits and may facilitate marker-based breeding in P. peruviana.

  17. A one-loop study of matching conditions for static-light flavor currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Dirk [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Parma Univ. (Italy); Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2012-11-15

    Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) computations of semi-leptonic decays, e.g. B{yields}{pi}l{nu}, require the knowledge of the parameters in the effective theory for all components of the heavy-light flavor currents. So far non-perturbative matching conditions have been employed only for the time component of the axial current. Here we perform a check of matching conditions for the time component of the vector current and the spatial component of the axial vector current up to one-loop order of perturbation theory and to lowest order of the 1/m-expansion. We find that the proposed observables have small higher order terms in the 1/m-series and are thus excellent candidates for a non-perturbative matching procedure.

  18. Critical current studies on fine filamentary NbTi accelerator wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, M.; Sabatini, R.L.; Sampson, W.B.; Suenaga, M.

    1986-01-01

    The magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider, a high energy proton colliding beam accelerator, require a superconductor with very high current density (> 2400 A/mm 2 at 5 T) and very small filaments ( about 2μ m in diameter). Previous work has shown that by controling the formation of Cu 4 Ti compound particles on the filament surfaces it is possible to make fine filamentary NbTi wire with high critical current density. The performance of multi-filamentary wire is characterized by the current density and the quantity ''n'' which describes the superconducting-normal transition. Micrographs of wires having high J /SUB c/ and high n show smooth, uniform filaments. Recently wires of very high critical current and high n have been produced in experimental quantities by commercial manufacturers

  19. Study of pulse stretching in high current power supplies using multipulse techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendler, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Considerable interest exists at Fermilab to increase the pulse width of the Neutrino Focusing Horn to permit an increase in beam spill length from twenty (20) microseconds to one (1) millisecond. Two techniques to do this were examined: (1) a high current transformer, and (2) increased bank capacitance using the multi-power supply technique. The transformer is the most straightforward conceptually; it is, however, a complicated device requiring sizable changes to the existing horn power supply. This alternative is briefly reviewed. The second scheme involves pulsing a 20 kv 200 ka power supply to establish the required load current and then maintaining this current by the sequential pulsing of a number of low voltage high current power supplies. This alternative is discussed in detail with the results of tests performed on the Fermilab Focusing Horn System

  20. Critical current studies on fine filamentary NbTi accelerator wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, M.; Suenaga, M.; Sampson, W.B.; Sabatini, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The magnets for the Superconductig Super Collider, a high energy proton colliding beam accelerator, require a superconductor with very high current density (>2400 A/mm 2 at 5 T) and very small filaments (approx. 2μm in diameter). Previous work has shown that by controlling the formation of Cu 4 Ti compound particles on the filament surfaces it is possible to make fine filamentary NbTi wire with high critical current density. The performance of multi-filamentary wire is characterized by the current density and the quantity ''n'' which describes the superconducting-normal transition. Micrographs of wires having high J/sub c/ and high n show smooth, uniform filaments. Recently wires of very high critical current and high n have been produced in experimental quantities by commercial manufactures

  1. Estimating boundary currents from satellite altimetry: A case study for the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; Birol, F.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    A methodology to derive surface geostrophic current from a newly released altimetric sea-level data set is presented. TOPEX/Poseidon data were first completely reprocessed from Geophysical Data Records using new algorithms accommodating marginal...

  2. Study of ν+N→ν+N+π and isospin analysis of the hadronic neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longuemare, C.

    1978-04-01

    Experimental results are presented on neutrino induced single pion production in the bubble chamber Gargamelle filled with a light propane-freon mixture and exposed to the CERN PS neutrino beam. After corrections for reinteractions in the target nuclei, the neutrino neutral current cross section and the branching ratios are determined. The isospin structure of the hadronic neutral current is analysed. The conclusions are compatible with the Weinberg-Salam theory for weak and electromagnetic interactions. The isoscalar component of the neutral current is observed at the level of two standard deviations. The charged to neutral current ratio may be intepreted with the one pion production model of Adler in the framework of the above theory [fr

  3. Study of eddy current power loss from outer-winding coils of a magnetic position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-P.; Lin, T.-K.; Chang, Y.-H.; Yu, C.-S.; Wu, K.-T.; Wang, S.-J.; Ying, T.-F.; Huang, D.-R.

    2000-01-01

    The present analysis is concerned with eddy current power loss of a magnetic position sensor, which arises from a non-uniform flux linkage distribution between magnetic material and position sensor. In the paper, a magnetic position sensor system is simplified to be an outer-winding coil along the axial direction of a low carbon steel bar, and developed a numerical model to compute the electrical characteristics by an excited current source. According to the simulated and measured data in this proposed model from 2.52 to 11.37 Oes, eddy current power losses of conducting material have a variation of 6.1% and 9.77%, respectively. Finally, the phases of waveform of the induced output voltage will also be obtained in the conducting material, and have a variation of 3.68% obtained by using the current source in the proposed model

  4. Study of eddy current power loss from outer-winding coils of a magnetic position sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C P; Chang, Y H; Yu, C S; Wu, K T; Wang, S J; Ying, T F; Huang, D R

    2000-01-01

    The present analysis is concerned with eddy current power loss of a magnetic position sensor, which arises from a non-uniform flux linkage distribution between magnetic material and position sensor. In the paper, a magnetic position sensor system is simplified to be an outer-winding coil along the axial direction of a low carbon steel bar, and developed a numerical model to compute the electrical characteristics by an excited current source. According to the simulated and measured data in this proposed model from 2.52 to 11.37 Oes, eddy current power losses of conducting material have a variation of 6.1% and 9.77%, respectively. Finally, the phases of waveform of the induced output voltage will also be obtained in the conducting material, and have a variation of 3.68% obtained by using the current source in the proposed model.

  5. A study on cross-talk nerve stimulation: electrode placement and current leakage lid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Julémont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk phenomena should be avoided when stimulating nerves. One option to limit the current spread is to use tripolar electrodes, but at the cost of increasing the number of wires connection. This should be avoided since cables must be thin and compliant. We investigated the impact of the central electrode position and of current spread due to a gap between book and lid on cross-talk, in a set of tripolar or quasi-tripolar configurations.

  6. A renormalization group study of persistent current in a quasiperiodic ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Paramita [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata-700 108 (India); Karmakar, S.N. [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2014-04-01

    We propose a real-space renormalization group approach for evaluating persistent current in a multi-channel quasiperiodic Fibonacci tight-binding ring based on a Green's function formalism. Unlike the traditional methods, the present scheme provides a powerful tool for the theoretical description of persistent current with a very high degree of accuracy in large periodic and quasiperiodic rings, even in the micron scale range, which emphasizes the merit of this work.

  7. A statistical study of current-sheet formation above solar active regions based on selforganized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M.; Anastasiadis, A.; Toutountzi, A.

    2013-09-01

    We treat flaring solar active regions as physical systems having reached the self-organized critical state. Their evolving magnetic configurations in the low corona may satisfy an instability criterion, related to the excession of a specific threshold in the curl of the magnetic field. This imposed instability criterion implies an almost zero resistivity everywhere in the solar corona, except in regions where magnetic-field discontinuities and. hence, local currents, reach the critical value. In these areas, current-driven instabilities enhance the resistivity by many orders of magnitude forming structures which efficiently accelerate charged particles. Simulating the formation of such structures (thought of as current sheets) via a refined SOC cellular-automaton model provides interesting information regarding their statistical properties. It is shown that the current density in such unstable regions follows power-law scaling. Furthermore, the size distribution of the produced current sheets is best fitted by power laws, whereas their formation probability is investigated against the photospheric magnetic configuration (e.g. Polarity Inversion Lines, Plage). The average fractal dimension of the produced current sheets is deduced depending on the selected critical threshold. The above-mentioned statistical description of intermittent electric field structures can be used by collisional relativistic test particle simulations, aiming to interpret particle acceleration in flaring active regions and in strongly turbulent media in astrophysical plasmas. The above work is supported by the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) via the THALIS Programme.

  8. A randomized, double-blind, phase III study comparing two doses of erlotinib for second-line treatment of current smokers with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (CurrentS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Egbert F; Wu, Yi-Long; Gervais, Radj; Zhou, Caicun; Felip, Enriqueta; Feng, Jifeng; Guclu, Salih Zeki; Hoiczyk, Mathias; Dorokhova, Elena; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Grange, Susan; Perez-Moreno, Pablo Diego; Mitchell, Lada; Reck, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Active smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have increased erlotinib metabolism versus non-smoking patients, which reduces exposure. Therefore, an increased erlotinib dose may be beneficial. The CurrentS study (NCT01183858) assessed efficacy and safety of 300mg erlotinib (E300) as second-line therapy in current smokers with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC versus the standard 150mg dose (E150). Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC (current smokers who failed first-line platinum-based chemotherapy) were randomized to receive E150 or E300 until progression/death/unacceptable toxicity. progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints: overall survival (OS), disease control rate and safety. A total of 342 patients were screened; the intent-to-treat population comprised 159 E300 patients and 154 E150 patients. Median PFS was 7.0 versus 6.9 weeks with E300 versus E150, respectively (unstratified hazard ratio [HR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.33; unstratified log-rank P=0.671). Median OS was 6.8 months in both arms (unstratified HR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.80-1.32; unstratified log-rank P=0.846). Overall, 89.2% (E300 arm) and 84.4% (E150 arm) experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE) of any grade (44.3% and 37%, respectively, experienced grade ≥3 AEs); AEs of special interest were reported in 67.7% and 47.4% of patients, respectively. E300 resulted in higher mean plasma concentrations versus E150, however, this did not improve efficacy. Despite the difference in erlotinib exposure, there was no evidence of an incremental efficacy benefit of a higher erlotinib dose versus the standard dose in this population of highly active smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, C.M.; Cools, B.M.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Postma, C.T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. METHODS: A

  10. Current practices in treatment of female genital fistula: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruminjo Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal outcomes in most countries of the developed world are good. However, in many developing/resource-poor countries, maternal outcomes are bleaker: Every year, more than 500,000 women die in childbirth, mostly in resource-poor countries. Those who survive often suffer from severe and long-term morbidities. One of the most devastating injuries is obstetric fistula, occurring most often in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Fistula treatment and care are available in many countries across Africa and Asia, but there is a lack of reliable data around clinical factors associated with the success of fistula repair surgery. Most published research has been retrospective. While these studies have provided useful information about the care and treatment of fistula, they are limited by the design. This study was designed to identify practices in care that could lead to the design of prospective and randomized controlled trials. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 surgeons known to provide fistula treatment services in Africa and Asia at private and government hospitals. The questionnaire was divided into three parts to address the following issues: prophylactic use of antibiotics before, during, and after fistula surgery; urethral catheter management; and management practices for patients with urinary incontinence following fistula repair. Results The results provide a glimpse into current practices in fistula treatment and care across a wide swath of geographic, economic, and organizational considerations. There is consensus in treatment in some areas (routine use of prophylactic antibiotics, limited bed rest until the catheter is removed, nonsurgical treatment for postsurgical incontinence, while there are wide variations in practice in other areas (duration of catheter use, surgical treatments for postsurgical incontinence. These findings are based on a small sample and do not allow for recommending

  11. Current practices in treatment of female genital fistula: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, Steven D; Ruminjo, Joseph; Landry, Evelyn G

    2010-11-10

    Maternal outcomes in most countries of the developed world are good. However, in many developing/resource-poor countries, maternal outcomes are bleaker: Every year, more than 500,000 women die in childbirth, mostly in resource-poor countries. Those who survive often suffer from severe and long-term morbidities. One of the most devastating injuries is obstetric fistula, occurring most often in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Fistula treatment and care are available in many countries across Africa and Asia, but there is a lack of reliable data around clinical factors associated with the success of fistula repair surgery. Most published research has been retrospective. While these studies have provided useful information about the care and treatment of fistula, they are limited by the design. This study was designed to identify practices in care that could lead to the design of prospective and randomized controlled trials. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 surgeons known to provide fistula treatment services in Africa and Asia at private and government hospitals. The questionnaire was divided into three parts to address the following issues: prophylactic use of antibiotics before, during, and after fistula surgery; urethral catheter management; and management practices for patients with urinary incontinence following fistula repair. The results provide a glimpse into current practices in fistula treatment and care across a wide swath of geographic, economic, and organizational considerations. There is consensus in treatment in some areas (routine use of prophylactic antibiotics, limited bed rest until the catheter is removed, nonsurgical treatment for postsurgical incontinence), while there are wide variations in practice in other areas (duration of catheter use, surgical treatments for postsurgical incontinence). These findings are based on a small sample and do not allow for recommending changes in clinical care, but they point to issues for

  12. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges John FP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. Objective To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary, de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Results Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1 Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2 Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3 Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. Conclusion This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  13. Transvertebral direct current stimulation paired with locomotor training in chronic spinal cord injury: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elizabeth Salmon; Carrico, Cheryl; Raithatha, Ravi; Salyers, Emily; Ward, Andrea; Sawaki, Lumy

    2016-01-01

    This double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover case study combined transvertebral direct current stimulation (tvDCS) and locomotor training on a robot-assisted gait orthosis (LT-RGO). Determine whether cathodal tvDCS paired with LT-RGO leads to greater changes in function and neuroplasticity than sham tvDCS paired with LT-RGO. University of Kentucky (UK) HealthCare Stroke and Spinal Cord Neurorehabilitation Research at HealthSouth Cardinal Hill Hospital. A single subject with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in 24 sessions of sham tvDCS paired with LT-RGO before crossover to 24 sessions of cathodal tvDCS paired with LT-RGO. Functional outcomes were measured with 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Spinal Cord Independence Measure-III (SCIM-III) mobility component, lower extremity manual muscle test (MMT), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Corticospinal changes were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Improvement in 10MWT speed, SCIM-III mobility component, and BBS occurred with both conditions. 6MWT worsened after sham tvDCS and improved after cathodal tvDCS. MMT scores for both lower extremities improved following sham tvDCS but decreased following cathodal tvDCS. Corticospinal excitability increased following cathodal tvDCS but not sham tvDCS. These results suggest that combining cathodal tvDCS and LT-RGO may improve functional outcomes, increase corticospinal excitability, and possibly decrease spasticity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these conclusions. This publication was supported by the National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through Grant UL1TR000117, and the HealthSouth Cardinal Hill Stroke and Spinal Cord Endowment (1215375670).

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation to lessen neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a mechanistic PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Hye-Ri; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Youngjo; Shin, Hyung Ik

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can produce lasting changes in corticospinal excitability and can potentially be used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS are unknown. We investigated the underlying neural mechanisms of tDCS for chronic pain relief using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET). Sixteen patients with neuropathic pain (mean age 44.1 ± 8.6 years, 4 females) due to traumatic spinal cord injury received sham or active anodal stimulation of the motor cortex using tDCS for 10 days (20 minutes, 2 mA, twice a day). The effect of tDCS on regional cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated by [(18)F]FDG-PET before and after tDCS sessions. There was a significant decrease in the numeric rating scale scores for pain, from 7.6 ± 0.5 at baseline to 5.9 ± 1.8 after active tDCS (P = .016). We found increased metabolism in the medulla and decreased metabolism in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after active tDCS treatment compared with the changes induced by sham tDCS. Additionally, an increase in metabolism after active tDCS was observed in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and insula. The results of this study suggest that anodal stimulation of the motor cortex using tDCS can modulate emotional and cognitive components of pain and normalize excessive attention to pain and pain-related information.

  15. Are current atomistic force fields accurate enough to study proteins in crowded environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Petrov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of macromolecules in the crowded cellular interior influences different thermodynamic and kinetic properties of proteins, including their structural stabilities, intermolecular binding affinities and enzymatic rates. Moreover, various structural biology methods, such as NMR or different spectroscopies, typically involve samples with relatively high protein concentration. Due to large sampling requirements, however, the accuracy of classical molecular dynamics (MD simulations in capturing protein behavior at high concentration still remains largely untested. Here, we use explicit-solvent MD simulations and a total of 6.4 µs of simulated time to study wild-type (folded and oxidatively damaged (unfolded forms of villin headpiece at 6 mM and 9.2 mM protein concentration. We first perform an exhaustive set of simulations with multiple protein molecules in the simulation box using GROMOS 45a3 and 54a7 force fields together with different types of electrostatics treatment and solution ionic strengths. Surprisingly, the two villin headpiece variants exhibit similar aggregation behavior, despite the fact that their estimated aggregation propensities markedly differ. Importantly, regardless of the simulation protocol applied, wild-type villin headpiece consistently aggregates even under conditions at which it is experimentally known to be soluble. We demonstrate that aggregation is accompanied by a large decrease in the total potential energy, with not only hydrophobic, but also polar residues and backbone contributing substantially. The same effect is directly observed for two other major atomistic force fields (AMBER99SB-ILDN and CHARMM22-CMAP as well as indirectly shown for additional two (AMBER94, OPLS-AAL, and is possibly due to a general overestimation of the potential energy of protein-protein interactions at the expense of water-water and water-protein interactions. Overall, our results suggest that current MD force fields

  16. Study of a Particle Based Films Cure Process by High-Frequency Eddy Current Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Patsora

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle-based films are today an important part of various designs and they are implemented in structures as conductive parts, i.e., conductive paste printing in the manufacture of Li-ion batteries, solar cells or resistive paste printing in IC. Recently, particle based films were also implemented in the 3D printing technique, and are particularly important for use in aircraft, wind power, and the automotive industry when incorporated onto the surface of composite structures for protection against damages caused by a lightning strike. A crucial issue for the lightning protection area is to realize films with high homogeneity of electrical resistance where an in-situ noninvasive method has to be elaborated for quality monitoring to avoid undesirable financial and time costs. In this work the drying process of particle based films was investigated by high-frequency eddy current (HFEC spectroscopy in order to work out an automated in-situ quality monitoring method with a focus on the electrical resistance of the films. Different types of particle based films deposited on dielectric and carbon fiber reinforced plastic substrates were investigated in the present study and results show that the HFEC method offers a good opportunity to monitor the overall drying process of particle based films. Based on that, an algorithm was developed, allowing prediction of the final electrical resistance of the particle based films throughout the drying process, and was successfully implemented in a prototype system based on the EddyCus® HFEC device platform presented in this work. This prototype is the first solution for a portable system allowing HFEC measurement on huge and uneven surfaces.

  17. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  18. Modelling of coastal current and thermal plume dispersion - A case study off Nagapattinam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Suryanarayana, A.; Gouveia, A.D.

    representing the monsoons and the transition periods are selected to study the seasonal variability of simulated currents and thermal plumes. The plume showed northward spreading during March and July and southward during December. During October the spreading...

  19. Angular correlation experiments for the study of giant multipole resonances and currents of the second kind in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The project dealt with angular correlation experiments for the study of giant multipole resonances and currents of the second kind in atomic nuclei. Both partial projects were worked in the period of the report. (orig.) [de

  20. BUV/Nimbus-4 Dark Current Study Working Data V001 (BUVN4L1DCW) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-4 BUV Level-1 Dark Current Study Working Data is derived from the BUV Level 1 Radiance (RUT) product and contains the geophysical indices and...

  1. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results of this cross-sectional study and the available proofs in community indicate that, there are the high levels of fungal contaminations in current used spices. Therefore, it is necessary to control the production units.

  2. Current/temperature measurements near the Sigsbee Escarpment from the MMS Desoto Canyon Intrusion Study, 19990829 - 20010906 (NODC Accession 0002569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During this study in-situ measurement of currents,temperature, conductivity were made on a series of tautline moorings near the base of and on the Sigsbee...

  3. MREIT experiments with 200 µA injected currents: a feasibility study using two reconstruction algorithms, SMM and harmonic BZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpinar, V E; Muftuler, L T; Hamamura, M J; Degirmenci, E

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique, electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently, the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100 µA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10–400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200 µA total injected current and tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul (1998 Elektrik 6 215–25) with Tikhonov regularization and the harmonic B Z proposed by Oh et al (2003 Magn. Reason. Med. 50 875–8). The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200 µA and 5 mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200 µA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7 µA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5 mA total injected current results in 367 µA in imaging slice. Total acquisition

  4. Current drive studies for the ARIES steady-state tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, T.K.; Ehst, D.A.; Mandrekas, J.

    1994-01-01

    Steady-state plasma operating scenarios are designed for three versions of the ARIES reactor, using non-inductive current drive techniques that have an established database. R.f. waves, including fast and lower hybrid waves, are the reference drivers for the D-T burning ARIES-I and ARIES-II/IV, while neutral beam injection is employed for ARIES-III which burns D- 3 He. Plasma equilibria with a high bootstrap-current component have been used, in order to minimize the recirculating power fraction and cost of electricity. To maintain plasma stability, the driven current profile has been aligned with that of equilibrium by proper choices of the plasma profiles and power launch parameters. Except for ARIES-III, the current-drive power requirements and the relevant technology developments are found to be quite reasonable. The wave-power spectrum and launch requirements are also considered achievable with a modest development effort. Issues such as an improved database for fast-wave current drive, lower-hybrid power coupling to the plasma edge, profile control in the plasma core, and access to the design point of operation remain to be addressed. ((orig.))

  5. Fast electron current density profile and diffusion studies during LHCD in PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Kesner, J.; Luckhardt, S.; Paoletti, F.

    1993-08-01

    Successful current profile control experiments using lower hybrid current drive (LCHD) clearly require knowledge of (1) the location of the driven fast electrons and (2) the ability to maintain that location from spreading due to radial diffusion. These issues can be addressed by examining the data from the hard x-ray camera on PBX-M, a unique diagnostic producing two-dimensional, time resolved tangential images of fast electron bremsstrahlung. Using modeling, these line-of-sight images are inverted to extract a radial fast electron current density profile. We note that ''hollow'' profiles have been observed, indicative of off-axis current drive. These profiles can then be used to calculate an upper bound for an effective fast electron diffusion constant: assuming an extremely radially narrow lower hybrid absorption profile and a transport model based on Rax and Moreau, a model fast electron current density profile is calculated and compared to the experimentally derived profile. The model diffusion constant is adjusted until a good match is found. Applied to steady-state quiescent modes on PBX-M, we obtain an upper limit for an effective diffusion constant of about D*=1.1 m 2 /sec

  6. Study of surface leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Kai; Cao, MengYi; Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue; Ma, XiaoHua

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent surface current measurements were performed to analyze the mechanism of surface conductance of AlGaN/GaN channel high-electron-mobil