WorldWideScience

Sample records for current study results

  1. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Direct Mineral Carbonation: Results from Recent Studies and Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Rush, G.E.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2001-01-01

    Direct mineral carbonation has been investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO2 into a geologically stable, solid final form. The process utilizes a solution of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium chloride (NaCl), and water, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg2SiO4) or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into this slurry, by diffusion through the surface and gas dispersion within the aqueous phase. The process includes dissolution of the mineral and precipitation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) in a single unit operation. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, with a surface area of roughly 19 m2 per gram, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% stoichiometric conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Studies suggest that the mineral dissolution rate is primarily surface controlled, while the carbonate precipitation rate is primarily dependent on the bicarbonate concentration of the slurry. Current studies include further examination of the reaction pathways, and an evaluation of the resource potential for the magnesium silicate reactant, particularly olivine. Additional studies include the examination of various pretreatment options, the development of a continuous flow reactor, and an evaluation of the economic feasibility of the process.

  2. Studies of Short Time Response Options for Potentially Hazardous Objects: Current and Forthcoming Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Greenaugh, Kevin C.; Seery, Bernard D.; Bambacus, Myra; Leung, Ronald Y.; Finewood, Lee; Dearborn, David S. P.; Miller, Paul L.; Weaver, Robert P.; Plesko, Catherine; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) are collaborating on Planetary Defense Research. The research program is organized around three case studies: 1. Deflection of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 101955 Bennu (1999 RQ36)[OSIRIS-REx mission target], 2. Deflection of the secondary member of the PHA 65803 Didymos (1996 GT) [DART mission target], 3. Deflection of a scaled-down version of the comet 67PChuryumov-Gerasimenko [Rosetta mission target]. NASAGSFC is providing astrodynamics and spacecraft mission design expertise, while NNSA, DOE, LLNL, LANL and SNL are providing expertise in modeling the effects of kinetic impactor spacecraft and nuclear explosive devices on the target objects.

  3. Age at menarche and current substance use among Canadian adolescent girls: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sahab Ban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls. Methods The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY. The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use. Conclusions Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.

  4. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  5. A Study of Current Trends and Issues for Graphics Education: Results from a Five-Year Follow-Up Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales, Alice Y.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 academic year, a survey was conducted to look at current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education (Clark & Scales, 1999). The survey solicited information from the membership of the Engineering Design Graphics Division of the American Society for Engineering Education related to their view of future areas of…

  6. Current evaluation of sonography of the meniscus. Results of a comparative study of sonographic and arthroscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casser, H R; Sohn, C; Kiekenbeck, A

    1990-01-01

    Sonography of the knee has gained in significance in the diagnosis of the meniscus; experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that the normal and pathological anatomy of the meniscus can be visualized on a sonogram. The aim of this comparative investigation is to evaluate sonographic lesion diagnosis in comparison with arthroscopic findings, using a standardized examination method. Two hundred and six knee joints were first scanned sonographically using a 7.5 MHz sector transducer. The examining doctor had neither anamnestic nor clinical information in advance. On the following day, the joints were examined arthroscopically, without the findings of the day before being available to the examiner. When the findings were compared, the sensitivity of sonographic diagnosis of lesions was found to be 82.2% and its specificity 87.6%. The patients were of varying ages and had varying anamneses. The results show that sonography of the meniscus is a valuable diagnostic help when the knee-joint symptoms are not clear, given that the correct technical equipment and sufficient experience with this form of examination are at hand. The advantage of sonography is that, in contrast to arthroscopy, it is noninvasive and easily available.

  7. Current status of health among workers in Japan: Results from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Tomita, Kentaro; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Nagahama, Satsue; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-12-07

    Data are limited on the sex-specific prevalence of diseases and their risk factors in middle-aged and older workers in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the age- and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (defined using joint statement criteria), obesity, underweight, abdominal obesity, and smoking among approximately 70,000 to 90,000 Japanese workers (predominantly men) aged 20-69 years in 2014. We also investigated the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness in 2012 and no leisure-time exercise in 2014. In both sexes, the prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and abdominal obesity, was increased with aging. In contrast, the prevalence of underweight was decreased with aging. Smoking prevalence exceeded 30% in men regardless of age, whereas the prevalence was around 10% in women of all age groups. Prevalence of no leisure-time exercise exceeded 50% among middle-aged and older workers in both sexes. Among workers aged 50-64 years, less than half of men had low fitness, whereas more than half of women had low fitness. Given the high prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors among middle-aged and older workers, effective strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in this age group are needed in Japan.

  8. Current results and trends in platform switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Salimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The platform switching (PLS concept was introduced in the literature in 2005. The biological benefits and clinical effectiveness of the PLS technique have been established by several studies. In this article different aspects of PLS concept are discussed. Crestal bone loss, biologic width, and stress distribution in this concept are comprehensively reviewed. In this article the relative published articles from 1990 to 2011 have been evaluated by electronic search. Because of controversial results especially in immediate loading and animal studies, further modified research is needed to establish the mechanism and effect of the PLS technique. Essential changes in studies including using the control group for accurate interpretation of results and long-term observation, particularly through, randomized, prospective, multicenter trials with large numbers of participants, and implants are necessary.

  9. Some observational results of sea storm current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Dr. Hollister, a marine geologist of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, first pointed out that there was ocean storm current in the ocean. He found out the wavy texture in the seabed core samples, and suggested that this wavy texture was caused by the high speed sea current in remote antiquity. He then suggested a bold hypothesis that there existed a benthic storm current near the ocean bottom, and presented this hypothesis at the IUGG conference held at San Francisco in 1963. Unfortunately, the attention was not drawn to the hypothesis at the conference, and the hypothesis was criticized as a sheer nonsense.

  10. Joint voltages resulting from lightning currents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2007-03-01

    Simple formulas are given for the interior voltages appearing across bolted joints from exterior lightning currents. External slot and bolt inductances as well as internal slot and bolt diffusion effects are included. Both linear and ferromagnetic wall materials are considered. A useful simplification of the slot current distribution into linear stripline and cylindrical parts (near the bolts) allows the nonlinear voltages to be estimated in closed form.

  11. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  12. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@netzero.net [Indiana University Health Cancer Center East, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  13. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  14. Current studies on megapode phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, T.G.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic relationships between megapodes and other birds are reviewed, and it is concluded that the available evidence supports a sistergroup relationship between megapodes and all other galliforms. Current studies in this direction are discussed. The resolvement of intr

  15. Recent results on current profile shaping on tore supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becoulet, A.

    1994-12-31

    The link between the current profile and the confinement is studied, involving various regimes: high power minority ion cyclotron resonant heating, high power lower hybrid current drive, fast wave direct electron heating and current drive and pellet enhanced performance. It is shown that the electron heat diffusivity decreases when the magnetic shear increases in the confinement zone and/or when it decreases in the plasma centre. (authors). 13 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Westinghouse accident tolerant fuel program. Current results and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sumit; Xu, Peng; Lahoda, Edward; Hallstadius, Lars; Boylan, Frank [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Hopkins, SC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This paper discusses the current status, results from initial tests, as well as the future direction of the Westinghouse's Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program. The current preliminary testing is addressed that is being performed on these samples at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test reactor, initial results from these tests, as well as the technical learning from these test results. In the Westinghouse ATF approach, higher density pellets play a significant role in the development of an integrated fuel system.

  17. [Current studies in myotonic dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimeng; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2014-03-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a genetic, progressive, multisystemic disease with muscular disorder as its primary symptom. There are two types of DM (DM1 and DM2) caused by mutations in different genes, and in Japan, DM occurs with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the disease is RNA toxicity caused by transcripts of aberrantly elongated CTG or CCTG repeats located in the 3' untranslated region or in the intron. The current treatments for DM is limited to symptomatic care. In this review, we will discuss several new therapeutic strategies based on recent studies of RNA toxicity.

  18. Current Trends in Nursing Informatics: Results of an International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Alhuwail, Dari; Ali, Samira; Badger, Martha K; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Georgsson, Mattias; Islam, Tasneem; Jeon, Eunjoo; Jung, Hyunggu; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Lewis, Adrienne; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Ronquillo, Charlene; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Sommer, Janine; Tayaben, Jude L; Topaz, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Nursing informatics (NI) can help provide effective and safe healthcare. This study aimed to describe current research trends in NI. In the summer 2015, the IMIA-NI Students Working Group created and distributed an online international survey of the current NI trends. A total of 402 responses were submitted from 44 countries. We identified a top five NI research areas: standardized terminologies, mobile health, clinical decision support, patient safety and big data research. NI research funding was considered to be difficult to acquire by the respondents. Overall, current NI research on education, clinical practice, administration and theory is still scarce, with theory being the least common. Further research is needed to explain the impact of these trends and the needs from clinical practice.

  19. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  20. Recent experimental results of KSTAR RF heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. J., E-mail: sjwang@nfri.re.kr; Kim, J.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Joung, M.; Bae, Y. S.; Kwak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejoen, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-10

    The overview of KSTAR activities on ICRH, LHCD and ECH/CD including the last experimental results and future plan aiming for long-pulse high-beta plasma will be presented. Recently we achieved reasonable coupling of ICRF power to H-mode plasma through several efforts to increase system reliability. Power balance will be discussed on this experiment. LHCD is still struggling in the low power regime. Review of antenna spectrum for the higher coupling in H-mode plasma will be tried. ECH/CD provides 41 sec, 0.8 MW of heating power to support high-performance long-pulse discharge. Also, 170 GHz ECH system is integrated with the Plasma Control System (PCS) for the feedback controlling of NTM. Status and plan of ECH/CD will be discussed. Finally, helicon current drive is being prepared for the next stage of KSTAR operation. The hardware preparation and the calculation results of helicon current drive in KSTAR plasma will be discussed.

  1. Current concepts, classification, and results in short stem hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falez, Francesco; Casella, Filippo; Papalia, Matteo

    2015-03-01

    Various short hip stems have been introduced with differing implant concepts of femoral fixation and implant length. There is a lack of proper classification for short hip stems, with a clear and accepted definition for implant length and extent of bone preservation in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal femur. This study analyzed the length of short hip stems. Stems were divided into collum, partial collum, and trochanter-sparing implants. An additional category was added, trochanter harming, which was defined as interruption of the circumferential integrity of the femoral neck. For all of the femoral components described, the designs were compared, excluding stems with insufficient clinical data. The 15 finally selected stems were classified as collum (1 stem), partial collum (7 stems), trochanter sparing (4 stems), and trochanter harming (3 stems). Mid-term results (>5 years of follow-up) were available for only 3 designs in the partial collum group. Taking into account the results of short-term studies (<5 years of follow-up), the femoral revision rate per 100 observed component years was <1 for most total hip arthroplasties. However, the studies varied greatly regarding level of significance, and short hip stems without published results are available commercially. Short hip stems cannot be circumscribed by a simple length limit. For some designs, clinical data collected from large patient cohorts showed a survivorship comparable to traditional stems. In cases that must be revised, this often can be performed with a conventional primary stem, fulfilling the promise to preserve bone for potential future revisions in younger patients.

  2. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-07-24

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 {+-} 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 {+-} 0.0112) E+04 {micro}g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 {+-} 0.786 wt % or (1.40 {+-} 0.104) E+05 {micro}g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 {+-} 0

  3. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  4. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  5. Bilateral cochlear implantation: current concepts, indications, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Eapen, Rose; Buchman, Craig A

    2009-12-01

    The optimal treatment for bilateral hearing loss continues to evolve as cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid technologies advance, as does our understanding of the central auditory system. Ongoing discussions continue on the validity and feasibility of bilateral CI in terms of performance, justification of need, medical/surgical safety concerns, and economics. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on the advantages and disadvantages of bilateral CI and to provide a discussion on timing (simultaneous vs. sequential), technology (bimodal vs. binaural) and feasibility. Binaural advantages are found in both adult and pediatric bilateral CI recipients, the greatest being the head shadow effect and improvements in localization and loudness summation. This theoretically offers an advantage over their unilateral implanted counterparts in terms of improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception under noisy conditions. Most investigators agree that bilateral stimulation during critical periods of development is paramount for optimizing auditory functioning in children. Currently, bilateral CI is widely accepted as a safe and effective means of bilateral auditory stimulation.

  6. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  7. New results on inclusive nu Fe charged current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; De Groot, J G H; Dydak, F; Eisele, F; Flottmann, T; Geweniger, C; Guyot, C; He, J T; Klasen, H; Kleinknecht, K; Knobloch, J; Królikowski, J; Lierl, H; May, J; Merlo, J P; Palazzi, P; Para, A; Peyaud, B; Pszola, B; Rander, J; Ranjard, F; Rothberg, J E; Ruan, T Z; Schlatter, W D; Schuller, J P; Steinberger, J; Tittel, K; Turlay, René; von Rüden, Wolfgang; Wahl, H; Willutzki, H J; Wotschack, J; Wu, W M

    1981-01-01

    Based on 60000(25000) nu ( nu ) events obtained recently in the CERN 200 GeV narrow band neutrino beam, the authors present new results on the nucleon structure functions F/sub 2/(x, Q/sup 2/) and xF/sub 3/(x, Q/sup 2/) and on the Callan Gross relation. The observed scaling violations of F/sub 2/ and xF/sub 3/ are interpreted in terms of QCD. The strong coupling constant alpha /sub s/ is measured in agreement with the QCD predicted behaviour. (8 refs).

  8. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty-current results and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R Sean; Athwal, George S

    2016-03-01

    Stemless shoulder arthroplasty was originally introduced in 2004 by a single manufacturer. Now, over a decade later, numerous designs are available outside the USA, but as yet, only one implant has been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is available for use within the USA. Often referred to as "canal sparing," these implants are designed for metaphyseal fixation to minimize humeral bone removal, avoid intraoperative and postoperative humeral fracture complications, and to decrease morbidity associated with revision operations. Recently, the second generation of stemless arthroplasty, a convertible implant allowing use in either anatomic or reverse arthroplasty configuration, was released for use outside the USA. This paper will review the available designs, reported results, and raise potential concerns for this emerging technology.

  9. Test results of 12/18 kA ReBCO coated conductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Surin, M. I.; Naumov, A. V.; Novikov, M. S.; Novikov, S. I.; Ilin, A. A.; Polyakov, A. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Shutova, D. I.

    2017-07-01

    A pair of hybrid current leads (brass + stacked & soldered ReBCO tapes) rated for 12 kA in steady state and for up to 18 kA at pulsed over current conditions was designed, developed and tested at NRC ;Kurchatov Institute; (NRC ;KI;). During the experiment at LN2 temperature, the current leads (CLs) were successfully charged with 18 kA at 100 A/s ramp rate. To date, as far as we know, this is the highest current capacity achieved for 2G HTS current leads. The feasibility of ;stack-and-soldering technique; for 10 kA+ class coated conductor CLs for accelerators and fusion was demonstrated. This paper gives an overview of the leads design and presents the preliminary test results. Detailed studies of magnetic properties and current sharing process for the stacked and staggered HTS joints are also reported.

  10. Deep penetrating eddy current for copper canister inspection. Main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadeusz Stepinski [TSonic, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this project was to optimize the detection and characterization of deep flaws (voids) in copper plates. Two types of voids were investigated and compared: circular and rectangular. The circular voids had the form of cylindrical cavities while the rectangular ones were cavities with a rectangular cross section. All probes were of the same type, transmit-receive transducers with four pick-ups connected in a double differential configuration. Comparison of the EC responses to circular and rectangular voids obtained using the MDF12 probe has shown that both types of voids can be characterized using phase and amplitude of their responses in the complex impedance plane. Phase of the response in the impedance plane appeared to be a reliable measure of void depth. Phase dependence on the void depth is linear (which agrees with the theory) and its slope is approx -37 deg/mm. Magnitude of the EC response contains information on the void size provided that the void depth is known. It has been shown that magnitude of the EC responses is correlated to the lengths of the rectangular voids and hole diameter, this is, similar lengths and diameters result in similar response magnitudes. It should be noted, however, that multi-differential MDF probes generate responses with different shapes for circular and rectangular voids. First, shapes of the MDF probe responses in the impedance plane depend on the probe's orientation with respect to scanning direction. Second, they also depend upon the direction of scanning with respect to the void orientation. The measurements presented in this report were performed for the probe axis aligned along with the scanning direction and, in case of rectangular voids, for scanning direction along the void lengths. Comparison of the responses obtained from flat bottom holes in copper material taken from different canister parts has not shown any essential differences between the material samples. Conductivity measurement performed using

  11. A study of model bivalve siphonal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Janet K.; O'Riordan, Catherine A.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    1990-01-01

    We carried out experiments studying the hydrodynamics of bivalve siphonal currents in a laboratory flume. Rather than use living animals, we devised a simple, model siphon pair connected to a pump. Fluorescence-based flow visualization was used to characterize siphon-jet flows for several geometric configurations and flow speeds. These measurements show that the boundary-layer velocity profile, siphon height, siphon pair orientation, and size of siphon structure all affect the vertical distribution of the excurrent flow downstream of the siphon pair and the fraction of excurrent that is refiltered. The observed flows may effect both the clearance rate of an entire population of siphonate bivalves as well as the efficiency of feeding of any individual. Our results imply that field conditions are properly represented in laboratory flume studies of phytoplankton biomass losses to benthic bivalves when the shear velocity and bottom roughness are matched to values found in the field. Numerical models of feeding by a bivalve population should include an effective sink distribution which is created by the combined incurrent-excurrent flow field. Near-bed flows need to be accounted for to properly represent these benthic-pelagic exchanges. We also present velocity measurements made with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) for a single configuration (siphons flush with bed, inlet downstream) that show that the siphonal currents have a significant local effect on the properties of a turbulent boundary layer.

  12. Current major depressive syndrome measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): results from a cross-sectional population-based study of adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Busch, Markus A; Jacobi, Frank; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert

    2015-04-10

    Prevalence estimates for depression vary considerably by the type of assessment instrument, and there is limited information on their overlap in population-based samples. Our aim was to compare the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) as measures for current major depressive syndrome (MDS) in a large population-based sample. Data derived from the mental health module of the nationwide cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH) (n = 4483; age 18-79 years). MDS in the past two weeks was assessed (a) using the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm (PHQ-MDS) and (b) based on CIDI information about the latest symptom occurrence (recency) (CIDI-MDS). Prevalences, overall concordance and percentages of overlap of both MDS measures were determined. Prevalences of affirmed PHQ-9 depression symptoms and the mean and median PHQ-9 sum scores were analyzed per measure. Prevalence of current MDS was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.6) for PHQ-MDS and 3.9% (95% CI: 3.1-5.0) for CIDI-MDS. The overall agreement between both measures was moderate (kappa: 0.43). Of all the participants, 1.5% (95% CI: 1.0-2.2) were classified as MDS cases by both measures, with 54.5% (95% CI: 42.7-65.9) of PHQ-MDS cases and 37.9% (95% CI: 27.8-49.1) of CIDI-MDS cases also being classified as MDS by the respective other MDS measure. However, 94.8% (95% CI: 93.6-95.8) of the participants were classified as non-MDS by both measures, with 97.5% (95% CI: 96.6-98.1) of non-PHQ-MDS and 98.7% (95% CI: 98.2-99.1) of non-CIDI-MDS being classified as non-MDS by the respective other MDS measure. The mean and median PHQ-9 sum score was higher in those with PHQ-MDS than in those with CIDI-MDS. Both measures have a high level of agreement for ruling out current MDS, but the overlap in their classification of cases is moderate. Our results indicate that they cannot be interpreted as equal measures of the same construct, suggesting

  13. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  14. Stressful life events and current psychological distress are associated with self-reported hypertension but not with true hypertension: results from a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Flávio D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence linking stress to hypertension has been scarcely documented in population-based studies. Methods Participants were selected through a multi-stage probability sampling and interviewed at home, being submitted to measures of demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure (BP, and risk factors for hypertension. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or use of BP-lowering drugs or as self-reported hypertension. Stressful life events were investigated through an inventory of nine major life events occurring in the year preceding the interview. Psychological distress was evaluated through a facial scale of expression of emotion in the last month. Results In the total, 1,484 adult individuals were investigated. Prevalence of hypertension was lower in individuals who reported any stressful life event in comparison with individuals who did not reported an event (34.3 versus 44.2%, P Conclusion Recent stressful life events and current psychological distress are not associated with hypertension. Associations between stress events and distress with self-reported hypertension are not intermediated by effects of stress on blood pressure, and may be ascribed to negative feeling about disease and not to the disease itself.

  15. Studies of Current Dependent Effects at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A S; Huttel, E; Pérez, F; Pont, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The ANKA electron storage ring is operated at energies between 0.5 and 2.5 GeV. A major requirement for a synchrotron light source, such as ANKA, is to achieve a high beam current. A multitude of mostly impedance related effects depend on either bunch or total beam current. This paper gives an overview over the various beam studies performed at ANKA in this context, specifically the observation of current dependent detuning, the determination of the bunch length change with current from a measurement of the ratio between coherent and incoherent synchrotron tune and an assessment of the effective longitudinal loss factor from the current dependent horizontal closed orbit distortion.

  16. Participation in a trauma-focused epidemiological investigation may result in sensitization for current health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, M.J.; Spinhoven, Ph.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives - Participation in health survey research may result in a worsening of self-assessed health status and enhanced service-use by increasing self-awareness of current health status. The present study investigated whether participation in a traumafocused epidemiological study sensitized parti

  17. Test results of the 18 kA EDIPO HTS current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesche, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.wesche@psi.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bagnasco, Maurizio; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Felder, Roland; Guetg, Marc; Holenstein, Manuel; Jenni, Markus; March, Stephen; Roth, Felix; Vogel, Martin [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    For the new test facility EDIPO (European DIPOle), to be hosted by CRPP, two 18 kA HTS current leads were manufactured and successfully tested. The HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 tapes, is cooled only by heat conduction to the cold end, while the copper part is cooled by forced flow helium gas. The current leads were tested at low voltage up to the maximum current of 18 kA. The helium mass flow rates required for stable operation at various currents were determined. In addition to the steady state operation, the transient behavior in the case of a loss of flow was studied experimentally. The test results provide an estimate of the operational limits of the EDIPO HTS current leads.

  18. Progress report on new results of the study of multi-planar and compact cylindrical wire arrays at 0.8-1.3 MA current at UNR Zebra generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Presura, R.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Yilmaz, M. F.; Wilcox, P. G.; Osborne, G. C.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Rudakov, L. I.

    2008-11-01

    The studies that include the measurements of radiation yields, time-gated spectra and images, streak camera and laser probing images, spectral modeling, and magnetostatic and MHD simulations focus on Z-pinch plasma implosion and radiation features (including bright spots properties). The experiments with small size (3-10 mm) single-, double-, triple-, cross- planar, and compact cylindrical wire arrays from various materials at nominal as well as enhanced currents up to 1.3 MA were performed on the Zebra generator. The largest x-ray yields and powers were ranged for W and Mo. Observed multi-step precursor formation in multi-planar arrays may open new paths for radiation pulses shaping. Implosion and spectroscopic features specific for enhanced currents are discussed.

  19. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boundary layers to influence the ambient larger-scale flow. We have studied these issues through ocean model simulations, adjoint sensitivity...circulation be monitored from pressure gauges, temperature sensors, current meters, or other measurements near the feature? • The influence of the

  20. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  1. [Current registry studies of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltkamp, R; Jüttler, E; Pfefferkorn, T; Purrucker, J; Ringleb, P

    2012-10-01

    Study registries offer the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new therapies or to observe the consequences of new treatments in clinical practice. The SITS-MOST registry confirmed the validity of findings from randomized trials on intravenous thrombolysis concerning safety and efficacy in the clinical routine. Current study registries concerning new interventional thrombectomy techniques suggest a high recanalization rate; however, the clinical benefit can only be evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Similarly, the experiences of the BASICS registry on basilar artery occlusion have led to the initiation of a controlled trial. The benefit of hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction has been demonstrated by the pooled analysis of three randomized trials. Numerous relevant aspects are currently documented in the DESTINY-R registry. Finally, the recently started RASUNOA registry examines diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurring during therapy with new oral anticoagulants.

  2. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  3. A Failure Mode in Dense Infrared Detector Arrays Resulting in Increased Dark Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkie, Benjamin; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a failure mode that arises in dense infrared focal plane detector arrays as a consequence of the interactions of neighboring pixels through the minority carrier profiles in the common absorber layer. We consider the situation in which one pixel in a hexagonal array becomes de-biased relative to its neighbors and show that the dark current in the six neighboring pixels increases exponentially as a function of the difference between the nominal and anomalous biases. Moreover, we show that the current increase in the six nearest-neighbor pixels is in total larger than that by which the current in the affected pixel decreases, causing a net increase in the dark current. The physical origins of this effect are explained as being due to increased lateral diffusion currents that arise as a consequence of breaking the symmetry of the minority carrier profiles. We then perform a parametric study to quantify the magnitude of this effect for a number of detector geometric parameters, operating temperatures, and spectral bands. Particularly, numerical simulations are carried out for short-, mid-, and long-wavelength HgCdTe infrared detectors operating between 77 K and 210 K. We show that this effect is most prevalent in architectures for which the lateral diffusion current is the largest component of the total dark current—high operating temperature devices with narrow epitaxial absorber thicknesses and pitches small compared to the diffusion length of minority carriers. These results could prove significant particularly for short- and mid-wave infrared detectors, which are typically designed to fit these conditions.

  4. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wen Lai

    Full Text Available Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan.The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan.A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8% patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012-2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM (85.4% followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM (14.6%. Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3-68.6 months, there were 3 (1% cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3% case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3% death.The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique in the field of breast cancer.

  5. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  6. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  7. Current situation of depression healthcare in Spain: results of a psychiatrists' survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martín-Águeda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the current situation of healthcare for depression in Spain, according to psychiatrists opinion, and how it has evolved over the last 20 years, comparativily with the results reported in previous studies of our group. Methods: Throughout 2002, we recorded the opinions of 101 specialists in psychiatry after asking them to fill out structured questionnaires in which they rated care, clinical, therapeutic and care quality. Results: The presence of depressive disorders in healthcare is substantial, despite the high figures for "concealed epidemiology", with an increase in these last 20 years of disorders comorbid with anxiety. Currently, most patients arrive at the psychiatrist having been referred by their general practitioners (GP, as there is now less reluctance in depressive patients to such referral. In the last years there has been an increase in pharmacological treatment, with adverse effects of the drugs representing the major obstacle to non-adherence to such treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs constitute the pharmacological group of choice, and are the drugs most commonly used in the treatment of depression, together with venlafaxine. Areas where there is a need for improvement are time devoted to consultation, coordination between GPs and psychiatrists, waiting lists, and resources available to Mental Health Units. Conclusions: Current situation of depression healthcare in Spain has substantially changed in recent years, improving in some aspects, thanks, in part, to the attitudes of GPs with this disorder and to evolution of pharmacological treatment.

  8. Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry

  9. Treatment of gastric outlet obstruction that results fromunresectable gastric cancer: Current evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a commoncondition that results from locally advanced malignanciesin the upper gastrointestinal tract, such aspancreatic, gastric, and other carcinomas. Two typesof procedures for malignant GOO, namely, gastrojejunostomy(GJ) with laparotomy or a laparoscopicapproach and endoscopic stenting (ES), are currentlyavailable. Although numerous previous reports haveclarified the benefits and drawbacks of each procedure,whether GJ or ES should be used in patients with GOOthat results from gastric cancer who may have a longerlife expectancy than patients with other malignancieshas not been determined. In this review, which focuseson gastric cancer-induced GOO, we analyzed the twosystematic reviews and a meta-analysis that comparedGJ and ES and outlined the current status of GOOtreatment. We also provide an updated review thatincludes laparoscopic GJ. Various data from 13 studiesin one review and 6 studies in another review wereanalyzed. Although the main results of the presentreview indicated that both GJ and ES were efficacioustreatments in patients with GOO that resulted fromgastric cancer, current evidence suggests that GJ maybe the preferable procedure given its good performancestatus and improved prognosis in gastric cancer patients.

  10. Iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography analysis of emphysema: consistent results using different tube currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashiro T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneo Yamashiro,1 Tetsuhiro Miyara,1 Osamu Honda,2 Noriyuki Tomiyama,2 Yoshiharu Ohno,3 Satoshi Noma,4 Sadayuki Murayama1 On behalf of the ACTIve Study Group 1Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan Purpose: To assess the advantages of iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography (CT analysis of pulmonary emphysema. Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients with pulmonary emphysema underwent chest CT imaging using identical scanners with three different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to CT images using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D and a conventional filtered-back projection mode. Thus, six scans with and without AIDR3D were generated per patient. All other scanning and reconstruction settings were fixed. The percent low attenuation area (LAA%; < -950 Hounsfield units and the lung density 15th percentile were automatically measured using a commercial workstation. Comparisons of LAA% and 15th percentile results between scans with and without using AIDR3D were made by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Associations between body weight and measurement errors among these scans were evaluated by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: Overall, scan series without AIDR3D had higher LAA% and lower 15th percentile values than those with AIDR3D at each tube current (P<0.0001. For scan series without AIDR3D, lower tube currents resulted in higher LAA% values and lower 15th percentiles. The extent of emphysema was significantly different between each pair among scans when not using AIDR3D (LAA%, P<0.0001; 15th percentile, P<0.01, but was not

  11. Current regional stress field and the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea and their tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. C.; Cho, H.; Son, M.

    2014-12-01

    To determine current regional stress field and to characterize the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea, Quaternary fault, focal mechanism, and geotechnical in-situ stress data were synthetically analyzed. The Quaternary faults are extensively observed along major inherited fault zones and show compatible orientations with general trends of the inherited faults. Most of the Quaternary faults have a top-to-the-west thrust geometry and kinematics and show a tendency of upward-decreasing dip angle and upward-narrowing gouge zone. Slip-sense indicators and paleo-stress field reconstructions indicate that the faults resulted from reverse or transpressional faulting under an E-W compression. All the magnetic fabrics (AMS) of the fault gouges also indicate the prevailing reverse-slip faulting under an ENE-WNW compression. The dominant oblate magnetic fabrics parallel to fault plane and the degrees of anisotropy increasing in proportion to their oblatenesses indicate that the fabrics have formed by a progressive deformation due to continuous simple shear during the last reactivation stage as reverse faulting. The focal mechanism study in and around the Korean Peninsula show the horizontally clustered P-axes in ENE-WSW direction and the girdle-distributed T-axes in NNW trend. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in south Korea also show NE- or ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in Korea thus can be characterized by contractional structures produced under a regional E-W or ENE-WSW compression stress field, and most of the Quaternary faults resulted from the local re-activation of appropriately oriented inherited major faults. Considering the tectonic setting and structural features in Asia during the Neogene, the current stress regime is interpreted to have been caused by the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents since about 5-3.5 Ma.

  12. Parathyroid scintigraphy protocols in Finland in 2010. Results of the query and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunninen, V. [The Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori (Finland); Kauppinen, T. [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Centre, Helsinki Univ. Hospital (Finland); Eskola, H. [The Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Koskinen, M.O. [Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to describe current clinical parathyroid scintigraphy (PS) protocols in Finland. Methods: All departments of nuclear medicine in Finland were contacted, and instructions regarding PS were requested. Results: Instructions regarding PS were received from all of the departments that perform PS (n = 19). Seven hundred and sixty-nine PS studies were performed in 2009 (between 7 and 209 per hospital). Three methods of PS were used. The dual-phase method with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi is used in seven hospitals, the dual-tracer method with {sup 123}I/{sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in eleven, and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}/{sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in one hospital. The activities of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} were 150-800 MBq, 10-30 MBq and 50 MBq, respectively. The anterior image with parallel-hole collimators, the anterior image with pinhole collimator, the oblique angles with pinhole collimator, SPECT and hybrid CT with SPECT were acquired in 84%, 26%, 16%, 63%, and 42% of the hospitals, respectively. Because the imaging techniques were combined, one to four acquisitions were performed per patient. Scatter and attenuation correction were used in five protocols. A correction for crosstalk of {sup 123}I and {sup 99m}Tc gamma energies was not used, but the amount of crosstalk was decreased by using narrow or asymmetric energy windows in all dual isotope protocols. Conclusion: 19 hospitals used 18 different study protocols. Thus, significant variability exists in the current practice of PS in Finland. The protocols should be tested with known phantoms to determine any differences in sensitivities for detecting small active structures. Further studies with phantoms are needed to determine the optimal imaging techniques. The results of these phantom studies will provide guidelines for proposing national recommendations for PS. (orig.)

  13. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  14. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  15. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  16. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  17. Technological insights: Combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing-current results and further implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Nam Nguyen; Gerson Ricardo Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on current aspects of the novel technology of combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing. It presents methodological features, summarizes current results and discusses implications for further research. The combined technique assesses simultaneously bolus transport and associated peristalsis, thus allowing detailed analysis of the relationships between bolus transit and esophageal motility. Recent studies demonstrate that combined impedance manometry provides important additional information about esophageal motility as compared to conventional manometry: (1) monitoring of bolus transport patterns, (2) calculation of bolus transit parameters, (3) evaluation of bolus clearance,(4) monitoring of swallow associated events such as air movement and reflux, and (5) investigation of the relationships between bolus transit and LES relaxation.Studies with healthy subjects have identified several useful parameters for comprehensive assessment of eosphageal function. These parameters were found to be pathological in patients with classical achalasia,mild GERD, and ineffective esophageal motility. The technology of combined impedance manometry provides an important new tool for esophageal function testing,advancing both clinical and basic research. However,several important issues remain to be standardized to make the technique suitable for widely clinical use.

  18. A study of eddy current measurement (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted in 1986 to evaluate a modified eddy current system for measuring copper thickness on Kapton. Results showed a measurement error of 0.42 {mu}in. for a thickness range of 165 to 170 {mu}in. and a measurement variability of 3.2 {mu}in.

  19. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  20. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CURRENT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Delev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to address problems of liquidity and in particular the values and factors that influenced the values of the coefficient of total liquidity sixty Bulgarian public companies for the period 2013 - 2007 year. In the analysis it was found that some businesses fail to achieve favorable values of the ratio between current assets and current liabilities. It was found that plants have a low level of total liquidity, which can create problems in repayment of short-term liabilities. It can be seen that there are companies with very high liquidity, which is not so good phenomenon, ie the retention of a high level of resources required. Businesses should conduct a thorough analysis and implement appropriate measures to correct adverse changes. The financial management of the companies surveyed had worked towards improving the state of the enterprise, thereby seeking to reduce liquidity risk.

  1. Study of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alpat, B.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Antreasyan, D.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chan, A.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boeck, H.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; Efremenko, Yu.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Fenyi, B.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gougas, A.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jenkes, K.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A. J. W.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moore, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulik, T.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Muheim, F.; Nagy, E.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Opitz, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petrak, S.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Strauch, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Tang, X. W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tuchscherer, H.; Tung, K. L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Völkert, R.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xu, J.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yao, X. Y.; Ye, J. B.; Yeh, S. C.; You, J. M.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.

    1997-02-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69+/-0.07 (stat.)+/-0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40+/-17% of the produced mesons are light-flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the π0 multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays.

  2. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  3. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-06-15

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  4. Bad results obtained from the current public health policies and recommendations of hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael San Mauro Martín

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving an adequate intake of water is crucial within a balanced diet. For that purpose, dietary guidelines for healthy eating and drinking are an important consideration and need to be updated and disseminated to the population. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the liquid intake habits of a Mediterranean and Latin American population (Spain-Portugal and Mexico-Uruguay and if they support the current recommendations of hydration by the EFSA. Methods: A record of fluid intake was obtained from 1,168 participants from 4 countries above; and then compared with current consensus about hydration 1,600 mL/day (female and 2,000 mL/day (male. Results: The average fluid intake slightly surpassed the recommended: mean of 2,049 mL/day (2,223 mL in males, 1,938 mL in females. Portugal stood out due to its lower intake (mean of 1,365 mL/day. Water contributed the largest part to total fluid intake (37% in all countries (mean of 1,365 mL/day. Hot beverages (18% and milk and derivates (17% follow water in highest consumption. The 20% of males and only 0.3% of females knew recommendations of hydration, while 63.3% of males and 62% of females followed them. Only 8.4% of people who follow the recommendations know them. Conclusion: The people studied surpassed the recommendation, although the majority did not realize. Future research should examine actual beverage consumption patterns and evaluate if the current consensuses are correctly adapted to the population needs. Hydration's policies should be transmitted to the population for their knowledge and adequate compliance.

  5. MEASURING RESULTS NUMERAL TREATMENT OF IMPULSIVE CURRENTS BY MEANS OF ROGOVSKY BELT APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of numerical processing of measurement results of pulse currents by means of Rogovsky belt application is offered in the given work. It is shown that at measurement of signals by digital oscillographs and further numerical transformation of target signals, the possibilities of Rogovsky belt without the application of additional devices that in turn allows to define parameters of pulse currents with any peak-time characteristics essentially expand.

  6. Prior doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment correlates with differences in current patient-provider relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Clark, Jeanne M; Bleich, Sara N

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment and to examine associations between this shopping and current primary care relationships. In 2012, a national internet-based survey of 600 adults receiving primary care in the past year with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was conducted. Our independent variable was "switching doctors because I felt treated differently because of my weight." Logistic regression models to examine the association of prior doctor shopping with characteristics of current primary care relationships: duration, trust in primary care provider (PCP), and perceived PCP weight-related judgment, adjusted for patient factors were used. Overall, 13% of adults with overweight/obesity reported previously doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment. Prior shoppers were more likely to report shorter durations of their current relationships [73% vs. 52%; p = 0.01] or perceive that their current PCP judged them because of their weight [74% vs. 11%; p shop resulting from perceived differential treatment. These prior negative experiences have no association with trust in current relationships, but our results suggest that patients may remain sensitive to provider weight bias. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty: mid-term results in 486 cases and current indication in our institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Manuel; Cardenas, Carlomagno; Astarita, Emanuele; Moya, Esther; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2014-10-02

    In the previous decade, metal-on-metal hip resurfacing has been considered an attractive option and theoretically advantageous over conventional total hip arthroplasty, especially in young active patients. Different authors have reported favourable mid-term clinical and functional results with acceptable survival rates. Proper indication and planning, as accurate technical execution have been advocated to be crucial elements for success.Concerns regarding serum metal ion levels and possible clinical implications have led in the last years to a decline in the use of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and metal-on-metal bearings in general.The aim of this study is to present the results of our first 486 cases of hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasties with a second generation cementing technique, and to describe our current restricted indication of this type of prosthesis, in the light of recent findings in the literature about the possible complications related to metallosis or improper patient selection. Global survivorship of our series was 97.9% at a mean follow-up of 7.2 years.In the second season of our experience the indication is restrictive. The candidate for a resurfacing hip replacement is a young and active male patient, with good bone quality, that has been made aware of the risks and benefits of this type of prosthesis.

  8. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  9. Harmonic Analysis of Currents and Voltages Obtained in the Result of Computational Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Novash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a methodology for execution of a harmonic analysis of current and voltage numerical values obtained in the result of a computational experiment and saved in an external data file. The harmonic analysis has been carried out in the Mathcad mathematical packet environment.

  10. Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozekicioglu Seda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

  11. Study of high current commutation by explosive switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuba, S.; Kakudate, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Miyamoto, M.; Morita, T.; Kubota, A.; den, M.

    1993-01-01

    The study presents the basic experimental data obtained with a large current opening switch for current commutation using explosives. It is shown that currents up to a maximum of 40 kA can be completely interrupted within 30 microsec. The mechanism of current interruption using a thin conductor plate and methods of measuring interrupting current with a pickup coil and taking photographs with a high-speed camera (one frame per microsec) are discussed.

  12. Current treatment for venom-induced consumption coagulopathy resulting from snakebite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalana Maduwage

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakebite is considered the single most important cause of human injury from venomous animals worldwide. Coagulopathy is one of the commonest important systemic clinical syndromes and can be complicated by serious and life-threatening haemorrhage. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC is the commonest coagulopathy resulting from snakebite and occurs in envenoming by Viperid snakes, certain elapids, including Australian elapids, and a few Colubrid (rear fang snakes. Procoagulant toxins activate the clotting pathway, causing a broad range of factor deficiencies depending on the particular procoagulant toxin in the snake venom. Diagnosis and monitoring of coagulopathy is problematic, particularly in resource-poor countries where further research is required to develop more reliable, cheap clotting tests. MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2013 were searched to identify clinical studies of snake envenoming with VICC. The UniPort database was searched for coagulant snake toxins. Despite preclinical studies demonstrating antivenom binding toxins (efficacy, there was less evidence to support clinical effectiveness of antivenom for VICC. There were no placebo-controlled trials of antivenom for VICC. There were 25 randomised comparative trials of antivenom for VICC, which compared two different antivenoms (ten studies, three different antivenoms (four, two or three different doses or repeat doses of antivenom (five, heparin treatment and antivenom (five, and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and antivenom (one. There were 13 studies that compared two groups in which there was no randomisation, including studies with historical controls. There have been numerous observational studies of antivenom in VICC but with no comparison group. Most of the controlled trials were small, did not use the same method for assessing coagulopathy, varied the dose of antivenom, and did not provide complete details of the study design (primary outcomes

  13. Water-waves on linear shear currents. A comparison of experimental and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bruno; Seez, William; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Propagation of water waves can be described for uniformly sheared current conditions. Indeed, some mathematical simplifications remain applicable in the study of waves whether there is no current or a linearly sheared current. However, the widespread use of mathematical wave theories including shear has rarely been backed by experimental studies of such flows. New experimental and numerical methods were both recently developed to study wave current interactions for constant vorticity. On one hand, the numerical code can simulate, in two dimensions, arbitrary non-linear waves. On the other hand, the experimental methods can be used to generate waves with various shear conditions. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the experimental protocol and versatility of the numerical code, comparisons between experimental and numerical data are discussed and compared with linear theory for validation of the methods. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N° ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  14. The impact of triggering mechanism on flow dynamics and depositional geometry: results from an experimental study of non-conservative density currents; Influencia do mecanismo de iniciacao na dinamica dos fluxos e na geometria dos depositos gerados: observacoes obtidas a partir de estudo experimental de correntes de densidade nao-conservativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manica, Rafael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas. Nucleo de Estudos de Correntes de Densidade]. E-mail: rmanica@portoweb.com.br; Del Rey, Antonio Cosme; Maestri, Rogerio Dornelles; Borges, Ana Luiza de Oliveira; Viana, Adriano Roessler

    2005-05-01

    This study presents 28 physical simulations of non-conservative density currents used to evaluate their depositional patterns. Two different triggering mechanisms were used: lock gate and fluid injection. The impact of specific gravity, material type and grain size on the mixture were also checked. Dynamic and geometric features, such as head velocity and head/body height, were recorded. Results show flow velocity increase as concentration grows; deposition volumes present a general tendency to exponential decline with distance; the grain size range of the deposits decreases towards the distal portion of the channel. The results obtained have showed the efficiency of physical modeling in the study of turbidites in allowing correlations to be defined between currents and deposition patterns. (author)

  15. Experimental results of current distribution in Rutherford-type LHC cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    2000-01-01

    Current distribution among the wires of multi-strand superconducting cables is an important item for accelerator magnets. A non-uniform distribution could cause additional field distortions in the magnet bore and can as well be one of the reasons of premature quenching. Since two years electrical measurements on superconducting Rutherford-type cables are performed at CERN as part of the reception tests for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Cable samples of 2.4 m length are tested at currents up to 32 kA, temperatures around 1.9 and 4.3 K, and fields up to 10 T, applied perpendicularly as well as parallel to the broad face of the cable. Last year, an array of 24 Hall probes was installed in the test set-up in order to measure the self-field of the cable samples along one cable pitch. Each of the probes measures the local field generated by the current in the strands close by, and the results of the all probes reflect therefore the distribution of the strand currents. Experiments are done varying the applied fie...

  16. Small power systems study. Volume. Study results. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitney, L.R.

    1978-05-31

    The Division of Solar Technology of the Department of Energy is currently examining the market potential of a number of dispersed solar energy systems, including the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power system. Small fossil-fueled generating units in the United States utility system, (i.e., investor-owned, municipal, and cooperatives) have a current capacity of approximately 8000 MW/sub e/ or about 1.5 percent of the total US electrical capacity, and provide a large potential market for small solar thermal power systems. The Small Power Systems Study has as its objective the determination of conditions under which small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power units can provide cost-effective electrical power to a variety of users. Potential users, in addition to the utility systems; include Department of Defense installations and applications, remote mining and/or lumbering operations, and other industrial power systems with and without cogeneration. The first year's results on the Small Power Systems Study are summarized. The data base used and the breakeven cost analysis are discussed. Information on both small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units and the utility systems using them is presented as well as data on fossil fuel costs, solar plant costs, and solar insolation values. The results of a survey of Department of Defense (DOD) worldwide electrical generating capacity at its military bases and on a potential DOD application are presented. Information on a potential small solar power system experiment in the interior of Alaska is given, and a limited amount of information on a remote application which would provide power or a large open pit copper mine is presented. Volume II of this Technical Summary Report contains an inventory, by state, of the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units in the US utility system. (WHK)

  17. Results of many-year subsatellite measurements of current fine structure in northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Krayushkin, Evgeny; Kalashnikova, Nina

    Results of subsatellite measurements of coastal currents in the shelf zone of northeastern Black Sea are presented. The measurements have been performed every year since 2006 in June and September-October months near the Gelendzhik Bay. The main instruments used are Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and CTD probes. Ground and ship measurements were conducted simultaneously with satellite imaging in microwave (ASAR Envisat, ERS-2, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X), visible and infrared (OLI Landsat-8, ETM+ Landsat-7, TM Landsat-5, MODIS Terra/Aqua, AVHRR NOAA) ranges. The investigations performed revealed spatial, depth and temporal variability of current direction and velocity in the shelf zone. Multiple instances of counter-currents opposing to the Ring Current were registered. In our view, they are associated with a passage of small-scale anticyclonic eddies across the region of interest. The 3D structure of the eddies in the upper quasi-uniform layer was analyzed based on ADCP data. The use of high resolution (3 m) SAR data in combination with ADCP measurements at the resolution of 0.5 m allowed us to detect a number of internal wave trains. Form ADCP and thermistors records, their amplitudes were estimated to reach 5-8 m. Joint analysis of satellite SAR and subsatellite data gave an assessment of their typical wavelength at 90-100 m. Generation mechanisms of these internal waves are suggested. Another phenomenon of interest observed in the region of the measurements is surface manifestations of ring waves near localized natural and anthropogenic generation sources. Such ring waves are most frequently found in the anchor area for ships, whose oscillations can be the source of their generation. The work was in part supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects #14-05-00520-а, and 13-07-12017-ofi_m). SAR data from RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X were obtained under SOAR RADARSAT-2/TerraSAR-X Project #5074.

  18. Results of Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells Dependent on Operation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew A. Styczynski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents in situ measurements of a newly developed current density measurement system for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. While the functional principle and technical evaluation of the measurement system were presented in a previous paper, this paper analyzes the influence of various operation parameters, including multiple start-stop operation, at the anode, cathode and cooling locations on the distribution and long-term development of the current density. The system was operated for 500 h over two years with long periods of inactivity between measurements. The measurement results are evaluated and provide additional information on how to optimize the operation modes of fuel cells, including the start and stop of such systems as well as the water balance.

  19. Quality metrics currently used in academic radiology departments: results of the QUALMET survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric A; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M; Fotos, Joseph S; Bruno, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the 2015 quality metrics (QUALMET) survey, which was designed to assess the commonalities and variability of selected quality and productivity metrics currently employed by a large sample of academic radiology departments representing all regions in the USA. The survey of key radiology metrics was distributed in March-April of 2015 via personal e-mail to 112 academic radiology departments. There was a 34.8% institutional response rate. We found that most academic departments of radiology commonly utilize metrics of hand hygiene, report turn around time (RTAT), relative value unit (RVU) productivity, patient satisfaction and participation in peer review. RTAT targets were found to vary widely. The implementation of radiology peer review and the variety of ways in which peer review results are used within academic radiology departments, the use of clinical decision support tools and requirements for radiologist participation in Maintenance of Certification also varied. Policies for hand hygiene and critical results communication were very similar across all institutions reporting, and most departments utilized some form of missed case/difficult case conference as part of their quality and safety programme, as well as some form of periodic radiologist performance reviews. Results of the QUALMET survey suggest many similarities in tracking and utilization of the selected quality and productivity metrics included in our survey. Use of quality indicators is not a fully standardized process among academic radiology departments. Advances in knowledge: This article examines the current quality and productivity metrics in academic radiology.

  20. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the

  1. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  2. Results of the 2015 Perfusionist Salary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Doreen M; Dove, Steven; Jordan, Ralph E

    2016-12-01

    Presently, there exists no published valid and reliable salary study of clinical perfusionists. The objective of the 2015 Perfusionist Salary Study was to gather verifiable employee information to determine current compensation market rates (salary averages) of clinical perfusionists working in the United States. A salary survey was conducted between April 2015 and March 2016. The survey required perfusionists to answer questions about work volume, scheduling, and employer-paid compensation including benefits. Participants were also required to submit a de-identified pay stub to validate the income they reported. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all survey questions (e.g., percentages, means, and ranges). The study procured 481 responses, of which 287 were validated (i.e., respondents provided income verification that matched reported earnings). Variables that were examined within the validated sample population include job title, type of institution of employment, education level, years of experience, and geographic region, among others. Additional forms of compensation which may affect base compensation rates were also calculated including benefits, call time, bonuses, and pay for ancillary services (e.g., extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist device). In conclusion, in 2015, the average salary for all perfusionists is $127,600 with 19 years' experience. This research explores the average salary within subpopulations based on other factors such as position role, employer type, and geography. Information from this study is presented to guide employer compensation programs and suggests the need for further study in consideration of attrition rates and generational changes (i.e., perfusionists reaching retirement age) occurring alongside the present perfusionist staffing shortage affecting many parts of the country.

  3. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  4. A study of the current collecting sectors of a U-25B diagonal megnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V.V.; Panovka, M.Ya.; Semenov, V.D.; Sokolov, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of an experimental study and a calculated analysis of the operation of current collecting sectors of the U-25B magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The effect was studied of the parameters of the current, the coefficient of electrical loading, the disposition of the current collecting sectors (T) relative to the diagram of the magnetic field on the distribution of current along the length of the current collecting sectors. It is established that with optimal disposition of the current collecting sectors a uniform distribution of current is achieved. A simplified calculation model of the current collecting sector is developed. It is shown that the experimental and calculated relationships match well. The effect of the ballast resisters installed in the current collecting circuits on the distribution of current is examined. Their positive role in preventing current overloads on the frames and in supporting the uniform distribution of current is noted.

  5. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, H.; Hiraki, N. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Toi, K. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 {<=} {rho} {<=} 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear {Delta}`-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  6. Theoretical studies of non inductive current drive in compact toroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farengo, R; Lifschitz, AF; Caputi, KI; Arista, NR; Clemente, RA

    2002-01-01

    Three non inductive current drive methods that can be applied to compact toroids axe studied. The use of neutral beams to drive current in field reversed configurations and spheromaks is studied using a Monte Carlo code that includes a complete ionization package and follows the exact particle orbit

  7. Studies on Relevance, Ranking and Results Display

    CERN Document Server

    Gelernter, Judith; Carbonell, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the extent to which users with the same query agree as to what is relevant, and how what is considered relevant may translate into a retrieval algorithm and results display. To combine user perceptions of relevance with algorithm rank and to present results, we created a prototype digital library of scholarly literature. We confine studies to one population of scientists (paleontologists), one domain of scholarly scientific articles (paleo-related), and a prototype system (PaleoLit) that we built for the purpose. Based on the principle that users do not pre-suppose answers to a given query but that they will recognize what they want when they see it, our system uses a rules-based algorithm to cluster results into fuzzy categories with three relevance levels. Our system matches at least 1/3 of our participants' relevancy ratings 87% of the time. Our subsequent usability study found that participants trusted our uncertainty labels but did not value our color-coded horizontal results layout ...

  8. AES Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems in order to enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near and long term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I of this study established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as indentifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II of this study focused on the near term space exploration objectives by establishing an ISS-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  9. Current IGEX Results for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of {sup 76}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Aalseth, C.E.; Avignone, F.T.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Hensley, W.K.; Irastorza, I.G.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Klimenko, A.A.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Osetrov, S.B.; Pogosov, V.S.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Sarsa, M.L.; Scopel, S.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Tamanyan, A.G.; Vasenko, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I.; Villar, J.A

    2000-06-01

    The International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) is currently operating three 2-kg enriched germanium detectors in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain) at 2450 mwe, in a search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The detectors are equipped with Pulse Shape Analysis electronics. This implementation of Pulse Shape Discrimination results in a rejection of 60%-80% of the background in the 2.0-2.5 MeV energy interval. Analysis of 116.75 mole-years of data yields a lower bound {>=} 1.57 x 10{sup 25}y (or T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2} {>=} 1.13 x 10{sup 25}y without PSD) (90% C.L.) corresponding to (m{sub {nu}}) < (0.33 - 1.31) eV, depending on the theoretical nuclear matrix elements used to extract the neutrino mass parameter.

  10. Current IGEX Results for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, D.; Aalseth, C. E.; Avignone, F. T., Jr.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Cebrián, S.; García, E.; Hensley, W. K.; Irastorza, I. G.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A. A.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Puimedón, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Sarsa, M. L.; Scopel, S.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Vasenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) is currently operating three 2-kg enriched germanium detectors in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain) at 2450 mwe, in a search for the neutrinoless double- beta decay of 76Ge. The detectors are equipped with Pulse Shape Analysis electronics. This implementation of Pulse Shape Discrimination results in a rejection of 60%-80% of the background in the 2.0-2.5 MeV energy interval. Analysis of 116.75 mole-years of data yields a lower bound ≥ 1.57 × 10 25y ( or T {1}/{2}0ν ≥ 1.13 × 10 25y without PSD) (90% C.L.) corresponding to < (0.33 - 1.31) eV, depending on the theoretical nuclear matrix elements used to extract the neutrino mass parameter.

  11. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  12. Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) study. Fiscal year 1989 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Miles K. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is exploring the potential and feasibility of a personal access satellite system (PASS) that will offer the user greater freedom and mobility than existing or currently planned communications systems. Studies performed in prior years resulted in a strawman design and the identification of technologies that are critical to the successful implementation of PASS. The study efforts in FY-89 were directed towards alternative design options with the objective of either improving the system performance or alleviating the constraints on the user terminal. The various design options and system issues studied this year and the results of the study are presented.

  13. Study of a fibre optics current sensor for the measurement of plasma current in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuilpart, Marc; Vanus, Benoit; Andrasan, Alina; Gusarov, Andrei; Moreau, Philippe; Mégret, Patrice

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study the feasibility of using a fibre-optics current sensor (FOCS) for the measurement of plasma current in the future fusion reactor ITER. The sensor is based on a classical FOCS interrogator involving the measurement of the state of polarization rotation undergone by the light in presence of a magnetic field (Faraday effect) in an optical fibre surrounding the current and terminated by a Faraday mirror. We considered a uniformly spun optical fibre as the sensing element and we used the Stokes formalism to simulate the sensor. The objective of the simulations is to quantify the ratio LB/SP (beat length over the spun period of the spun fibre) enabling a measurement error in agreement with the ITER specifications. The simulator takes into account the temperature variations undergone by the measurement system under ITER operation. The simulation work showed that a LB/SP ratio of 19.2 is adequate.

  14. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  15. Simulation studies of direct-current microdischarges for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Thomas Dominique

    effort for the MPT. Computational results for the impedance characteristics as well as electrodynamic and chemical features of the discharge are reported and compared to experimental results. At low current (thruster. A significant increase in specific impulse, compared to the cold gas micronozzle, is obtained from the power deposition into the expanding gas. For a discharge voltage of 750 V, a power input of 650 mW, and an argon mass flow rate of 5 sccm, the specific impulse of the device is increased by a factor of ˜1.5 to a value of 74 s. The microdischarge remains mostly confined inside the micronozzle and operates in an abnormal regime. Gas heating, primarily due to ion Joule heating, is found to have a strong influence on the overall discharge behavior. The study provides crucial understanding to aid in the design of direct-current microdischarge based thrusters.

  16. MODEL STUDY OF THE DOUBLE FED MACHINE WITH CURRENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lyapin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling results of the double fed induction machine with current control in the rotor circuit. We show the most promising applications of electric drives on the basis of the double fed induction machine and their advantages. We present and consider functional scheme of the electric drive on the basis of the double fed induction machine with current control. Equations are obtained for creation of such machine mathematical model. Expressions for vector projections of rotor current are given. According to the obtained results, the change of the vector projections of rotor current ensures operation of the double fed induction machine with the specified values of active and reactive stator power throughout the variation range of sliding motion. We consider static characteristics of double fed machine with current control. Energy processes proceeding in the machine are analyzed. We confirm the operationpossibility of double fed induction machine with current controlin the rotor circuit with given values of active and reactive stator power. The presented results can be used for creation of mathematical models and static characteristics of double fed machines with current control of various capacities.

  17. Current practices in percutaneous nephrolithotomy in Mexico: results of a nation-wide electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christian I Villeda; Roca, Benjamin E Montaño; Molina, Ricardo A Castillejos; Mendez-Probst, Carlos E

    2015-11-01

    Practice patterns and choice of technological instruments in PCNL are not always standardized. There are no previous reports on the PCNL practice tendencies and patterns in Latin America. The aim of the study is to describe the current practice patterns of PCNL among the members of the Mexican Society of Urology ("Sociedad Mexicana de Urologia"). Observational and descriptive study. A 9-item closed questionnaire on PCNL practice patterns was answered by members of the Mexican Society of Urology in a secure website hosted survey after e-mail invitation. A descriptive numerical and graphical analysis was performed. A total of 90 contestants were registered out of 492 potential participants. PCNL is performed by 80% of the participants, with an average of 16 procedures per year. Percutaneous tracts are commonly obtained by urologists on the same day of the procedure. Sequential and telescopic dilators are equally preferred over balloons. The pneumatic litotriptor is the most common choice and CT scan and X-ray are equally used as follow-up. The practice patterns of PCNL from Mexican urologists are different from other international reports. Influence of socio-economic circumstances is inferred.

  18. Invasive aspergillosis: results of multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Klimko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a multicenter study of 445 patients with “proven” and “probable” invasive aspergillosis (EORTC/MSG, 2008. Invasive aspergillosis usually occurs in patients with hematological malignancies (88 %, main underlying diseases were acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The risk factors: prolonged agranulocytosis (64 %, cytostatic chemotherapy (57 %, corticosteroid treatment (45 %, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (29 %. The pathogens – A. fumigatus (42 %, A. niger (33 %, and A. flavus (21 %. The main site of infection were lungs (86 %. 12 week overall survival was 83 %. Bronchoscopy use for the early diagnosis (p = 0.01, adequatetherapy with voriconazole (p = 0.002 and secondary antifungal prophylaxis (p = 0.0003 were positive prognostic factors for survival of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  19. Numerical Study on the Bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yulong; WANG Qi; SONG Jun; ZHU Xiande; GONG Xiaoqing; WU Fang

    2011-01-01

    A 1.5-layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress is used to study the bifurcations of the North Equatorial Current (NEC).The authors found that after removing the Ekman drift,the modelled circulations can serve well as a proxy of the SODA circulations on the σθ=25.0kgm-3 potential density surface based on available long-term reanalysis wind stress data.The modelled results show that the location of the western boundary bifurcation of the NEC depends on both zonal averaged and local zero wind stress curl latitude.The effects of the anomalous wind stress curl added in different areas are also investigated and it is found that they can change the strength of the Mindanao Eddy (ME),and then influence the interior pathway.

  20. ORNL-EPR study: results and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlees, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A two-year preliminary design study of a tokamak experimental power reactor has been completed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major engineering features, plasma physics characteristics, and technological requirements of the device are discussed. Plasma confinement is provided in a toroidal chamber of major radius, R/sub o/ = 6.75 m and minor radius, a = 2.25 m. The toroidal magnetic field strength is 4.8 T. A unique poloidal magnetic field system creates the fields required for plasma equilibrium and stability. The power extraction system is centered around the blanket, which absorbs approximately 90 percent of the energy produced in the plasma. The operating characteristics and nuclear performance of the system are given. The results of the study indicate a low benefit-to-cost ratio for this design. Recent developments have suggested that some of the design constraints were too restrictive. The advisability of a large scale test of the ideas linked to these developments has become apparent. To this end, ORNL has started the design of a high-..beta.. tokamak. The basis for the high power density device is discussed.

  1. Presal36: a high resolution ocean current model for Brazilian pre-salt area: implementation and validation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The PRESAL 36 JIP is a project for the development of a powerful Ocean Current Model of 1/36 of a degree resolution, nested in an existing Global Ocean global Model, Mercator PSY4 (1/12-a-degree resolution ), with tide corrections, improved bathymetry accuracy and high frequency atmospheric forcing (every 3 hours). The simulation outputs will be the 3 dimensional structure of the velocity fields (u,v,w) at 50 vertical levels over the water column, including geostrophic, Ekman and tidal currents, together with Temperature, Salinity and sea surface height at a sub-mesoscale spatial resolution. Simulations will run in hindcast, nowcast and forecast modes, with a temporal resolution of 3 hours . This Ocean current model will allow to perform detailed statistical studies on various areas using conditions analysed using hindcast mode, short term operational condition prediction for various surface and sub sea operations using realtime and Forecast modes. The paper presents a publication of significant results of the project, in term of pre-sal zoomed model implementation, and high resolution model validation. It demonstrate the capability to properly describe ocean current phenomenon at beyond mesoscale frontier. This project demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining accurate information for engineering studies and operational conditions, based on a 'zoom technique' starting from global ocean models. (author)

  2. Photospheric Current Spikes and Their Possible Association with Flares - Results from an HMI Data Driven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Kwan, Chiman; Ayhan, Bulent; Shang, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    A data driven, near photospheric magnetohydrodynamic model predicts spikes in the horizontal current density, and associated resistive heating rate per unit volume Q. The spikes appear as increases by orders of magnitude above background values in neutral line regions (NLRs) of active regions (ARs). The largest spikes typically occur a few hours to a few days prior to M or X flares. The spikes correspond to large vertical derivatives of the horizontal magnetic field. The model takes as input the photospheric magnetic field observed by the Helioseismic & Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. This 2.5 D field is used to determine an analytic expression for a 3 D magnetic field, from which the current density, vector potential, and electric field are computed in every AR pixel for 14 ARs. The field is not assumed to be force-free. The spurious 6, 12, and 24 hour Doppler periods due to SDO orbital motion are filtered out of the time series of the HMI magnetic field for each pixel using a band pass filter. The subset of spikes analyzed at the pixel level are found to occur on HMI and granulation scales of 1 arcsec and 12 minutes. Spikes are found in ARs with and without M or X flares, and outside as well as inside NLRs, but the largest spikes are localized in the NLRs of ARs with M or X flares. The energy to drive the heating associated with the largest current spikes comes from bulk flow kinetic energy, not the electromagnetic field, and the current density is highly non-force free. The results suggest that, in combination with the model, HMI is revealing strong, convection driven, non-force free heating events on granulation scales, and that it is plausible these events are correlated with subsequent M or X flares. More and longer time series need to be analyzed to determine if such a correlation exists. Above an AR dependent threshold value of Q, the number of events N(Q) with heating rates greater than or equal to Q obeys a scale

  3. Estimation of the yield of poplars in plantations of fast-growing species within current results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current results are presented of allometric yield estimates of the poplar short rotation coppice. According to a literature review it is obvious that yield estimates, based on measurable quantities of a growing stand, depend not only on the selected tree specie or its clone, but also on the site location. The Jap-105 poplar clone (P. nigra x P. maximowiczii allometric relations were analyzed by regression methods aimed at the creation of the yield estimation methodology at a testing site in Domanínek. Altogether, the twelve polynomial dependences of particular measured quantities approved the high empirical data conformity with the tested regression model (correlation index from 0.9033 to 0.9967. Within the forward stepwise regression, factors were selected, which explain best examined estimates of the total biomass DM; i.e. d.b.h. and stem height. Furthermore, the KESTEMONT’s (1971 mo­del was verified with a satisfying conformity as well. Approving presented yield estimation methods, the presented models will be checked in a large-scale field trial.

  4. Current and future delivery of diagnostic electron microscopy in the UK: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Tracey; Furness, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) remains essential to delivering several specialist areas of diagnosis, especially the interpretation of native renal biopsies. However, there is anecdotal evidence of EM units struggling to survive, for a variety of reasons. The authors sought to obtain objective evidence of the extent and the causes of this problem. An online survey was undertaken of Fellows of the Royal College of Pathologists who use EM in diagnosis. A significant number of EM units anticipate having to close and hence outsource their EM work in the coming years. Yet most existing units are working to full capacity and would be unable to take on the substantial amounts of extra work implied by other units outsourcing their needs. Equipment and staffing are identified by most EM units as the major barriers to growth and are also the main reasons cited for units facing potential closure. In the current financial climate it seems unlikely that units will be willing to make the large investment in equipment and staff needed to take on extra work, unless they can be reasonably confident of an acceptable financial return as a result of increased external referral rates. The case is thus made for a degree of national coordination of the future provision of this specialist service, possibly through the National Commissioning Group or the new National Commissioning Board. Without this, the future of diagnostic EM services in the UK is uncertain. Its failure would pose a threat to good patient care.

  5. STUDENT SATISFACTION, RESULTANT OF MARKETING ORIENTATION OF UNIVERSITY UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina DINESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present a relevant aspect of marketing approach of the activities carried by universities, respectively knowing, understanding and satisfying students’ needs, the main consumer category of the university product, in the conditions of current market of high education institutions. The universities are put in the position to find solutions to the problems caused by the stakeholders’ characteristics and by the existing competition on the educational market. The approach of marketing orientation in the university implies adapting the educational and scientific research step to create for the institution a brand image as a warranty of its sustainability on a competitive market by considering the needs and expectations of students. The conclusion is that there is a wide specialized literature that shows models that allow an adequate quantification of the students’ satisfaction as a resultant of concerning the insurance of high education quality by using univeristy marketing tools. Starting from the specialized literature, in the work was handled the quantification of the students’ satisfaction that have completed Bachelor and Master cycle in order to improve the activity of the university

  6. HIV-1 Tat protein increases microglial outward K(+ current and resultant neurotoxic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianuo Liu

    Full Text Available Microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Increasing evidence indicates the voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels are involved in the regulation of microglia function, prompting us to hypothesize Kv channels may also be involved in microglia-mediated neurotoxic activity in HIV-1-infected brain. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the involvement of Kv channels in the response of microglia to HIV-1 Tat protein. Treatment of rat microglia with HIV-1 Tat protein (200 ng/ml resulted in pro-inflammatory microglial activation, as indicated by increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, which were accompanied by enhanced outward K(+ current and Kv1.3 channel expression. Suppression of microglial Kv1.3 channel activity, either with Kv1.3 channel blockers Margatoxin, 5-(4-Phenoxybutoxypsoralen, or broad-spectrum K(+ channel blocker 4-Aminopyridine, or by knockdown of Kv1.3 expression via transfection of microglia with Kv1.3 siRNA, was found to abrogate the neurotoxic activity of microglia resulting from HIV-1 Tat exposure. Furthermore, HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis was attenuated with the application of supernatant collected from K(+ channel blocker-treated microglia. Lastly, the intracellular signaling pathways associated with Kv1.3 were investigated and enhancement of microglial Kv1.3 was found to correspond with an increase in Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. These data suggest targeting microglial Kv1.3 channels may be a potential new avenue of therapy for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders.

  7. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    contribute essentially to radiation risk estimations for future interplanetary space exploration by humans, putting them on a solid experimental and theoretical basis. The talk will give an overview of the current status of the MATROSHKA data evaluation and results and comparisons of the first three MTR experimental phases (MTR-1, 2A and 2B). The HAMLET project is funded by the European Commission under the EUs Seventh Frame-work Programme (FP7) under Project Nr: 218817 and coordinated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) http://www-fp7-hamlet.eu

  8. Equity perceptions and marital satisfaction in former and current marriage : A study among the remarried

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Mutsaers, W

    1999-01-01

    A study among 290 remarried individuals examined equity perceptions in the former and the current marriage. The results showed that equity in the former and the current marriage were not related to each other. In general, respondents perceived much more inequity in the former than in the current mar

  9. Is Current CMBR Temperature: The Scale Independent Quantum Gravitational Result of Black Hole Cosmology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshavatharam, U. V. S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    If one is willing to consider the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole (universe that constitutes dynamic space-time and exhibits quantum behavior) automatically general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a `scale independent' true unified model of quantum gravity. By considering the `Planck mass' as the initial mass of the baby Hubble volume, past and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be understood. Current rate of cosmic black hole expansion is being stopped by the microscopic quantum mechanical lengths. In this new direction authors observed 5 important quantum mechanical methods for understanding the current cosmic deceleration. To understand the ground reality of current cosmic rate of expansion, sensitivity and accuracy of current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current CMBR temperature and current Hubble constant must be improved and alternative methods must be developed. If it is true that galaxy constitutes so many stars, each star constitutes so many hydrogen atoms and light is coming from the excited electron of galactic hydrogen atom, then considering redshift as an index of `whole galaxy' receding may not be reasonable. During cosmic evolution, at any time in the past, in hydrogen atom emitted photon energy was always inversely proportional to the CMBR temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy's excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference to the current laboratory data. As cosmic time passes, in future, the absolute rate of cosmic expansion can be understood by observing the rate of increase in the magnitude of photon energy emitted from laboratory hydrogen atom. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of high cosmic back ground temperature. Need of new mathematical methods & techniques, computer simulations, advanced engineering skills seem to be essential

  10. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangping Kong; Zhe Zhang; Xianggen Yin; Zhenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influenc...

  11. Late sodium current block for drug-induced long QT syndrome: Results from a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, L; Vicente, J; Mason, J W; Erato, C; Sanabria, C; Waite-Labott, K; Hong, M; Lin, J; Guo, P; Mutlib, A; Wang, J; Crumb, W J; Blinova, K; Chan, D; Stohlman, J; Florian, J; Ugander, M; Stockbridge, N; Strauss, D G

    2016-02-01

    Drug-induced long QT syndrome has resulted in many drugs being withdrawn from the market. At the same time, the current regulatory paradigm for screening new drugs causing long QT syndrome is preventing drugs from reaching the market, sometimes inappropriately. In this study, we report the results of a first-of-a-kind clinical trial studying late sodium (mexiletine and lidocaine) and calcium (diltiazem) current blocking drugs to counteract the effects of hERG potassium channel blocking drugs (dofetilide and moxifloxacin). We demonstrate that both mexiletine and lidocaine substantially reduce heart-rate corrected QT (QTc) prolongation from dofetilide by 20 ms. Furthermore, all QTc shortening occurs in the heart-rate corrected J-Tpeak (J-Tpeak c) interval, the biomarker we identified as a sign of late sodium current block. This clinical trial demonstrates that late sodium blocking drugs can substantially reduce QTc prolongation from hERG potassium channel block and assessment of J-Tpeak c may add value beyond only assessing QTc.

  12. Prediction of SFL Interruption Performance from the Results of Arc Simulation during High-Current Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Woun-Jea

    2015-09-01

    The design and development procedures of SF6 gas circuit breakers are still largely based on trial and error through testing although the development costs go higher every year. The computation cannot cover the testing satisfactorily because all the real processes arc not taken into account. But the knowledge of the arc behavior and the prediction of the thermal-flow inside the interrupters by numerical simulations are more useful than those by experiments due to the difficulties to obtain physical quantities experimentally and the reduction of computational costs in recent years. In this paper, in order to get further information into the interruption process of a SF6 self-blast interrupter, which is based on a combination of thermal expansion and the arc rotation principle, gas flow simulations with a CFD-arc modeling are performed during the whole switching process such as high-current period, pre-current zero period, and current-zero period. Through the complete work, the pressure-rise and the ramp of the pressure inside the chamber before current zero as well as the post-arc current after current zero should be a good criterion to predict the short-line fault interruption performance of interrupters.

  13. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  14. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  15. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Turu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  16. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  17. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  18. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (nonlinear attribution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuchar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979–2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  19. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  20. Chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation. Current treatment results and new mechanism-based surgical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Zijlstra, Felix; Mariani, Massimo A.; Ebels, Tjark

    2010-01-01

    Chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR) remains one of the most complex and unresolved aspects in the management of ischaemic heart disease. This review provides an overview of the present knowledge about the different aspects of CIMR with an emphasis on mechanisms, current surgical treatment

  1. Experimental Results on Current-Driven Turbulence in Plasmas - a Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekluiver, H.; Perepelkin, N. F.; Hirose, A.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental consequences of plasma turbulence driven by a current parallel to a magnetic field and concurrent anomalous plasma heating are reviewed, with an attempt to deduce universalities in key parameters such as the anomalous electrical conductivities observed in diverse devices. It has

  2. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in Germany. Results of the 2005 query and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, O. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Burchert, W. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Arbeitsgemeinschaft ' ' Kardiovaskulaere Nuklearmedizin' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Bengel, F.M. [Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Insts., Baltimore (United States); Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Nuklearkardiologische Diagnostik' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Kardiologie (Germany); Zimmermann, R. [Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Nuklearkardiologische Diagnostik' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Kardiologie (Germany); Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Pforzheim GmbH (Germany); Dahl, J. vom [Klinik fuer Kardiologie, Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Moenchengladbach (Germany); Schaefer, W.; Buell, U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany); Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Schwaiger, M. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Kluge, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Schaefers, M. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft ' ' Kardiovaskulaere Nuklearmedizin' ' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The working group Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN), in cooperation with the working group Nuclear Cardiology of the German Cardiac Society (DGK), decided to conduct a national survey on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Method: a questionnaire to evaluate MPS for the year 2005 was sent. Results: 346 completed questionnaires had been returned (213 private practices, 99 hospitals and 33 university hospitals). MPS of 112 707 patients were reported with 110 747 stress and 95 878 rest studies. The majority (> 75%) was performed with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI or tetrofosmin. {sup 201}Tl stress-redistribution was used in 22 637 patients (20%). The types of stress were exercise in 78%, vasodilation with adenosine or dipyridamol in 21% and dobutamine in 1%. 99.97% of all MPS were SPECT studies. Gated SPECT was performed in 36% of the stress and in 32% of the rest studies. An attenuation correction was used in 21%. 29 institutions (8%) performed gated SPECT (stress and rest) and attenuation correction. 47% of all MPS were requested by ambulatory care cardiologists, 17% by internists, 12% by primary care physicians, 21% by hospital departments and 2% by others. Conclusion: in Germany, MPS is predominantly performed with {sup 99m}Tc-perfusion agents. The common type of stress is ergometry. Gated SPECT and attenuation correction do not yet represent standards of MPS practice in Germany, which indicates some potential of optimization. (orig.)

  3. Complaint studies: Methodological considerations and a result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Thøgersen, John

    are developed, ranging from the Rasch model via latent structure analysis with several correlated latent variables to suggestions about a comprehensive framework, combining Fishbein-Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour and latent trait models. The empirical results show that the propensity to complain in Denmark...

  4. Complaint studies: Methodological considerations and a result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Thøgersen, John

    are developed, ranging from the Rasch model via latent structure analysis with several correlated latent variables to suggestions about a comprehensive framework, combining Fishbein-Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour and latent trait models. The empirical results show that the propensity to complain in Denmark...

  5. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  6. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  7. Current research and future directions in pattern identification: Results of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Ju Ah; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Goto, Hirozo; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kao, Shung-Te; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Bongki; Park, Kyung-Mo; You, Sooseong; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-12-01

    A symposium on pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on October 2, 2013, in Daejeon, South Korea. This symposium was convened to provide information on the current research in PI as well as suggest future research directions. The participants discussed the nature of PI, possible research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research. With eight presentations and an extensive panel discussion, the symposium allowed participants to discuss research methods in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented the topic, 'Clinical pattern differentiation and contemporary research in PI.' Two speakers presented current trends in research on blood stasis while the remaining five other delegates discussed the research methods and future directions of PI research. The participants engaged in in-depth discussions regarding the nature of PI, potential research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research.

  8. Elbow hemiarthroplasty for the management of distal humeral fractures: current technique, indications and results

    OpenAIRE

    Phadnis, Joideep; Adam C. Watts; Bain, Gregory I

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing recent interest in the use of elbow hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of distal humeral trauma in select patients. However, the current available evidence regarding outcome after elbow hemiarthroplasty is limited to case series and biomechanical data. Consequently, the procedure remains unfamiliar to many surgeons. The aim of the present review is to outline the evidence regarding elbow hemiarthroplasty and to use this, along with the author’s experience, to better d...

  9. Genitourinary brucellosis: results of a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, H; Elaldi, N; Ak, O; Gulsun, S; Tekin, R; Ulug, M; Duygu, F; Sunnetcioglu, M; Tulek, N; Guler, S; Cag, Y; Kaya, S; Turker, N; Parlak, E; Demirdal, T; Ataman Hatipoglu, C; Avci, A; Bulut, C; Avci, M; Pekok, A; Savasci, U; Kaya, S; Sozen, H; Tasbakan, M; Guven, T; Bolukcu, S; Cesur, S; Sahin-Horasan, E; Kazak, E; Denk, A; Gonen, I; Karagoz, G; Haykir Solay, A; Alici, O; Kader, C; Senturk, G; Tosun, S; Turan, H; Baran, A I; Ozturk-Engin, D; Bozkurt, F; Deveci, O; Inan, A; Kadanali, A; Sayar, M S; Cetin, B; Yemisen, M; Naz, H; Gorenek, L; Agalar, C

    2014-11-01

    This study reviewed the clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and prognostic data on genitourinary involvement of brucellosis in this largest case series reported. This multicentre study pooled adult patients with genitourinary brucellar involvement from 34 centres treated between 2000 and 2013. Diagnosis of the disease was established by conventional methods. Overall 390 patients with genitourinary brucellosis (352 male, 90.2%) were pooled. In male patients, the most frequent involved site was the scrotal area (n=327, 83.8%), as epididymo-orchitis (n=204, 58%), orchitis (n=112, 31.8%) and epididymitis (n=11, 3.1%). In female patients, pyelonephritis (n=33/38, 86.8%) was significantly higher than in male patients (n=11/352, 3.1%; pbrucellosis occurred in one patient. A localized scrotal infection in men or pyelonephritis in women in the absence of leucocytosis and with mild to moderate increases in inflammatory markers should signal the possibility of brucellar genitourinary disease.

  10. New results of the extreme multiplicity studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kokoulina, E; Petukhov, Yu; Karpov, A; Kutov, A

    2009-01-01

    Extreme multiplicity studies at 50 GeV in pp interactions are discussed. Preliminary multiplicity distributions at U-70 (IHEP, Protvino) energy have been obtained for more than 20 charged particles. A new elaborated algorithm for the track reconstruction in a drift tube tracker and magnetic spectrometer, has been checked . The collective behavior of secondary particles is manifested in these interactions in the extreme multiplicity region. For the first time the ring events in pp interactions have been observed in this region. A possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation detection is discussed.

  11. Differential Thermostimulated Discharge Current Method for Studying Electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekishev, G. A.; Yovcheva, T. A.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    The thermostimulated discharge current method (TSDC) is widely used for the study of charge storage mechanisms in electrets. A new discharged technique, called differential, which consists in discharging a charged sample through an otherwise identical but uncharged one, has been proposed by J.-P. Reboul and A. Toureille. In the present paper a new version of the differential thermostimulated discharge current method is advanced. In contrast to the differential technique described earlier, the measuring cell allows to realize typical differential technique. In this case the measuring system records the difference of the thermostimulated currents of two samples which have been preliminary charged (or thermally treated) under the same or different conditions. Samples of 0.85 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate are used to demonstrate an operation of the developed differential TSDC method.

  12. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Kong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influence of controller parameters of converter on the fault current characteristics is analyzed emphatically. It builds a basis for the construction of relay protection which is suitable for the power gird with accession of DFIG.

  13. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  14. Effect of current mode on PEO treatment of magnesium in Ca- and P-containing electrolyte and resulting coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonghao; Yerokhin, Aleksey; Matthews, Allan

    2014-10-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were produced on commercially pure magnesium in a biologically friendly electrolyte composed of 2 g L-1 Ca(OH)2 and 12 g L-1 Na3PO4·12H2O using pulsed unipolar and bipolar current regimes with negative biasing varying from 0 to 20 mA cm-2. Analysis of voltage transients was performed to characterise the PEO processes. The coating morphology and phase composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique, respectively. In vitro corrosion performance of the coatings was evaluated in a simulated body fluid at 37 ± 1 °C, using electrochemical techniques including open circuit potential monitoring, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarisation scans. The influence of the negative biasing on the PEO process and resulting coating characteristics is discussed. Unlike generally recognised beneficial effects of the negative biasing in PEO treatments of some other metal-electrolyte systems, it was found that detrimental effects are induced to the coatings on cp-Mg produced in the studied electrolyte when the negative current amplitude increases, which may be attributed to hydrogen liberation at the coating/substrate interface during the negative biasing cycles. As a result, a deterioration of vitro corrosion performance was observed for the pulsed bipolar PEO coatings compared to those produced using the pulsed unipolar regime which provides better quality coatings.

  15. Results of the Dendrochronological Studies in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C. Jacoby

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mongolian-AmericanTree-Ring Project was initiated in 1995 to develop longer climatic records in Mongolia and to help establish capabilities in Mongolia for independent tree-ring analyses. The records from old-aged trees can provide more complete information about the variations in the climate system and aid in planning for future changes or variations in climate. Many areas of Mongolia have been investigated and tree-ring samples collected. Dendroclimatic records of temperature extending back more than one thousand years and precipitation records of over 300 years have been developed. These records show that global warming is present in Mongolia and that variations in precipitation and stream-flow appear to show some solar influence. Scientists and students trained by ,the project are now engaged in tree-ring studies in various areas of Mongolia. The project is expected to continue for the next several years.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE NEPHELINE PHASE III STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2009-11-09

    This study is the third phase in a series of experiments designed to reduce conservatism in the model that predicts the formation of nepheline, a crystalline phase that can reduce the durability of high level waste glass. A Phase I study developed a series of glass compositions that were very durable while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62, where nepheline is predicted to crystallize upon slow cooling. A Phase II study selected glass compositions to identify any linear effects of composition on nepheline crystallization and that were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. However, it was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results of the Phase II study alone were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator. It was recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where the only constraint limiting processing is the current nepheline discriminator. Two methods were used in selecting glasses for this Phase III nepheline study. The first was based on the relationship of the current nepheline discriminator model to the other DWPF PCCS models, and the second was based on theory of crystallization in mineral and glass melts. A series of 29 test glass compositions was selected for this study using a combination of the two approaches. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. After reviewing the data, the study glasses generally met the target compositions with little issue. Product Consistency Test results correlated well with the crystallization analyses in

  17. Test beam results of a heavily irradiated Current Injected Detector (CID)

    CERN Document Server

    Harkonen, J; Tuominen, E; Moilanen, H; Maenpaa, T; Verbitskaya, E; Eremin, V; Czellar, S; Dierlamm, A; Tuovinen, E; Lampen, T; Frey, M; Li, Z; Luukka, P

    2010-01-01

    A heavily irradiated (3 x 10(15) 1 MeV n(eq)/cm(2)) Current Injected Detector (CID) was tested with 225 GeV muon beam at CERN H2 beam line. In the CID concept the current is limited by the space charge. The injected carriers will be trapped by the deep levels and this induces a stable electric field through the entire bulk regardless of the irradiation fluence the detector has been exposed to. The steady-state density of the trapped charge is defined by the balance between the trapping and the emission rates of charge carriers (detrapping). Thus, the amount of charge injection needed for the electric field stabilization depends on the temperature. AC-coupled 16 cm(2) detector was processed on high resistivity n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon, and it had 768 strips, 50 mu m pitch, 10 mu m strip width and 3.9 cm strip length. The beam test was carried out using a silicon beam telescope that is based on the CMS detector readout prototype components, APV25 readout chips, and eight strip sensors made by Hamamat...

  18. Results of Ponseti Brasil Program: Multicentric Study in 1621 Feet: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Monica P; Queiroz, Ana C D B F; Melanda, Alessandro G; Tedesco, Ana P; Brandão, Antonio L G; Beling, Claudio; Violante, Francisco H; Brandão, Gilberto F; Ferreira, Laura F A; Brambila, Leandro S; Leite, Leopoldina M; Zabeu, Jose L; Kim, Jung H; Fernandes, Kalyana E; Arima, Marcia A S; Aguilar, Maria D P Q; Farias Filho, Orlando C D; Oliveira Filho, Oscar B D A; Pinho, Solange D S; Moulin, Paulo; Volpi, Reinaldo; Fox, Mark; Greenwald, Miles F; Lyle, Brandon; Morcuende, Jose A

    The Ponseti method has been shown to be the most effective treatment for congenital clubfoot. The current challenge is to establish sustainable national clubfoot treatment programs that utilize the Ponseti method and integrate it within a nation's governmental health system. The Brazilian Ponseti Program (Programa Ponseti Brasil) has increased awareness of the utility of the Ponseti method and has trained >500 Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons in it. A group of 18 of those surgeons had been able to reproduce the Ponseti clubfoot treatment, and compiled their initial results through structured spreadsheet. The study compiled 1040 patients for a total of 1621 feet. The average follow-up time was 2.3 years with an average correction time of approximately 3 months. Patients required an average of 6.40 casts to achieve correction. This study demonstrates that good initial correction rates are reproducible after training; from 1040 patients only 1.4% required a posteromedial release. Level IV.

  19. Current status of a hepatitis C vaccine: encouraging results but significant challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 170 million people worldwide. Acute HCV infection is often asymptomatic, but many infected individuals develop persistent infections that may lead to development of end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma....... Thus, an HCV vaccine that could significantly lower the chronicity rate would have a major impact on the disease burden. Unfortunately, HCV is a highly mutable virus, and escape mutations can undermine vaccine-induced virus-specific immunity. Also, HCV exists as multiple genotypes, and so genotype......-specific vaccines might be required to achieve broad protection. Finally, vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model and cell culture systems, but these are currently being established. Despite these obstacles, several vaccine candidates tested in the chimpanzee HCV model have shown...

  20. Current status of a hepatitis C vaccine: encouraging results but significant challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

    -specific vaccines might be required to achieve broad protection. Finally, vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model and cell culture systems, but these are currently being established. Despite these obstacles, several vaccine candidates tested in the chimpanzee HCV model have shown......Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 170 million people worldwide. Acute HCV infection is often asymptomatic, but many infected individuals develop persistent infections that may lead to development of end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma....... Thus, an HCV vaccine that could significantly lower the chronicity rate would have a major impact on the disease burden. Unfortunately, HCV is a highly mutable virus, and escape mutations can undermine vaccine-induced virus-specific immunity. Also, HCV exists as multiple genotypes, and so genotype...

  1. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Nikolai D.; Blaunshtein, Natan Sh.; Erukhimov, Lev M.; Ivanov, Vladimir A.; Uriadov, Valerii P.

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations.

  2. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  3. Soil structure modeling with different correlation functions: current results and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsanina, M.; Gerke, K.; Vasilyev, R.; Skvortsova, E.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main factors defining numerous flow phenomena in soils and other porous media, including fluid and solute movements, is pore structure, e.g., pore volume and its connectivity. In recent decades different numerical methods were developed to quantify single and multi-phase flow in such media on microscale. Among most popular ones are: 1) a wide range of finite difference/element/volume solutions of Navier-Stokes equations and its simplifications; 2) lattice-Boltzmann method; 3) pore-network models. Each method has some advantages and weak sides, so that different research teams usually utilize more than one, depending on the study case. Recent progress in X-ray tomography and some other techniques allows precise determination of soil three-dimensional structure, however, a trade-off between resolution and sample size is usually unavoidable. There are situations then only standard two-dimensional information of porous structure is known due to tomography high cost or resolution limitations. But physical modeling on microscale, there most interfacial processes take place requires 3D information. There are three main approaches to reconstruct (using 2D cut(s) or some other limited information/properties) porous media: 1) statistical methods (correlation functions and simulated annealing, multi-point statistics, entropy methods), 2) sequential methods (sphere or other granular packs) and 3) morphological methods. Multi-point statistical method is believed to excel others due to its simplicity with respect to practical applications and better results (in particular pore space connectivity and anisotropy issues). Recently it was shown that cluster function implication significantly improve reconstruction quality, especially in comparison with original Yeong-Torquato technique based on two-point probability and linear functions. Another possible reason for these correlation functions poorer performance is computer power limitations of that time, e.g., high energy

  4. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found ...

  5. Current inverter interferences - test results of the SIDENA research project; Wechselrichterwechselwirkungen - Testergebnisse aus dem Forschungsprojekt SIDENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, C.; Funtan, P.; Kirchhof, J.; Nestle, D. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Integration of decentral power supply systems in the electricity grid requires new safety and availability problems. The SIDENA project investigated interferences at the connection point and tested the integration of, at present, a maximum of 22 PV current inverters both on the AC and on the DC side. (orig.) [German] Mit zunehmender Einbindung von dezentralen netzgekoppelten Energieerzeugungsanlagen (DEA), z.B. PV-Anlagen, BHKW's, Brennstoffzellen u.a. in das elektrische Energieversorgungsnetz muessen die Fragen der Personen- und Anlagensicherheit sowie der Netzzuverlaessigkeit und -qualitaet neu ueberdacht werden. Die dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen (DEA), die beispielhaft ueber Wechselrichter ins oeffentliche Netz einspeisen, verursachen und erfahren Wirkungen an der Netzanschlussstelle, deren stoerende Ursachen zu klaeren sind. Bei diesen stoerenden Ursachen handelt es sich um Kompatibilitaetsprobleme der Netzabschalteinrichtungen (ENS) zum Netz, aber auch bei groesserer Anzahl an einem Netzanschlusspunkt untereinander. Die nachteiligen Wirkungen sind in der Mehrzahl zu haeufige unbegruendete Abschaltungen und damit eine unzuverlaessige Betriebsweise. Bei einer hoeheren Durchdringung der Netze mit DEA ist das von zunehmender Bedeutung. Im Rahmen des Projektes SIDENA ('Sicherheitsaspekte bei dezentralen netzgekoppelten Energieerzeugungsanlagen') werden daher unterschiedliche Wechselwirkungen am Netzanschlusspunkt untersucht und der Betrieb von derzeitig max. 22 PV-Wechselrichtern sowohl AC- als auch DC-seitig geprueft. (orig.)

  6. Overview of HIT-SI3 experiment: Simulations, Diagnostics, and Summary of Current Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, James; Jarboe, Thomas; Nelson, Brian; Hossack, Aaron; Sutherland, Derek; Morgan, Kyle; Hansen, Chris; Benedett, Thomas; Everson, Chris; Victor, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3(HIT-SI3)experiment forms and maintains spheromaks via Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI). Three injector units allow for continuous injection of helicity into a copper flux conserver in order to sustain a spheromak. Firing of the injectors with a phase difference allows finite rotation of the plasma to provide a stabilizing effect. Simulations in the MHD code NIMROD and the fluid-model code PSI-TET provide validation and a basis for interpretation of the observed experimental data. Thompson Scattering (TS) and Far Infrared (FIR) Interferometer systems allow temperature and line-averaged density measurements to be taken. An Ion Doppler Spectroscopy (IDS) system allows measurement of the plasma rotation and velocity. HIT-SI3 data has been used for validation of IDCD predictions, in particular the projected impedance of helicity injectors according to the theory. The experimental impedances have been calculated here for the first time for different HIT-SI3 regimes. Such experimental evidence will contribute to the design of future experiments employing IDCD as a current-drive mechanism. Work supported by the D.O.E., Office of Science, Office of Fusion Science.

  7. Current regimen of pulse therapy for pemphigus: Minor modifications, improved results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: If administered properly, dexamethasone cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP therapy has the potential to effect lifelong recovery from pemphigus. Aims: The objective of this paper is to highlight various parameters of DCP therapy and also, to report the effects of a few modifications in the regimen. Methods: An analysis of 123 patients treated with the DCP/DP regimen over a period of five years (1998 to 2002 is presented here. Seventeen patients who did not start/continue the treatment and three patients who died during the treatment have been excluded from the analysis. Twenty patients who had not yet started families were given only dexamethasone pulses (DPs while 103 patients received DCPs. Low dose (50 mg/day cyclophosphamide was used as in the standard regimen. The three modifications introduced into the regimen were: (1 an additional daily dose of oral betamethasone sufficient to control the disease activity during phase I, which was progressively tapered off completely as the patient recovered, (2 use of systemic antibiotics if the patient had skin lesions, and oral anti-candida drugs if the patient had oral ulcers until complete healing, and (3 insistence on thorough cleaning of the skin and scalp with a normal soap and shampoo, and proper maintenance of oral hygiene in spite of skin/mucosal lesions. The regimen consisted of DCP/DP repeated in exactly 28-day cycles, along with 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day, insistence on completing the treatment and avoiding irregular pulses in all patients. The number of DCPs/DPs during phase I varied in different patients depending upon the dose of betamethasone used and the rate of recovery, but phase II (nine DCPs/DPs in exactly 28-day cycles along with 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day and phase III (only 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day was fixed at nine months each. This was followed by posttreatment follow-up (phase IV. Results: At present, all the patients are in complete remission. The

  8. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  9. "Amazing Space": Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…

  10. Synchronous Study of Ferroresonance and Inrush Current Phenomena and their Related Reasons in Ground Power Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Amin; Ghaderi, Mohammad; Ghadi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energizing the power transformers usually results in flowing very high inrush currents. This harmful current can be minimized using controlled switching and considering the value of residual flux. But nowadays, developing the ground power networks results in high increment of ferroresonance phenomenon occurrence due to the line' capacitance reactance and nonlinear inductive reactance of power transformer's core. In this study, these transient phenomena and their cause have studied synchronously.

  11. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  12. Staying Current in a Changing Profession: Evaluating Perceived Change Resulting from Continuing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles A.; Cohen-Callow, Amy; Dia, David A.; Bliss, Donna Leigh; Gantt, Ann; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Harrington, Donna

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 230 licensed social workers participated in a cross-sectional survey to examine participants' self-perceived change in knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) following formal and informal continuing professional education (CPE). Self-perceived change scores were significantly higher for informal than formal CPE. Higher motivational…

  13. Recent results of radiation damage studies in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, S.J.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Chilingarov, A.; Ciasnohova, A.; Glaser, M.; Heijne, E.; Jarron, P.; Lemeilleur, F.; Santiard, J.C.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Kambara, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Rolf, A.; Pilath, S.; Feick, H.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Schulz, T.; Bardos, R.A.; Gorfine, G.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N. (Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) DPNC, Univ. de Geneve (Switzerland) Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Dortmund (Germany) 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Hamburg (Germany) School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne (Australia))

    1994-04-21

    The RD2 Collaboration is making preliminary studies on a silicon tracking detector for use at the LHC. It is a priority that this detector should withstand the high level of radiation to be expected for LHC operation. Therefore systematic studies on the change of the detector performance due to radiation damage have been made, or are in progress. Well established results on neutron related damage at room temperature have been extended to lower temperatures, as foreseen for operation at LHC. For comparison proton damage studies have also been started. The detector properties under investigation include the reverse current, the depletion voltage and the charge collection efficiency. With a compressed 10 year LHC operational scenario we have successfully checked the ability of silicon detectors to survive the period influences of high fluence irradiation and subsequent annealing. (orig.)

  14. Current practice in primary total hip replacement: results from the National Hip Replacement Outcome Project

    OpenAIRE

    Best, A. J.; Fender, D.; Harper, W. M.; McCaskie, A. W.; Oliver, K; Gregg, P J

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Study of Primary Hip Replacement Outcome, 402 consultant orthopaedic surgeons from three regions were contacted by postal questionnaire which covered all aspects of total hip replacement (THR). There was a 70% response rate of which 71 did not perform hip surgery, a further 33 refused to take part, leaving 181 valid responses. Preoperative assessment clinics were used by 89% of surgeons, but anaesthetists and rehabilitation services were rarely involved at this stage. ...

  15. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C;

    2009-01-01

    previously been demonstrated among Danish construction workers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of chromium allergy among patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007 in Denmark. Furthermore, to determine causative exposures in patients with chromium allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 16,228) and charts from patients with chromium allergy were reviewed. Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of chromium allergy decreased significantly from...

  16. Behavior of a DC zero-flux current sensor; Magnetic field analysis and comparison with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campostrini, P.; Sonato, P. (Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Padova (IT))

    1991-09-01

    In this paper the magnetic section of the finite-element ANSYS code, and in particular its optimization feature has been used to predict the behaviour of a zero-flux current sensor, briefly described, which is intended to be used in a fusion experiment to measure pulsed currents up to 50 kA, over a bandwidth from DC to 10 k Hz. The computed results fit well with those coming from experimental tests performed on a prototype.

  17. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  18. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  19. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  20. Current Situation of AFREF and First Results from GNSS Networks in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Salah; Farah, Hussein; Wonnacott, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The African Geodetic Reference Frame (AFREF) is conceived as a unified geodetic reference frame for Africa. It will be the fundamental basis for the national three-dimensional reference networks fully consistent and homogeneous with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). When fully implemented, its backbone will consist of a network of continuous, permanent GPS stations such that a user anywhere in Africa would have free access to, and would be at most 1000km from, such stations. Full implementation will include a unified vertical datum and support for efforts to establish a precise African geoid, in concert with the African Geoid project activities. The realization of AFREF has vast potentials for geodesy, mapping, surveying, geoinformation, natural hazards mitigation, earth sciences, etc. Its implementation will provide a major springboard for the transfer and enhancement of skills in surveying and geodesy and especially GPS technology and applications. AFREF is, therefore, an African initiative to unify the geodetic reference frames of Africa based on the ITRF through a network of GNSS base stations at a spacing such users will be at most within ~1000 km of a base station. First Reference Frame Solution of about 80 geodetic GPS stations in Africa has been started in February 2013 at some processing centers in Europe and Africa. Results of independent solutions being developed by various African scientific teams: Hart RAO, South Africa; Ardhi University, Tanzania and SEGAL, University of Beria Interior, Portugal, show an accuracy of aligned ITRF 2008 using 42 IGS stations in E and N components with 3.0 mm and in U component 7.5 mm.

  1. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy 2007 in Germany. Results of the query and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, O. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Burchert, W. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kardiovaskulaere Nuklearmedizin der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Bengel, F.M. [Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore (United States); Arbeitsgruppe Nuklearkardiologische Diagnostik der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Kardiologie (Germany); Zimmermann, R. [Arbeitsgruppe Nuklearkardiologische Diagnostik der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Kardiologie (Germany); Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Pforzheim GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany); Dahl, J. vom [Klinik fuer Kardiologie, Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Moenchengladbach (Germany); Schaefer, W. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany); Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster UKM (Germany); Schaefers, M. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kardiovaskulaere Nuklearmedizin der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster UKM (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: This third survey of the working group Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine in cooperation with the working group Nuclear Cardiology of the German Cardiac Society was to deliver information on the procedures and in particular on the development of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) from 2005 to 2007. Method: 370 questionnaires (222 private practices (PP), 117 hospitals (HO), 31 university hospitals (UH)) were evaluated. Results: MPS of 114,374 patients were reported, 83% were investigated with {sup 99m}Tc-perfusion tracers. 76% [2006=74%] were performed in PP, 15% [2006=17%] in HO and 9% [2006=9%] in UH. Diabetics represented 21% of all MPS patients in 2007. Data of 215 institutions which participated all from 2005 to 2007 showed an increase in MPS of 2.3% (PP +6.8%, HO -4.5%, UH -18.2%). The type of stress was pharmacological in 27% [2006 = 27%]; 67% adenosine (of these 25% with exercise), 31% dipyridamole (of these 55% with exercise), and 2% dobutamine. Gated SPECT was performed in 47% [2006 = 42%] of all rest and in 44% [2006 = 39%] of all stress MPS. 61% [2006 = 83%] of all institutions did not apply perfusion scores. 20% [2006 = 24%] of the institutions reported changes in the use of MPS by competing methods. Conclusion: There is a small increase of MPS between 2005 and 2007 despite competing methods. Gated SPECT has experienced more acceptance, but is still underrepresented. As compared to the European average and general standards of MPS a considerable backlog accounts to pharmacological stress tests, gated SPECT and perfusion scores. (orig.)

  2. Optimization Algorithms in School Scheduling Programs: Study, Analysis and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina PUPEIKIENE

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available To create good and optimal school schedule is very important and practical task. Currently in Lithuania schools are using two programs for making the school schedule at the moment. But none of these programs is very effective. Optimization Department of Lithuanian Institute of Mathematics and Informatics (IMI has created ``School schedule optimization program''. It has three optimization algorithms for making best school schedule. A user can choose not only few optimization options and get few optimal schedules, but some subjective and objectives parameters. The making of initial data file is advanced in this program. XML format is used for creating initial data file and getting all optimal results files. The purpose of this study is to analyze used optimization algorithms used in ``School schedule optimization program'' and to compare results with two most popular commercial school scheduling programs in Lithuania.

  3. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  4. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  5. The WiFeS S7 AGN survey: Current status and recent results on NGC 6300

    CERN Document Server

    Scharwächter, J; Shastri, P; Davies, R; Kewley, L; Hampton, E; Sutherland, R; Kharb, P; Jose, J; Bhatt, H; Ramya, S; Jin, C; Banfield, J; Zaw, I; Juneau, S; James, B; Srivastava, S

    2015-01-01

    The Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) is a targeted survey probing the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of a representative sample of ~140 nearby (z<0.02) Seyfert galaxies by means of optical integral field spectroscopy. The survey is based on a homogeneous data set observed using the Wide Field Spectrograph WiFeS. The data provide a 25x38 arcsec$^2$ field-of-view around the galaxy centre at typically ~1.5 arcsec spatial resolution and cover a wavelength range between ~3400 - 7100 $\\AA$ at spectral resolutions of ~100 km s$^{-1}$ and ~50 km s$^{-1}$ in the blue and red parts, respectively. The survey is primarily designed to study gas excitation and star formation around AGN, with a special focus on the shape of the AGN ionising continuum, the interaction between radio jets and the NLR gas, and the nature of nuclear LINER emission. We provide an overview of the current status of S7-based results and present new results for NGC 6300.

  6. Numerical study on short-circuit current of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the cathode work function,carriers mobilities and temperature on the short-circuit current of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts was numerically studied,and the quantitative dependences of the short-circuit current on these quantities were obtained.The results provide the theoretical foundation for experimental study of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts.

  7. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  8. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  9. Effect of current mode on PEO treatment of magnesium in Ca- and P-containing electrolyte and resulting coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yonghao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Yerokhin, Aleksey, E-mail: a.yerokhin@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky Prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Matthews, Allan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • MgO-Na{sub 4}Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 6} coatings produced on cp-Mg in both PUP- and PBP-PEO modes. • Negative biasing affects PEO processing of cp-Mg in Ca(OH){sub 2}-Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolyte. • Thicker and macro defect-free PUP-PEO coatings provide better corrosion protection. • Corrosion mechanisms of PEO-treated cp-Mg in SBF discussed. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were produced on commercially pure magnesium in a biologically friendly electrolyte composed of 2 g L{sup −1} Ca(OH){sub 2} and 12 g L{sup −1} Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O using pulsed unipolar and bipolar current regimes with negative biasing varying from 0 to 20 mA cm{sup −2}. Analysis of voltage transients was performed to characterise the PEO processes. The coating morphology and phase composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique, respectively. In vitro corrosion performance of the coatings was evaluated in a simulated body fluid at 37 ± 1 °C, using electrochemical techniques including open circuit potential monitoring, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarisation scans. The influence of the negative biasing on the PEO process and resulting coating characteristics is discussed. Unlike generally recognised beneficial effects of the negative biasing in PEO treatments of some other metal-electrolyte systems, it was found that detrimental effects are induced to the coatings on cp-Mg produced in the studied electrolyte when the negative current amplitude increases, which may be attributed to hydrogen liberation at the coating/substrate interface during the negative biasing cycles. As a result, a deterioration of vitro corrosion performance was observed for the pulsed bipolar PEO coatings compared to those produced using the pulsed unipolar regime which provides better quality coatings.

  10. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  11. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  12. Experimental Study on Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Tanigawa, H.; Yano, K.; Kasai, S.

    2006-06-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion for a well-defined single DW in a micro-fabricated magnetic wire with submicron width was investigated by real-space observation with magnetic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed-current, respectively. Effect of the Joule heating, reduction of the threshold current density by shape control, and magnetic ratchet effect are also presented.

  13. Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject.

  14. Influence of the Dermis Thickness on the Results of the Skin Treatment with Monopolar and Bipolar Radiofrequency Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L. Kruglikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrically layered tissue structure significantly modifies distribution of radiofrequency (RF current in the dermis and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue comparing to that in a homogeneous medium. On the basis of the simple model of RF current distribution in a two-layer skin containing dermis and subcutis, we assess the influence of the dermal thickness on the current density in different skin layers. Under other equal conditions, current density in the dermis is higher for the skin having thinner dermis. This contradicts the main paradigm of the RF theory stating that treatment results are mainly dependent on the maximal temperature reached in a target tissue, since the best short- and long-term clinical results of RF application to the skin were reported in the areas having thicker dermis. To resolve this contradiction, it is proposed that the long-term effect of RF can be realized through a structural modification of the subcutaneous fat depot adjacent to the treated skin area. Stimulation of these cells located near the interface dermis/subcutis will demand the concentration of applied RF energy in this area and will require the optimal arrangement of RF electrodes on the skin surface.

  15. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  16. Prenatal protein malnutrition results in increased frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in rat CA3 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming; Galler, Janina R; Luebke, Jennifer I

    2003-08-01

    Electrophysiological studies have revealed an increase in the level of tonic inhibition in the hippocampus following prenatal protein malnutrition in rats. In the present study, whole cell patch clamp recordings of bipolar interneurons in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield were used to determine whether this increase in inhibition can be accounted for by a change in the electrophysiological properties of GABAergic interneurons. Hippocampal slices were prepared from juvenile rats whose dams were fed either a normal (25% casein) or low (6% casein) protein diet throughout pregnancy. Intrinsic membrane and action potential properties were unaltered by the prenatal nutritional insult. In most respects the characteristics of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and the modulation of such currents by the benzodiazepine agonist zolpidem were also similar in cells from the two nutritional groups. While the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory currents was unaltered, miniature (Tetrodotoxin resistant) inhibitory currents occurred at a significantly increased frequency in interneurons from prenatally protein malnourished rats. Thus, while the basic membrane properties of interneurons are preserved, there is a significant increase in the probability of GABA release from interneurons following prenatal protein malnutrition.

  17. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio José Felix; Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas; Faria, Roberto Mendonça

    2009-12-01

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak β), an intermediate peak (peak α), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak ρ). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes.

  18. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Antonio Jose Felix [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Laboratory of Polymers and Renewable Materials, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faria, Roberto Mendonca [USP, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak {beta}), an intermediate peak (peak {alpha}), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak {rho}). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes. (orig.)

  19. Study of wavelet transform type high-current transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文科; 朱长纯; 刘君华; 张建军

    2002-01-01

    The wavelet transformation is applied to the high-current transformer.The high-current transformer elaborated in the paper is mainly applied to the measurement of AC/DC high-current.The principle of the transformer is the Hall direct-measurement principle.The transformer has the following three characteristics:firstly, the effect of the remnant field of the iron core on the measurement is decreased;secondly,because the temperature compensation is adopted,the transformer has good temperature charactreristic;thirdly,be-cause the wavelet transfomation technology is adopted,the transformer has the capacity of good antijanming.

  20. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia.

  1. Electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy with individualized current amplitude: a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H; Laine, Andrew F; Peterchev, Angel V

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the electric field induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with individualized current amplitude. The electric field induced by bilateral (BL), bifrontal (BF), right unilateral (RUL), and frontomedial (FM) ECT electrode configurations was computed in anatomically realistic finite element models of four nonhuman primates (NHPs). We generated maps of the electric field strength relative to an empirical neural activation threshold, and determined the stimulation strength and focality at fixed current amplitude and at individualized current amplitudes corresponding to seizure threshold (ST) measured in the anesthetized NHPs. The results show less variation in brain volume stimulated above threshold with individualized current amplitudes (16-36%) compared to fixed current amplitude (30-62%). Further, the stimulated brain volume at amplitude-titrated ST is substantially lower than that for ECT with conventional fixed current amplitudes. Thus individualizing the ECT stimulus current could compensate for individual anatomical variability and result in more focal and uniform electric field exposure across different subjects compared to the standard clinical practice of using high, fixed current for all patients.

  2. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah

    2007-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came...

  3. Experimental study on directional solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räbiger, D.; Zhang, Y.; Galindo, V.; Franke, S.; Willers, B.; Eckert, S.

    2016-07-01

    The application of electric currents during solidification can cause grain refinement in metallic alloys. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the decrease in grain size remains fragmentary. This study considers the solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents for the configuration of two parallel electrodes at the free surface. Solidification experiments were performed under the influence of both direct currents (DC) and rectangular electric current pulses (ECP). The interaction between the applied current and its own induced magnetic field causes a Lorentz force which produces an electro-vortex flow. Numerical simulations were conducted to calculate the Lorentz force, the Joule heating and the induced melt flow. The numerical predictions were confirmed by isothermal flow measurements in eutectic GaInSn. The results demonstrate that the grain refining effect observed in our experiments can be ascribed solely to the forced melt flow driven by the Lorentz force.

  4. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  5. Study of Leakage Current Behaviour on Artificially Polluted Surface of Ceramic Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Subba Reddy; G. R. Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current be-haviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observedthat there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage.The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV.Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flowas the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dryband and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, herealso, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages.Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis - the leakage currents are lowerin the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutantlayer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a directquantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized.

  6. Durability Study of SOFCs Under Cycling Current Load Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cell applications, the cells must be able to withstand varying operating conditions. Anode supported solid oxide fuel cells were tested under cycling current load in order to determine the durability and possibly identify degradation mechanisms. At 750 °C and a cycling between zero and 0.......75 A cm-2, the cell voltage degradation rate was similar to tests with the corresponding high constant current density. However, by analyzing the impedance spectra it was found that anode degradation was becoming more important when going from constant to cycling conditions. Running the cycling load tests...... at 850 °C, the cells degraded similarly as under the corresponding constant current load whereas, in some cases, cells failed mechanically after a few hundred hours. These cells did not experience severe additional degradation due to the cycling of the current density until the point of failure...

  7. Fusion-fission study at IUAC: Recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanhiotan, Sugathan

    2016-10-01

    Several properties observed in heavy ion induced fission led to the conclusion that fission is not always originated from fully equilibrated compound nucleus. Soon after the collision of two nuclei, it forms a di-nuclear system than can fission before a compound nucleus is formed. This process termed quasi-fission is a major hurdle to the formation of heavier elements by fusion. Fission originated before complete equilibration showed anomalously large angular anisotropy and mass distribution wider than what is expected from compound nucleus fission. The standard statistical model fails to predict the outcome of quasi-fission and currently no dynamical model is fully developed to predict all the features of quasi-fission. Though much progress has been made in recent times, a full understanding of the fission dynamics is still missing. Experiments identifying the influence of entrance channel parameters on dynamics of fusion-fission showed contrasting results. At IUAC accelerator facility many experiments have been performed to make a systematic study of fission dynamics using mass distribution, angular distribution and neutron multiplicity measurements in mass region around A ∼ 200. Recent measurement on mass distribution of fission fragment from reaction 19 F +206,208 Pb around fusion barrier energy showed the influence of multi-mode fission in enhancing the mass variance at low excitation energy. In this talk I will present some of these results.

  8. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  9. Rocket injector anomalies study. Volume 2: Results of parametric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Singhal, A. K.; Tam, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    The employment of a existing computer program to simulate three dimensional two phase gas spray flows in liquid propellant rocket engines. This was accomplished by modification of an existing three dimensional computer program (REFLAN3D) with Euler/Lagrange approach for simulating two phase spray flow, evaporation and combustion. The modified code is referred to as REFLAN3D-SPRAY. Computational studies of the model rocket engine combustion chamber are presented. The parametric studies of the two phase flow and combustion shows qualitatively correct response for variations in geometrical and physical parameters. The injection nonuniformity test with blocked central fuel injector holes shows significant changes in the central flame core and minor influence on the wall heat transfer fluxes.

  10. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  11. Numerical study of magnetic reconnection process near in- terplanetary current sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The third order accurate upwind compact difference scheme has been applied to the numerical study of the magnetic reconnection process possibly occurring near the interplanetary current sheet, under the framework of the two-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Our results here show that the driven reconnection near the current sheet can occur within 10-30 min for the interplanetary high magnetic Reynolds number, RM =2 000-10 000, the stable magnetic reconnection structure can be formed in hour-order of magnitude, and there are some ba- sic properties such as the multiple X-line reconnections, vortical velocity structures, filament current systems, split-ting and collapse of the high-density plasma bulk. These results are helpful in understanding and identifying the magnetic reconnection phenomena near the interplanetary current sheets.

  12. Multimodal Study of Adult-Infant Interaction: A Review of Its Origins and Its Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Carretero Pérez

    Full Text Available Abstract An interpretative review of research on adult-infant interactions involving the analysis of movement behaviors is presented, systematically linking previous studies to current research on the subject. Forty-two articles analyzing the dyad's interactive movement in the period 1970-2015 were found. Twelve papers were excluded, including only those that studied the phenomenon in the baby's first year of life. The results revealed that movement was a central topic in early interaction studies in the 70s. In the 1980's and 1990's, its study was marginal and it is currently resurging under the embodiment perspective. The conceptual framework and research methods used in the pioneering work are presented, and the thematic foci shared with current research are highlighted. Thus, essential keys are provided for the updated study of early interactions from a multimodal perspective.

  13. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments have had great success in monitoring the stratospheric ozone and in understanding the processes that control its daily to decadal scale variations. This field is now reaching its zenith with a number of satellite instruments from the US, Europe and Canada capping several decades of active research in this field. The primary public policy imperative of this research was to make reliable prediction of increases in biologically active surface UV radiation due to human activity. By contrast retrieval from satellite data of atmospheric constituents and photo-chemically active radiation that affect air quality is a new and growing field that is presenting us with unique challenges in measurement and data interpretation. A key distinction compared to stratospheric sensors is the greatly enhanced role of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces (CAS) in determining the quality and quantity of useful data that is available for air quality research. In our presentation we will use data from several sensors that are currently flying on the A-train satellite constellation, including OMI, MODIS, CLOUDSAT, and CALIPSO, to highlight that CAS can have both positive and negative effects on the information content of satellite measurements. This is in sharp contrast to other fields of remote sensing where CAS are usually considered an interference except in those cases when they are the primary subject of study. Our analysis has revealed that in the reflected wavelengths one often sees much further down into the atmosphere, through most cirrus, than one does in the emitted wavelengths. The lower level clouds provide a nice background against which one can track long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols. In addition, differences in trace gas columns estimated over cloudy and adjacent clear pixels can be used to measure boundary layer trace gases. However, in order to take full advantage of these features it will be necessary to greatly advance our understanding of

  14. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah; Rouhani, Sherin; Saliba, Kevin J.; Shen, Crystal; Solomon, Tsione; Thomas, Serge L. Y.; Verloo, Patrick; Desai, Sanjay A.

    2009-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came together for a week of discussion and experimentation. In this article, the various models for altered transport are reviewed, together with the areas of consensus in the field and those that require a better understanding. PMID:17292372

  15. Organ preconditioning: the past, current status, and related lung studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUH Shi-ping; YANG Pan-chyr

    2006-01-01

    Preconditioning (PC) has emerged as a powerful method for experimentally and clinically attenuating various types of organ injuries. In this paper related clinical and basic research issues on organ preconditioning issues were systemically reviewed.Since lung injuries, including ischemia-reperfusion and others, play important roles in many clinical results, including thromboembolism, trauma, thermal injury, hypovolemic and endotoxin shock, reimplantation response after organ transplantation, and many respiratory diseases in critical care. It is of interest to uncover methods, including the PCs, to protect the lung from the above injuries. However, related studies on pulmonary PC are relatively rare and still being developed, so we will review previous literature on experimental and clinical studies on pulmonary PC in the following paragraphs.

  16. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri; N; Utkin

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom ofthese animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  17. Current Practice vs. Guideline Based Imaging in Abdominal Radiology in the German Speaking Area: Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, A G; Wessling, J; Grenacher, L

    2016-03-01

    The working group for abdominal imaging within the German Roentgen Society (DRG) performed an online survey amongst radiologist concerning the current status of techniques for abdominal imaging. The results of this survey were compared with the most recent guidelines. We performed an online survey open for all members of the DRG during a 76-day period with 65 questions and an overall estimated time for finishing the questionnaire of 15 minutes concerning technical specifications for abdominal radiological imaging. The results were evaluated using descriptive statistics. 90 of all participants, who filled out the survey covering more than 80% of the questions, were included in the statistical evaluation. 27% of all participants were registered radiologists while 73% represented radiologists working in a hospital. Most participants worked in a managerial position. The participants gave detailed information regarding the radiological techniques used in dedicated organ systems (esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestines, colon) regarding acquired contrast phases and oral and intravenous administration of contrast medium. The results confirm that most radiologists participating in this survey perform their examinations and choose their modalities in conformity with the current existing clinical guidelines. Because most clinical guidelines do not specify radiological examinations in detail, there is a noteworthy heterogeneity of the acquired contrast phases and major divergence in terms of technical parameters. Therefore a joint radiological effort should be initiated for developing and publishing updated radiological parameters for abdominal imaging. • In German speaking countries indications for abdominal radiological examinations are performed with a high compliance to published guidelines. • There is a significant heterogeneity regarding the acquisition of different contrast phases for parenchymal abdominal organs. • There is an urgent need to

  18. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  19. RESULTS OF CALCULATION-EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ELECTRO-THERMAL RESISTIBILITY OF SHEET STEEL SAMPLES TO ACTION OF RATIONED COMPONENTS OF PULSED CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental researches of the electro-thermal resistibility of the steel sheet samples to action standard pulse current components of the artificial lightning with amplitude-time parameters (ATP, corresponded the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high tensions and large impulsive currents (LIC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of devices of high-voltage impulsive technique and measuring in them LIC. Сurrent amplitude ImA=±200 kA (with a tolerance of ±10 %; current action integral JA=2∙106 A2•s (with a tolerance of ±20 %; time, corresponding to the amplitude of the current ImA, tmA≤50 microseconds; the duration of the current flow τpA≤500 microseconds. Results. The results of the evaluation of the calculated and experimental studies of electro-thermal resistance of the samples of plates measuring 0,5 m  0,5 m stainless steel 1 mm thickness to the action on them artificial lightning impulse currents with rationed ATP on the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. A pulse A- component have a first amplitude 192 kA, the corresponding time of 34 μs, and the duration aperiodic component amplitude 804 A, corresponding to the time 9 ms. It has been shown that the long C- component current of artificial lightning can lead to keyhole these samples. The diameter of the holes in this thin steel sheet, which is formed during the flow of current C- components can reach 15 mm. The results of calculation and experiment agree within 28 %. Originality. For the first time in world practice on the generator large pulsed currents experimental studies of resistibility of sheet steel samples to the action of artificial lightning currents with critical parameters. Practical value. Using the results obtained in the practice of lightning protection will significantly improve the

  20. Study of multipass regimes in lower hybrid current drive experiments on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.; Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T.; Kazarian, F.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shoucri, M.; Shkarofsky, I.P. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Baranov, Y. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Kupfer, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This document presents a study of multipass regimes in Lower Hybrid Current Drive on Tore Supra. A statistical model of the plasma wave propagation based on the Fokker-Planck theory is proposed, together with experimental results performed on Tore Supra. (TEC). 9 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A Study of Strange Particles Produced in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Naumov, D V; Naumova, E; Popov, B; Astier, Pierre; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R C; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Das, R; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hong, T M; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Rico, J; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M E; Shih, D; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2004-01-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles (K0s, Lambda, Lambda-bar) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified K0s or Lambda in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K* and Sigma(1385) have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Lambda polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  2. A study of strange particles produced in neutrino neutral current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, D.; Chukanov, A.; Naumova, E.; Popov, B.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Das, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T. M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2004-11-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles ( Ks0, Λ, Λ¯) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified Ks0 or Λ in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K and Σ(1385 have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Λ polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  3. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic...... characterization of wind farm harmonic currents is analyzed. Specific issues addressed in the paper include the harmonic variation with the wind farm operating point and the random characteristics of their magnitude and phase angle....

  4. Zinc electrowinning: anode conditioning and current distribution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.A. [Cominco Research, Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    In the zinc electrowinning (EW) process, Pb-Ag anodes are widely used. Prior to their use in the EW process, anodes are conditioned to form a stable oxide layer that can evolve O{sub 2} without excessive Pb contamination of the cathode and MnO{sub 2} precipitation. The most widely used conditioning techniques are: passivation in a KF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolysis bath, chemical oxidation in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and sandblasting. In this paper, a comparison of these treatments using flat and corrugated anodes is presented. Laboratory and industrial-scale tests carried out at Cominco's Trail and Cajamarquilla zinc plants indicated that flat anodes should be sandblasted or electrochemically passivated before their use in the Zn electrowinning process. Further, corrugated anodes should be sandblasted or chemically conditioned in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} -electrolyte. The beneficial effects of chemical conditioning are lost if the anode is non-corrugated. Flat, chemically conditioned anodes generate up to 10 times more mud than corrugated-chemically conditioned anodes. Because anode mud growth is evenly distributed on sandblasted anodes, short-circuit frequency may decrease and anode life may increase. Sandblasting does not appear to affect anode performance. Parallel to the industrial anode conditioning tests, current distribution measurements were made. Current flow measurements were used to correct troublesome electrodes and/or bad electrical contacts. In Cajamarquilla, this technique was used in four industrial electrowinning cells and energy consumption values lower than 3000 kWh/t Zn were obtained at current efficiencies as high as 95% and at current densities up to 450 A/m{sup 2}. (author)

  5. GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

    2011-05-17

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  6. First results of Indian - Current meter moorings along The equator: Vertical current structure variability at equator, 93 degrees E during February-December, 2000

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.; Fernando, V.; Nampoothiri, G.; Sardar, A.; Gracias, D.; Khalap, S.

    are weak while the low pass filtered (49-hour) current data show considerable meso-scale variability, comprising of Intraseasonal Oscillations (ISO) of period 10-20 day and 40.5 day. The 10-20 day ISO is associated with similar variability in surface wind...

  7. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  8. Hydrodynamic processes, velocity structure and stratification in natural turbidity currents: Results inferred from field data in the Var Turbidite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeon, Sébastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    The Var Turbidite System (NW Mediterranean Sea) is fed during the present-day highstand sea level by large earthquake-induced ignitive turbidity currents, low-density turbidity currents resulting from retrogressive failures triggered on the upper continental slope, and hyperpycnal flows related to the Var River floods. Using a large dataset including bathymetric data, side-scan sonar images, seismic-reflection profiles, cores and photographs of the seafloor, this paper attempts to better constrain the hydrodynamic behaviour of debris flows and turbidity currents along the Upper and Middle Valley of the Var Turbidite System. The drastic change of the seafloor morphology between the Upper and the Middle Valley suggests that gravity flows undergo rapid transformation from cohesive to fully turbulent behaviour. This transformation is related to a hydraulic jump caused by an abrupt decrease in slope angle at the transition between the Upper and the Middle Valley and is associated with en masse deposition and elevation of the seafloor. Strong seafloor erosion prevails in the Middle Valley, suggesting that, for a low and constant slope angle, turbulent flows must regain a balance between concentration and flow thickness rapidly after they experience hydraulic jump. The internal stratification and vertical grain-size distribution within turbulent flows are inferred from the distribution of fine- to coarse-grained turbidites found in cores located along the crest of the Var Sedimentary Ridge with a decreasing elevation above the floor of the Middle Valley. The theoretical vertical velocity profile deduced from the vertical grain-size distribution exhibits a general trend and an inflection of the gradient curve different from those of the velocity profiles classically obtained using numerical modelling.

  9. Experimental Results of a DC Bus Voltage Level Control for a Load-Controlled Marine Current Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Forslund

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates three load control methods for a  marine current energy converter using a vertical axis current  turbine (VACT mounted on a permanent magnet synchronous generator  (PMSG. The three cases are; a fixed AC load, a fixed pulse width  modulated (PWM DC load and DC bus voltage control of a DC  load. Experimental results show that the DC bus voltage control  reduces the variations of rotational speed by a factor of 3.5 at the cost  of slightly increased losses in the generator and transmission lines.  For all three cases, the tip speed ratio \\(\\lambda\\ can be kept close to  the expected \\(\\lambda_{opt}\\. The power coefficient is estimated to be  0.36 at \\(\\lambda_{opt}\\; however, for all three cases, the average  extracted power was about \\(\\sim 19\\\\%. A maximum power point  tracking (MPPT system, with or without water velocity measurement,  could increase the average extracted power.

  10. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  11. Factors Associated With Current Smoking Among Off-Reserve First Nations and Métis Youth: Results From the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher; Leatherdale, Scott; Cooke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    First Nations and Métis, two of Canada's constitutionally recognized Indigenous groups, suffer from poorer overall health than non-Indigenous Canadians. Current smoking, a known predictor of chronic health conditions, is close to twice as prevalent among Indigenous youth as it is among non-Indigenous Canadian youth. However, little population-level research has examined the correlates of current smoking among this population. Guided by a health framework centered on Indigenous-specific determinants, we used data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine the correlates of current smoking among First Nations and Métis youth aged 15-17 years living outside of First Nations reserves. Using binary logistic regression, we investigated how culturally specific factors, namely knowledge of an Indigenous language, participation in traditional activities, and family members' attendance at residential schools, were correlated with current smoking. We also considered demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related correlates. Overall, an estimated 20.6% of First Nations and Métis youth reported current smoking. We found no significant associations between culturally specific activities and current smoking in the multivariate analyses, although those who spoke an Indigenous language were more likely to smoke. Those who participated in sports more often were less likely to smoke, and respondents who reported heavy drinking and who were from families with lower income were more likely to smoke. Gender, body mass index, urban/rural geography and regional geography, and mother's highest level of education were not significantly correlated with smoking. The results of our study support prior research that has found a disturbingly high prevalence of current smoking among Indigenous youth, compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Our results highlight the importance of considering sports participation, co-occurring health-risk behaviours and socioeconomic

  12. Current models of care for disorders of sex development - results from an International survey of specialist centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakou, Andreas; Dessens, Arianne; Bryce, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore the current models of practice in centres delivering specialist care for children with disorders of sex development (DSD), an international survey of 124 clinicians, identified through DSDnet and the I-DSD Registry, was performed in the last quarter of 2014. RESULTS: A total...... a local DSD registry and 40 (53 %) shared their data in a multicentre DSD registry. Attendance in local, national and international DSD-related educational programs was reported by 69, 78 and 84 % clinicians, respectively. Participation in audits/quality improvement exercises in DSD care was reported...... hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency by 50 and 55 % clinicians, respectively. CONCLUSION: DSD centres report a high level of interaction at an international level, have access to specialist staff and are increasingly relying on molecular genetics for routine diagnostics. The quality of care provided...

  13. The Study of the Geomagnetic Variation for Sq current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Du, A.

    2012-04-01

    The solar quiet variation (Sq) with a period of 24 hrs is a typical one of the quiet variations. Sq is generally caused by atmospheric tide-dynamo in ionosphere and it is controlled by the electric field, electric conductivity in ionosphere and neutral wind in middle-high altitude atmosphere. In our work, the geomagnetic field data observed by 90 ground-based observatories is used to analyze the local time variation of Sq. Sq is derived from five quiet-day geomagnetic data in every month by the FFT method. According to the pattern of geomagnetic X component in Sq, there is a prenoon-postnoon (before noon and after noon) asymmetry. This asymmetry is obvious in spring, summer and winter. The X component at 12:00-13:00 LT is about 5 nT larger than it at 11:00-12:00 LT. The ratio between the X component of daily variable amplitude and Y component of daily variable amplitude in middle and low (high) latitude regions in summer is greater (smaller) than that in winter. Used the sphere harmonic analysis method, the Sq equivalent current system is obtained. From the pattern of Sq current system, the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry may be caused by the electric field in the high latitude region. This electric field has two effects: the one is that the electric field from high latitude maps to the low latitude region; the other is this electric field penetrate to the middle latitude region directly. The combined action of these two effects makes the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry of Sq. The asymmetry also has an obvious seasonal effect. It may relate to the polar Sq and DP2 in the high latitude region.

  14. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  15. Inclusive Instruction – questions and results of an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pool Maag

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In an interview study, 14 collaborative teams from inclusive classrooms (classroom teacher and special education teacher were interviewed about their inclusive teaching practices. Besides well-known and frequently discussed topics like teacher cooperation and resources, the study raises an issue, which is rarely part of the current debate on inclusion in German speaking countries: Special education teachers question, whether it is possible to be as effective while being inclusive. In addition, teachers identify different challenges. For classroom teachers, students’ heterogeneity with respect to achievement is demanding. For special education teachers, cooperation with classroom teachers - especially fostering an attitude towards inclusion – is most challenging.

  16. HOW TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shal'nova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles and fundamentals of proper presentation of observational epidemiological study results are focused. Principles of observational study publication developed by expert epidemiologists (STROBE statement are explained in detail.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of metallic friction and of its dependence on electric currents - development and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintanis, Evangelos Anastasios

    We have extended the HOLA molecular dynamics (MD) code to run slider-on-block friction experiments for Al and Cu. Both objects are allowed to evolve freely and show marked deformation despite the hardness difference. We recover realistic coefficients of friction and verify the importance of cold-welding and plastic deformations in dry sliding friction. Our first data also show a mechanism for decoupling between load and friction at high velocities. Such a mechanism can explain an increase in the coefficient of friction of metals with velocity. The study of the effects of currents on our system required the development of a suitable electrodynamic (ED) solver, as the disparity of MD and ED time scales threatened the efficiency of our code. Our first simulations combining ED and MD are presented.

  18. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes

    management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...... of current practice, the biggest challenges and potential strategies of engineering change management. A total of 55 Brazilian companies from a broad range of industry sectors and company sizes participated from December 2011 until January 2012 in the survey which was elaborated and conducted by members...

  19. Recent experimental results of effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in laboratory animals - Relation to current regulations and guidance values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Dieter, Hermann H; Hölzer, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael

    2017-03-02

    The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values. The present short overview describes the current regulations for PFAS and compares them with the outcome of several experimental studies in laboratory animals at low-level exposure to PFOA and PFOS. In addition, regulations for short-chain PFAS are presented which, due to lack of toxicological information, are evaluated according to the concepts of Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) or the Health-related Indication Values (HRIV).

  20. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993 have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China’s usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China’s usability research, particularly in HIT.

  1. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    is possible with the addition of a supplemental hydrogen ion source (HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and pH control. (5) Sulfuric acid is nearly twice as effective as nitric acid (on a molar basis) at promoting hematite dissolution in oxalic acid solutions, most likely due to the fact that it is diprotic. (6) The greater the oxalic acid concentration, the greater the demand for supplemental H{sup +} to promote optimal dissolution. Minimum mineral acid concentrations required for optimal oxalic acid utilization based on hematite solubility tests are provided. (7) Corrosion studies conducted (reported elsewhere) with 1 wt.% oxalic acid revealed that carbon steel corrosion rates are manageable at lower mineral acid concentrations (0.1 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.05 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and lower temperatures (45 C). (8) Proposed conditions for waste tank heel dissolution based on the solubility and corrosion test results are 0.5 wt.% oxalic acid and 0.18 M HNO{sub 3} or 0.09 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 50 C. (9) The OLI Thermodynamic Model appears to over-predict the solubility of the iron phases studied in oxalic acid and oxalic/nitric acid mixtures. The predictions show better agreement with experimental results at higher pH and in sulfuric/oxalic acid mixtures. (10) Oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids are effective at quickly dissolving gibbsite ({ge}86% dissolution in 2 weeks), with oxalic/sulfuric acid mixtures being particularly effective. (11) Limited dissolution tests conducted with carbon steel coupons revealed that the presence of metallic iron can, in some cases, result in dramatically different results. Additional studies in this area are recommended. Based on the current results, the optimal approach for the removal of sludge heels for HLW tanks would include the following steps: (1) removal of the maximum possible amount of heel materials by mechanical means; (2) neutralization and acidification of the heel using dilute mineral acid (This step should promote significant

  2. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    is possible with the addition of a supplemental hydrogen ion source (HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and pH control. (5) Sulfuric acid is nearly twice as effective as nitric acid (on a molar basis) at promoting hematite dissolution in oxalic acid solutions, most likely due to the fact that it is diprotic. (6) The greater the oxalic acid concentration, the greater the demand for supplemental H{sup +} to promote optimal dissolution. Minimum mineral acid concentrations required for optimal oxalic acid utilization based on hematite solubility tests are provided. (7) Corrosion studies conducted (reported elsewhere) with 1 wt.% oxalic acid revealed that carbon steel corrosion rates are manageable at lower mineral acid concentrations (0.1 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.05 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and lower temperatures (45 C). (8) Proposed conditions for waste tank heel dissolution based on the solubility and corrosion test results are 0.5 wt.% oxalic acid and 0.18 M HNO{sub 3} or 0.09 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 50 C. (9) The OLI Thermodynamic Model appears to over-predict the solubility of the iron phases studied in oxalic acid and oxalic/nitric acid mixtures. The predictions show better agreement with experimental results at higher pH and in sulfuric/oxalic acid mixtures. (10) Oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids are effective at quickly dissolving gibbsite ({ge}86% dissolution in 2 weeks), with oxalic/sulfuric acid mixtures being particularly effective. (11) Limited dissolution tests conducted with carbon steel coupons revealed that the presence of metallic iron can, in some cases, result in dramatically different results. Additional studies in this area are recommended. Based on the current results, the optimal approach for the removal of sludge heels for HLW tanks would include the following steps: (1) removal of the maximum possible amount of heel materials by mechanical means; (2) neutralization and acidification of the heel using dilute mineral acid (This step should promote significant

  3. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  4. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Retooling the Social Studies Classroom for the Current Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth K.; Wright, Vivian H.; Inman, Christopher T.; Matherson, Lisa H.

    2011-01-01

    Digital technologies have changed the way students read and communicate. Subsequently, teachers must use technology to engage their students in learning. This article illustrates the value of using Web 2.0 tools (blogs, wikis, and digital media-sharing) in the social studies classroom. Additionally, a social studies teacher shares insights into…

  6. A Review of Current Studies on Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思雅

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces some previous studies on human capital, mainly regarding human capital’s properties and its relationship with corporate performance and capital structure. This study shows the importance of human capital and suggests that managers should pay more attention to employees.

  7. Experimental study of the velocity of density currents in convergent and divergent channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan Torabi POUDEH; Samad EMAMGHOLIZADEH; Manoocher Fathi-MOGHADAM

    2014-01-01

    The head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel is a key parameter for evaluating the extent to which suspended material travels, and for determining the type and distribution of sediment in the water body. This study experimentally evaluated the effects of the reach degree of convergence and divergence on the head velocity of the density current. Experiments were conducted in the flume with 6.0 m long, 0.72 m width and 0.6 m height. The head velocity was measured at three convergent degrees (-8o;-12o;-26o), at three divergent degrees (8o; 12o; 26o) and two slopes (0.009, 0.016) for various discharges. The measured head velocity of the density current is compared with the head velocity of the density current in the constant cross section channel. Based on non-dimensional and statistical analysis, relations as linear multiple regression are offered for predicting head velocity of the density current in the convergent, divergent and constant cross section channel. Also the results of this research show that for the same slope and discharge, the head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel are greater and less than the head velocity of the constant cross section, respectively.

  8. Current trends of management of respiratory diseases by pulmonologists: Results of National Conference of Pulmonary Disease - 2015 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetu Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Respiratory diseases are a common problem in our country and these are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: The aim of the paper was to analyze the pattern of diagnostic tests used and treatment prescribed for common respiratory diseases. Settings and Design: A total of 1028 pulmonologists, either member of Indian Chest Society or delegate attending the National Conference of Pulmonary Diseases (NAPCON 2015, participated in the online survey. Subjects and Methods: The survey included questions pertinent to common respiratory diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and pneumonia. Results: Investigation used for severity assessment and diagnosis of PTB, was sputum for acid-fast bacilli (83.5%, for IPF was high-resolution computed tomography chest (85.6%, for severe pneumonia was arterial blood gas analysis (69.3%, for asthma was spirometery and peak flow (96.8% and for COPDs was spirometry (87.2%. The most popular choice of treatment for PTB was directly observed treatment short course (55.7%, for bronchial asthma, it was long-acting beta agonist with inhaled corticosteroids (LABA + ICSs (41.1%, for COPD, it was LABA, ICS, and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LABA + ICS + long-acting muscarinic antagonist (32.4% and for IPF, it was pirfenidone and N acetyl cysteine (38.3%. About 67.5% of doctors preferred hospitalization for patients with severe pneumonia. About 84.5% pulmonologists ordered diagnostic tests and 55.5% prescribed treatment as per current guidelines. Conclusions: The majority of doctors (70.1% in our survey followed recommended guidelines for respiratory disease diagnosis and treatment. However, there is a need for upgradation of treatment strategies currently used by doctors.

  9. Current trends of management of respiratory diseases by pulmonologists: Results of National Conference of Pulmonary Disease - 2015 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheetu; Singh, Nishtha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Respiratory diseases are a common problem in our country and these are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: The aim of the paper was to analyze the pattern of diagnostic tests used and treatment prescribed for common respiratory diseases. Settings and Design: A total of 1028 pulmonologists, either member of Indian Chest Society or delegate attending the National Conference of Pulmonary Diseases (NAPCON) 2015, participated in the online survey. Subjects and Methods: The survey included questions pertinent to common respiratory diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pneumonia. Results: Investigation used for severity assessment and diagnosis of PTB, was sputum for acid-fast bacilli (83.5%), for IPF was high-resolution computed tomography chest (85.6%), for severe pneumonia was arterial blood gas analysis (69.3%), for asthma was spirometery and peak flow (96.8%) and for COPDs was spirometry (87.2%). The most popular choice of treatment for PTB was directly observed treatment short course (55.7%), for bronchial asthma, it was long-acting beta agonist with inhaled corticosteroids (LABA + ICSs) (41.1%), for COPD, it was LABA, ICS, and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LABA + ICS + long-acting muscarinic antagonist) (32.4%) and for IPF, it was pirfenidone and N acetyl cysteine (38.3%). About 67.5% of doctors preferred hospitalization for patients with severe pneumonia. About 84.5% pulmonologists ordered diagnostic tests and 55.5% prescribed treatment as per current guidelines. Conclusions: The majority of doctors (70.1%) in our survey followed recommended guidelines for respiratory disease diagnosis and treatment. However, there is a need for upgradation of treatment strategies currently used by doctors. PMID:28144054

  10. Review of current study methods for VRU safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Kamaluddin, Noor Azreena; Várhelyi, András

    written questionnaires (either online or paper-based), interviews may be performed (either face-to-face or via telephone) and people may be asked to report their accident via an app on their mobile device. The method for gaining self-reported information thus varies greatly – and so does the information...... that people are asked to give. In most studies, only the number of accidents in which the respondent was involved is relevant for the researcher. In other studies, respondents are asked about possible accident causation factors, and some studies deal with respondents’ recall of the accident details. In other...

  11. Computational and experimental studies of laser cutting of the current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Patwa, Rahul; Herfurth, Hans; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy

    2012-07-01

    Sizing electrodes is an important step during Lithium-ion battery manufacturing processes since poor cut edge affects battery performance significantly and sometime leads to fire hazard. Mechanical cutting could result in a poor cut quality with defects. The cutting quality can be improved by using a laser, due to its high energy concentration, fast processing time, small heat-affected zone, and high precision. The cutting quality is highly influenced by operating parameters such as laser power and scanning speed. Thus, we studied a numerical simulation to provide a guideline for achieving clear edge quality. In order to simulate electrodes laser cutting for Lithium-Ion batteries, understanding the behavior of current collectors is crucial. This study focuses on current collectors, such as pure copper and aluminium. Numerical studies utilized a 3D self-consistent mathematical model for laser-material interaction. Observations of penetration time, depth, and threshold during laser cutting processes of current collectors are described. The model is validated experimentally by cutting current collectors and single side-coated electrodes with a single mode fiber laser. The copper laser cutting is laser intensity and interaction time dependent process. The aluminium laser cutting depends more on laser intensity than the interaction time. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement.

  12. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005. Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005.

  13. Current approaches of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Xu

    2008-01-01

    @@ With rapid advances in high-throughput genotyping technology and the great increase in information available on SNPs throughout the genuine, genuine-wide association(GWA) studies have now become feasible.

  14. Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere Akobundu; Jing Ju; Lisa Blatt; C Daniel Mullins

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods...

  15. The Course of Schizophrenia: E. Kraepelin's View and Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Müller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kraepelin's concept of dementia praecox and Bleuler's concept of the group of schizophrenias differ mainly under the aspect of course of the disorder. Follow-up studies play an important role for research regarding course, outcome and prognosis of psychiatric disorders, especially in terms of validation of psychiatric diagnosis and other psychiatric concepts, such as the concept of schizophrenic negative symptoms. Long-term studies also have their place in the description and evaluation of first treatment procedures. This paper will describe some general aspects of the long-term course and outcome of schizophrenic psychoses. The problem of relapses and relapse prevention will then be discussed. Especially data from recent studies will be considered in this overview.

  16. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

    2007-05-01

    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures.

  17. The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.M.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described. The coaches involved in these studies were: (1) school counsellors, (2) school principals, (3) mentors of beginning teachers, (4) mentors of

  18. The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.M.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described. The coaches involved in these studies were: (1) school counsellors, (2) school principals, (3) mentors of beginning teachers, (4) mentors of

  19. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  20. Turbulent Gravity Current of Lock Release Type:A Numerical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Q.CHEN; J.H.W.LEE

    1999-01-01

    The time evolution of a turbulent gravity current of lock release type,formed by a finite volume of homogenous fluid released instantaneously into another fluid of slightly lower density,is studied numerically via the renormalization group(RNG)κ-ε model for Reynolds-stress closure to characterize the flow with transitional and highly localized turbulence,Consistent with previous experimental observations,the numerical results show that the gravity current passes through two distinct phases,an initial slumping phase in which the current head advances steadily,and a second self-similar phase in which the front velocity decreases like the negative third power of the time after release.An overall entrainment ratio proportional to the distance from the release point is found and comares well with available experimental data for the slumping phase.

  1. CRITICAL CURRENT AND JUNCTION BETWEEN PANCAKE STUDIES FOR HTS COIL DESIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Lécrevisse, Y; Louchart, O; Rey, J-M; Tixador, P

    2011-01-01

    YBCO Coated Conductor (CC) are very attractive for very high magnetic field coil with lower cryogenics need. We study two major aspects of HTS coil building. First the results of critical current measurements on YBCO tape provided by SuperPower are presented for a large temperature range and in parallel magnetic field configuration. A model is also proposed to extrapolate those measurements at other temperatures and fields. Then we focus on the critical aspect of junctions between pancakes. Junctions in cylindrical configuration are studied using three different soldering materials. The results are promising for further coil building.

  2. Current state of musculoskeletal ultrasound training and implementation in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naredo, Esperanza; D'Agostino, Maria A; Conaghan, Philip G

    2010-01-01

    To document the current state of musculoskeletal US (MSUS) training and extent of implementation among rheumatologists in the member countries of EULAR.......To document the current state of musculoskeletal US (MSUS) training and extent of implementation among rheumatologists in the member countries of EULAR....

  3. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (http://www.ivdk.org). Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The end of universality: new collectivities in current literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Greene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how the literary studies reacted to the conceptual crises of universalism, especially after WWII. In order to replace a concept that refers to the ability of a literary work to transcend time and space, literary studies should focus on different and specific collectivities that, situated in time and space, read and interpret literary works. The author makes use of the concept of the obverse, in which two poems, from different historical moments and intellectual traditions are compared based on a common social-historical problem they are trying to solve.    O autor investiga sobre como os estudos literários reagiram à crise do conceito de universalismo, sobretudo depois da II Guerra Mundial. Para substituir um conceito que se refere à capacidade de uma obra literária transcender tempo e espaço, os estudos literários deveriam indagar sobre as diferentes coletividades específicas, no tempo e no espaço, que leem e dão significado à obra literária. Para isso, o autor se utiliza do conceito de “obverso”, em que dois poemas, de épocas e tradições intelectuais diferentes, são comparados a partir de um problema sócio-histórico que tentam resolver.      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  5. THE CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM OF CHILDREN HEALTH BORN IN RESULT OF THE ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Mansimova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief historical background of development of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART is presented. The works of russian and foreign authors about the neonatal period, the health of babies born in result of different methods of ART (in vitro fertilization using ICSI were analyzed. After discussion there were indicated new approaches for prevention of perinatal morbidity and ensuring harmonious development and quality of life for these children. The necessity of a national multicenter study of the status of children born in result of induced pregnancy was proved.Key words: assisted reproductive technologies, IVF, ICSI technique, newborns, health.

  6. The value of the internship for radiation oncology training: results of a survey of current and recent trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen R; Romero, Michelle J; Geannette, Christian; Patel, Amish

    2009-07-15

    Although a 12-month clinical internship is the traditional precursor to a radiation oncology residency, the continuance of this mandated training sequence has been questioned. This study was performed to evaluate the perceptions of current radiation oncology residents with respect to the value of their internship experience. A survey was sent to all US radiation oncology residents. Each was queried about whether they considered the internship to be a necessary prerequisite for a career as a radiation oncologist and as a physician. Preferences were listed on a Likert scale (1 = not at all necessary to 5 = absolutely necessary). Seventy-one percent considered the internship year mostly (Likert Scale 4) or absolutely necessary (Likert Scale 5) for their development as a radiation oncologist, whereas 19.1% answered hardly or not at all (Likert Scale 2 and 1, respectively). With respect to their collective considerations about the impact of the internship year on their development as a physician, 89% had a positive response, 5.8% had a negative response, and 4.7% had no opinion. Although both deemed the preliminary year favorably, affirmative answers were more frequent among erstwhile internal medicine interns than former transitional program interns. A majority of radiation oncology residents positively acknowledged their internship for their development as a specialist and an even greater majority valued it for their development as a physician. This affirmative opinion was registered more frequently by those completing an internal medicine internship compared with a transitional internship.

  7. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes.

  8. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of descriptive varieties of philosophy of religion primarily concerned with understanding and the clarification of meaning rather than with the stereotypical tasks of propositional justification or critical evaluation. Three examples are discussed in the article: analytic traditions (Wittgensteinianism and ordinarylanguage philosophy, phenomenological perspectives involving reduction (bracketing and comparative philosophy of religion that works in tandem with the history of religion and comparative religion.

  9. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... home-based programme while the control group will receive no advice or coaching throughout the study period. Outcomes will be assessed after the end of CR and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is VO2peak and secondary outcomes include variables describing CR uptake, adherence, efficacy...

  10. Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Piperno, Dolores R; Allaby, Robin G; Purugganan, Michael D; Andersson, Leif; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Barton, Loukas; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Denham, Tim; Dobney, Keith; Doust, Andrew N; Gepts, Paul; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Gremillion, Kristen J; Lucas, Leilani; Lukens, Lewis; Marshall, Fiona B; Olsen, Kenneth M; Pires, J Chris; Richerson, Peter J; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Sanjur, Oris I; Thomas, Mark G; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2014-04-29

    It is difficult to overstate the cultural and biological impacts that the domestication of plants and animals has had on our species. Fundamental questions regarding where, when, and how many times domestication took place have been of primary interest within a wide range of academic disciplines. Within the last two decades, the advent of new archaeological and genetic techniques has revolutionized our understanding of the pattern and process of domestication and agricultural origins that led to our modern way of life. In the spring of 2011, 25 scholars with a central interest in domestication representing the fields of genetics, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, geoarchaeology, and archaeology met at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center to discuss recent domestication research progress and identify challenges for the future. In this introduction to the resulting Special Feature, we present the state of the art in the field by discussing what is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of domestication, and controversies surrounding the speed, intentionality, and evolutionary aspects of the domestication process. We then highlight three key challenges for future research. We conclude by arguing that although recent progress has been impressive, the next decade will yield even more substantial insights not only into how domestication took place, but also when and where it did, and where and why it did not.

  11. Everolimus-eluting stents: update on current clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allocco DJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dominic J Allocco, Anita A Joshi, Keith D DawkinsBoston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USAAbstract: Everolimus-eluting stents (EES have become the most commonly implanted coronary stents worldwide. This review describes and analyzes the clinical data supporting the use of EES, focusing primarily on published, randomized, controlled trials. Everolimuseluting stents have been shown to have less restenosis, stent thrombosis, and periprocedural myocardial infarction compared with earlier generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES. Lower rates of adverse events for EES compared with PES were generally seen in all subgroups, with the notable exception of patients with diabetes mellitus. There have been fewer, randomized, clinical trials comparing EES with either sirolimus-eluting stents or zotarolimus-eluting stents, although very good results with EES have been observed in the trials that have been performed. Recent clinical trial data suggest that this excellent safety and efficacy profile is maintained in a next-generation EES designed to have improved mechanical properties and radiopacity.Keywords: drug-eluting stents, everolimus, Xience V, Promus, Promus ElementVideo Abstract:  http://dvpr.es/allocco  

  12. Dosimetric Study of Current Treatment Options for Radiotherapy in Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldebawy, Eman [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Children' s Cancer Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@mcgill.ca [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Abdel Rahman, Wamied [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the best treatment technique for patients with retinoblastoma requiring radiotherapy to the whole eye. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 3 patients with retinoblastoma were developed using 10 radiotherapy techniques including electron beams, photon beam wedge pair (WP), photon beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), photon volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and helical tomotherapy (HT). Dose-volume analyses were carried out for each technique. Results: All techniques provided similar target coverage; conformity was highest for VMAT, nine-field (9F) IMRT, and HT (conformity index [CI] = 1.3) and lowest for the WP and two electron techniques (CI = 1.8). The electron techniques had the highest planning target volume dose gradient (131% of maximum dose received [D{sub max}]), and the CRT techniques had the lowest (103% D{sub max}) gradient. The volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20Gy}) for the ipsilateral bony orbit was lowest for the VMAT and HT techniques (56%) and highest for the CRT techniques (90%). Generally, the electron beam techniques were superior in terms of brain sparing and delivered approximately one-third of the integral dose of the photon techniques. Conclusions: Inverse planned image-guided radiotherapy delivered using HT or VMAT gives better conformity index, improved orbital bone and brain sparing, and a lower integral dose than other techniques.

  13. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  14. Students' Ideas about Animals: Results from a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.; Barman, Natalie S.; Cox, Mary Lou; Newhouse, Kay Berglund; Goldston, M. Jenice

    2000-01-01

    Explains a study that assesses students' ideas about animals. Evaluates textbooks and trade books according to the identifications and words they use. Discusses student responses from different grade levels on the classification of animals and identifying what is an animal. Summarizes the results of the study and makes recommendations on the…

  15. FNSP-studies, 1985-1992 : results & recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is a compilation of summaries detailing the results and recommendations of the more than twenty studies completed to date as part of the Food and Nutrition Studies Programme (FNSP), an international cooperation agreement between the Ministry of Planning and National Development in

  16. Weather Forecasting for Ka-band Operations: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Wu, L.; Slobin, S.

    2016-08-01

    As lower frequency bands (e.g., 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz) have become oversubscribed during the past several decades, NASA has become interested in using higher frequency bands (e.g., 26 GHz and 32 GHz) for telemetry, thus making use of the available wider bandwidth. However, these bands are more susceptible to atmospheric degradation. Currently, flight projects tend to be conservative in preparing their communications links by using worst-case or conservative assumptions. Such assumptions result in nonoptimum data return. We explore the use of weather forecasting for Goldstone and Madrid for different weather condition scenarios to determine more optimal values of atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature for use in telecommunication link design. We find that the use of weather forecasting can provide up to 2 dB or more of increased data return when more favorable conditions are forecast. Future plans involve further developing the technique for operational scenarios with interested flight projects.

  17. Pharmaceutical Market Access: current state of affairs and key challenges – results of the Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory (MALEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A. Koch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To take inventory of the current state of affairs of Market Access Launch Excellence in the life sciences industry. To identify key gaps and challenges for Market Access (MA and discuss how they can be addressed. To generate a baseline for benchmarking MA launch excellence. Methodology: An online survey was conducted with pharmaceutical executives primarily working in MA, marketing, or general management. The survey aimed to evaluate MA excellence prerequisites across the product life cycle (rated by importance and level of implementation and to describe MA activity models in the respective companies. Composite scores were calculated from respondents’ ratings and answers. Results: Implementation levels of MA excellence prerequisites generally lagged behind their perceived importance. Item importance and the respective level of implementation correlated well, which can be interpreted as proof of the validity of the questionnaire. The following areas were shown to be particularly underimplemented: 1 early integration of MA and health economic considerations in research and development decision making, 2 developing true partnerships with payers, including the development of services ‘beyond the pill’, and 3 consideration of human resource and talent management. The concept of importance-adjusted implementation levels as a hybrid parameter was introduced and shown to be a viable tool for benchmarking purposes. More than 70% of respondents indicated that their companies will invest broadly in MA in terms of capital and headcount within the next 3 years. Conclusions: MA (launch excellence needs to be further developed in order to close implementation gaps across the entire product life cycle. As MA is a comparatively young pharmaceutical discipline in a complex and dynamic environment, this effort will require strategic focus and dedication. The Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory benchmarking tool may help guide decision

  18. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  19. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results of this cross-sectional study and the available proofs in community indicate that, there are the high levels of fungal contaminations in current used spices. Therefore, it is necessary to control the production units.

  20. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  1. Study on Recovery Performance of High Tc Superconducting Tapes for Resistive Type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    kar, Soumen; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Dixit, Manglesh; Singh, Kuwar Pal; Gupta, Alok; Balasubramanyam, P. V.; Sarangi, S. K.; Rao, V. V.

    Recent advances in reliable production of long length high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes have resulted in commercial application of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in electrical utility networks. SFCL gives excellent technical performance when compared to conventional fault current limiters. The fast self-recovery from normal state to superconducting state immediately after the fault removal is an essential criterion for resistive type SFCL operation. In this paper, results on AC over-current testing of 1st generation (1G) Bi2223 tapes and 2nd generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors operating at 77 K are reported. From these results, the recovery time is estimated for different available HTS tapes in the market. The current limiting tests have also been performed to study the effective current limitation. Further, the recovery characteristics after the current limitation are quantitatively discussed for repetitive faults for different time intervals in the range of 100 ms to few seconds.

  2. Numerical study on water waves and wave-induced longshore currents in Obaköy coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; LYU Yigang; SHEN Yongming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the water waves and wave-induced longshore currents in Obaköy coastal water which is lo-cated at the Mediterranean coast of Turkey were numerically studied. The numerical model is based on the parabolic mild-slope equation for coastal water waves and the nonlinear shallow water equation for the wave-induced currents. The wave transformation under the effects of shoaling, refraction, diffraction and breaking is considered, and the wave provides radiation stresses for driving currents in the model. The numerical results for the water wave-induced longshore currents were validated by the measured data to demonstrate the efficiency of the numerical model. Then the water waves and longshore currents induced by the waves from main directions were numerically simulated and analyzed based on the numerical re-sults. The numerical results show that the movement of the longshore currents was different while the wave propagated to a coastal zone from different directions.

  3. Transcorneal alternating current stimulation after severe axon damage in rats results in "long-term silent survivor" neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich-Noack, Petra; Lazik, Stefanie; Sergeeva, Elena; Wagner, Sebastian; Voigt, Nadine; Prilloff, Sylvia; Fedorov, Anton; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2013-06-01

    Transcorneal alternating current stimulation (tACS) was proposed to decrease acute death of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve transection in rats, but it is not known if cell survival is long-term and associated with functional restoration. We therefore evaluated the effects of tACS in a rat model of optic nerve crush using anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural measures. Rats were trained in a brightness discrimination visual task and the retinal ganglion cell number was quantified with in vivo confocal neuroimaging. Thereafter, severe optic nerve crush or sham crush was performed and rats were treated under anaesthesia either with tACS or sham stimulation immediately after the lesion and on day 3, 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23. Brightness discrimination was evaluated for 6 weeks and retinal ganglion cells were counted in vivo on post-crush days 7 and 28. In additional rats we studied the influence of tACS on bioelectrical activity. On post-lesion day 28, the tACS-treated group showed a neuronal survival of 28.2% which was significantly greater than in sham operates (8.6%). All animals with optic nerve crush were significantly impaired in brightness discrimination and did not recover performance, irrespective to which group they belonged. In accordance with this, there was no significant influence of the stimulation on EEG power spectra. In conclusion, tACS induced long-term neuronal protection from delayed retrograde cell death, but in this case of severe axonal damage tACS did not influence functional restoration and EEG signals recorded over the visual cortex.

  4. Modeling studies of the coastal/littoral current system off Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Henry A.

    2006-01-01

    Both theoretical and numerical modeling studies of the current system off western and southern Australia are conducted to characterize the features of the current system, their temporal variability, and their impact on the sound speed structure. The theoretical study examines why boundary current separation occurs off Cape Leeuwin creating an area of enhanced eddy generation. It is shown that the beta effect, vortex stretching, and streamline curvature all act to decelerate the current a...

  5. Process Evaluation Results from an Environmentally Focused Worksite Weight Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Padilla, Heather M.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Parker, Kristin B.; Della, Lindsay J.; Roemer, Enid C.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently much interest in exploring environmental approaches to combat weight gain and obesity. This study presents process evaluation results from a workplace-based study that tested two levels of environmentally focused weight management interventions in a manufacturing setting. The moderate treatment featured a set of relatively…

  6. Process Evaluation Results from an Environmentally Focused Worksite Weight Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Padilla, Heather M.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Parker, Kristin B.; Della, Lindsay J.; Roemer, Enid C.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently much interest in exploring environmental approaches to combat weight gain and obesity. This study presents process evaluation results from a workplace-based study that tested two levels of environmentally focused weight management interventions in a manufacturing setting. The moderate treatment featured a set of relatively…

  7. Review of the Studies about Environmental Education: Current Status in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kızılay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to reveal current status of studies in environmental education, which were published in Turkey between 2007-2011. Within the content of this study, 112 studies were reviewed using content analysis based on the following grouping criteria; i.e., publication year, language, participant, research design, research topic, data gathering instruments and data analysis program. The results indicated that 78% of them were published in Turkish and most of them were at university level (36.2%.A majority of the reviewed studies were about affective domain (31.9%. Quantitative studies (57.1% were very commonly used by the researchers . Questionnaires (45% were the most commonly used data gathering instruments, and SPSS was the most frequently used quantitative data analysis program (88.6%. Presenting an overview of relevant literature, this study may guide the researchers who will conduct further studies on environmental education.

  8. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  9. Experimental study on hydrodynamic characteristics of vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Li, Teng-fei; Zhang, Liang; Sheng, Qi-hu; Zhang, Xue-wei; Jiang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    To study the characteristics of attenuation, hydrostatic towage and wave response of the vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device (VAFTCEPGD), a prototype is designed and experiment is carried out in the towing tank. Free decay is conducted to obtain attenuation characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD, and characteristics of mooring forces and motion response, floating condition, especially the lateral displacement of the VAFTCEPGD are obtained from the towing in still water. Tension response of the #1 mooring line and vibration characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD in regular waves as well as in level 4 irregular wave sea state with the current velocity of 0.6 m/s. The results can be reference for theoretical study and engineering applications related to VAFTCEPGD.

  10. Magnetic field structure of Saturn's dayside magnetosphere and its mapping to the ionosphere: Results from ring current modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, E. J.; Arridge, C. S.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2008-02-01

    Ring current modeling in Saturn's magnetosphere using Pioneer-11, Voyager, and Cassini data has shown that the size and strength of the current system grows with the extension of the magnetosphere, governed by the solar wind dynamic pressure. Here we show that the consequent middle magnetosphere field is quasi-dipolar in form when the magnetosphere is strongly compressed, but extends into a magnetodisc when it is strongly expanded. We also show that the region occupied by the modeled ring current corresponds to an essentially fixed shell of field lines that expands and contracts with the size of the system, thus mapping to an almost fixed co-latitude range in Saturn's ionosphere, between ~14° and ~20° in the northern hemisphere, and ~16° and ~22° in the southern hemisphere. The median dayside UV auroral oval is found to map from near the poleward edge of the modeled ring current toward the boundary of open field lines at smaller co-latitudes. In the equatorial plane this corresponds to a layer ~2-5 Saturn radius wide (depending on magnetosphere size), extending from near the outer edge of the ring current to the vicinity of the magnetopause.

  11. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  12. Results of six years of cytogenetic studies in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: research into different genetic diseases is one of the preventive programs of paramount importance at public health level. The early detection of chromosomopathies and the establishment of an appropriate strategy reduce the morbidity-morality rate and improve the patients’ quality of life.Objective: to describe the behavior of the results of the cytogenetic studies in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women from Las Tunas province during six years: from 2008 to 2014.Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was carried out to assess the results of cytogenetic studies in amniotic liquid during six years: from 2008 to 2014. The statistical records were checked and the results, the indication criteria, the behavior of the age groups in women advanced in age and the diagnosed chromosomopathies were assessed.Results: the samples with results that exceeded the non-conclusive and positive women prevailed; 2, 3 positive cases of chromosomopathies were diagnosed out of 100 studied women at risk; pregnant women of advanced gestational years prevailed as indication criterion, being the 37 to 40 years old age group the predominant one; in the positive cases, numeric chromosomopathies of the type trisomy 21 or Down’s syndrome prevailed, with a frequency of 1, 2 out of 100 pregnant women at risk.Conclusions: the program of the cytogenetic diagnosis in the amniotic fluid has been an effective tool to detect congenital prenatal defects by chromosomopathies, very useful in the process of genetic advice.

  13. Empirical results of entrepreneurs’ network: case study of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The changes in economic development of different countries in recent decades are influenced by processes that have modified the ways and forms of doing business. While in the past, the emphasis was put on size of the company, currently its participation in various forms of network cooperation prevails. The following paper presents results of empirical research realized between the small and medium sized enterprises involved into entrepreneurs’ networks. Research was conducted during the period 2014 – 2015 in a frame of scientific research project VEGA 1/0381/13 and KEGA 001UCM-4/2016. The main aim of paper is to propose the basic model of network entrepreneurial cooperation in the conditions of the Slovak republic. The novelty of this paper is to mention the main steps that should be done by stakeholders, if they want to create successful network. The partial aims of this paper are: the evaluation of quantitative and qualitative conditions for networking and description of partial steps which lead to creation of network cooperation. We used selected quantitative methods (Localization coefficient with combination of BCG matrix. Qualitative conditions will be evaluated through the results of questionnaire survey, which identified the entrepreneurs’ suggestions of business for engagement into the network (by using Pearson chi-square, Kruskal Wallis and Median Tests.

  14. A Study of Current Chopping Characteristics in Metal-Carbide Composite Contact Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kusano, Takashi; Okutomi, Tsutomu; Yokokura, Kunio; Homma, Mitsutaka

    To clarify the effect of carbides on current chopping characteristics chopping current was evaluated for various metalcarbide contact materials. As a result, it was found that the chopping current of metal-carbide contacts was related to the vapor pressure of metals and the work function of carbides. It was also found that the chopping current was reduced by the heat treatment when the melting point of contacts is lower than the temperature of heat teatment.

  15. Theoretical study of the source-drain current and gate leakage current to understand the graphene field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui; Liu, Hongmei; Ni, Wenbin; Gao, Nengyue; Zhao, Jianwei; Zhang, Haoli

    2011-02-28

    We designed acene molecules attached to two semi-infinite metallic electrodes to explore the source-drain current of graphene and the gate leakage current of the gate dielectric material in the field-effect transistors (FETs) device using the first-principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In the acene-based molecular junctions, we modify the connection position of the thiol group at one side, forming different electron transport routes. The electron transport routes besides the shortest one are defined as the cross channels. The simulation results indicate that electron transport through the cross channels is as efficient as that through the shortest one, since the conductance is weakly dependent on the distance. Thus, it is possible to connect the graphene with multiple leads, leading the graphene as a channel utilized in the graphene-based FETs in the mesoscopic system. When the conjugation of the cross channel is blocked, the junction conductance decreases dramatically. The differential conductance of the BA-1 is nearly 7 (54.57 μS) times as large as that of the BA-4 (7.35 μS) at zero bias. Therefore, the blocked graphene can be employed as the gate dielectric material in the top-gated graphene FET device, since the leakage current is small. The graphene-based field-effect transistors fabricated with a single layer of graphene as the channel and the blocked graphene as the gate dielectric material represent one way to overcome the problem of miniaturization which faces the new generation of transistors.

  16. Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Benedikt; Sloep, Peter; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Reinhardt, W., Schmidt, B., Sloep, P. B., & Drachsler, H. (2011). Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies. Knowledge and Process Management, 18(3), 150–174. doi: 10.1002/kpm.378 Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/kpm.378/abstract

  17. Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Benedikt; Sloep, Peter; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Reinhardt, W., Schmidt, B., Sloep, P. B., & Drachsler, H. (2011). Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies. Knowledge and Process Management, 18(3), 150–174. doi: 10.1002/kpm.378 Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/kpm.378/abstract

  18. RESULTS OF COLLABORATIVE STUDY FOR TISSUE TYPING QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Abramov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HLA molecules appear to be the principal target of immune allorecognition. The efficiency of transplant directly depends on coincidence of the data obtained by different HLA laboratories. This study discusses the results produced by 12 tissue typing labs in the framework of the initiative program for tissue typing quality control in 2009. 

  19. A Snapshot Study of Current Practices among Sellers of Translation Services between Japanese and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stephen Crabbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-part study was launched in light of the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement in its guide, 翻訳で失敗しないために翻訳発注の手引き [lit. For not getting it wrong with translation: a guide to ordering translation], that “外国語の文書を母国語に翻訳するのがプロの原則です” [lit. It is a fundamental principle that professional translators work into their native languages] (Japan Translation Federation, 2012, p. 15. The key goal is to gauge the extent to which this 2012 statement is reflected in current practices among the sellers and buyers of translation services between Japanese and English. In this paper, which describes the first part of the study, the focus is on the practices of sellers of translation services between Japanese and English: specifically, professional freelance translators. Twenty-four professional freelance translators completed an online questionnaire. The results of this questionnaire, first, suggest that current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English are consistent with the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement and, second, broadly support secondary literature on L1 translation (translation into the first language and L2 translation (translation into the second language. Whilst this is only a snapshot of current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English, the overall results are informative. In the second, follow-up part of the study the focus will be on the current practices of buyers of translation services between Japanese and English.

  20. The relationship between attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted to determine affecting factors and to investigate relationship  between  attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women and to compare characteristics of menarche and menstruation of women who were born and raised in the northeastern and western of Turkey.  Method and Materials: This descriptive and comparative study was participated totally 400 volunteer women. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing defined closed and open-ended questions. Results: The study results showed that women living in Ordu province than women living in Aydın province expressed positive attitudes toward menarche, and the difference was found significant. Nevertheless, attitudes towards current menstruation were similar in both provinces. When the data of 400 women were evaluated together; women’s attitudes towards menarche were compared with the current attitudes towards menstruation, and the difference was found statistically significant. Although attitudes of the women towards menarche varied according to where they lived, their current attitudes towards menstruation were similar. In addition, depending upon the province, there were statistically significant differences in women’s age at menarche, recollection of menarche, and feelings of shame or happiness at menarche, source and adequacy of information about menstruation, and regularity of their menstrual cycle.   Conclusions: Early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life and women’s attitudes towards menstruation were not affected by geographical locations. In order to develop positive attitudes towards menarche and a woman’s future years of menstrual cycles, it is very important that accurate and adequate information for young girls be provided before menarche.

  1. Combining estimates of interest in prognostic modelling studies after multiple imputation: current practice and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Roger L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation (MI provides an effective approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies, as it can properly account for the missing data uncertainty. The multiply imputed datasets are each analysed using standard prognostic modelling techniques to obtain the estimates of interest. The estimates from each imputed dataset are then combined into one overall estimate and variance, incorporating both the within and between imputation variability. Rubin's rules for combining these multiply imputed estimates are based on asymptotic theory. The resulting combined estimates may be more accurate if the posterior distribution of the population parameter of interest is better approximated by the normal distribution. However, the normality assumption may not be appropriate for all the parameters of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies, such as predicted survival probabilities and model performance measures. Methods Guidelines for combining the estimates of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies are provided. A literature review is performed to identify current practice for combining such estimates in prognostic modelling studies. Results Methods for combining all reported estimates after MI were not well reported in the current literature. Rubin's rules without applying any transformations were the standard approach used, when any method was stated. Conclusion The proposed simple guidelines for combining estimates after MI may lead to a wider and more appropriate use of MI in future prognostic modelling studies.

  2. Current research results on the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I and C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.; Wood, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hassan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Tanaka, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antonescu, C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents results to date of an NRC-sponsored confirmatory research program initiated at three national laboratories to address environmental compatibility/qualification concerns associated with the use of microprocessor-based safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The research approach involved evaluating existing military and industrial guidance, identifying the most significant environmental stressors and, for advanced I and C systems in a nuclear power plant, investigating the likely failure modes--both at the integrated circuit and system level--for digital technologies under varying levels of environmental stress (such as smoke exposure and electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference). The insights gained from these studies are being used to recommend appropriate methods for qualifying safety-related digital equipment in nuclear power plants.

  3. Preliminary results concerning the simulation of beam profiles from extracted ion current distributions for mini-STRIKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinetti, P., E-mail: piero.agostinetti@igi.cnr.it; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Giacomin, M. [Physics Department, Università di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bonomo, F.; Schiesko, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The Radio Frequency (RF) negative hydrogen ion source prototype has been chosen for the ITER neutral beam injectors due to its optimal performances and easier maintenance demonstrated at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching in hydrogen and deuterium. One of the key information to better understand the operating behavior of the RF ion sources is the extracted negative ion current density distribution. This distribution—influenced by several factors like source geometry, particle drifts inside the source, cesium distribution, and layout of cesium ovens—is not straightforward to be evaluated. The main outcome of the present contribution is the development of a minimization method to estimate the extracted current distribution using the footprint of the beam recorded with mini-STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter). To accomplish this, a series of four computational models have been set up, where the output of a model is the input of the following one. These models compute the optics of the ion beam, evaluate the distribution of the heat deposited on the mini-STRIKE diagnostic calorimeter, and finally give an estimate of the temperature distribution on the back of mini-STRIKE. Several iterations with different extracted current profiles are necessary to give an estimate of the profile most compatible with the experimental data. A first test of the application of the method to the BAvarian Test Machine for Negative ions beam is given.

  4. RESULTS CONCERNING PEDOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE FROM SLAVA RUSĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Pirnau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the elements, chemical processes and soil morphology, related to archaeo-zoological analysis of fauna material taken from the archaeological site of Slava Rusă, provides important information for understanding the evolution of the settlement, taking into account the close relationship between natural deposits, which include soil, and cultural features of the site. Thus, the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil are important in this context, because environmental factors that led to the formation of distinct soil, leaving traces in the morphology, are the same factors that influenced the morphology and the evolution of inhabited areas. This approach is useful if the environmental conditions that have affected the settlement have not been changed significantly over time, and, at the Slava Rusă, data regarding soil conditions suggest bioclimatic stability for a very long time. The soils are poorly evolved, texture is not differentiated, and calcium carbonates are present in the soil to depths of 3-4 m. All these features confirm that the current climate of the region remained unchanged, from the Neolithic to the present, climate underwent only insignificant oscillations.

  5. Market and strategy - results of the ZB MED market study

    OpenAIRE

    Gail, Fabian; Korwitz, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In order to guarantee a future-oriented positioning of ZB MED it is indispensable to have an exact knowledge of the market and the target groups so that the product portfolio can be aligned to the needs of the customers. For this reason, a large-scale external market study was realized to get reliable facts as a basis for the strategic and operative development of ZB MED. This article describes the methodology of the market study and presents the important results for ZB MED. At first, market...

  6. How to understand the results of studies of glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2015-11-03

    The lack of understanding of the mechanisms behind possible beneficial and possible harmful effects of glutamine supplementation makes the design of interventional studies of glutamine supplementations difficult, perhaps even hazardous. What is the interventional target, and how might it relate to outcomes? Taking one step further and aggregating results from interventional studies into meta-analyses does not diminish the difficulties. Therefore, conducting basic research seems to be a better idea than groping in the dark and exposing patients to potential harm in this darkness.

  7. Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Kilaru Kessler

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is being widely investigated in adults as a therapeutic modality for brain disorders involving abnormal cortical excitability or disordered network activity. Interest is also growing in studying tDCS in children. Limited empirical studies in children suggest that tDCS is well tolerated and may have a similar safety profile as in adults. However, in electrotherapy as in pharmacotherapy, dose selection in children requires special attention, and simple extrapolation from adult studies may be inadequate. Critical aspects of dose adjustment include 1 differences in neurophysiology and disease, and 2 variation in brain electric fields for a specified dose due to gross anatomical differences between children and adults. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI derived finite element modeling simulations of two healthy children, ages 8 years and 12 years, and three healthy adults with varying head size to compare differences in electric field intensity and distribution. Multiple conventional and high-definition tDCS montages were tested. Our results suggest that on average, children will be exposed to higher peak electrical fields for a given applied current intensity than adults, but there is likely to be overlap between adults with smaller head size and children. In addition, exposure is montage specific. Variations in peak electrical fields were seen between the two pediatric models, despite comparable head size, suggesting that the relationship between neuroanatomic factors and bioavailable current dose is not trivial. In conclusion, caution is advised in using higher tDCS doses in children until 1 further modeling studies in a larger group shed light on the range of exposure possible by applied dose and age and 2 further studies correlate bioavailable dose estimates from modeling studies with empirically tested physiologic effects, such as modulation of motor evoked potentials after stimulation.

  8. Massless correlators of vector, scalar and tensor currents in position space at orders alpha_s^3 and alpha_s^4: explicit analytical results

    OpenAIRE

    Chetyrkin, K. G.; Maier, A

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results both in momentum and position space for the massless correlators of the vector and scalar currents to order alpha_s^4 as well as for the tensor currents to order alpha_s^3. The evolution equations for the correlators together with all relevant anomalous dimensions are discussed in detail. As an application we present explicit conversion formulas relating the MSbar-renormalized vector, scalar and tensor currents to their counterparts renormalized in the X-space re...

  9. First field test of the theory of ignition and dissipation in sediment density currents - results from Squamish prodelta, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizzett, Jamie; Hughes Clarke, John; Cartigny, Matthieu; Talling, Peter; Clare, Michael; Sumner, Esther

    2016-04-01

    Turbidity currents are one of the most important sediment transport processes on Earth and pose a potential hazard to seafloor infrastructure. These flows are driven downslope due to the collective density of their suspended sediment and are hypothesised to either entrain more sediment, causing them to erode sediment and accelerate ('ignition'), or deposit sediment, causing them to decelerate ('dissipation'). This paradigm has major implications for geohazard assessments and protecting seafloor infrastructure. We present the first field-scale study to test the 'ignition-dissipation' hypothesis and to analyse how turbidity currents evolve through erosion and deposition of sediment from the seafloor. A dataset of 93 near-daily bathymetric surveys was collected by John Hughes Clarke et al., in 2011 of the Squamish delta in the Howe Sound, BC, Canada. The near-daily resolution of the dataset is the first of its kind, and contains 106 mass wasting events and 30 turbidity currents. The data enables the analysis of the volume and location of sediment erosion and deposition along the full length of the flow path for three different turbidity currents. The three flows in this study originated in different ways: a small delta lip failure; a large delta lip failure; and an event with no discernible head scarp. The small lip failure transformed from a dissipative flow into an ignitive flow midslope, entraining 470 m3 of sediment during ignition, before dissipating once again. The large lip failure remained a dissipative flow, entraining relatively little sediment, blanketing the upper Southern channel with sediment. On the day following the large lip failure, a flow was initiated in in ~60 m water depth that could not be linked with a delta lip failure or other obvious source. The flow ignited and eroded the entirety of the upper channel to reach a flow volume of ~8200 m3. The dissipative or waning phase of both the small lip failure and event of unknown origin occur when the

  10. Pharmacogenomics Bias - Systematic distortion of study results by genetic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zietemann, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decision analyses of drug treatments in chronic diseases require modeling the progression of disease and treatment response beyond the time horizon of clinical or epidemiological studies. In many such models, progression and drug effect have been applied uniformly to all patients; heterogeneity in progression, including pharmacogenomic effects, has been ignored. Objective: We sought to systematically evaluate the existence, direction and relative magnitude of a pharmacogenomics bias (PGX-Bias resulting from failure to adjust for genetic heterogeneity in both treatment response (HT and heterogeneity in progression of disease (HP in decision-analytic studies based on clinical study data. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in electronic databases for studies regarding the effect of genetic heterogeneity on the validity of study results. Included studies have been summarized in evidence tables. In the case of lacking evidence from published studies we sought to perform our own simulation considering both HT and HP. We constructed two simple Markov models with three basic health states (early-stage disease, late-stage disease, dead, one adjusting and the other not adjusting for genetic heterogeneity. Adjustment was done by creating different disease states for presence (G+ and absence (G- of a dichotomous genetic factor. We compared the life expectancy gains attributable to treatment resulting from both models and defined pharmacogenomics bias as percent deviation of treatment-related life expectancy gains in the unadjusted model from those in the adjusted model. We calculated the bias as a function of underlying model parameters to create generic results. We then applied our model to lipid-lowering therapy with pravastatin in patients with coronary atherosclerosis, incorporating the influence of two TaqIB polymorphism variants (B1 and B2 on progression and drug efficacy as reported in the DNA substudy of the REGRESS

  11. Experimental studies on benzene carcinogenicity at the Bologna Institute of Oncology: current results and ongoing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Cotti, G; Belpoggi, F

    1985-01-01

    In 1977 Maltoni and Scarnato were the first to demonstrate that benzene is an experimental carcinogen in rats. With that and other experiments, Maltoni et al have shown that benzene administered by ingestion (stomach tube) or inhalation is a multipotential carcinogen in rats (of two different strains) and mice and produces a variety of tumors, namely: Zymbal gland carcinomas, oral and nasal cavity carcinomas, skin carcinomas, acanthomas, dysplasias and carcinomas of forestomach, mammary malignant tumors, hepatomas, liver angiosarcomas, hemolymphoreticular neoplasias, and pulmonary tumors. The incidence of Zymbal gland carcinomas and carcinomas of the oral and nasal cavities is affected by the length of treatment by inhalation and by the age of animals. However, the available epidemiological and experimental data at present do not provide precise information on the risk of doses around or below 10 ppm. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays at 50, 25, 10, 5 and 1 ppm may be helpful for scientific risk assessment. In addition, these experiments have shown that toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, at high concentrations, cause an increase in the number of total malignant tumors.

  12. Are studies reporting significant results more likely to be published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi, Despina; Karagianni, Anthi; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-11-01

    Our objective was to assess the hypothesis that there are variations of the proportion of articles reporting a significant effect, with a higher percentage of those articles published in journals with impact factors. The contents of 5 orthodontic journals (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research), published between 2004 and 2008, were hand-searched. Articles with statistical analysis of data were included in the study and classified into 4 categories: behavior and psychology, biomaterials and biomechanics, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and craniofacial growth, morphology, and genetics. In total, 2622 articles were examined, with 1785 included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied with statistical significance as the dependent variable, and whether the journal had an impact factor, the subject, and the year were the independent predictors. A higher percentage of articles showed significant results relative to those without significant associations (on average, 88% vs 12%) for those journals. Overall, these journals published significantly more studies with significant results, ranging from 75% to 90% (P = 0.02). Multivariate modeling showed that journals with impact factors had a 100% increased probability of publishing a statistically significant result compared with journals with no impact factor (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Compared with articles on biomaterials and biomechanics, all other subject categories showed lower probabilities of significant results. Nonsignificant findings in behavior and psychology and diagnosis and treatment were 1.8 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.51-2.67) and 3.5 (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.27-5.37) times more likely to be published, respectively. Journals seem to prefer reporting significant results; this might be because of authors

  13. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  14. Affective bias and current, past and future adolescent depression: A familial high risk study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J.; Foulkes, Lucy; Potter, Robert; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Background Affective bias is a common feature of depressive disorder. However, a lack of longitudinal studies means that the temporal relationship between affective bias and depression is not well understood. One group where studies of affective bias may be particularly warranted is the adolescent offspring of depressed parents, given observations of high rates of depression and a severe and impairing course of disorder in this group. Methods A two wave panel design was used in which adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent depression completed a behavioural task assessing affective bias (The Affective Go/No Go Task) and a psychiatric interview. The affective processing of adolescents with current, prior and future depressive disorder was compared to that of adolescents free from disorder. Results Adolescents with current depression and those who developed depression at follow-up made more commission errors for sad than happy targets compared to adolescents free from disorder. There was no effect of prior depression on later affective processing. Limitations Small cell sizes meant we were unable to separately compare those with new onset and recurrent depressive disorder. Conclusions Valence-specific errors in behavioural inhibition index future vulnerability to depression in adolescents already at increased risk and may represent a measure of affective control. Currently depressed adolescents show a similar pattern of affective bias or deficits in affective control. PMID:25527997

  15. Energy+ pumps - Technology procurement for very energy efficient circulation pumps, first results of the current IEE-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Claus; Thomas, Stefan [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Benke, Georg; Schaeppi, Bernd [Austrian Energy Agency A.E.A (Austria); Forfori, Fabio [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. di Energetica (Italy); Guisson, Ruben [Flemisch Inst. for technological research (Vito) (Belgium); Papamikrouli, Louiza [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) (Greece); Puente, Margarita [ESCAN, S.A. (Spain); Spirek, Tomas [SEVEn, Stredisko pro efektivni vyuzivani energie, o.p.s. (Czech Republic); Rautiainen, Kimmo [Motiva Oy (Finland); Koehl, Joerg [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (Germany); Anglade, Alain [ADEME (France); Nipkow, Juerg [ARENA (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    About 2 % of the overall electricity consumption of the EU is caused by circulators in single or double family homes and flats. A new technology of pumps with electronically commutated (EC) motor pumps is available now; it is one possible way to achieve a reduction in circulator annual electricity use by 60 % or more.The project's objective is a market transformation towards this new very energy-efficient pump technologies - Energy+ pumps - for circulators in heating systems, both stand alone and integrated in boilers. Only few manufacturers have so far introduced the new pump technology to the market for single or double family homes and flats.To bring more products to the market from all major manufacturers, the project will adapt and apply the technology procurement methodology as it was very successfully tested in the European Energy+ project on energy-efficient cold appliances [5] [6]. Large buyers will be aggregated, to activate the pump and boiler manufacturers. Sales and training materials and a sizing spreadsheet software for installation contractors will be developed and applied. A competition both for energy-efficient products and marketing campaigns will be organised and the information on the Energy+ pumps will be disseminated widely through website, newsletter, media, and fairs.This paper gives a short overview of this project and presents the results of the first project phases: a European wide market study on circulators and heating systems, and the first Energy+ lists for circulators, buyers and supporters.

  16. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  17. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  18. Current sedation and monitoring practice for colonoscopy: an International Observational Study (EPAGE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froehlich, F; Harris, JK; Wietlisbach, V;

    2006-01-01

    in endoscopy centers internationally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy at 21 centers in 11 countries. Endoscopists reported sedation and monitoring practice, using a standard questionnaire for each patient. RESULTS: 6004 patients were......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sedation and monitoring practice during colonoscopy varies between centers and over time. Knowledge of current practice is needed to ensure quality of care and help focus future research. The objective of this study was to examine sedation and monitoring practice...... included in this study, of whom 53 % received conscious/moderate sedation during colonoscopy, 30 % received deep sedation, and 17 % received no sedation. Sedation agents most commonly used were midazolam (47 %) and opioids (33 %). Pulse oximetry was done during colonoscopy in 77 % of patients, blood...

  19. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs.

  20. Results From a Patient Experience Study in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Ann Jacob MBBS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal endoscopy in children has become a standard diagnostic and therapeutic modality. The aim of our study was to characterize the most memorable elements of the patient experience from the parent’s and patient’s perspective and determine ways to improve the overall quality of their experience. Methods: Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted 47 phone interviews with families who had recently undergone gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Results: Our study showed clear communication and mutual agreement on care decisions contributed to positive experiences. Inadequate communication of information regarding alternatives to the procedure and risk of complications during the informed consent discussion contributed to negative patient experiences. Standardization of postprocedure follow-up and timely communication of pathology findings also had potential for improvement. Conclusion: Our study revealed 2 areas for quality improvement interventions: The need to ensure that alternatives and complications are thoroughly discussed and the need for standardization of postprocedure follow-up.

  1. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some

  2. Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Jenna; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves J. Charland * **, J. Touboul **, V. Rey ** jenna.charland@univ-tln.fr * Direction Générale de l'Armement, CNRS Délégation Normandie ** Université de Toulon, 83957 La Garde, France Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) Aix Marseille Université, 13288 Marseille, France CNRS/INSU, IRD, MIO, UM 110 In the nearshore area, both wave propagation and currents are influenced by the bathymetry. For a better understanding of wave - current interactions in the presence of a 3D bathymetry, a large scale experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin FIRST, Toulon, France. The 3D bathymetry consisted of two symmetric underwater mounds on both sides in the mean wave direction. The water depth at the top the mounds was hm=1,5m, the slopes of the mounds were of about 1:3, the water depth was h=3 m elsewhere. For opposite current conditions (U of order 0.30m/s), a huge focusing of the wave up to twice its incident amplitude was observed in the central part of the basin for T=1.4s. Since deep water conditions are verified, the wave amplification is ascribed to the current field. The mean velocity fields at a water depth hC=0.25m was measured by the use of an electromagnetic current meter. The results have been published in Rey et al [4]. The elliptic form of the "mild slope" equation including a uniform current on the water column (Chen et al [1]) was then used for the calculations. The calculated wave amplification of factor 1.2 is significantly smaller than observed experimentally (factor 2). So, the purpose of this study is to understand the physical processes which explain this gap. As demonstrated by Kharif & Pelinovsky [2], geometrical focusing of waves is able to modify significantly the local wave amplitude. We consider this process here. Since vertical velocity profiles measured at some locations have shown significant

  3. General aspects and current view of the molecular study of Phenylketonuria (PKU in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Alcántara-Ortigoza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomic recessive inborn errors of metabolism. It is caused y the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme encoded by the PAH gene in 12q22. This gene has a wide mutation spectrum and several different genotypes have been identified. There are many experimental strategies that allow molecular diagnosis of PAH in order to identify causal mutations in patients with phenylektonuria. The identification of the PAH genotype in these patients allows genetic counseling, genotype-phenotype correlation and for some cases treatment adjustment. There are few studies concerning the mutation spectrum of PAH in Mexican patients. Currently, a study to identify the genotypes of these patients is being done. Only preliminary results are presented, nevertheless results are expected to clarify the mutation spectrum, enable the identification of possible genotype-phenotype correlations and elucidate the ancestral origin of the mutations.

  4. Identification of steel bars immersed in reinforced concrete based on experimental results of eddy current testing and artificial neural network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcantara, Naasson

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental research on the use of eddy current testing (ECT) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to identify the gauge and position of steel bars immersed in concrete structures. The paper presents details of the ECT probe and concrete specimens constructed for the tests, and a study about the influence of the concrete on the values of measured voltages. After this, new measurements were done with a greater number of specimens, simulating a field condition and the results were used to generate training and validation vectors for multilayer perceptron ANNs. The results show a high percentage of correct identification with respect to both, the gauge of the bar and of the thickness of the concrete cover.

  5. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  6. [Current controversies in glycemic control targets. What do the results of the latest clinical trials tell us about the approach to type 2 diabetes mellitus?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Dídac; Rius, Ferran

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the implications of the results obtained in the latest large-scale clinical trials designed to evaluate the effect of intensive glycemic control on the vascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The current scientific evidence is reviewed and the implications of the ACCORD (The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes study group), ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Control Evaluation) and VADT (Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial) clinical trials are discussed. General concerns of the studies and their implications for clinical practice and the management of type 2 diabetes, as well as the questions which still need to be answered by future clinical research are discussed.

  7. Studying the $Wtb$ vertex structure using recent LHC results

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardo, César; Fiolhais, Miguel C N; Gonçalves, Hugo; Guerra, André G C; Oliveira, Miguel; Onofre, A

    2014-01-01

    The $Wtb$ vertex structure and the search for new anomalous couplings is studied using top quark measurements obtained at the LHC, for a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. By combining the latest and most precise results on the single top quark production cross section and the measurements of the $W$-boson helicity fractions ($F_0$ and $F_L$), it is possible to set new limits, at 95% CL (confidence level), on the real and imaginary components of the new couplings. The combination of the LHC observables clearly improves the limits obtained when using the individual results alone. The updated measurements of the $W$-boson helicity fractions and the $s+t$-channels electroweak single top quark production, at the Tevatron, improve the LHC limits, when a world combination of all observables (LHC+Tevatron) is performed.

  8. Motivated Attention to Cocaine and Emotional Cues in Abstinent and Current Cocaine Users: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jonathan P.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Hajcak, Greg; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a direct measure of neural activity and are ideally suited to study the time-course of attentional engagement with emotional and drug-related stimuli in addiction. In particular, the late positive potential (LPP) appears enhanced following cocaine-related compared to neutral stimuli in individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD). However, previous studies have not directly compared cocaine-related to emotional stimuli while examining potential differences between abstinent and current cocaine users. The present study examined ERPs in 55 CUD (27 abstinent and 28 current users) and 29 matched healthy controls while they passively viewed pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and cocaine-related pictures. To examine the time-course of attention to these stimuli, we analyzed both an early and later window in the LPP as well as the early posterior negativity (EPN), established in assessing motivated attention. Cocaine pictures elicited increased electrocortical measures of motivated attention in ways similar to affectively pleasant and unpleasant pictures in all CUD, an effect that was no longer discernible during the late LPP window for the current users. This group also exhibited deficient processing of the other emotional stimuli (early LPP window: pleasant pictures; late LPP window: pleasant and unpleasant pictures). Results were unique to the LPP and not EPN. Taken together, results support a relatively early attention bias to cocaine stimuli in cocaine addicted individuals further suggesting that recent cocaine use decreases such attention bias during later stages of processing but at the expense of deficient processing of other emotional stimuli. PMID:21450043

  9. Results of a polishing study for SCHOTT XLD glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Yadwad, Harshwadhan; Dietrich, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Extremely low dispersion glasses (e.g. SCHOTT XLD glasses) play an essential role in the color correction of optical systems. Together with short flint glasses (KZFS Types) they can be used for apochromatic color correction in the visible spectrum or even for broadband color correction in combination with lanthanum crown glasses (LAK Types). Unfortunately the chemical composition of those glasses leads to a high coefficient of thermal expansion, low hardness and low resistance against chemical attacks. As a consequence these glasses tend to be difficult in processing. Therefore the glass engineer's task is to improve processing characteristics while keeping their special optical properties. N-FK58 XLD is an example of a new generation of XLD glasses from SCHOTT with improved workability. In 2014 a processing study has been conducted to optimize the polishing of XLD glasses. This presentation will show the results of this study for N-FK58 XLD and the application to other fluorophosphates glasses.

  10. Wide Field X-Ray Telescope Mission Concept Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Thomas, H. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Baysinger, M.; Hornsby, L. S.; Maples, C. D.; Purlee, T. E.; Capizzo, P. D.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field X-Ray Telescope (WFXT) is an astrophysics mission concept for detecting and studying extra-galactic x-ray sources, including active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies, in an effort to further understand cosmic evolution and structure. This Technical Memorandum details the results of a mission concept study completed by the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in 2012. The design team analyzed the mission and instrument requirements, and designed a spacecraft that enables the WFXT mission while using high heritage components. Design work included selecting components and sizing subsystems for power, avionics, guidance, navigation and control, propulsion, structures, command and data handling, communications, and thermal control.

  11. Pressurization test results: Bonneville Power Administration Energy Conservation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinkel, D.L.; Dickeroff, D.J.; Casey, J.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1980-12-01

    Results are presented of air leakage measurements in 18 single-family detached houses at the Midway substation, Hanford, Washington, performed as part of the Bonneville Power Administration's Energy Conservation Study. The change in energy consumption following various retrofit strategies is compared. Air leakage was measured in each house with the fan pressurization technique, before and after the retrofits were installed. No significant change was found in infiltration rates in those houses receiving either no retrofits or insulation only; and average reduction of 17% in leakage area was found in the houses retrofitted with storm doors and windows. There appears to be great potential for further savings in energy use from reduced infiltration, and the study is being extended to investigate this.

  12. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PRACTICE IN LARGE ENTERPRISES: STUDY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Stadnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous improvement is indispensable for ensuring the company's development and its survival on the constantly changing global market. Continuous improvement is particularly important in the quality and production management systems. A company should deliver a product compliant with a client's requirements in a specified time and at an appropriate price. That is why, continuous improvement refers to different areas of an organization's functioning and it is an integral part of Lean Manufacturing. This article presents the results of the study conducted in production enterprises on a limited area. The aim of the study was the assessment of the implementation of continuous improvement in Lean Manufacturing, and, in particular, employees' involvement in the problem identification and in reporting improvements as well as the way of motivating employees to involve themselves. The authors also tried to identify the factors influencing the elements of a continuous improvement system.

  13. Results of the Study of Mutagenic Effects of Microbial Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Sidorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of mutagenic effects of Pseudomonas alcaligenеs polysaccharides. Pseudomonas genus – non-fermentative ubiquitous bacteria, having specific metabolic cycles and unique physical, chemical and biological properties was used as a producer of natural exopolysaccharides. In an experiment using the Ames test, three variants of test compounds were studied: 1. a compound of the Pseudomonas alcaligenes biofilm, 2. exopolysaccharide matrix and the microorganism cell wall compound, and 3. actually the microbial exopolysaccharide. In all cases the lack of mutagen action of polysaccharides of Pseudomonas alcaligenes is proved that make them perspective for use as nanomaterials of new generation – alternative wound coverings.

  14. Current transformers with nanocrystalline alloy toroidal core: analytical, computational and experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented theoretical analysis and experimental results concerning the performance of toroidal cores used in current transformers. For most problems concerning transformers design, analytical methods are useful, but numerical methods provide a better understanding of the transformers electromagnetic behaviour. Numerical field solutions may be used to determine the electrical equivalent circuit parameters of toroidal core current transformers. Since the exciting current of current transformers alters the ratio and phase angle of primary and secondary currents, it is made as small as possible though the use of high permeability and low loss magnetic material in the construction of the core. According to experimental results presented in this work, in comparison with others soft magnetic materials, nanocrystalline alloys appear as the best material to be used in toroidal core for current transformers.

  15. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo......RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows...... whereas under intermediate and high sediment rates there was consistent cumulative growth throughout a 15 d experiment. This highlights the importance of suspended sediment for S. spinulosa and also the suitability of the VoRT system for maintaining organisms with suspended matter requirements....

  16. Numerical study on tidal currents and seawater exchange in the Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENDRAWAN I. Gede; ASAI Koji

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used for the study of water cir-culation and seawater exchange in the Benoa Bay, Bali Island. The M2 tidal component was forced in open boundary and discharge from six rivers was included in the numerical calculation. The M2 tidal elevation produced by the FVCOM has a good agreement with the observation data. The M2 tidal current is also suc-cessfully calculated under the ebb tide and flood tide conditions. The non-linear M2 tidal residual current was produced by the coastline geometry, especially surrounding the narrow strait between the Serangan Is-land and the Benoa Peninsula. The tidal residual current also generated two small eddies within the bay and one small eddy in the bay mouth. The salinity distribution influenced by river discharge could be success-fully calculated, where the numerical calculation and the observation results have a good correlation (r2) of 0.75. Finally in order to examine the seawater exchange in the Benoa Bay, the Lagrangian particle tracking method and calculation of residence time are applied. The mechanism of particle transport to the flushing of seawater is depicted clearly by both methods.

  17. Rapid and reliable seismic source characterization in earthquake early warning systems: current methodologies, results, and new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper, we provided a review of the main principles and methodologies on which the current earthquake early warning systems are grounded and will also provide a perspective view for next future developments and improvements. First, we introduce the standard methodologies for the source characterization in earthquake early warning, with a special focus on the real-time earthquake magnitude determination. We discuss the suitability of existent methodologies and empirical regression laws for very large events. We then present the different approaches for the rapid prediction of the ground shaking and of the potential damaged zone, both based on traditional seismic data and on the use of continuous GPS data. Finally, the last part of the paper provides the perspective view toward a next generation of early warning systems, linking new research achievements about the earthquake rupture nucleation and the development of new methods/technologies aimed at a fast and high-resolution, real-time modeling of the ongoing source process and accurate prediction of the quake shaking at the regional and local scale.

  18. The first Italian Superconducting Fault Current Limiter: Results of the field testing experience after one year operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L.; Bocchi, M.; Ascade, M.; Valzasina, A.; Rossi, V.; Ravetta, C.; Angeli, G.

    2014-05-01

    Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico S.p.A. (RSE) has been gaining a relevant experience in the simulation, design and installation of resistive-type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) devices for more than five years in the framework of a R&D national project funded by the Ricerca di Sistema (RdS). The most recent outcome of this research activity is the installation of a resistive-type BSCCO-based 9 kV / 3.4 MVA SFCL device in a single feeder branch of the Medium Voltage (MV) distribution network managed by A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A (A2A) in the Milano area. This installation represents the first SFCL successfully installed in Italy. In this paper, we report on the main outcomes after a more than 1-year long steady-state field testing activity. The design of an upgraded device to be installed in the same substation has already been initiated: the new SFCL will allow to protect four different feeders, therefore implying a device upgrade up to 15.6 MVA.

  19. Variability in wave refraction and resultant nearshore current patterns: Exposed versus sheltered beaches along north Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Pankajakshan, T.

    For predominant waves approaching from directions varying between SW and WNW and periods varying from 6 to 11 sec, the refraction function (Kd) shows amplification of wave heights resulting in concentration of wave energy on headlands and reduction...

  20. MREIT experiments with 200μA injected currents: a feasibility study using two reconstruction algorithms, SMM and Harmonic BZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar, V E; Hamamura, M J; Degirmenci, E; Muftuler, L T

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as the IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100μA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10 to 400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200μA total injected current and we tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul in 1998 with Tikhonov regularization and the Harmonic BZ proposed by Oh et al in 2003. The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200μA and 5mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200μA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7μA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5mA total injected current results in 367μA in imaging slice. Total acquisition time for 200μA and 5mA experiments were about one

  1. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  2. Some recent results of the silicon detector radiation damage study by the RD2 collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghinolfi, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bates, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bardos, R. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bonino, R. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Chilingarov, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Clark, A.G. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Feick, H. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Fretwurst, E. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Glaser, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Gorfine, G. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Goessling, C. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Jarron, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kambara, H. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Lindstroem, G. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Lisowski, B. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Moorhead, G.F. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Munday, D.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Parker, M.A. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Perrin, E. [DPNC, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); Pilath, S. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Rolf, A. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Schulz, T. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Taylor, G.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Teiger, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tovey, S.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Uhlmann, T.M. [1. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Recent results by the RD2 Collaboration of a study of radiation damage of silicon detectors for the ATLAS detector at LHC are presented. The detectors have been irradiated by neutrons with fluences of up to 1.5x10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The electric field in the detectors before and after type inversion, the depletion voltage and the dark current were studied. (orig.).

  3. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: CORROSION STUDIES RESULTS: FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-09-29

    Due to the need to close High Level Waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the removal of sludge heel materials remaining at the completion of mechanical tank cleaning efforts. Oxalic acid is considered the preferred cleaning reagent for heel dissolution of iron-based sludge. However, the large quantity of chemical reagents added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acidic systems may be required for specific waste components that have low solubility in oxalic acid, and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Electrochemical corrosion studies were conducted with 1 wt. % oxalic acid at mineral acid concentrations above and below the optimal conditions for this oxalic acid concentration. Testing environments included pure reagents, pure iron and aluminum phases, and sludge simulants. Mineral acid concentrations greater than 0.2 M and temperatures greater than 50 C result in unacceptably high corrosion rates. Results showed that manageable corrosion rates of carbon steel can be achieved at dilute mineral acid concentrations (i.e. less than 0.2 M) and low temperatures based on the contact times involved. Therefore, it is recommended that future dissolution and corrosion testing be performed with a dilute mineral acid and a less concentrated oxalic acid (e.g., 0.5 wt.%) that still promotes optimal dissolution. This recommendation requires the processing of greater water volumes than those for the baseline process during heel dissolution, but allows for minimization of oxalic acid additions. The following conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) In both nitric and sulfuric acid based reagents, the low temperature and

  4. Thermodiffusion in concentrated ferrofluids: A review and current experimental and numerical results on non-magnetic thermodiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Lisa, E-mail: Lisa.Sprenger@tu-dresden.de; Lange, Adrian; Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions consisting of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a carrier liquid. Their thermodiffusive behaviour is rather strong compared to molecular binary mixtures, leading to a Soret coefficient (S{sub T}) of 0.16 K{sup −1}. Former experiments with dilute magnetic fluids have been done with thermogravitational columns or horizontal thermodiffusion cells by different research groups. Considering the horizontal thermodiffusion cell, a former analytical approach has been used to solve the phenomenological diffusion equation in one dimension assuming a constant concentration gradient over the cell's height. The current experimental work is based on the horizontal separation cell and emphasises the comparison of the concentration development in different concentrated magnetic fluids and at different temperature gradients. The ferrofluid investigated is the kerosene-based EMG905 (Ferrotec) to be compared with the APG513A (Ferrotec), both containing magnetite nanoparticles. The experiments prove that the separation process linearly depends on the temperature gradient and that a constant concentration gradient develops in the setup due to the separation. Analytical one dimensional and numerical three dimensional approaches to solve the diffusion equation are derived to be compared with the solution used so far for dilute fluids to see if formerly made assumptions also hold for higher concentrated fluids. Both, the analytical and numerical solutions, either in a phenomenological or a thermodynamic description, are able to reproduce the separation signal gained from the experiments. The Soret coefficient can then be determined to 0.184 K{sup −1} in the analytical case and 0.29 K{sup −1} in the numerical case. Former theoretical approaches for dilute magnetic fluids underestimate the strength of the separation in the case of a concentrated ferrofluid.

  5. The current status of interventional radiology in Canada: results of a survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millward, S.F.; Holley, M.L. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Dept. of Radiology, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the current status of interventional radiology in Canada. A questionnaire was sent to 28 Canadian interventional radiologists (defined as a physician who performs any type of interventional procedure, including biopsies, but excluding interventional neuroradiology) practising in both tertiary and community hospitals in the major centres in all provinces except Prince Edward Island. Twenty-two (79%) of 28 surveys were completed and returned, providing data about 86 interventional radiologists (IRs). IRs were performing almost all of the following procedures at their institutions: inferior vena cava filter placement, venous angioplasty, dialysis fistula angioplasty, diagnostic and therapeutic pulmonary and bronchial artery procedures, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of the lower extremity and renal arteries, percutaneous abscess and biliary drainage procedures, percutaneous nephrostomy, and fibroid embolization. A second group of procedures, performed by both IRs and non-radiologists in most institutions, included: all types of central venous catheter placements, pleural drainage, and gastrostomy tube placement. Procedures not being performed by anyone in a number of institutions included: dialysis graft thrombolysis, varicocele embolization, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, palliative stenting of the gastrointestinal tract, fallopian tube recannalization, and liver and prostate tumour treatments. The factors most often limiting the respondents' ability to provide a comprehensive interventional service were the interventional radiology inventory budget and the availability of interventional radiology rooms; 50% of respondents indicated the number of available nurses, technologists and IRs was also an important limiting factor. IRs in Canada still play a major role in many of the most commonly performed procedures. However, limited availability of resources and personnel in many institutions may be hampering the ability of IRs to

  6. Ionic size effects to molecular solvation energy and to ion current across a channel resulted from the nonuniform size-modified PNP equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Tu, Bin; Lu, Benzhuo

    2014-05-07

    Ionic finite size can impose considerable effects to both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a solvated molecular system, such as the solvation energy, ionic concentration, and transport in a channel. As discussed in our former work [B. Lu and Y. C. Zhou, Biophys. J. 100, 2475 (2011)], a class of size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) models can be uniformly studied through the general nonuniform size-modified PNP (SMPNP) equations deduced from the extended free energy functional of Borukhov et al. [I. Borukhov, D. Andelman, and H. Orland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 435 (1997)] This work focuses on the nonuniform size effects to molecular solvation energy and to ion current across a channel for real biomolecular systems. The main contributions are: (1) we prove that for solvation energy calculation with nonuniform size effects (through equilibrium SMPNP simulation), there exists a simplified approximation formulation which is the same as the widely used one in PB community. This approximate form avoids integration over the whole domain and makes energy calculations convenient. (2) Numerical calculations show that ionic size effects tend to negate the solvation effects, which indicates that a higher molecular solvation energy (lower absolute value) is to be predicted when ionic size effects are considered. For both calculations on a protein and a DNA fragment systems in a 0.5M 1:1 ionic solution, a difference about 10 kcal/mol in solvation energies is found between the PB and the SMPNP predictions. Moreover, it is observed that the solvation energy decreases as ionic strength increases, which behavior is similar as those predicted by the traditional PB equation (without size effect) and by the uniform size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. (3) Nonequilibrium SMPNP simulations of ion permeation through a gramicidin A channel show that the ionic size effects lead to reduced ion current inside the channel compared with the results

  7. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip;

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  8. A modelling breakthrough for market design analysis to test massive intermittent generation integration in markets results of selected OPTIMATE studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaude, Francois; Atayi, A.; Bourmaud, J.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    The OPTIMATE1 platform focuses on electricity system and market designs modelling in order to assess current and innovative designs in Europe. The current paper describes the results of the first validation studies' conducted with the tool. These studies deal with day-ahead market rules, load fle...

  9. Results of MPBX studies at the single heater test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S. C.,LLNL

    1997-10-01

    We have developed an extensometer for measurement of distance and displacements in a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. This is an optical extensometer that measures distance using a modulated laser beam. In this design, reflecting targets are placed at desired measurement locations, and distance between each target and an optical head are measured repeatedly using the modulated laser beam. Moreover, all electronic and moving parts are located outside of the hostile or difficult environment as the optical head is connected to the laser, switching and signal analysis hardware using optical fibers. A reference beam is utilized to provide direct correction of system behavior. `Be system also - utilizes movable reflective anchors that can be repositioned if desired. We have installed the system in the Single Heater Test being conducted in Alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, and report preliminary results.

  10. Multiple Myeloma and lifetime occupation: results from the EPILYMPH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrotta Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EPILYMPH study applied a detailed occupational exposure assessment approach to a large multi-centre case–control study conducted in six European countries. This paper analysed multiple myeloma (MM risk associated with level of education, and lifetime occupational history and occupational exposures, based on the EPILYMPH data set. Methods 277 MM cases and four matched controls per each case were included. Controls were randomly selected, matching for age (+/− 5 years, centre and gender. Lifetime occupations and lifetime exposure to specific workplace agents was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Local industrial hygienists assessed likelihood and intensity for specific exposures. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI were calculated for level of education, individual occupations and specific exposures. Unconditional logistic regression models were run for individual occupations and exposures. Results A low level of education was associated with MM OR=1.68 (95% CI 1.02-2.76. An increased risk was observed for general farmers (OR=1.77; 95% CI 1.05-2.99 and cleaning workers (OR=1.69; 95% CI 1.04-2.72 adjusting for level of education. Risk was also elevated, although not significant, for printers (OR=2.06; 95% CI 0.97-4.34. Pesticide exposure over a period of ten years or more increased MM risk (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.01-2.58. Conclusion These results confirm an association of MM with farm work, and indicate its association with printing and cleaning. While prolonged exposure to pesticides seems to be a risk factor for MM, an excess risk associated with exposure to organic solvents could not be confirmed.

  11. Processing of toxicological studies results in the statistical program R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoseeva Elena Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented article is devoted to the analysis of the experimental values and the applicability of the toxicological studies results in the statistical environment R. This freely distributed program has great functional potential and well-designed algorithm, these make it "...the undisputed leader among the freely distributed systems for statistical analysis..." As the data, the experimental results to assess the toxicity of a highly- mineralized sample in the industrial production wastes were used. We evaluated two test-functions: the change in the population increase of cells and the fluorescence level of laboratory culture of the marine diatom algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The detailed algorithm of the analysis, namely: data initialization, evaluation of selective parameters of descriptive statistics, toxicity assessment, single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett multiple comparison tests, evaluation of correlation between the observed variable (Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients are presented in the article. The complete list of scripts in the program R allows to reproduce a similar analysis.

  12. in the health service sector – results of literature study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sobańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the existing literature related to the directions of change from thepoint of view of the influence that lean approach has for management and accounting in health care institutions.The article is an account of the content of the selected 19 papers (from more than 200 analyzed published in thefield within the period 1995–2013. The investigation of the literature was conducted in two basic perspectives:theoretical considerations and results of empirical research (case study, questionnaire survey.The method of literature analysis was applied for the realization of the aim formulated in the paper. Twogroups of articles were the object of the analysis: theoretical and presenting explanatory results of empiricalinvestigations.The lean approach, which originated in the motor industry (production factories, is fully suitable for use inhealthcare organizations operating in various cultural contexts, and for reforming national healthcare systems toincrease their efficiency. The spreading and adoption of the lean concept in the medical services sector has anevolutionary character, similarly to the earlier spread of lean in manufacturing industries.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L; Van De Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were registered to asses both motricity and trunk performance. All tests were administered at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received both sixteen 20-min sessions of tDCS and sixteen 20-min sessions of Sham stimulation. Application method between groups was changed after 4 weeks. A general linear repeated measures model was used to analyse the results of our study. Results revealed an effect on the total score of the Tinetti test (p = 0.049). No significant results were obtained for the RMA (p = 0.166) and the TIS (p = 0.479). This pilot study indicates that 16 tDCS-sessions could have a beneficial effect on balance and gait in stroke patients measured with the Tinetti test. However, further research is needed to elucidate these findings. Implications for Rehabilitation Sixteen sessions of tDCS is beneficial in the recovery of postural control in stroke patients. tDCS has to be applied as soon as possible to enhance beneficial effects.

  14. A new approach to study the effect of generation rate on drain-source current of bilayer graphene transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Ghadiry, M.; AbdManaf, A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach to study the effect of impact ionization on the current of bilayer graphene field effect transistors. Analytical models for surface potential and current together with a Monte Carlo approach which include the edge effect scattering are used to calculate the current and generation rate in bilayer graphene transistors due to ionization. FlexPDE simulation is also employed for verification of surface potential modeling. Using the approach, the profile of generation rate, surface potential and current are plotted with respect to several structural parameters. We have shown that ignoring this effect in the modeling will result in an error of up to 10 % for a typical 30 nm bilayer graphene field effect transistor. As a result, we conclude that any analytical study ignoring the ionization is incomplete for bilayer graphene field effect transistors. The model presented here can be applied in optimization of photo detectors based on graphene.

  15. Augmentation of spelling therapy with transcranial direct current stimulation in primary progressive aphasia: Preliminary results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Frangakis, Constantine; Gomez, Yessenia; Davis, Cameron; Hillis, Argye E

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects language functions and often begins in the fifth or sixth decade of life. The devastating effects on work and family life call for the investigation of treatment alternatives. In this article, we present new data indicating that neuromodulatory treatment, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a spelling intervention, shows some promise for maintaining or even improving language, at least temporarily, in PPA. The main aim of the present article is to determine whether tDCS plus spelling intervention is more effective than spelling intervention alone in treating written language in PPA. We also asked whether the effects of tDCS are sustained longer than the effects of spelling intervention alone. We present data from six PPA participants who underwent anodal tDCS or sham plus spelling intervention in a within-subject crossover design. Each stimulation condition lasted 3 weeks or a total of 15 sessions with a 2-month interval in between. Participants were evaluated on treatment tasks as well as on other language and cognitive tasks at 2-week and 2-month follow-up intervals after each stimulation condition. All participants showed improvement in spelling (with sham or tDCS). There was no difference in the treated items between the two conditions. There was, however, consistent and significant improvement for untrained items only in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition. Furthermore, the improvement lasted longer in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition compared to sham plus spelling intervention condition. Neuromodulation with tDCS offers promise as a means of augmenting language therapy to improve written language function at least temporarily in PPA. The consistent finding of generalisation of treatment benefits to untreated items and the superior sustainability of treatment effects with tDCS justifies further investigations. However

  16. Surgical crown lengthening: a 12-month study - radiographic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Eleutério Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. RESULTS: Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest.

  17. SURGICAL CROWN LENGTHENING: A 12-MONTH STUDY - RADIOGRAPHIC RESULTS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniela Eleutério; Okuda, Kalizia Marcela; Fonseca, Clarissa Ribeiro; Gonzalez, Marly Kimie Sonohara; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. Material and methods Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years) that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. Results Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest. PMID:19089145

  18. Results of an Oncology Clinical Trial Nurse Role Delineation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Michelle A; Petersen, Sandra; Haas, Barbara K

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a five-dimensional model of clinical trial nursing practice in an oncology clinical trial nurse population. 
. Web-based cross-sectional survey.
. Online via Qualtrics.
. 167 oncology nurses throughout the United States, including 41 study coordinators, 35 direct care providers, and 91 dual-role nurses who provide direct patient care and trial coordination.
. Principal components analysis was used to determine the dimensions of oncology clinical trial nursing practice.
. Self-reported frequency of 59 activities.
. The results did not support the original five-dimensional model of nursing care but revealed a more multidimensional model.
. An analysis of frequency data revealed an eight-dimensional model of oncology research nursing, including care, manage study, expert, lead, prepare, data, advance science, and ethics.
. This evidence-based model expands understanding of the multidimensional roles of oncology nurses caring for patients with cancer enrolled in clinical trials.

  19. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  20. Sleep in children with asthma: results of the PIAMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Annette; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Smit, Henriëtte A; Oort, Frans J; Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-04-01

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study. Parents reported about asthma symptoms (wheezing, dyspnoea, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids and asthma diagnosis) and children reported about different aspects of sleep (bedtime, rise time, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness/tiredness). Results were analysed with (logistic) regression analysis. Children with frequent asthma symptoms significantly more often reported that they felt sleepy or tired during the day (34.4% experienced daytime sleepiness/tiredness at least once a week) than children without asthma symptoms (22.2%) and children with infrequent asthma symptoms (21.9%). This association was not confounded by sex, age of the child, parental educational level or smoking inside the house; the effect was also not modified by sex. There were no associations between asthma and bedtime, time spent in bed or sleep quality. Children with frequent asthma symptoms experienced daytime sleepiness/tiredness more often than children with infrequent or no asthma symptoms. Otherwise, children with asthma did not differ much from children without asthma with regard to sleep.

  1. Memantine (Ebixa) in clinical practice - results of an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Essner, Ute; Forstl, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In a post-marketing observational study, the efficacy and tolerability of memantine were examined in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. The patients were treated with 20 mg/day of memantine for a 6-month period. The efficacy of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) and the Explorationsmodul Demenz (EMD) scale. In addition, a global assessment was made by the physician. After 6 months of open-label treatment with memantine, the patients' cognitive function, ability to perform daily activities and global performance all showed a marked improvement. In the overall evaluation by the physician, improvement or stabilisation had been achieved by 78.8% of patients after 6 months of therapy. Memantine also demonstrated an excellent tolerability profile. The results of this naturalistic study support the significant efficacy and tolerability of memantine that has been previously demonstrated in randomised, controlled clinical Alzheimer's disease trials. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  3. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moynihan

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students.A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the Delphi, while eighteen took part in round two and fifteen participated in the final round. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. The first round contained an open ended question in which participants were asked to name and define all the competencies they perceived were important. Thematic analysis was undertaken on these data. A list of 36 competencies was created from this round. This list was then returned to the same participants and they were asked to rate each competency on a 7 point semantic differential scale in terms of importance. The resulting data were then analysed. For the final round, participants were presented with a list of 33 competencies and were asked to rank them again, in order of importance.Twelve core competencies emerged from the analysis and these competencies comprised of a mixture of knowledge, attitude and skills. The authors suggest that how these competencies are achieved and operationalised in the school context can be quite complex and multi-faceted. While the authors do not seek to generalise from the study they suggest that these competencies are an important input for all stakeholders, in order to question national and international teacher guidelines. In addition the competencies identified may provide a useful starting point for others to undertake deeper analysis of what it means to be an effective health educator in schools.

  4. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  5. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  6. Study of eddy current power loss in an RCS vacuum chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS),power loss due to an eddy current on the metal vacuum chamber would cause heating of the vacuum chamber.It is important to study the effect for estimating eddy current induced power loss and temperature growth.Analytical formulas for eddy current power loss for various types of vacuum chambers are derived for dipole and quadrupole repectively.By using the prototype of dipole of CSNS/RCS,an experiment was done to test the analytical formula.The derived formulas were applied to calculating the eddy current power loss on some special structures of an RCS vacuum chamber.

  7. Grapheme-color Synesthesia and PTSD: Preliminary Results from the Veterans Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stuart N.; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Erlich, Porat M.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered neuropsychological function, possibly including complex visual information processing. Grapheme-color synesthesia refers to the phenomenon that a particular letter or number elicits the visual perception of a specific color. The study objective was to assess if grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with PTSD among US veterans. Method We surveyed 700 veterans who were outpatients in a multi-hospital system in Pennsylvania. All veterans had served at least one warzone deployment. PTSD and grapheme-color synesthesia were assessed using a validated research instruments. Results The mean age of veterans was 59 and 96% were men. The prevalence of current PTSD was 7% (95% C.I. = 5.1–8.8) and current partial PTSD was 11% (95% C.I. = 9.3–14.0). The prevalence of current depression was 6% (95% C.I. = 4.7–8.3). Altogether, 6% (95% C.I. = 4.8–8.5) of veterans screened positive for grapheme-color synesthesia. Bivariate analyses suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with current PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, p = 0.004) and current partial PTSD (OR = 2.4, p = 0.013), but not current depression (OR = 1.1, p = 0.91). Multivariate logistic regression results, adjusting for age, gender, marital status, level of education, current psychotropic medication use, and concussion history, confirmed these results. Conclusion Grapheme-color synesthesia appears to be associated with PTSD among veterans who had been deployed. This finding may have implications for PTSD diagnostic screening and treatment. Research is recommended to confirm this finding and to determine if synesthesia is a risk indicator for PTSD among nonveterans. PMID:23115347

  8. Prenatal PCB Exposure and Neurobehavioral Development in Infants and Children: Can the Oswego Study Inform the Current Debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paul; Reihman, Jacqueline; Lonky, Edward; Darvill, Thomas; Pagano, James

    2004-01-01

    In the current paper we describe the methodology and results of the Oswego study, in light of D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow's (this issue) criticisms regarding the validity of the human health/behavioral claims in the PCB literature. The Oswego project began as a replication of the Lake Michigan Maternal Infant Cohort study.…

  9. Numerical Study of Eddy Shedding By The Loop Current With Ogcm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahara, S.; Crèpon, M.

    The high resolution CLIPPER model for the Atlantic Ocean running at 1/6o was used to study the dynamic of the Gulf of Mexico. The model was daily forced with the ECMWF re-analysis air-sea fluxes during 20 years. A spin-up phase of 10 years is done in the experience. The results show the formation of the Loop Current in the interior of the Gulf of Mexico. This loop detach an anticyclonic eddy northward to Yucatan shelf Peninsula. The size of the eddy is close to 290 Km and 1000 m depth. The eddy shedding periodicity is between 7 to 9 months for the 5 first years of numer- ical forcing simulation. After that, the eddy shedding is blocked and an intensification and deepening of the loop happens. It is found that barotropic transport through Yu- catan channel and vertical structure of cross velocity's Yucatan current are important for eddy shedding process. A hypothesis for the generation and blocking of westward propagation of eddies in the Gulf of Mexico is proposed according to the numerical results.

  10. Tunable Universal Filter with Current Follower and Transconductance Amplifiers and Study of Parasitic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Jan; Šotner, Roman; Vrba, Kamil

    2011-11-01

    A universal filter with dual-output current follower (DO-CF), two transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and two passive elements is presented in this paper. The filter is tunable, of the single-input multiple-output (SIMO) type, and operates in the current mode. Our solution utilizes a low-impedance input node and high-impedance outputs. All types of the active elements used can be realized using our UCC-N1B 0520 integrated circuit and therefore the paper contains not only simulation results that were obtained with the help of behavioral model of the UCC-N1B 0520 element, but also the characteristics that were gained by measurement with the mentioned circuit. The presented simulation and measurement results prove the quality of designed filter. Similar multi-loop structures are very-well known, but there are some drawbacks that are not discussed in similar papers. This paper also contains detailed study of parasitic influences on the filter performance.

  11. Preliminary Study on Element Leaching and Current Soil—Forming Process of Red Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANQI-GUO; XUESHI-KUI; 等

    1991-01-01

    The leaching characteristics and the element concentration in soil solution of red soils derived from sandstone,granite,Quaternary red clay and basalt have been studied in the Red Earth Ecological Experimental Station,Academia Sinica,using 12 lysimeters.Results obtained show that the element leaching process of red soils occurs mainly from January to the beginning of July annually.The elements with higher concentration in leaching solution of red soils are Si,Ca,Na,K,Mg,and N.The desilication and the leaching process of base cations occur simultaneously in the red soils.Using the first order differential equation and measured parameters of Si leaching,the leaching models of Si for red soils derived from different parent materials are constructed.The leaching process of Si is simulated with the models.Both the absolute and relative ages of red soils derived from different parent materials are discussed based on the simulation result.On the basis of element leaching,composition of soil solution and thermodynamics,the current soil-forming process is discussed.According to the phase diagram,the kaolinization is prevailing in the current formation of different red soils.

  12. Numerical and experimental study of the interaction between two marine current turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Mycek, Paul; Germain, Grégory; Pinon, Grégory; Rivoalen, Elie

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of interaction effects between marine energy converters represents the next step in the research process that should eventually lead to the deployment of such devices. Although some a priori considerations have been suggested recently, very few real condition studies have been carried out concerning this issue. Trials were run on 1/30th scale models of three-bladed marine current turbine prototypes in a flume tank. The present work focuses on the case where a turbine is placed at different locations in the wake of a first one. The interaction effects in terms of performance and wake of the second turbine are examined and compared to the results obtained on the case of one single turbine. Besides, a three-dimensional software, based on a vortex method is currently being developed, and will be used in the near future to model more complex layouts. The experimental study shows that the second turbine is deeply affected by the presence of an upstream device and that a compromise between individu...

  13. Effect of Direct Electricity Current on Viability of Leishmania (L tropica Promastigotes: an in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is among top ten infectious diseases in the world, including the three diseases is important that the development of vaccines, medicines and insecticides is difficult to control it. The aim of in this study was Effect of direct electricity current on viability of Leishmania (L tropica promastigotes: an In vitro study. Methods: Leishmania (L tropica [MHOM / IR / NADIM3] to an appropriate level in NNN medium and RPMI1640 culture and promastigotes was prepared both stationary and logarithmic phases. The effects of the direct current from the electrodes 2 or 4 cm Leishmania parasite when staining the size of 1 × 1/5 cm in a arose gel and the parasites create both stationary and logarithmic phases were separate. Electrodes are 2 or 4 cm, and when the voltage in the order of 2/5, 3/5 and 4/5 was applied to the electrodes at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 70 minutes.   Results: Mean number of live promastigotes stationary and logarithmic stages when the distance between the electrodes was 2 cm to voltage 2/5, 3/5 and 4/5 compared with promastigotes in the control group showed significant differences (P=0.003. Also mean number of live promastigotes static stage when the distance between the electrodes was 4 cm to voltage 2/5 and 3/5 V was not significant (P=0.148. And 3/5 and 4/5 volts for voltage are not significant (P>0.05, the mean number of live promastigotes logarithmic stage when the distance between the electrodes was 4 cm, the voltage difference between the number of parasites for 2/5 and 3/5 V  Not significant (P=0.725. Conclusion: The electrodes are more sensitive and dynamic stage promastigotes lower and higher voltage electric current effect on growth control well.

  14. Current debates on end-of-life sedation: an international expert elicitation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Evangelia Evie; Payne, Sheila; Brearley, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    End-of-life sedation, though increasingly prevalent and widespread internationally, remains one of the most highly debated medical practices in the context of palliative medicine. This qualitative study aims to elicit and record the perspectives of leading international palliative care experts on current debates. Twenty-one professionals from diverse backgrounds, sharing field-specific knowledge/expertise defined by significant scholarly contribution on end-of-life sedation, were recruited. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews, following a topic-oriented structure reflecting on current debates, were conducted. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Three main aspects of sedation were identified and discussed as potentially problematic: (a) continuous deep sedation as an extreme facet of end-of-life sedation, (b) psycho-existential suffering as an ambivalent indication for sedation and (c) withdrawal or withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as potentially life-shortening. On these grounds, concerns were reported over end-of-life sedation being morally equivalent to euthanasia. Considerable emphasis was placed on intentions as the distinguishing factor between end-of-life acts, and protective safeguards were introduced to distance sedation from euthanasia. This study shows that, despite the safeguards introduced, certain aspects of sedation, including the intentions associated with the practice, are still under question, parallels being drawn between end-of-life sedation and euthanasia. This reaffirms the existence of a grey area surrounding the two practices, already evidenced in countries where euthanasia is legalized. More clarity over the issues that generate this grey area, with their causes being uncovered and eliminated, is imperative to resolve current debates and effectively inform research, policy and practice of end-of-life sedation.

  15. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E

    2000-01-01

    Results from the next stage of the project "Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques", carried out under the auspieces of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, are reported. A total of 70 moss samples (Hypnum Cupressiforme) were collected from highly polluted areas in the north-eastern part of Transylvania during the summer of 1999. The samples were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis at the pulsed fast reactor IBR-2 at JINR, Dubna, for a wide range of elements including heavy metals and rare earths (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni ((n,p) reaction), Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nb, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). IAEA certified reference materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional extent of pollution patterns of specific metals was determined. Like another stro...

  16. Integrated results from the COPERNICUS and GALILEO studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielen, Amelie; Clark, W Lloyd; Boyer, David S; Ogura, Yuichiro; Holz, Frank G; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Stemper, Brigitte; Asmus, Friedrich; Rittenhouse, Kay D; Ahlers, Christiane; Vitti, Robert; Saroj, Namrata; Zeitz, Oliver; Haller, Julia A

    2017-01-01

    To report on the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in an integrated analysis of COPERNICUS and GALILEO. Patients were randomized to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks or sham injections until week 24. From week 24 to week 52, all intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients in both studies and sham-treated patients in COPERNICUS were eligible to receive intravitreal aflibercept based on prespecified criteria. In GALILEO, sham-treated patients continued to receive sham treatment through week 52. At week 24, mean gain in best-corrected visual acuity and mean reduction in central retinal thickness were greater for intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients compared with sham, consistent with individual trial results. At week 52, after 6 months of intravitreal aflibercept as-needed treatment in COPERNICUS, patients originally randomized to sham group experienced visual and anatomic improvements but did not improve to the extent of those initially treated with intravitreal aflibercept, while the sham group in GALILEO did not improve over week 24 mean best-corrected visual acuity scores. Ocular serious adverse events occurred in COPERNICUS and GALILEO confirmed that intravitreal aflibercept is an effective treatment for macular edema following CRVO.

  17. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  18. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  19. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes

    Engineering changes (ECs) are well known for generating additional costs and decreasing de-velopment efficiency. Yet, they are a fundamental part of product and service development and they are necessary to keep up with, for example, competitors, market trends or new technolo-gies. The effective...... management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...

  20. Semi-inclusive DIS Experiments Using Transversely Polarized Targets in Hall-A: Current Results and Future Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allada Kalyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of single (SSA and double spin asymmetries (DSA in semiinclusive DIS reactions using polarized targets provide a powerful method to probe transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs. In particular, the experimentally measured SSA on nucleon targets can help in extracting the transversity and Sivers distribution functions of u and d-quarks. Similarly, the measured DSA are sensitive to the quark spin-orbital correlations, and provide an access to the TMD parton distribution function (g1T. A recent experiment conducted in Hall-A Jefferson Lab using transversely polarized 3He provide first such measurements on “effective” neutron target. The measurement was performed using 5.9 GeV beam from CEBAF and measured the target SSA/DSA in the SIDIS reaction 3He↑(e, e′π±X. The kinematical range, x = 0.19 ~ 0.34, at Q2 = 1.77 ~ 2.73 (GeV/c2, was focused on the valence quark region. The results from this measurement along with our plans for future high precision measurements in Hall-A are presented.

  1. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, S.; Erné, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant

  2. Grapheme-color synesthesia and posttraumatic stress disorder: preliminary results from the veterans health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stuart N; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Erlich, Porat M; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered neuropsychological function, possibly including complex visual information processing. Grapheme-color synesthesia refers to the phenomenon that a particular letter or number elicits the visual perception of a specific color. The study objective was to assess if grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with PTSD among US veterans. We surveyed 700 veterans who were outpatients in a multihospital system in Pennsylvania. All veterans had served at least one warzone deployment. PTSD and grapheme-color synesthesia were assessed using validated research instruments. The mean age of veterans was 59 years, and 96% were men. The prevalence of current PTSD was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.1-8.8), and current partial PTSD was 11% (95% CI = 9.3-14.0). The prevalence of current depression was 6% (95% CI = 4.7-8.3). Altogether, 6% (95% CI = 4.8-8.5) of veterans screened positive for grapheme-color synesthesia. Bivariate analyses suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with current PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, p = .004) and current partial PTSD (OR = 2.4, p = .013), but not current depression (OR = 1.1, p = .91). Multivariate logistic regression results, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, level of education, current psychotropic medication use, and concussion history, confirmed these results. Grapheme-color synesthesia seems to be associated with PTSD among veterans who had been deployed. This finding may have implications for PTSD diagnostic screening and treatment. Research is recommended to confirm this finding and to determine if synesthesia is a risk indicator for PTSD among nonveterans.

  3. NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE FORMATION OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA WARM CURRENT I. BAROTROPIC CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was used to study the formation of the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in the barotropic case. Monthly averaged wind stress and the inflow/outflow transports in January were used in the numerical simulation which reproduced the SCSWC. The effects of wind stress and inflow/outflow were studied separately. Numerical experiments showed that the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait and the slope shelf in the northern SCS are necessary conditions for the formation of the SCSWC. In a flat bottom topography experiment, the wind stress driven northeast current in the northern SCS is a compensatory current.

  4. A status analysis of current digital marketing: a case study of Kauneusstudio FAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a small company's current digital marketing status. This study was con-ducted in order for the owners of the beauty and hair salon Kauneusstudio FAB to improve their understanding of their customers’ behavior online and the significance of each digital channel they are using in the present marketing strategy. The goal of this study is to provide information for the company to recognize the strengths and the development points of the current digital marketing stra...

  5. Cerebrocerebellar system and Arnold's bundle: A tractographic study: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract The cerebellum, traditionally considered a structure involved in balance and movement control, was more recently recognized as important in cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. These functions appear to be related to the more recent parts of the cerebellum that belong to the cerebrocerebellar system. One of the key segments of this system is the (prefronto-[penduncule]-pontine projection that represents the Arnold's bundle. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography (DTI-TR has permitted in vivo virtual dissection of white matter tracts, including those of the cerebellar. Objective: To study the fronto-[peduncule]-pontine projection (Arnold's bundle, with DTI-TR. Methods: Ten normal subjects were included (mean age 30 years. Standard acquisitions in three planes were obtained with a 1.5T GE Signa Horizon scanner, complemented with DTI acquisitions. Post-processing and analysis was performed using an ADW 4.3 workstation running Functool 4.5.3 (GE Medical Systems. A single ROI was placed on the medial third of the cerebral peduncle base, considered the site of convergence of the fibers of Arnold's bundle, bilaterally. Results: Twenty tractograms were obtained. All were constituted by a significant number of fibers in correspondence to the frontal lobe, and part of them anterior to the coronal plane at the anterior commissure, which characterizes them as associated to the prefrontal region. Conclusions: For the first time, frontal lobe related projections were systematically revealed with DTI-TR seeded from cerebral peduncle base ROIs. They showed anatomic coherence with Arnold's bundle, which includes the prefrontopontine segment of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar path, one of the components of the cerebrocerebellar system, acknowledged as fundamental for non-motor functions such as cognition, emotion and behavior.

  6. Numerical evaluation of currents induced in a worker by ELF non-uniform electric fields in high voltage substations and comparison with experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarao, Hiroo; Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Elovaara, Jarmo A; Isaka, Katsuo

    2013-01-01

    An ungrounded human, such as a substation worker, receives contact currents when touching a grounded object in electric fields. In this article, contact currents and internal electric fields induced in the human when exposed to non-uniform electric fields at 50 Hz are numerically calculated. This is done using a realistic human model standing at a distance of 0.1-0.5 m from the grounded conductive object. We found that the relationship between the external electric field strength and the contact current obtained by calculation is in good agreement with previous measurements. Calculated results show that the contact currents largely depend on the distance, and that the induced electric fields in the tissues are proportional to the contact current regardless of the non-uniformity of the external electric field. Therefore, it is concluded that the contact current, rather than the spatial average of the external electric field, is more suitable for evaluating electric field dosimetry of tissues. The maximum induced electric field appears in the spinal cord in the central nervous system tissues, with the induced electric field in the spinal cord approaching the basic restriction (100 mV/m) of the new 2010 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines for occupational exposure, if the contact current is 0.5 mA. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Study on the effect of humidity and dust on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bo; Qi, Hui-Rong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Shuai; Zhang, Tian-Chong; Yi, Fu-Ting; Ou-Yang, Qun; Chen, Yuan-Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of humidity and dust trapped in avalanche region on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector is studied. Pyralux PC1025 layers of DuPont are introduced in bulk technique and micro-MEGAS detector with pillars of 300{\\mu}m in diameter is fabricated. Leakage current is tested in air with different humidity. Silicon carbide powder and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) powder are added as dust to avalanche region. Leakage current with and without powder is tested in air and results are depicted in the same figure. Test results indicate that leakage current increases with both storage humidity and test humidity, and also increases when powder is introduced in avalanche region.

  8. Pacemaker Created in Human Ventricle by Depressing Inward-Rectifier K+ Current: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Qince; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders are common diseases which cause slow heart rate and syncope. The best way to treat these diseases by now is to implant electronic pacemakers, which, yet, have many disadvantages, such as the limited battery life and infection. Biopacemaker has been expected to replace the electronic devices. Automatic ventricular myocytes (VMs) could show pacemaker activity, which was induced by depressing inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1). In this study, a 2D model of human biopacemaker was created from the ventricular endocardial myocytes. We examined the stability of the created biopacemaker and investigated its driving capability by finding the suitable size and spatial distribution of the pacemaker for robust pacing and driving the surrounding quiescent cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that the rhythm of the pacemaker is similar to that of the single cell at final stable state. The driving force of the biopacemaker is closely related to the pattern of spatial distribution of the pacemaker. PMID:26998484

  9. Pacemaker Created in Human Ventricle by Depressing Inward-Rectifier K+ Current: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac conduction disorders are common diseases which cause slow heart rate and syncope. The best way to treat these diseases by now is to implant electronic pacemakers, which, yet, have many disadvantages, such as the limited battery life and infection. Biopacemaker has been expected to replace the electronic devices. Automatic ventricular myocytes (VMs could show pacemaker activity, which was induced by depressing inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1. In this study, a 2D model of human biopacemaker was created from the ventricular endocardial myocytes. We examined the stability of the created biopacemaker and investigated its driving capability by finding the suitable size and spatial distribution of the pacemaker for robust pacing and driving the surrounding quiescent cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that the rhythm of the pacemaker is similar to that of the single cell at final stable state. The driving force of the biopacemaker is closely related to the pattern of spatial distribution of the pacemaker.

  10. The contribution of Nikola Tesla to plasma physics and current status of plasmas that he studied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zoran Lj.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main Interests in science of Nikola Tesla were gas discharges plasmas, their application in lighting and in production of ozone as well as their role in conduction of electricity through the atmosphere. In particular Tesla is well known as the first person to produce rf plasmas. Such plasmas in the present day constitute the main technology required to produce integrated circuits (IC and have been essential in the revolution that resulted from IC technologies. In addition Tesla participated in studies of arcs especially arcs used as a source of light, corona discharges required to induce plasma chemical reactions and produce ozone and was involved in various aspects of gas breakdown and gaseous dielectrics. His ideas, level of his understanding and current status of these fields are discussed in this review.

  11. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Focal Hand Dystonia in Musicians: A Two-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marceglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Focal hand dystonia (FHD in musicians is a movement disorder causing abnormal movements and irregularities in playing. Since weak electrical currents applied to the brain induce persistent excitability changes in humans, cathodal tDCS was proposed as a possible non-invasive approach for modulating cortical excitability in patients with FHD. However, the optimal targets and modalities have still to be determined. In this pilot study, we delivered cathodal (2 mA, anodal (2 mA and sham tDCS over the motor areas bilaterally for 20 min daily for five consecutive days in two musicians with FHD. After cathodal tDCS, both patients reported a sensation of general wellness and improved symptoms of FHD. In conclusion, our pilot results suggest that cathodal tDCS delivered bilaterally over motor-premotor (M-PM cortex for 5 consecutive days may be effective in improving symptoms in FHD.

  12. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  13. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  14. Numerical experiments on the detailed energy conversion and spectrum studies in a corona current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei; Mei, Zhixing; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the energy conversion and spectra in a corona current sheet by 2.5-dimensional MHD numerical simulations. Numerical results show that many Petschek-like fine structures with slow-mode shocks mediated by plasmoid instabilities develop during the magnetic reconnection process. The termination shocks can also be formed above the primary magnetic island and at the head of secondary islands. These shocks play important roles in generating thermal energy in a corona current sheet. For a numerical simulation with initial conditions close to the solar corona environment, the ratio of the generated thermal energy to the total dissipated magnetic energy is around $1/5$ before secondary islands appear. After secondary islands appear, the generated thermal energy starts to increase sharply and this ratio can reach a value about $3/5$. In an environment with a relatively lower plasma density and plasma $\\beta$, the plasma can be heated to a much higher temperature. After secondary islands appear, t...

  15. The Current Studies of Education for a Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the current tradition and complementary medicine (T&CM) education in Malaysia. We referred to literature regarding to traditional medicine education in Malaysia, and collected the information via website or interview with faculty of T&CM in universities/colleges and Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. T&CM education in Malaysia has been following China's T&CM systems for 50 years. Currently, Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health; and Ministry of Higher Education has approved 11 institutions to offer T&CM education. Students may major in Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, or other T&CM subjects. Generally, clinical training programs in China, Taiwan, or Australia include substantial proportion of clinical training. We report on the general information of T&CM education in Malaysia. This result would be the first-stage information for the establishment of a strategy regarding the enhancement of T&CM education in Malaysia.

  16. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Garg, Sourabh; Adarme-Vega, Tania Catalina; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Ghafor, Wael Abdul; Tannock, Simon; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-01-24

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO₂ extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research.

  17. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V. [Fermilab; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. A. [Fermilab; Sukhanov, A. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  18. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  19. An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Yusaku

    The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.

  20. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, X.M. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China); Guo, M.S. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China)

    2005-10-15

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  1. Experimental study of yttrium barium copper oxide superconducting tape’s critical current under twisting moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ziauddin Khan; Ananya Kundu; Subrata Pradhan

    2013-10-01

    Critical current (c) characteristics of 2G YBCO superconducting tape under the influence of twisting moment was experimentally investigated at varying current ramp rates in the self-field. Under a uniform twist, the degradation in the current-carrying capacity of YBCO tape up to 30% was observed at 77 K. The degradation is largely attributed to the shear stress and torsional shear strain resulting from the twisting. The superconductor to resistive transition index, , is also found to behave in an identical manner with increase in the twisting. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the tape in the experimental configuration with twisting moment being applied on to it has been carried out in COMSOL. The torsional strain calculated analytically as per the experimental configuration matches closely with that of FEA results, which shows that the critical current degradation is a function of strain.

  2. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press ...

  3. Results of prevalence study regarding comorbilities for various patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capisizu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that health problem represents an object of permanent study. The study to prevent chronic diseases, factors involved to keep the health status, means to improve the effect of various diseases/affections have been and are appreciated.

  4. Coupled Numerical Study of Turbidity Currents, Internal Hydraulic Jump and Morphological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P.; Cao, Z.; He, Z.; Gareth, P.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The last two decades have seen intensive experimental and numerical studies of the occurrence condition of internal hydraulic jump in turbidity currents and the induced morphological signatures (Garcia and Parker 1989; Kostic and Parker 2006). Yet there are two critical issues that remain insufficiently or inappropriately addressed. First, depositional turbidity currents are imposed on steep slopes in both flume experiments and numerical cases, exclusively based on a configuration consisting of an upstream sloping portion and a downstream horizontal portion linked by a slope break. This appears physically counterintuitive as steep slope should favour self-accelerating erosional turbidity currents (Parker et al. 1986). The second issue concerns the numerical studies. There exist significant interactions among the current, sediment transport and bed topography. Due to the slope break in bed, the current may experience an internal hydraulic jump, leaving morphological signatures on the bed, which in turn affects the current evolution. Nevertheless, simplified decoupled models are exclusively employed in previous numerical investigations, in which the interactions are either partly or completely ignored without sufficient justification. The present paper aims to address the above-mentioned two issues relevant to the occurrence condition of the internal hydraulic jump and the induced morphological signatures. A recently developed well-balanced coupled numerical model for turbidity currents (Hu et al. 2012) is applied. In contrast to previous studies, erosional turbidity currents will be imposed at the upstream boundary, which is much more typical of the field. The effects of sediment size, bed slope decrease, and upstream and downstream boundary conditions are revealed in detail. In addition, the evolution of turbidity currents over a bed characterized by gradual decrease in slope is also discussed. References Garcia, M. H., and Parker, G. (1989). Experiments

  5. A statistical study of the THEMIS satellite data for plasma sheet electrons carrying auroral upward field-aligned currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Shiokawa, K.; McFadden, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    The magnetospheric electron precipitation along the upward field-aligned currents without the potential difference causes diffuse aurora, and the magnetospheric electrons accelerated by a field-aligned potential difference cause the intense and bright type of aurora, namely discrete aurora. In this study, we are trying to find out when and where the aurora can be caused with or without electron acceleration. We statistically investigate electron density, temperature, thermal current, and conductivity in the plasma sheet using the data from the electrostatic analyzer (ESA) onboard the THEMIS-D satellite launched in 2007. According to Knight (Planet. Space Sci., 1973) and Lyons (JGR, 1980), the thermal current, jth(∝ nT^(1/2) where n is electron density and T is electron temperature in the plasma sheet), represents the upper limit to field aligned current that can be carried by magnetospheric electrons without field-aligned potential difference. The conductivity, K(∝ nT^(-1/2)), represents the efficiency of the upward field-aligned current (j) that the field-aligned potential difference (V) can produce (j=KV). Therefore, estimating jth and K in the plasma sheet is important in understanding the ability of plasma sheet electrons to carry the field-aligned current which is driven by various magnetospheric processes such as flow shear and azimuthal pressure gradient. Similar study was done by Shiokawa et al. (2000) based on the auroral electron data obtained by the DMSP satellites above the auroral oval and the AMPTE/IRM satellite in the near Earth plasma sheet at 10-18 Re on February-June 1985 and March-June 1986 during the solar minimum. The purpose of our study is to examine auroral electrons with pitch angle information inside 12 Re where Shiokawa et al. (2000) did not investigate well. For preliminary result, we found that in the dawn side inner magnetosphere (source of the region 2 current), electrons can make sufficient thermal current without field

  6. Height of burst explosions: a comparative study of numerical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omang, M.; Christensen, S. O.; Børve, S.; Trulsen, J.

    2009-06-01

    In the current work, we use the Constant Volume model and the numerical method, Regularized Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (RSPH) to study propagation and reflection of blast waves from detonations of the high explosives C-4 and TNT. The results from simulations of free-field TNT explosions are compared to previously published data, and good agreement is found. Measurements from height of burst tests performed by the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency are used to compare against numerical simulations. The results for shock time of arrival and the pressure levels are well represented by the numerical results. The results are also found to be in good agreement with results from a commercially available code. The effect of allowing different ratios of specific heat capacities in the explosive products are studied. We also evaluate the effect of changing the charge shape and height of burst on the triple point trajectory.

  7. Langmuir probe study in the nonresonant current drive regime of helicon discharge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manash Kumar Paul; Dhiraj Bora

    2008-07-01

    Characterization of the current drive regime is done for helicon wave-generated plasma in a torus, at a very high operating frequency. A radiofrequency-compensated Langmuir probe is designed and used for the measurement of plasma parameters along with the electron energy distributions in radial scans of the plasma. The electron energy distribution patterns obtained in the operational regime suggest that Landau damping cannot be responsible for the efficient helicon discharge in the present study. A typical peaked radial density profile, high plasma temperature and absence of an appreciable amount of energetic electrons for resonant wave–particle interactions, suggest that the chosen operational regime is suitable for the study of nonresonant current drive by helicon wave. Successful and significant current drive achieved in our device clearly demonstrates the capability of nonresonant current drive by helicon waves in the present operational regime.

  8. Study on Catastrophic Air Current Early-warning and Control System of Coalmines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic air current significantly influences the stability of ventilation system, and existing studies have not considered the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current when designing the control systems. To analyze the effects of different kinds of coalmine accidents on safety production, grey relation entropy theory was used to analyze the hazard assessment of coalmine accidents. Fluent software was employed to study the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current, and the catastrophic air current early-warning and control system of coalmine was researched according to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The threat of fire accidents and roof accidents were larger than other accidents. The influence of temperature and CO volume fraction distribution of fire accidents to the tailwind side was larger than that of the weather side, and gradient decreased on the weather side. This system can effectively control the spread of fire and poisonous gas,

  9. Inflammation, thrombosis and atherosclerosis: results of the Glostrup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maat, M de; Bladbjerg, E-M; Drivsholm, T;

    2003-01-01

    Inflammation and thrombosis are important mechanisms in cardiovascular disease, as illustrated by the consistent association between inflammatory and hemostatic variables and the risk of cardiovascular events in epidemiological studies. However, the relationship between plasma concentrations of i...

  10. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Beeler, Nadja; Pühse, Uwe; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved. PMID:27350748

  11. Method and results of studying conduction measuring transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaevskii, I.G.; Korotkov, B.N.; Povkh, I.L.; Cheplyukov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The method and results are given for determining the sensitivity of conduction measuring transducers with a local magnetic field. The results were obtained by frequency-dependent gradation on a model pulsation velocity gauge--a thermoanemometer. The effect of measuring a transducer's diameter, inter-electrode distance and nose line forms on its spatial resolution capacity was estimated. Adjustment functions were obtained for these transducers. A concept was formulated for measuring transducers belonging to the same class. 5 references, 5 figures.

  12. Archives of Drug Information-A New Approach to Publishing the Results of Drug Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, C Michael

    2008-07-01

    Current scientific publishing uses a selective, slow, and adversarial editorial process to publish a minority of papers submitted, and thus maximize a journal's impact factor, a major measure of success. However, the results of many pharmaceutical industry studies are deemed low priority and are therefore difficult or impossible to publish in scientific journals. Society is poorly served because access to the results of these studies is in the public interest. Archives of Drug Information is an independent, online only journal that will publish papers that are free of bias and that provide new information about a drug. Articles that would not usually be published by traditional journals, for example articles reporting negative studies, studies reporting animal toxicity or Phase I human studies, or routine pharmacokinetic or drug interaction studies are welcome. The editorial process will be rapid and user friendly. The contents of the journal will be available freely to all. Archives of Drug Information will allow the pharmaceutical industry to publish the results of studies and make freely accessible to the public the results of research studies that would otherwise remain unavailable "on-file." Making the results of studies available to the public is not only ethical and good scientific citizenship, but ultimately, also good business.

  13. Perspective of the study on the ring current - past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The study of the ring current has a long history going back to the early 20th century. The ring current was predicted by Carl Stoermer to explain the equatorward movement of the auroral zone during magnetic storms. In 1917, Adolf Schmidt introduced the concept of the ring current to explain the global decrease of the geomagnetic field. Since then, number of studies have been accomplished in the context of the growth and recovery of magnetic storms. Observations have shown that protons and oxygen ions with energies 1 - 100 keV significantly increase during the storm main phase, which are most likely the major contributor to the storm-time ring current. When the loss of the ions dominates the injection of them, the storm recovery phase takes place. Immediate problems are the origin, transport and loss of the ions. All these relevant processes are essential to understand the growth and decay of the ring current. Derived problems, for example, include the entry of solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere, the outflow of ionospheric ions, generation of the convection electric field, influence of substorm-associated electric field, and pitch angle scattering of ions. Recalling that the ring current is the diamagnetic current, we shall consider the force balance and stress carefully. Generation of field-aligned currents is one of the consequences, which might redistribute the state of the inner magnetosphere including the plasmasphere, the ring current and the radiation belts. The ring current may also have a large influence on the geomagnetically induced current (GIC) on the ground at mid- and low-latitudes. The magnetic storms can be easily identified by looking at magnetograms, but the processes behind the magnetic storms cannot be easily understood because the processes depend on each other. From this sense, we shall pay much attention to the detailed function of each process as well as its role on the overall system. Dealing with the ring current as a complex system

  14. Smoking Is Associated with Acute and Chronic Prostatic Inflammation: Results from the REDUCE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniel M; Nickel, J Curtis; Gerber, Leah; Muller, Roberto L; Andriole, Gerald L; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Both anti- and proinflammatory effects of cigarette smoking have been described. As prostate inflammation is common, we hypothesized smoking could contribute to prostate inflammation. Thus, we evaluated the association of smoking status with acute and chronic inflammation within the prostate of men undergoing prostate biopsy. We retrospectively analyzed 8,190 men ages 50 to 75 years with PSA levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL enrolled in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Smoking status was self-defined as never, former, or current. Prostate inflammation was assessed by systematic central review blinded to smoking status. The association of smoking with inflammation in the baseline, 2-year, and 4-year biopsies was evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. At study enrollment, 1,233 (15%), 3,203 (39%), and 3,754 (46%) men were current, former, and never smokers, respectively. Current smokers were significantly younger and had smaller prostates than former and never smokers (all P chronic prostate inflammations were identified in 1,261 (15%) and 6,352 (78%) baseline biopsies, respectively. In univariable analysis, current smokers were more likely to have acute inflammation than former (OR, 1.35; P, 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 1.36; P, 0.001). The results were unchanged at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In contrast, current smoking was linked with chronic inflammation in the baseline biopsy, but not at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In conclusion, among men undergoing prostate biopsy, current smoking was independently associated with acute and possibly chronic prostate inflammations.

  15. Results of T.A.P.S. raptorial bird study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines our findings resulting from a month survey (15 July to 11 August, 1970) of raptorial birds along the proposed T.A.P.S. route. We were instructed...

  16. Cardiovascular events in patients with COPD: TORCH study results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calverley, Peter M A; Anderson, Julie A; Celli, Bartolome;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that long-term use of beta agonists to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. In this post hoc analysis, data from the TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study were used...... to investigate whether use of the long-acting beta(2) agonist salmeterol over 3 years increased the risk of cardiovascular adverse events in patients with moderate to severe COPD. METHODS: TORCH was a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study conducted at 444 centres in 42 countries. Patients (n=6184.......2% for placebo, 22.7% for salmeterol, 24.3% for fluticasone propionate and 20.8% for SFC. Although a history of myocardial infarction doubled the probability of cardiovascular adverse events, the event rates remained similar across treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Post hoc analysis of the 3-year TORCH dataset...

  17. Results of preliminary Microwave Multi-Applications Payload (MMAP) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the microwave multi-applications payload (MMAP) system for the Spacelab has been carried out. The initial objectives of this study have been to determine the minimum equipment requirements of the MMAP and the feasibility of placing the numerous large aperture antennas in the Spacelab. The study was begun by reviewing the experimental objectives and techniques and determining areas of commonality. Emphasis was given to the determination of common RF equipment requirements. These requirementers were considered after agreement among the experiments had been reached on limiting the number of frequencies to be used in the system. This was done so that the number of antennas, transmitters, and receivers could be minimized. The electronics system block diagram and the antenna configurations were considered in some details. It was concluded that the MMAP is feasible and can be an economical method of achieving a large number of experimental goals.

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eUlm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

  19. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Perilesional Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aphasia: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Lena; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design, and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI, which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioral stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS effects on brain functions in aphasia. PMID:26500522

  20. Dynamics of Classroom WTC: Results of a Semester Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystkowska-Wiertelak, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The fact that L2 willingness to communicate (WTC) can fluctuate over different time scales is no longer disputed as numerous studies have proved a dynamic rather than trait-like character of the concept (cf. MacIntyre & Legatto, 2011; MacIntyre, Burns, & Jessome, 2011; Mystkowska-Wiertelak & Pawlak, 2014). The changes in the intensity…

  1. Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…

  2. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes : Results of a European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayiotou, A.; Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; McMahon, L.; Vanlaar, G.; Pfeifer, M.; Rekalidou, G.; Bren, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the clas

  3. Sleep in children with asthma: results of the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Wijga, A.H.; Gehring, U.; Postma, D.S.; Smit, H.A.; Oort, F.J.; Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy

  4. Sleep in children with asthma : results of the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Annette; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Oort, Frans J.; Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy

  5. Supervising for Results: A Case Study from the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a case study of an insurance company manager with a superior track record. Successful management behaviors include helping trainees succeed, relying on loyalty, building trust, manifesting an extroverted personality and good sense of humor, applying business knowledge, creating incentives to sell, and maintaining excellent relationships…

  6. Sleep in children with asthma : results of the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Annette; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Oort, Frans J.; Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (

  7. Sleep in children with asthma: results of the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Wijga, A.H.; Gehring, U.; Postma, D.S.; Smit, H.A.; Oort, F.J.; Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (

  8. Genetic influences on dietary variety - Results from a twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Todd, Peter M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Hatemi, Peter K.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Vogler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The heritability of variety seeking in the food domain was estimated from a large sample (N = 5,543) of middle age to elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins from the “Virginia 30,000” twin study. Different dietary variety scores were calculated based on a semi-quantitative food choice questionnaire

  9. Recent results from studies of electric discharges in the mesosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Rycroft, M.; Farges, T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews recent advances in studies of electric discharges in the stratosphere and mesosphere above thunderstorms, and their effects on the atmosphere. The primary focus is on the sprite discharge occurring in the mesosphere, which is the most commonly observed high altitude discharge by...

  10. HINARI/AGORA Study Results with 2008 Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Sheri V. T.

    2009-01-01

    The following report is an update to the results presented in the 2008 dissertation by Sheri V. T. Ross titled The Scholarly Use of Journals Offered Through the Health Internetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) and Access to Global Online Research in Agricultural (AGORA)Programs as Suggested by the Journal-Citing Patterns of authors in the Least-Developed Nations. The original dissertation is archived at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-08082008-171628/.

  11. Morphology and flow fields of three-dimensional dunes, Rio Paraná, Argentina: Results from simultaneous multibeam echo sounding and acoustic Doppler current profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Orfeo, O.; Hardy, R. J.; Kostaschuk, R.; Lane, S. N.

    2005-12-01

    Most past studies of river dune dynamics have concentrated on two-dimensional (2-D) bed forms, with constant heights and straight crest lines transverse to the flow, and their associated turbulent flow structure. This morphological simplification imposes inherent limitations on the interpretation and understanding of dune form and flow dynamics in natural channels, where dune form is predominantly three-dimensional. For example, studies over 2-D forms neglect the significant influence that lateral flows and secondary circulation may have on the flow structure and thus dune morphology. This paper details a field study of a swath of 3-D dunes in the Rio Paraná, Argentina. A large (0.35 km wide, 1.2 km long) area of dunes was surveyed using a multibeam echo sounder (MBES) that provided high-resolution 3-D detail of the river bed. Simultaneous with the MBES survey, 3-D flow information was obtained with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), revealing a complicated pattern of dune morphology and associated flow structure within the swath. Dune three-dimensionality appears intimately connected to the morphology of the upstream dune, with changes in crest line curvature and crest line bifurcations/junctions significantly influencing the downstream dune form. Dunes with lobe or saddle-shaped crest lines were found to have larger, more structured regions of vertical velocity with smaller separation zones than more 2-D straight-crested dunes. These results represent the first integrated study of 3-D dune form and mean flow structure from the field and show several similarities to recent laboratory models of flow over 3-D dunes.

  12. The rings of Saturn: State of current knowledge and some suggestions for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The state of our current knowledge of the properties of the ring system as a whole, and of the particles individually, is assessed. Attention is primarily devoted to recent results and possibilities for exploration of the ring system by a Saturn orbiter. In particular, the infrared and microwave properties of the ring system are discussed. The behavior of the ring brightness is not well understood in the critical transition spectral region from approximately 100 micrometers to approximately 1 cm. Also, the dynamical behavior of the ring system is discussed. Recent theoretical studies show that ongoing dynamical effects continually affect the ring structure in azimuth (possibly producing the A ring brightness asymmetry) and in the vertical direction. Orbital spacecraft-based studies of the rings will offer several unique advantages and impact important cosmogonical questions. Bistatic radar studies and millimeter-wavelength spectrometer/radiometry will give particle sizes and composition limits needed to resolve the question of the density of the rings, and provide important boundary conditions on the state of Saturn's protoplanetary nebula near the time of planetary formation.

  13. Charge transfer on porous silicon membranes studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Xia; Qiang Miao; Jie Chao; Shou Jun Xiao; Hai Tao Wang; Zhong Dang Xiao

    2008-01-01

    A visible rectification effect on the current-voltage curves of metal/porous silicon/p-silicon has been observed by currentsensing atomic force microscopy.The current-voltage curves of porous silicon membranes with different porosities,prepared through variation of etching current density for a constant time,indicate that a higher porosity results in a higher resistance and thus a lower rectification,until the current reaches a threshold at a porosity>55%.We propose that the conductance mode in the porous silicon membrane with porosities>55% is mainly a hopping mechanism between nano-crystallites and an inverse static electric field between the porous silicon and p-Si interface blocks the electron injection from porous silicon to p-Si,but with porosities <55%,electron flows through a direct continuous channel between nano-crystallites.

  14. Study on the effect of welding current during laser beam-resistance seam welding of aluminum alloy 5052

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongqiang; Zhao Xihua; Zhao He; Cao Haipeng; Zhao Huanling

    2008-01-01

    The effect of welding current on the weld shape and tensile shear load during laser beam-resistance seam welding (LB-RSW) of aluminum alloy 5052 is studied. Experimental results show that the penetration depth, weld width,tensile shear load and the ratio of penetration depth to weld width of LB-RSW are bigger than those of laser beam welding(LBW) under the same conditions and the former three parameters increase as welding current rises. The weld shape of LB-RSW below 5 kA welding current is nearly the same as that of LBW. The weld morphology is protuberant under the condition of 5 kA welding current and 0.8 m/min welding speed. Furthermore, the microstructure of the weld seam of LB-RSW is coarser than that of LBW.

  15. Numerical study of pollutant movement in waves and wave-induced long-shore currents in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; SHEN Yongming; QIU Dahong

    2008-01-01

    Water waves,wave-induced long-shore currents and movement of pollutants in waves and currents have been numerically studied based on the hyperbolic mild-slope equation,the shallow water equation,as well as the pollutant movement equation,and the nu- merical results have also been validated by experimental data.It is shown that the long-shore current velocity and wave set-up in- crease with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore plane;the wave set-up increases with the in- creasing incident wave period;and the pollutant morement proceeds more quiekly with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore palane.In surf zones,the long-shore currents induced by the inclined incident waves have effectively affected the pollutant movement.

  16. Anti-aging proof of concept study: results and summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Suzanne; Karnik, Jwala; Dryer, Laurence; Burkholder, David

    2014-09-01

    The etiology of aging human skin includes intrinsic physiologic changes greatly accelerated by photoaging, predominantly through exposure to UV light. Consumer interest and demand for anti-aging skin care products is extremely high especially in light of aging populations. Prenatal (fetal) tissue has been shown to possess healing characteristics and regenerative effects. A proprietary tissue engineering technology has been developed to produce a soluble human extracellular matrix material with growth factors and proteins. Neonatal cells are cultured on microbeads under conditions of low oxygen tension. This human cell-conditioned media (hCCM) contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines similar to those found in fetal cells and has been incorporated into a topical preparation for use in facial wound healing (after laser resurfacing procedures) and improving the appearance of aging skin. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of an MRCx™-containing topical skincare regimen on subjects with demonstrated aging skin damage (photodamage) when used consistently over a 3 month time period. Female subjects age 35-65 with Fitzpatrick Skin Type I-IV and mild to moderate amounts of photodamage, fine lines, and wrinkles used Regenica® Replenishing Crème and Regenica® Renew SPF 15 for 3 months. At each visit, photos were taken of subjects while investigators completed skin grading assessments and subjects completed self-assessments. Investigator assessments included evaluation of tactile roughness, visual texture, wrinkles, blotchiness, skin tone evenness, radiance, and translucence on a 5-point scale. Subjects' self-assessments included assessment of fine lines and wrinkles, firmness, evenness of skin tone, brightness, resilience, clarity, and radiance. Changes from baseline were evaluated for each parameter and P values for changes from baseline to each study visit for investigator's assessments and to end-of-study for self-assessments were

  17. Pegaferon in hepatitis C: Results of a Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbari, Hossain; Zamani, Farhad; Hatami, Khadijeh; Sheikholeslami, Arghavan; Fakharzadeh, Elham; Shahzamani, Kiana; Zamini, Hedye; Merat, Shahin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sharfi, Amir Houshang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a major contributor to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and major global public health problem that causes mortality in both developed and developing countries.For the past decade, treatment with pegylated interferon (peg interferon α) and ribavirin (RBV) has been associated with rates of sustained virologic response of ≤ 66% among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we report the response rate of Iranian treatment-naïv...

  18. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  19. Students’ ability in science: Results from a test development study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Akkanat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Student’s ability to use and manipulate scientific concepts has been widely explored; however there is still a need to define the characteristics and nature of science ability. Also, the tests and performance scales that require minimal conceptual knowledge to measure this ability are relatively less common. The aim of this study was to develop an objective measure of science ability of gifted middle school students. In order to assess this ability, Science Ability Test Battery was developed by the researchers. The test battery was divided into two sub scales containing; a multiple choice questions achievement test (Science Ability Test and a performance assessment (Science Performance Test. The initial Science Ability Test consisted of 23 multiple choice items with one correct answer that required students to use science process skills and reasoning. In the study, stratified sampling was used. The test was administered to 280 middle school students in Turkey and the missing data from 26 students were excluded. In order to obtain a proof of content validity, the researchers elicited feedback from five experts in the field of science education and gifted education and necessary corrections were made in accordance of their views and suggestions. This study will be followed by another research to further analyse validity and reliability of the test.

  20. Workplace bullying in the OR: Results of a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Esther; Stelmaschuk, Stephanie; Albert, Nancy M; Bernhard, Linda; Holloman, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the incidence of workplace bullying among perioperative RNs, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel in two academic medical centers. The study sought to determine whether the demographic variables of gender, ethnicity, hospital, years of experience on the unit, years in the profession, and job title predict the experience of workplace bullying; whether a relationship exists between workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion; and whether bullying is associated with perceptions of patient safety in the OR. The cross-sectional design included perioperative nurses, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel (N = 167). Fifty-nine percent of the study participants reported witnessing coworker bullying weekly, and 34% reported at least two bullying acts weekly. Having one's opinion ignored is the most common bullying act, with 28% of respondents experiencing being ignored. Differences in the experience of bullying can be found between hospitals and among ethnicities. Emotional exhaustion also was correlated with bullying. The participants did not perceive bullying as affecting patient safety. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Statin associated myopathy in clinical practice. Results of DAMA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Climent, Elisenda; Millán, Joaquín; Rius, Joan

    Muscle symptoms, with or without elevation of creatin kinase are one of the main adverse effects of statin therapy, a fact that sometimes limits their use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients treated with statins who have complained muscle symptoms and to identify possible predictive factors. A cross-sectional one-visit, non-interventional, national multicenter study including patients of both sexes over 18 years of age referred for past or present muscle symptoms associated with statin therapy was conducted. 3,845 patients were recruited from a one-day record from 2,001 physicians. Myalgia was present in 78.2% of patients included in the study, myositis in 19.3%, and rhabdomyolysis in 2.5%. Patients reported muscle pain in 77.5% of statin-treated individuals, general weakness 42.7%, and cramps 28.1%. Kidney failure, intense physical exercise, alcohol consumption (>30g/d in men and 20g/d in women) and abdominal obesity were the clinical situations associated with statin myopathy. Myalgia followed by myositis are the most frequent statin-related side effects. It should be recommended control environmental factors such as intense exercise and alcohol intake as well as abdominal obesity and renal function of the patient treated with statins. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2005-01-01

    The nutrient-rich, shallow waters of San Francisco Bay support high rates of primary production, limited not by nutrients but by light availability and benthic grazing (Alpine and others 1992; Cloern 1982). Phytoplankton blooms are an important food source for upper trophic levels. Consequently animal populations, such as fish, may suffer under conditions of high benthic bivalve grazing. It has been hypothesized that several species of fish are suffering as a result of severe decreases in available phytoplankton since the introduction of Potamocorbula amurensis into San Francisco Bay (Feyrer 2003).

  3. Unrecorded wideband instrumentation reference tape feasibility study: Frequency response results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, D. R.

    1980-03-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine signal response variations when a variety of wideband instrumentation magnetic tapes is used on a cross section of recorder/reproducer systems. Data for the investigation were collected by transmitting a set of eight sample test tapes to participating data recording/reproducing facilities for the purpose of making data measurements. Data collected represent measurements made with 16 different recorder/reproducer systems at 11 different testing facilities located throughout the United States. The data-collection process involved approximately 2 years of testing. The originating/coordinating facility was the Pacific Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, California. The test results indicated the following: all of the sample test tapes exhibited bidirectional performance within the limits of measurement repeatability; overall system stability was better in the low-band regions than in the upper-band regions; and the overall relative frequency response of the sample test tapes did not change appreciably during the 2 year investigative period. The most significant result of the test measurements is that at least 90% of the frequency response values were within + or - 2.0 dB at all frequencies. Machine stability factors such as azimuth, equalizer, and gain changes had more effect on data variability than did magnetic tape or tape speed. The use of a reference tape system is recommended as a method to assure that relative frequency response variations will be less than or equal to + or - 2.0 dB.

  4. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  5. Semi-automatic determination of the Azores Current axis using satellite altimetry: Application to the study of the current variability during 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, C.; Juliano, M. F.; Fernandes, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Satellite altimetry has been widely used to study the variability of the ocean currents such as the Azores Current (AzC) in the North Atlantic. Most analyses are performed over the region that encloses the current, thus being somehow affected by other oceanographic signals, e.g., eddies. In this study, a new approach for extracting the axis of a zonal current solely based on satellite altimetry is presented. This is a semi-automatic procedure that searches for the maximum values of the gradient of absolute dynamic topography (ADT), using the geostrophic velocity as auxiliary information. The advantage of this approach is to allow the analyses to be performed over a buffer centered on the current axis instead of using a wider region. It is here applied to the AzC for the period June 1995-October 2006.

  6. The Return-Stroke of Lightning Current, Source of Electromagnetic Fields (Study, Analysis and Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Djalel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present and analysis of the return-stroke lightning current and described their models which existing in the literature by several authors for the evaluation of radiated electromagnetic fields and modelling the coupling with electrical systems based on the calculation of induced voltages. the objective of this work was to take part in the improvement of the coordination of electric insulations and to put device also for calculation of the over-voltages induced in the electrical networks by the indirect lightning strokes which represent the most dangerous constraint and most frequent. A comparative study between the existing models and the analysis of the parameters which affect the space and temporal behaviour of the current lightning strokes as well as the importance of the lightning current at the channel base form the essential consequence of this study.

  7. Attitudes to smoking on submarines: results of a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, William D; Brims, Fraser J H

    2002-07-01

    An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required.

  8. First champ mission results for gravity, magnetic and atmospheric studies

    CERN Document Server

    Lühr, Hermann; Schwintzer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In the summer of 2000 the German geo-research satellite CHAMP was launched into orbit. Its innovative payload arrangement and the low intial orbit allow CHAMP to simultaneously collect and almost continuously analyse precise data relating to gravity and magnetic fields at low altitude. In addition to this CHAMP also measures the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere using GPS techniques. Eighteen months after the launch, CHAMP research groups from all over the world met at the Geo-Forschungs-Zentrum in Potsdam for an initial exchange of experiences and results. The main outcome of this user meeting is summarized in this volume. Apart from technical information about the mission, the book offers a comprehensive insight into the present status of CHAMP data exploitation for Earth system research and practical applications in geodesy, geophysics and meteorology.

  9. Experimental study of the Timoshenko beam theory predictions: Further results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, G.; Díaz-de-Anda, A.; Flores, J.; Gutiérrez, L.; Morales, A.

    2016-08-01

    In a previous paper (2012) we presented experimental results proving that the critical frequency fC predicted by Timoshenko beam theory indeed exists. We also showed that for frequencies f smaller than fC the spectrum is formed by almost equally spaced levels whereas for f >fC the spectrum consists of pairs of eigenvalues very close to each other as predicted by numerical solutions of Timoshenko's equation: we shall refer to them as Timoshenko doublets. In this work we measure for the first time experimental dispersion relations. For this purpose it was necessary to obtain normal-mode amplitudes with a high precision, which was done with a new experimental setup developed by us. We found that experimental dispersion relations coincide very well with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we provide an explanation of Timoshenko doublets.

  10. Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation: Results of the Initial Psychometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Green, Michael F; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of social cognition in treatment trials remains problematic due to poor and limited psychometric data for many tasks. As part of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, the psychometric properties of 8 tasks were assessed. One hundred and seventy-nine stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and a 2-4-week retest period at 2 sites. Tasks included the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task (BLERT), Penn Emotion Recognition Task (ER-40), Relationships Across Domains (RAD), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (Eyes), The Awareness of Social Inferences Test (TASIT), Hinting Task, and Trustworthiness Task. Tasks were evaluated on: (i) test-retest reliability, (ii) utility as a repeated measure, (iii) relationship to functional outcome, (iv) practicality and tolerability, (v) sensitivity to group differences, and (vi) internal consistency. The BLERT and Hinting task showed the strongest psychometric properties across all evaluation criteria and are recommended for use in clinical trials. The ER-40, Eyes Task, and TASIT showed somewhat weaker psychometric properties and require further study. The AIHQ, RAD, and Trustworthiness Task showed poorer psychometric properties that suggest caution for their use in clinical trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Brown Carbon: Results From Ground and Airborne Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. J.; Forrister, H.; Liu, J.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    Brown carbon (BrC) is directly measured with high sensitivity by isolating it from black carbon in aerosol extracts and using long path wave-guide spectrophotometry. Ambient measurements by this approach show that BrC is pervasive and can be found in almost all locations, ranging from urban environments to remote continental sites and upper reaches of the free troposphere. Biomass burning appears to be the major source in many urban and rural locations, but other sources of incomplete combustion, such as vehicle emissions in urban environments also play a role. Secondary aerosols not associated with combustion sources may also contribute, but are likely of lesser importance. Studies of ambient wildfire smoke plumes show that BrC levels decrease as it ages, with a half-life of approximately 10 hours. However, a small fraction of the emitted BrC is stable and may account for much of the BrC observed throughout the atmosphere due to widely dispersed and ubiquitous smoke. A radiative transfer model indicates that this background BrC reduced US continental TOA forcing by 20 percent. Human health studies point to similar chemical components linked to BrC (i.e., HULIS), of this same ubiquitous smoke, as a significant source of adverse cardiorespiratory effects. This talk will summarize findings on BrC sources, transformations and estimates of environmental effects based on bulk measurements.

  12. Plutonium Mobility Studies: 216-Z-9 Trench Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2008-09-05

    A variety of analyses were conducted on selected sediment samples collected from two wells (299 W15-46 and 299-W15-48) drilled near the 216-Z-9 Trench to elucidate the form and potential for Pu and Am to be mobilized under present conditions and those that could be expected in future remediation scenarios. Analyses included moisture content, determination of the less than sand size fraction (silt plus clay), carbon analysis, SEM/EDS analysis, microwave-assisted acid digestions for total element analysis, and extraction tests using Hanford groundwater as the leachate. Results of the extraction tests were used as input to conduct equilibrium geochemical modeling of the solutions with Geochemist’s Workbench®. Geochemical modeling results for Pu were evaluated in terms of recent conclusions regarding the solubility and redox reactions of Pu by Neck et al. (2007a, 2007b). It was found that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am were associated with sediments of low silt/clay content and occur above silt/clay rich layers within the sediment profile. It was also found that the Pu and Am were relatively enriched in the silt/clay portion of these samples. The fact that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in sediments with low silt/clay contents suggests that waste solutions had perched on top of the low permeability silt/clay rich layers and interactions with the high silt/clay layers was minimal. SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the Pu and Am in these sediments does not occur as discrete micron size particles, and therefore must occur as mononuclear or polynuclear/ nanoclusters size particles adsorbed throughout the sediment samples. Leaching of these samples with Hanford groundwater indicates that release of Pu and Am from the sediments is correlated most significantly with the acidity of the water and not the initial concentrations of Pu and Am in the sediments. Only extracts that were acidic after contact with the sediments (pH 4.3 to 5.4) contained

  13. Comparison of Galvanic Currents Generated Between Different Combinations of Orthodontic Brackets and Archwires Using Potentiostat: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Shafiuddin, Bareera; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Shetty, Smitha V

    2015-07-01

    Technological advances in wire selection and bracket design have led to improved treatment efficiency and allowed longer time intervals between appliance adjustments. The wires remain in the mouth for a longer duration and are subjected to electrochemical reactions, mechanical forces of mastication and generalized wear. These cause different types of corrosion. This study was done to compare the galvanic currents generated between different combinations of brackets and archwires commonly used in orthodontic practices. The materials used for the study included different commercially available orthodontic archwires and brackets. The galvanic current generated by individual materials and different combinations of these materials was tested and compared. The orthodontic archwires used were 0.019″ × 0.025″ heat-activated nickel-titanium (3M Unitek), 0.019″ × 0.025″ beta-titanium (3M Unitek) and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel (3M Unitek). The orthodontic brackets used were 0.022″ MBT laser-cut (Victory Series, 3M Unitek) and metal-injection molded (Leone Company) maxillary central incisor brackets respectively. The ligature wire used for ligation was 0.009″ stainless steel ligature (HP Company). The galvanic current for individual archwires, brackets, and the different bracket-archwire-ligature combinations was measured by using a Potentiostat machine. The data were generated using the Linear Sweep Voltammetry and OriginPro 8.5 Graphing and Data Analysis Softwares. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I comprised of five groups for open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (I), whereas Phase II comprised of six groups for galvanic current alone. Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the OCP and galvanic current (I) values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. In Phase I, higher mean OCP was recorded in stainless steel archwire, followed by beta-titanium archwire, heat-activated nickel

  14. Initial MPTS study results: Design considerations and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    One of the key issues identified during investigations of microwave power transmission systems from 1965 to 1976 was the need to assure that the billions of diodes on ground-based rectennas are sufficiently reliable to support long life times of approximately 30 years. Major systems studies conducted focused on waveguides; radio frequency interference and biological considerations; the relationship between performance, weight, and cost; risk assessment; crossed field directional amplifier noise; a 48 kW klystron; effects of the environment on propagation and phase control; rectenna technology; a rationale for the ground power density region; alternate technologies for orbital assembly; ionospheric effects and phase control; and reception conversion (rf to dc collector/converter).

  15. The Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS): 18 months' results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P; Britz, A; Cars, I; Nilsson, B Y; Sobocinsky-Olsson, B; Rosenqvist, U

    1988-01-01

    Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), non-proliferative retinopathy and unsatisfactory blood glucose control were randomized to intensified conventional treatment (ICT, 48 patients) or regular treatment (RT, 54 patients) for a 5-year study. After 18 months the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was reduced in both groups, but significantly more in the ICT group (p = 0.00005). Thirty of the RT patients and 16 from the ICT group deteriorated as to retinopathy (p = 0.024). Microalbuminuria appeared more often in the RT patients (p = 0.023), and nerve conduction velocities were significantly reduced only in the RT group (p between 0.0005 and 0.047). Serious hypoglycemia was more common in the ICT patients (p = 0.003). The progression of diabetic late complications was thus slowed down by intensified treatment, but at the price of an increased frequency of serious hypoglycemia.

  16. Actual outpatient PTCA: results of the OUTCLAS pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagboom, T; Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; van der Wieken, R; Odekerken, D

    2001-06-01

    This study tested the safety and feasibility of coronary angioplasty on an outpatient basis. The purpose of this approach includes cost-effectiveness and patient comfort. Included were 159 patients treated with balloon angioplasty or intracoronary stent placement, all performed via the radial artery with 6 French guiding catheters. Patients were selected for same-day discharge based on the absence of any adverse predictor for subacute occlusion or unfavorable clinical outcome during the first 24 hr after successful PTCA. One hundred and six (66%) patients were discharged 4-6 hr after PTCA. Stents were used in 40% of patients. There were no cardiac or vascular complications. We conclude that outpatient PTCA, performed via the radial artery, is both safe and feasible in a large part of a routine PTCA population.

  17. Sleep disorders in menopause: results from an Italian Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrini, Monica; AricÃ, Irene; Tramonti, Francesco; Condurso, Rosaria; Carnicelli, Luca; De Rosa, Anna; Di Perri, Caterina; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria; Zito, Anna; Russo, Giovanna; Pagliarulo, Maria Giovanna; Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Cerroni, Gianluigi; Mennuni, Gianfranco; Della Marca, Giacomo; Bonanni, Enrica; Silvestri, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Menopause in the female life cycle is a special period due to important hormonal, physical and psychological changes. Sleep disruption represents a common complaint for midlife and menopausal women, related to primary sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS), mood and anxiety disorder, other medical illness, hormonal-related vasomotor symptoms, and aging per se. Aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in a sample of pre and post menopausal women, and to investigate the relationship between sleep and other medical disorders, and life habits. Among workers in the six participant centers, we enrolled 334 women, aged between 40 and 60 years, that completed a questionnaire that included screening on menarche, menstrual cycle, fertility, parity, menopause, life habits, personal medical and sleep history and related treatment, and self-administered scales for sleep quality (PSQI), excessive daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)], mood disorder [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)], Berlin Questionnaire for sleep disordered breathing (SDB), IRLS diagnostic interview and Rating Scale. Menopausal and perimenopausal women showed an increased prevalence of poor sleep, high risk of SDB, and mood disorder; menopausal women also reported increased RLS severity. Mood disorder had a significant impact on night sleep measures and excessive daytime sleepiness, as well as on RLS severity, and had a greater prevalence in hypertensive women. Sleep disturbances are frequent in menopausal women. Their aetiology is unclear, but probably multifactorial, and many factors contribute to the sleep disruption. Our data suggest the importance of correctly investigate and address sleep problems associated with menopause, through sleep history, and a sleep study could be obtained if clinically warranted. Pharmacological and behavioural treatment strategies should then be aimed at improving sleep and life

  18. [Erectile dysfunction: results of the Brazilian Sexual Life Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Oliveira, Waldemar Mendes de; Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Martins, Fernando Gonini

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of ED and related risk factors in a sample of the Brazilian male population. Cross-sectional study was carried out with a convenience sample of 2,862 men, 18 years of age or older, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. ED prevalence in the sample was obtained by a general question which was directly derived from the ED definition. Data were submitted to chi-square or Student's t tests. Logistic regression analyses were used for risk factor calculations. The prevalence of ED was 45.1% (31.2% mild, 12.2% moderate and 1.7% complete). Subjects with ED presented lower self-esteem, hindered interpersonal relationships, fewer sexual intercourses per week, more extra-marital relationships, complaints of lack of libido and premature ejaculation. When compared with men aged 18-39 years, men aged 60-69 presented 2.2 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-3.4; p < 0.01), whereas men aged 70 or older presented 3.0 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-6.3; p < 0.01). Level of education was inversely proportional to risk of ED. Yellow race, unemployment, religious affiliation, prostate tumor, hypertension and depression were variables that increased ED risk. The prevalence of ED was high and comparable to that found in other studies. Subjects with ED suffer from less sexual activity and poorer quality of life. Age and lower socioeconomic level are directly proportional to ED risk. Therapeutic and preventive measures should be implemented to minimize the negative impact of this condition, especially in developing countries.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Study of Wave-Induced Long-Shore Currents on A Mild Slope Beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Tao; TAO Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    The long-shore current distribution on a mild slope beach is studied by combining the numerical model and the physical experiment. The experiments of long-shore currents under the action of regular and irregular waves are conducted on mild beaches with different slopes in a wave basin. A numerical model is established, which includes a wave propagation model, a wave breaking model and a long-shore current model. The validity of the numerical model is proved by the comparison of its results with the results of the experimental model. It is concluded that the wave-induced long-shore current is influenced significantly by the incident wave height, the wave angle and the beach slope. Its application to the Bohai Bay indicates that the wave-induced currents have the same order of magnitude as the tide currents in the near-shore zone of mill slope beach. In the design of wastewater outfall locations on a mild-slope beach with shallow water of the Bohai Bay, the position of the outfall should be 10 km away from the shoreline, which is outside of the surf-zone.

  20. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the held of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The Fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations ( <2 mm FWHM in all three coordinates over the complete held of view) and also demonstrated the ability to include Compton interactions (inter-cr...

  1. Refractive results after phacoemulsification and ECCE. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam-Johansen, M; Olsen, T

    1993-06-01

    The refractive results were evaluated in 79 patients undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification using a 6-7 mm tunnel incision, and compared with a group of 77 patients undergoing planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) by the same surgeon. A mean increase in the keratometric cylinder of 0.05D and 0.52D was found in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. This was significantly different from zero for the extracapsular cataract extraction group (p 0.05). By vector analysis, the mean surgically induced astigmatism was 0.91D and 1.36D in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively (p < 0.01). The IOL power prediction error (spectacle plane) was found to be 0.17D (+/- 0.69 SD) in the phacoemulsification group and 0.02 D (+/- 0.79 SD) in the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. We conclude that phacoemulsification improves the surgical control of the refractive outcome of cataract surgery.

  2. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  3. Probing for hemispheric specialization for motor skill learning: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Heidi M; Abe, Mitsunari; Luckenbaugh, David A; Reis, Janine; Krakauer, John W; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-08-01

    Convergent findings point to a left-sided specialization for the representation of learned actions in right-handed humans, but it is unknown whether analogous hemispheric specialization exists for motor skill learning. In the present study, we explored this question by comparing the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over either left or right motor cortex (M1) on motor skill learning in either hand, using a tDCS montage to better isolate stimulation to one hemisphere. Results were compared with those previously found with a montage more commonly used in the field. Six groups trained for three sessions on a visually guided sequential pinch force modulation task with their right or left hand and received right M1, left M1, or sham tDCS. A linear mixed-model analysis for motor skill showed a significant main effect for stimulation group (left M1, right M1, sham) but not for hand (right, left) or their interaction. Left M1 tDCS induced significantly greater skill learning than sham when hand data were combined, a result consistent not only with the hypothesized left hemisphere specialization for motor skill learning but also with possible increased left M1 responsiveness to tDCS. The unihemispheric montage effect size was one-half that of the more common montage, and subsequent power analysis indicated that 75 subjects per group would be needed to detect differences seen with only 12 subjects with the customary bihemispheric montage.

  4. Study of flow channel geometry using current distribution measurement in a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Justo; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Pinar, F. Javier; Úbeda, Diego

    To improve fuel cell design and performance, research studies supported by a wide variety of physical and electrochemical methods have to be carried out. Among the different techniques, current distribution measurement owns the desired feature that can be performed during operation, revealing information about internal phenomena when the fuel cell is working. Moreover, short durability is one of the main problems that is hindering fuel cell wide implementation and it is known to be related to current density heterogeneities over the electrode surface. A good flow channel geometry design can favor a uniform current density profile, hence hypothetically extending fuel cell life. With this, it was thought that a study on the influence of flow channel geometry on the performance of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using current distribution measurement should be a very solid work to optimize flow field design. Results demonstrate that the 4 step serpentine and pin-type geometries distribute the reactants more effectively, obtaining a relatively flat current density map at higher current densities than parallel or interdigitated ones and yielding maximum powers up to 25% higher when using oxygen as comburent. If air is the oxidant chosen, interdigitated flow channels perform almost as well as serpentine or pin-type due to that the flow conditions are very important for this geometry.

  5. Study of inhomogeneities in turbid media: experimental and numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, N. A.; di Rocco, Héctor O.; Iriarte, Daniela I.; Pomarico, Juan A.; Ranea-Sandoval, Héctor F.; Pardini, Pamela; Waks-Serra, M. Victoria

    2011-08-01

    Near Infrared diffuse transmission of light through tissue is a tool for noninvasive imaging for diagnostic purposes. Most of the research has been focused over breast cancer imaging; however, major efforts have been done in cerebral tomography and topography imaging, as well as small animal organs imaging systems. In this work, we investigate the transmitted light profiles when scattering and absorbing cylindrical inhomogeneities are submerged at different depths inside slabs of turbid media. We analyze the transilluminance profiles when the phantom is scanned using both, CW and time resolved detection. The study of the spatial profiles obtained with CW light, shows an apparently contradictory effect when the absorption coefficient of the inclusion is higher than that of the bulk. In this case, the intensity profiles displays a peak of higher intensity where the inclusion is located, as it would be expected for a less absorbing inclusion. The experiments were compared and analyzed with a theoretical model for cylindrical inclusions and Monte Carlo simulations implemented in a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU).

  6. NEOWISE Studies of Asteroids with Sloan Photometry: Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Grav, T; Bauer, J; Tholen, D J; McMillan, R S; Wright, E; Spahr, T; Cutri, R M; Walker, R; Mo, W; Watkins, J; Hand, E; Maleszewski, C

    2011-01-01

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S-complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically-based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 $\\mu$m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxon...

  7. Peroneal tendons well vascularized: results from a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Pim A D; Madirolas, F Xavier; Carrera, Ana; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Reina, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Peroneal tendon tears are relatively common injuries that seem to have a poor healing tendency. The discussion goes that peroneal tendons have avascular zones, contributing to the poor healing of those tears. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence on the vascularization pattern of the peroneal tendons. Ten adult fresh-frozen cadavers were obtained from a university-affiliated body donation programme. The femoral artery was injected with natural coloured latex at the level of the knee. Macroscopic and microscopic dissections were performed to visualize the vascularization towards the peroneal tendons. To expose intratendinous vascularity, the tendons were cleared using a modified Spälteholz technique. In all specimens, blood was mainly supplied by the peroneal artery through a posterolateral vincula connecting both tendons. Branches were bifurcated every 3.9 ± 1.8 cm, starting 24 ± 5.3 cm proximal to the tip of the fibula. Eight out of 10 (80%) specimens had poor vascularized zones in the peroneus longus tendon. No avascular zones were found in the peroneus brevis tendon. The peroneal tendons are well vascularized by the peroneal artery, via vessels running through a common vincula for both tendons. In the peroneus brevis, no avascular zones were found. To keep the tendons well vascularized and therefore improve tendon healing, surgeons should be careful leaving the vincula intact during surgical procedures.

  8. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying the inverse solver performance in electrical impedance tomography (EIT. A MATLAB-based boundary data simulator (BDS is developed to generate accurate boundary data using neighbouring current pattern for assessing the EIT inverse solvers. Domain diameter, inhomogeneity number, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size, and position, background conductivity, and inhomogeneity conductivity are all set as BDS input variables. Different sets of boundary data are generated by changing the input variables of the BDS, and resistivity images are reconstructed using electrical impedance tomography and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS. Results show that the BDS generates accurate boundary data for different types of single or multiple objects which are efficient enough to reconstruct the resistivity images for assessing the inverse solver. It is noticed that for the BDS with 2048 elements, the boundary data for all inhomogeneities with a diameter larger than 13.3% of that of the phantom are accurate enough to reconstruct the resistivity images in EIDORS-2D. By comparing the reconstructed image with an original geometry made in BDS, it would be easier to study the inverse solver performance and the origin of the boundary data error can be identified.

  9. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Nagaraju, J

    2013-01-01

    Phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying the inverse solver performance in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). A MATLAB-based boundary data simulator (BDS) is developed to generate accurate boundary data using neighbouring current pattern for assessing the EIT inverse solvers. Domain diameter, inhomogeneity number, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size, and position), background conductivity, and inhomogeneity conductivity are all set as BDS input variables. Different sets of boundary data are generated by changing the input variables of the BDS, and resistivity images are reconstructed using electrical impedance tomography and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). Results show that the BDS generates accurate boundary data for different types of single or multiple objects which are efficient enough to reconstruct the resistivity images for assessing the inverse solver. It is noticed that for the BDS with 2048 elements, the boundary data for all inhomogeneities with a diameter larger than 13.3% of that of the phantom are accurate enough to reconstruct the resistivity images in EIDORS-2D. By comparing the reconstructed image with an original geometry made in BDS, it would be easier to study the inverse solver performance and the origin of the boundary data error can be identified.

  10. Alternating current cloud point extraction on a microchip: a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki; Takemura, Azusa; Sato, Kae

    2012-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of alternating current cloud point extraction (ACPE) on a microchip. ACPE is an extraction technique for preconcentration of membrane-associated biomolecules. To characterize and optimize ACPE, we carried out ACPE experiments under various experimental conditions including amplitude and frequency of applied voltages, flow velocity, and concentration of surfactant, analyte, and salt. We found that ACPE has an amplitude threshold (15 V(p-p)), above which the extraction was more efficient. The dependence of the extraction on frequency (>5 MHz) was insignificant. Efficient extraction was achieved when the velocity of the test solution was 0.10∼0.67 mm s⁻¹ and the concentration of surfactant was 0.10∼1.0%. In contrast, the extraction was independent of the concentration of analytes (0.20∼20 μmol dm⁻³). The technique was applicable to solutions with a salt concentration of 0.050∼0.15 mol dm⁻³ under temperature control of the devices. Solution temperature in ACPE was also studied. These results provide guidelines for use of the ACPE technique in microfluidic chemical and biochemical analyses.

  11. Sample injection strategy to increase throughput in counter-current chromatography: Case study of Honokiol purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Aihua; Hewitson, Peter; Ye, Haoyu; Zu, Liansuo; Garrard, Ian; Sutherland, Ian; Chen, Lijuan; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2016-12-09

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) has been widely used as a preparative separation method to purify natural products from plant extracts and fermentation broths. Traditionally, throughput optimization in CCC has focused on sample concentration and sample volume. In this paper sample injection was considered as consisting of three variables: injection flow rate, post-injection flow rate and sample solvent. The effects of these parameters were studied using a honokiol purification from a Magnolia officinalis bark extract as a case study aiming to achieve the highest throughput/yield ratio for greater than 99% purity of this potential anti-cancer drug obtained for submission to the Chinese FDA. An injection method was established that increased the throughput of honokiol by 46.5% (from 3.05g/h to 4.47g/h), and decreased the solvent consumption of mobile phase and stationary phase per gram of honokiol by 40.0% (from 0.68L/g to 0.41L/g) and 48.4% (from 0.40L/g to 0.21L/g) respectively. These results show the importance of understanding the whole injection process when optimizing a given CCC separation.

  12. What are the current barriers to effective cancer care coordination? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National cancer policies identify the improvement of care coordination as a priority to improve the delivery of health services for people with cancer. Identification of the current barriers to effective cancer care coordination is needed to drive service improvement. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken in which semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with those best placed to identify issues; patients who had been treated for a range of cancers and their carers as well as health professionals involved in providing cancer care. Data collection continued until saturation of concepts was reached. A grounded theory influenced approach was used to explore the participants' experiences and views of cancer care coordination. Results Overall, 20 patients, four carers and 29 health professionals participated. Barriers to cancer care coordination related to six aspects of care namely, recognising health professional roles and responsibilities, implementing comprehensive multidisciplinary team meetings, transitioning of care: falling through the cracks, inadequate communication between specialist and primary care, inequitable access to health services and managing scarce resources. Conclusions This study has identified a number of barriers to coordination of cancer care. Development and evaluation of interventions based on these findings is now required.

  13. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  14. Study of magnetic fields and current in the Z pinch at stagnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Anderson, A. A.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Nalajala, V.; Dmitriev, O. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Papp, D. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Nkft., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    The structure of magnetic fields in wire-array Z pinches at stagnation was studied using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The electron plasma density and the Faraday rotation angle in plasma were calculated from images of the three-channel polarimeter. The magnetic field was reconstructed with Abel transform, and the current was estimated using a simple model. Several shots with wire-array Z pinches at 0.5–1.5 MA were analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field measured in plasma of the stagnated pinch was in the range of 1–2 MG. The magnetic field and current profile in plasma near the neck on the pinch were reconstructed, and the size of the current-carrying plasma was estimated. It was found that current flowed in the large-size trailing plasma near the dense neck. Measurements of the magnetic field near the bulge on the pinch also showed current in trailing plasma. A distribution of current in the large-size trailing plasma can prevent the formation of multi-MG fields in the Z pinch.

  15. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  16. Current Issues in the Teaching of English: Report on a Questionnaire Study; English Curricula in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The first two papers in this volume discusses the results of questionnaires intended for primary and secondary teachers to elicit information on current issues in the teaching of English in Australia. It was learned that secondary teachers reached consensus only on the very broadest levels. They all agreed that literature, communication, and…

  17. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  18. Current trends of carcinoma tongue at a Medical College in Central India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Oral cancer is the most common cancer in India and tongue is one of the most commonly affected site. Aims and Objectives : The current study assesses the clinico-epidemiological trends of carcinoma tongue, its survival rates in different stages and relationship between different variables in central India. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study of 121 carcinoma tongue patients admitted between the period of 2½ years in a hospital of central India. The data collected were age and sex distribution, location and site of the tumor, tumor stage, histopathological type and grade, nodal status, modality of treatment, recurrences and survival. The disease free survival (DFS was analyzed against stage, nodal status and recurrences using log rank test. Results : In this study, the incidence of cancer was more in males (male: female = 6.1:1 particularly in their fifth decade (mean 52.7 years and the most common location was anterior 2/3 rd of the tongue mainly on right lateral side. Most of the patients presenting to out-patient department were having neck nodes positive status. The clinical stage at presentation was mainly advanced stages with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The most common treatment offered was surgery with radiotherapy (RT, followed by chemotherapy plus RT. The mean DFS time was of 27.8 ± 1.68 months, and it was directly related to tumor stage (P < 0.0001 in comparison to nodes positivity and recurrences. Conclusion : The study signifies better prognosis of carcinoma tongue in early stages and warrants more awareness campaigns and health education in the health facilities as well as in community for early diagnosis of the disease with proper staging and subsequently multimodal treatment for increasing survival rates.

  19. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  20. An observational study of a shallow gravity current triggered by katabatic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adachi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations from a wind profiler and a meteorological tower are utilized to study the evolution of a gravity current that passed over the Meteorological Research Institute's (MRI field site in Tsukuba, Japan. The gravity current was created by katabatic flow originating on the mountainous slopes west of the field site. The passage of the shallow current was marked by a pronounced pressure disturbance and was accompanied by vertical circulations seen in the tower and profiler data. Direct vertical-beam measurements are difficult, especially at low heights during high-gradient events like density currents. In this study vertical velocities from the profiler are derived from the four oblique beams by use of the Minimizing the Variance of the Differences (MVD method. The vertical velocities derived from the MVD method agree well with in situ vertical velocities measured by a sonic anemometer on the tower.

    The gravity current is analyzed with surface observations, the wind profiler/RASS and tower-mounted instruments. Observations from the profiler/RASS and the tower-mounted instruments illustrate the structure of the gravity current in both wind and temperature fields. The profiler data reveal that there were three regions of waves in the vertical velocity field: lee-type waves, a solitary wave and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. The lee-type waves in the head region of the gravity current seem to have been generated by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to prefrontal flow. The solitary wave was formed from the elevated head of the gravity current that separated from the feeder flow. Profiler vertical-motion observations resolve this wave and enable us to classify it as a Benjamin-Davis-Ono (BDO type solitary wave. The ducting mechanism that enabled the solitary wave to propagate is also revealed from the wind profiler/RASS measurements. The combination of high-resolution instruments at the MRI site allow us to

  1. Very low dose fetal exposure to Chernobyl contamination resulted in increases in infant leukemia in Europe and raises questions about current radiation risk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Christopher C

    2009-12-01

    Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0-1 y) was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed); p = 0.0025) in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures.

  2. Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Busby

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato [7,8] and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed; p = 0.0025 in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures.

  3. Experimental study on bed-load sediment transport under irregular wave and current combined flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using an irregularly oscillating tray and flume, a series of experiments are completed to evaluate bed-load sediment transport rate under irregular wave- current coexistent fild. Testing conditions include three interaction angles 0°, 45°, 90° and two kinds of median sizes (0.38 and 1.10 mm).The results of transport rate show that the net sediment transport rate can be expressed approximately as the function of the maximum bottom shear stress of waves, mean shear stress of current and the grain size.

  4. A study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety is concerned with in this paper. The author adopted Horwitz's Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) to measure the level of foreign language anxiety of 325 participants and then the conclusions are drawn.

  5. A historical study to understand students’ current difficulties about RMS values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantine-Langlois, Françoise; Munier, Valérie

    2016-07-01

    Several studies show that students experience more and more difficulties managing the measurements of electrical values in alternating current and that they have trouble making links between theory and practice. They find it difficult to give meaning to root mean square (RMS; or effective) values, which are not understood as average values and are confused with instantaneous values. This shows that students do not clearly differentiate variable and direct currents. In this paper we try, with a historical study and a study of teaching the concept of RMS values, to understand students’ difficulties with this concept. In the first part we present an epistemological analysis of the concept of RMS values, showing that it is multifaceted and can be approached from different points of view. In the second part we analyse the evolution of French secondary school curricula and textbooks from the explicit introduction of variable currents to today, questioning the links between the evolution of the curricula and the evolution of the place of science and technology in our societies. We point out that the evolution of the curricula is linked to the social context and to the connections between science, technology and society, and also to the relationship with mathematics curricula. We show that alternating current is introduced earlier in the curriculum but has gradually lost all phenomenological description. This study allows us to better understand students’ difficulties and to discuss some implications for teaching.

  6. Understandings of Current Environmental Issues: Turkish Case Study in Six Teacher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa; Irez, Serhat; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile future science teachers' understandings of current environmental issues in the context of an education reform in Turkey. Knowledge base and understandings of elementary and secondary prospective science teachers about biodiversity, carbon cycle, global warming and ozone layer depletion were targeted in the…

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were ...

  8. Relevance of animal studies in regulatory toxicology : current approaches and future opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    With rapidly increasing knowledge of toxicological processes, the scientific value and relevance of toxicity studies for risk assessment must be re-evaluated. In this paper, it is proposed that the rigid risk evaluation currently required should be replaced by a more flexible, case-by-case approach,

  9. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  10. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  11. Field Study on the Effects of Waves and Currents on a Distributed Explosive Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    taken during each deployment. Table 1 Summary of Video Camera Resources Used During Study Camra ID [LoGato Formal Availabilty BWTEL Top of tower Black... usage . First, the offshore-flowing current would help extend the array seaward from the rocket anchors while reducing the longshore deformation

  12. Some Gaps in the Current Studies of Reading in Second/Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The ability to read written material is very important in the civilized world. In a society characterized by globalization and technological change, where knowledge is becoming increasingly important, reading ability is a key skill for active participation. The intent of the current study is to set out the nature of reading alongside express…

  13. Disease Severity in Never Smokers, Ex-Smokers, and Current Smokers With Axial Spondyloarthritis: Results From the Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth T; Ratz, Tiara; Dean, Linda E; Macfarlane, Gary J; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2017-09-01

    To examine the relationship between smoking, smoking cessation, and disease characteristics and quality of life (QoL) in spondyloarthritis. The Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis collects data from clinically diagnosed patients with spondyloarthritis. Clinical data, including Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) scores, were obtained from medical records. Mailed questionnaires contained information on smoking status and QoL (Ankylosing Spondylitis QoL questionnaire [ASQoL]). Linear and logistic regression were used to quantify the effect of smoking, and smoking cessation, on various disease-specific and QoL outcomes, with adjustments for age, sex, deprivation, education level, and alcohol use. Results are presented as regression coefficients (β) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Data were obtained from 946 participants (73.5% male, mean age 52 years). Current smoking was reported by 22%, and 38% were ex-smokers. Ever smokers had poorer BASDAI (β = 0.5 [95% CI 0.2, 0.9]) and BASFI scores (β = 0.8 [95% CI 0.4, 1.2]), and reported worse QoL (ASQoL β = 1.5 [95% CI 0.7, 2.3]). Compared to current smokers, ex-smokers reported less disease activity (BASDAI β = -0.5 [95% CI -1.0, -0.04]) and significantly better QoL (ASQoL β = -1.2 [95% CI -2.3, -0.2]). They also were more likely to have a history of uveitis (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.5, 3.8]). Smokers with spondyloarthritis experience worse disease than those who are never smokers. However, this study provides new evidence that, among smokers, smoking cessation is associated with lower disease activity and better physical function and QoL. Clinicians should specifically promote smoking cessation as an adjunct to usual therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2 Flora Colledge,2 Nadja Beeler,2 Uwe Pühse,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Thorsten Mikoteit,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Markus Gerber2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods: All psychiatric hospitals (N=55 in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results: Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%, sports therapy (97%, activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%, physiotherapy (85%, body therapies (59%, far-east techniques (57%, and hippotherapy (22%. Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion: All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not

  15. Initial results on the correlation between the magnetic and electric fields observed from the DE-2 satellite in the field-aligned current regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Farthing, W. H.; Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Initial results of the electric and magnetic field observations from the DE-2 satellite show a remarkably good correlation between the north-south component of the electric field and the east-west component of the magnetic field in many passes of the field-aligned current regions. For a dayside cusp pass on August 15, 1981 the coefficient of correlation between these components was 0.996. A preliminary inspection of the available data from the first 6 months of the DE operation indicates that the similarity between the electric and magnetic field signatures of the field-aligned currents is a commonly observed feature at all local times. This high correlation is interpreted to be an indication that the closure of the field-aligned current is essentially meridional. When the correlation between these components is not good, the closure current is likely to be flowing along the auroral belt. When the correlation between the electric and magnetic fields is high, it is possible to estimate the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity from the observed field components.

  16. Study on model current predictive control method of PV grid- connected inverters systems with voltage sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, N.; Yang, F.; Shang, S. Y.; Tao, T.; Liu, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    According to the limitations of the LVRT technology of traditional photovoltaic inverter existed, this paper proposes a low voltage ride through (LVRT) control method based on model current predictive control (MCPC). This method can effectively improve the photovoltaic inverter output characteristics and response speed. The MCPC method of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter designed, the sum of the absolute value of the predictive current and the given current error is adopted as the cost function with the model predictive control method. According to the MCPC, the optimal space voltage vector is selected. Photovoltaic inverter has achieved automatically switches of priority active or reactive power control of two control modes according to the different operating states, which effectively improve the inverter capability of LVRT. The simulation and experimental results proves that the proposed method is correct and effective.

  17. A New Regime for Studying the High Bootstrap Current Fraction Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Isayama; Y. Kamada; K. Ushigusa; T. Fujita; T. Suzuki; X. Gao

    2001-01-01

    A new experimental regime has recently been studied for achieving the high fraction of the bootstrap current in the JT-60U hydrogen discharges. The high poloidal beta(βp ~ 3.61) plasma was obtained by high-power neutral beam injection heating at a very high edge safety factor (Ip = 0.3 MA, Bt = 3.65 T, qeff = 25 - 35) region, and the bootstrap current fraction (fBS) was correspondingly about 40% using the ACCOME code calculation. It was observed that there were no magnetohydrodynamic instabilities to retard the increase of the βp and fBS parameters in the new regime.

  18. Design and Experimental Study of a Current Transformer with a Stacked PCB Based on B-Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Si, Diancheng; Tian, Tian; Ren, Ran

    2017-04-10

    An electronic current transformer with a B-dot sensor is proposed in this study. The B-dot sensor can realize the current measurement of the transmission line in a non-contact way in accordance with the principle of magnetic field coupling. The multiple electrodes series-opposing structure is applied together with differential input structures and active integrating circuits, which can allow the sensor to operate in differential mode. Maxwell software is adopted to model and simulate the sensor. Optimization of the sensor structural parameters is conducted through finite-element simulation. A test platform is built to conduct the steady-state characteristic, on-off operation, and linearity tests for the designed current transformer under the power-frequency current. As shown by the test results, in contrast with traditional electromagnetic CT, the designed current transformer can achieve high accuracy and good phase-frequency; its linearity is also very good at different distances from the wire. The proposed current transformer provides a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system, thereby satisfying the development demands of the smart power grid.

  19. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and transcranial pulsed current stimulation: a computer based high-resolution modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhishek; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Bikson, Marom; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-01-15

    The field of non-invasive brain stimulation has developed significantly over the last two decades. Though two techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation--transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)--are becoming established tools for research in neuroscience and for some clinical applications, related techniques that also show some promising clinical results have not been developed at the same pace. One of these related techniques is cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), a class of transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS). In order to understand further the mechanisms of CES, we aimed to model CES using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived finite element head model including cortical and also subcortical structures. Cortical electric field (current density) peak intensities and distributions were analyzed. We evaluated different electrode configurations of CES including in-ear and over-ear montages. Our results confirm that significant amounts of current pass the skull and reach cortical and subcortical structures. In addition, depending on the montage, induced currents at subcortical areas, such as midbrain, pons, thalamus and hypothalamus are of similar magnitude than that of cortical areas. Incremental variations of electrode position on the head surface also influence which cortical regions are modulated. The high-resolution modeling predictions suggest that details of electrode montage influence current flow through superficial and deep structures. Finally we present laptop based methods for tPCS dose design using dominant frequency and spherical models. These modeling predictions and tools are the first step to advance rational and optimized use of tPCS and CES.

  20. Study of surface leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Kai; Cao, MengYi; Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ma, XiaoHua, E-mail: xhma@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-04-14

    Temperature-dependent surface current measurements were performed to analyze the mechanism of surface conductance of AlGaN/GaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors by utilizing process-optimized double gate structures. Different temperatures and electric field dependence have been found in surface current measurements. At low electric field, the mechanism of surface conductance is considered to be two-dimensional variable range hopping. At elevated electric field, the Frenkel–Poole trap assisted emission governs the main surface electrons transportation. The extracted energy barrier height of electrons emitting from trapped state near Fermi energy level into a threading dislocations-related continuum state is 0.38 eV. SiN passivation reduces the surface leakage current by two order of magnitude and nearly 4 orders of magnitude at low and high electric fields, respectively. SiN also suppresses the Frenkel–Poole conductance at high temperature by improving the surface states of AlGaN/GaN. A surface treatment process has been introduced to further suppress the surface leakage current at high temperature and high field, which results in a decrease in surface current of almost 3 orders of magnitude at 476 K.

  1. THE STUDY OF THE YELLOW SEA WARM CURRENT AND ITS SEASONAL VARIABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-ling; WU De-xing; LIN Xiao-pei; MA Chao

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) penetrates northward along the Yellow Sea Trough, and brings warm and saline water towards the Bohai Sea. The YSWC becomes much less intrusive in summer and is limited mostly in the southern trough, contrasting with a deep winter penetration well into the trough. The seasonal variability of the YSWC has prompted a debate regarding which controls the YSWC and its seasonal variability. In this article, the annual mean and seasonal variability of the YSWC was examined by using a 3-D ocean model together with several experiments. The results show that in the annual mean the YSWC is a compensating current firstly for the southward Korea Coastal Current (KCC), which is mainly caused by the Kuroshio Current (KC). The local wind-stress forcing plays an important but secondary role. However, the local monsoonal forcing plays a prominent role in modulating the seasonal variability. A deep northwestward intrusion of the YSWC in winter, for instance, is mainly due to a robustly developed China Coastal Current (CCC) which draws water along the Yellow Sea trough to feed a southward flow all the way from the Bohai Sea to the Taiwan Strait.

  2. Current State of Clinical Studies on Diagnosis and Treatment of Sudden Deafness in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yaping; YANG Shiming; GUO Wei; YANG Weiyan; GU Rui

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current status of clinical studies on diagnosis and treatment of sudden deafness (SD) in China by retrospective reviewing articles on SD published in Chinese journals in the past 5 years.Special attention is given to whether the diagnosis and treatment standards established in 1996 by the otolaryngology branch of Chinese Medical Association (the"1996 standard") were followed. Methods The terms of "Sudden deafness" and "treatment" were used as the keywords in searching articles published between 2000 and 2004 in the Chinese biomedicine literature database and Chinese journal network. Principles of evidence-based medicine were applied in reviewing the articles. Results Two hundreds and thirty- four articles were identified, including 176 between 2000 and 2002 and 58 between 2003 and 2004. Among the 176 articles published between 2000 and 2002,effects of medications were studies in 126 articles, of which only 26 (20.6%) followed the"1996 standards".Eighty-nine (70.6%) were reported based on controlled clinical trials (CCT) and 36 (28.5%) met the criteria of randomized controlled trails (RCT). Of the 58 articles published between 2003 and 2004, drug effects were evaluated in 25 articles, which were all based on the "1996 standards". However, there lacked placebo control, follow-up data or statistical analysis in these papers. Only 6 articles reported side-effects from pharmacological treatment. Conclusions While a significant number of articles on SD were published in the past 5 years, the "1996 standards" were followed only in a small number of them. The standards may not be appropriate in guiding research and need to be modified for improved guidance to SD management. Multi-center, RCTs should be a crucial part in studies on SD.

  3. [The current structure of rheumatology in German universities. The Rhesus and RISA-II studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyszer, G; Burmester, G-R

    2008-11-01

    The teaching of rheumatology requires competent rheumatological structures in German university hospitals. In 2002, the nationwide 'RISA' survey on the extent and quality of rheumatological training in Germany brought a variety of deficits to light. In the same year, a new law regulating the licensing process to practise medicine came into force. Since this law aimed at a more practise-based training of medical students, hopes were high that the conditions for the rheumatological education of students would improve over time. Therefore, our survey was repeated four years later, supplemented by a questionnaire covering scientific activities in rheumatology at university hospitals. In addition, another survey, known as the Rhesus study, was started in 2007 to analyse the size and capacity of rheumatological departments and units at German medical faculties. The results show that rheumatology represents one of the smallest subjects of internal medicine in Germany. Several German university hospitals do not include a rheumatological department at all. Since 2002, no significant progress has been made with regard to the extent of training for medical students in rheumatology, and the new licensing law has not yet shown beneficial effects in this respect. The current data represent only a snap-shot. The development of rheumatology requires cautious observation to prevent this important area of medicine from being sacrificed to economic interests or structural changes.

  4. Current Trends in the Studies of Allelochemicals for Their Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen V.Viter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The allelochemicals have been largely used in agriculture, forestry, landscape design and ornamental plant growing for many decades. However, there is a lack of the comprehensive studies, where existing publications are analyzed and synthesized with regards to the theoretic aspects for such usage. The objective of this paper was to systemize the advances in the research on allelochemicals’ application in practice. Numerous novel methodological propositions have risen recently. We classified them into the physical, chemical, biological, biotechnological and cropgrowing approaches. The allelochemicals consist of the wide diversity of the substances according to their chemical nature. Among these substances we outlined, firstly, the unidentified plant exudates and the products of green manuring, secondly, the chemically characterized or purified substances, which include alcohols, organic acids, aliphatic compounds, aromatic, alicyclic and nitrogen-contain organic compounds. Several groups of the biotic sources of allelochemicals were described: dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, particularly under their colonization by non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum, marine flora and fungi, which exhibit the herbicidal activity. Different targets of the allelochemical application were listed in the paper and they were categorized into several groups: higher flora, animals, unicellular and multi-cellular fungi. We concluded that there is lack of the modern multifaceted knowledge bases for the information about the allelochemical application. Those knowledge bases must be useful in order to choose the appropriate biological method for solving each particular problem of plant cultivation. To that end we systemized the results of current investigation about the usage of allelochemicals in practice.

  5. Demagnetization Treatment of Remanent Composite Microspheres Studied by Alternating Current Susceptibility Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben H. Erné

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample.

  6. A Study on the Thermal Effect of the Current-Carrying Capacity of Embedded Underground Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Dewen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to study embedded underground cable and the effect of temperature that surrounds it. Determining the carrying capacity of the cable is important to predict the temperature changesin the embedded pipe. Simulating the temperature field and the laying environment according to the IEC standard enables the calculation of the carrying capacity of the buried region. According to the theoryof heat transfer, the embedded pipe tube model temperature field should be coupled with a numerical model. The domain and boundary conditions of the temperature field should also be determined using the 8.7/15kV YJV 400 cable. In conducting numerical calculation and analysis using the temperature field model, the two-dimensional temperature distribution of the emission control area should be determined. The experimental results show that the simulation isconsistent with the IEC standard. Furthermore, in identifying the cable ampacity, the different seasons and different cable rows should be taken into account using the finite element method. Finally, theappropriate choice of root and circuit numbers of the cable will improve the cable’s the carrying capacity.

  7. Experimental Study on Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Submarine Pipeline near Seabed Boundary in Ocean Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unlike most previous studies on vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder far from a boundary, this paper focuses on the influences of close proximity of a submarine pipeline to a rigid seabed boundary upon the dynamic responses of the pipeline in ocean currents. The effects of gap-to-diameter ratio and those of the stability parameter on the amplitude and frequency responses of a pipeline are investigated experimentally with a novel hydro-elastic facility. A comparison is made between the present experimental results of the amplitude and frequency responses for the pipes with seabed boundary effects and those for wall-free cylinders given by Govardhan and Williamson (2000) and Anand (1985). The comparison shows that the close proximity of a pipeline to seabed has much influence on the vortex-induced vibrations of the pipeline. Both the width of the lock-in ranges in terms of Vr and the dimensionless amplitude ratio Amax/D become larger with the decrease of the gap-to-diameter ratio e/D. Moreover, the vibration of the pipeline becomes easier to occur and its amplitude response becomes more intensive with the decrease of the stability parameter, while the pipeline frequency responses are affected slightly by the stability parameter.

  8. Application of Caco-2 Cell Line in Herb-Drug Interaction Studies: Current Approaches and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, C.; Fasinu, P.S.; Rosenkranz, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Caco-2 model is employed in pre-clinical investigations to predict the likely gastrointestinal permeability of drugs because it expresses cytochrome P450 enzymes, transporters, microvilli and enterocytes of identical characteristics to the human small intestine. The FDA recommends this model as integral component of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Most dedicated laboratories use the Caco-2 cell line to screen new chemical entities through prediction of its solubility, bioavailability and the possibility of drug-drug or herb-drug interactions in the gut lumen. However, challenges in the inherent characteristics of Caco-2 cell and inter-laboratory protocol variations have resulted to generation of irreproducible data. These limitations affect the extrapolation of data from pre-clinical research to clinical studies involving drug-drug and herb-drug interactions. This review addresses some of these caveats and enumerates the plausible current and future approaches to reduce the anomalies associated with Caco-2 cell line investigations focusing on its application in herb-drug interactions. PMID:24735758

  9. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H

    2013-09-04

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample.

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation and cognitive training in the rehabilitation of Alzheimer disease: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Bergamaschi, Susanna; Pastore, Massimiliano; Villani, Daniele; Sartori, Giuseppe; Mondini, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we tested the cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a case of probable Alzheimer disease (AD). The patient (male, 60 years, mild AD) underwent two cycles of treatments, separated by 2 months. In the first cycle, active stimulation (10 sessions, 2 mA for 20 min; anode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was followed by computerised tasks (CTs) specifically chosen to engage the most impaired cognitive processes in the patient (tDCS+CT condition). In the second cycle, which was structured as the first, CTs were administered after placebo stimulation (sham+CT condition). Effects on cognitive performance were evaluated not only by the CTs, but also by neuropsychological tests assessing global cognitive functioning. Statistical analyses revealed that whereas the tDCS+CT condition had few effects on the CTs, it induced a stability of the patient's global cognitive functioning lasting approximately 3 months, which was not achieved when the patient underwent sham+CT condition. Therefore, the synergetic use of tDCS and CTs appeared to slow down the cognitive decline of our patient. This preliminary result, although in need of further confirmation, suggests the potentiality of tDCS as an adjuvant tool for cognitive rehabilitation in AD.

  11. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke : a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L.; de Heyning, van, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Method: Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were register...

  13. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  14. Quantitative study of electrophoretic and electroosmotic enhancement during alternating current iontophoresis across synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guang; Li, S Kevin; Peck, Kendall D; Zhu, Honggang; Higuchi, William I

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary safety and tolerability limitations of direct current iontophoresis is the potential for electrochemical burns associated with the necessary current densities and/or application times required for effective treatment. Alternating current (AC) transdermal iontophoresis has the potential to eliminate electrochemical burns that are frequently observed during direct current transdermal iontophoresis. Although it has been demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of skin can be increased by applying low-to-moderate AC voltages, transdermal transport phenomena and enhancement under AC conditions have not been systematically studied and are not well understood. The aim of the present work was to study the fundamental transport mechanisms of square-wave AC iontophoresis using a synthetic membrane system. The model synthetic membrane used was a composite Nuclepore membrane. AC frequencies ranging from 20 to 1000 Hz and AC fields ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 V/membrane were investigated. A charged permeant, tetraethyl ammonium, and a neutral permeant, arabinose, were used. The transport studies showed that flux was enhanced by increasing the AC voltage and decreasing AC frequency. Two theoretical transport models were developed: one is a homogeneous membrane model; the other is a heterogeneous membrane model. Experimental transport data were compared with computer simulations based on these models. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was observed when the data were compared with the simulations from the heterogeneous membrane model.

  15. Spintronics with metals: Current perpendicular-to-the-plane magneto-transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    In this thesis, we present studies to produce new information about three topics: current perpendicular to the plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR), spin transfer torque (STT), and antiferromagnetic spintronics. Large values of CPP-MR interface parameters---specific interface resistance (Area times resistance), 2AR*, and scattering asymmetry, gamma---are desirable for the use of CPP-MR in devices. Stimulated by a nanopillar study by the Cornell Group, we first discovered that Py/Al had an unusually large 2AR*, but a small gamma. In the hope of finding metal pairs with large values of both the interface parameters, the Py/Al studies led us to study the following interfaces: (a) F/Al with F: Py (= Ni84Fe16). Co, Fe, Co91Fe9, and (b) F/N: Py/Pd, Fe/V, Fe/Nb and Co/Pt. None of the metal pairs looks better for CPP-MR devices. The Cornell group also found that bracketing Al with thin Cu in Py/Al/Py nanopillars, gave an MR similar to Py/Al/Py rather than to Py/Cu/Py. To try to understand this result, we studied the effect of Cu/Al/Cu spacers on ADeltaR = AR(AP) - AR(P) of Py exchange biased spin valves (EBSVs). Here AR(AP) and AR(P) are the specific resistances in the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) configurations of the F layers. Intriguingly, fixing the Al thickness tAl = 10 nm and varying tCu has no effect on ADeltaR, but fixing tCu = 10 nm and varying t Al significantly affected ADeltaR. These unusual behaviors are probably due to strong Al and Cu intermixing, with probable formation of some fraction of ordered alloys. Recent calculations predicted that 2AR of Al/Ag interfaces would vary substantially with orientation and with alloying. The latter is a special potential problem, because Al and Ag interdiffuse at room temperature. To compare with the calculations, we determined 2AR of sputtered Al/Ag interfaces with (111) orientation. Our estimate agrees with calculations that assume 4 monolayers of interfacial disorder, consistent with modest intermixing. To aid in

  16. Meta-analysis approach to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among current, former and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritul Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative risk assessment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD among current, former and non-smokers categories remains controversial and not studied in detail. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all the relevant published studies on this topic and to update the association between smoking and prevalence of COPD in current, former and non-smokers. Identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion of articles for the study were conducted as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines. Quality assessment of included studies was undertaken using a scoring sheet. Meta-analysis after the final synthesis of the selected studies was performed using the STATA and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA software. Estimates from forty two independent studies reporting 547,391 individuals were identified. Twenty two studies were conducted in Europe, nine in America and ten in Asia and one from New Zealand. The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of COPD was significantly higher in current smokers compared with former and non-smokers. However, owing to large heterogeneity among the estimates obtained from the studies, stratification was done with respect to continent, diagnostic criteria of COPD and study design which also showed similar results. The stratified analysis also revealed similar trend of results with prevalence of COPD being higher in current smokers as compared to former and non-smokers. The present meta-analysis highlights the positive association between smoking and COPD prevalence. There is an urgent need to implement more effective policies towards the restriction of tobacco use, to reduce the burden of COPD.

  17. Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: Results from a national telephone household probability sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Method Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. Results One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Conclusions Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. PMID:23380490

  18. Study of the tunnelling initiated leakage current through the carbon nanotube embedded gate oxide in metal oxide semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Gargi; Sarkar, C K [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Lu, X B; Dai, J Y [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: gargichakraborty0@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: phyhod@yahoo.co.in

    2008-06-25

    The tunnelling currents through the gate dielectric partly embedded with semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure have been investigated. The application of the gate voltage to such an MOS device results in the band bending at the interface of the partly embedded oxide dielectric and the surface of the silicon, initiating tunnelling through the gate oxide responsible for the gate leakage current whenever the thickness of the oxide is scaled. A model for silicon MOS structures, where carbon nanotubes are confined in a narrow layer embedded in the gate dielectric, is proposed to investigate the direct and the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling currents of such systems. The idea of embedding such elements in the gate oxide is to assess the possibility for charge storage for memory device applications. Comparing the FN tunnelling onset voltage between the pure gate oxide and the gate oxide embedded with carbon nanotubes, it is found that the onset voltage decreases with the introduction of the nanotubes. The direct tunnelling current has also been studied at very low gate bias, for the thin oxide MOS structure which plays an important role in scaling down the MOS transistors. The FN tunnelling current has also been studied with varying nanotube diameter.

  19. A Study on the Current Oil and Gas Price Formula and Its Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Won; Lee, Young Koo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest some improvements on current price formulas on oil and gas which have been pivotal roles in the process of Korean economic growth. This study first examines basic frames and transition of oil and gas pricing in Korea and then finds some suggestions on them by scrutinizing their theoretical backgrounds. This study finds several problems on oil and gas pricing formulas. (a) In a model that is now studied to evaluate the current domestic oil price, the costs associated with oil security such as oil stockpile are fully penetrated into oil price without their fair evaluations. There is no evaluation principle on the costs occurred in oil supply security. (b) The Rate Of Equity(ROE), a crucial factor in town-gas pricing which is strictly controlled, is directly connected to the average interest rate on saving accounts of domestic commercial banks. Some arguments may have rise about inclusion a risk factor on ROE in order to compensate the uncertainty of town-gas business. (c) New demand for natural gas which is generated by new technologies or machinery and tools can help reduce the costs occurred from seasonal imbalance between power sector and gas sector. So it is also important to decide how to include the beneficiary of cost reduction in town-gas pricing. In order to evaluate the proper price levels, this study tests energy supply security by adopting methodologies such as Herfindahl Index and Portfolio Variance Risk. They can help develop the method to effectively improve the energy security and include the proper energy security costs into energy prices. This study also provides some suggestions for betterment of current ROE decision rule in town-gas business and for improvement of current town-gas policy that government subsidizes newly developed demand for strengthening price competitiveness in the early stage. (author). 145 refs., 16 figs., 49 tabs.

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Power Spectral Parameters: a tDCS/EEG co-registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Mangia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS delivers low electric currents to the brain through the scalp. Constant electric currents induce shifts in neuronal membrane excitability, resulting in secondary changes in cortical activity. Concomitant electroencephalography (EEG monitoring during tDCS can provide valuable information on the tDCS mechanisms of action. This study examined the effects of anodal tDCS on spontaneous cortical activity in a resting brain to disclose possible modulation of spontaneous oscillatory brain activity. EEG activity was measured in ten healthy subjects during and after a session of anodal stimulation of the postero-parietal cortex to detect the tDCS-induced alterations. Changes in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma power bands were investigated. Three main findings emerged: 1 an increase in theta band activity during the first minutes of stimulation; 2 an increase in alpha and beta power during and after stimulation; 3 a widespread activation in several brain regions.