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  1. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  2. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence among smokers not currently interested in quitting.

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    Jardin, Bianca F; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Rates of quitting smoking remain stagnant, and thus it is becoming increasingly important to identify determinants of successful quitting behavior. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of quit attempts and 7-day point prevalence abstinence in a large nationally based sample. The study population consisted exclusively of smokers with minimal interest in quitting in the immediate future, for whom the need to identify facilitating factors of cessation is highly significant. Participants consisted of 849 smokers participating in a nationwide population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) to promote quit attempts and cessation; all participants were not currently interested in cessation. After adjusting for treatment group, and using a multivariate logistic approach, a combination of motivational and self-efficacy variables consistently predicted quit attempts, regardless of how quit attempts were defined (i.e., any self-defined vs. 24 hr). Additionally, a greater number of previous quit attempts significantly predicted making future quit attempts. In terms of achieving short-term abstinence, regardless of whether analyses were restricted to individuals who made prior quit attempts or not, self-efficacy emerged as the only significant consistent predictor. Unlike previous studies, we did not find strong evidence suggesting unique predictors for making a quit attempt compared with achieving abstinence. Our findings demonstrate that even among smokers not currently interested in quitting, self-efficacy and motivation are key factors in the cessation process. Overall, the findings have important implications, as they highlight factors to target for future treatment.

  3. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

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    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  4. Electrical nerve stimulation to promote micturition in spinal cord injury patients: A review of current attempts.

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    Ren, Jian; Chew, Daniel J; Biers, Suzanne; Thiruchelvam, Nikesh

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we focus on the current attempts of electrical nerve stimulation for micturition in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. A literature search was performed through PubMed using "spinal cord injury," "electrical nerve stimulation AND bladder," "sacral anterior root stimulation/stimulator" and "Brindley stimulator" from January 1975 to January 2014. Twenty studies were selected for this review. Electrical nerve stimulation is a clinical option for promoting micturition in SCI patients. Well-designed, randomized and controlled studies are essential for further investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

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    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  6. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

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    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  7. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  8. Gender differences in suicide attempters in Hungary: retrospective epidemiological study.

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    Fekete, Sandor; Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter

    2005-04-01

    To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. In the framework of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pecs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. A "typical" female suicide attempter could be characterized as follows: retired or economically inactive (OR=2.38), widowed (OR=6.55), divorced (OR=1.64), or with depression in her personal history (OR=1.27). Female attempters were mainly repeaters, using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. Among men, unemployment, living alone, never having been married, and problems with addiction were the main risk factors, while violent methods characterized the typical attempt In the cases of self-poisoning, men were more likely to take meprobamate or carbamazepine. Significant differences were found in the risk factors for suicide attempts between men and women. Since suicide is a multi-causal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should be complex and gender differences should be taken into consideration while building up our helping strategies.

  9. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

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    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  10. The patient suicide attempt – An ethical dilemma case study

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    Lin Jie

    2015-12-01

    Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Suicide Attempts in Mood Disorder Patients

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    Perlis, Roy H.; Huang, Jie; Purcell, Shaun; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, A. John; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hamilton, Steven P.; McMahon, Francis J.; Schulze, Thomas; Potash, James B.; Zandi, Peter P.; Willour, Virginia L.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Noethen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Bass, Nick; McQuillin, Andrew; Hamshere, Marian; Craddock, Nick; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Family and twin studies suggest that liability for suicide attempts is heritable and distinct from mood disorder susceptibility. The authors therefore examined the association between common genomewide variation and lifetime suicide attempts. Method: The authors analyzed data on lifetime

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

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    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  13. Overview of the current attempts toward the medical treatment of cataract

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    Kador, P.F.

    1983-04-01

    A variety of agents are currently available that claim to either prevent, delay, or reverse cataracts associated with aging (senile cataracts), radiation, or diabetes and galactosemia (sugar cataracts). Senile cataract therapy includes formulation containing inorganic salts, nutritional supplements, natural product extracts, sulfhydryl, and sulfonic acid containing compounds and miscellaneous redox and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Agents associated with the treatment of radiation cataracts include antioxidants and free radial scavengers. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been effective in the prevention of sugar cataracts. A summary of these agents and their potential ocular effects are presented.

  14. Psychiatric morbidity in murder and attempted murder crime convicts: a Turkey study.

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    Kugu, N; Akyuz, G; Dogan, O

    2008-03-05

    In the present, the morbidity of psychiatric disorders of homicide/attempted homicide crime convicts imprisoned in Turkey, Sivas maximum security prison was investigated. Seventy imprisoned homicide/attempted homicide crime convicts included in this study. Sociodemographic information form, structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders and structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders applied to the participants. Most commonly diagnosed disorders among those convicts were current Axis-I disorders, depressive disorders (7.1%) and anxiety disorders (5.7%). Among Axis-I disorders, the most diagnosed one was the substance use disorders (45.7%). The most diagnosed Axis-II disorder was found as to be antisocial personality disorder (48.6%). The rate of convicts who were diagnosed as having both Axis-I and Axis-II disorders was 51.4%. The most prevalently accompanying lifetime Axis-I disorders to antisocial personality disorder with respect to Axis-I, and Axis-II comorbidity was substance use disorders. As a result, it was thought that the substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder among the homicide/attempted homicide crime convicts were the most prevalent lifetime psychiatric disorders.

  15. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

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    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  16. Putative Effect of Alcohol on Suicide Attempters: An Evaluative Study in a Tertiary Medical College

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    Subir Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol abuse is a known risk factor for suicide. Alcohol increases aggression and impulsivity, which are strongly related to suicidal behavior. Sociocultural factors influence both alcohol use and suicide rates. Studies, conducted in one population, are not applicable to other and the results cannot be generalized. Aims: The aim was to study the putative role of alcohol in suicide cases in the rural Indian population by analysis of various sociodemographic variables. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study in conducted in a tertiary medical college. Materials and Methods: Two hundred consecutive patients who survived a suicide attempt were evaluated by a psychiatrist. The data were recorded for sociodemographic variables, psychiatric disorders, suicide intent, lethality of the suicide attempt, and history of alcohol intake prior to the suicide attempt. Using alcohol intake prior to the suicide attempt as a determining dimension, various sociodemographic variables were analyzed for their statistical significance and the role of alcohol in suicide cases was assessed. Results: Seventeen percent suicide attempt survivors had a history of alcohol intake prior to the suicide attempt. Fifteen percent had a history of alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use affected the suicide rate in the male population in the late twenties to mid-thirties age group, illiterate and people with high school education, semiskilled workers, shop owners, and student population. Alcohol dependence, bipolar II disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and dysthymic disorder had higher rate of suicide attempt with the use of alcohol prior to the suicide attempt. Alcohol users attempted a more lethal suicide attempt and were found to have problems with primary support group and occupational problem as precipitating stressor for suicide attempt. Conclusions: Alcohol use increases the suicide rate, in the specific rural Indian population.

  17. A longitudinal study of predictors of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

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    Mustanski, Brian; Liu, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    This short-term prospective study examined general and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in an ethnically diverse sample of LGBT youth (N = 237, 47.7 % male). A structured psychiatric interview assessed clinical depression and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as past and prospective suicide attempts over a 1-year follow-up period (91 % retention). Participants completed questionnaires measuring general risk factors for suicide attempts, including hopelessness, impulsiveness, and perceived social support. They also completed measures of LGBT-specific suicide risk factors, including gender nonconformity, age of first same-sex attraction, and LGBT victimization. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between predictors and suicide attempt, and to identify mediators. Of nine variables examined, seven were related to lifetime history of attempted suicide: hopelessness, depression symptoms, conduct disorder symptoms, impulsivity, victimization, age of first same-sex attraction, and low family support. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness mediated the relation between multiple risk and resilience factors and suicide attempts. Suicide attempt history was the strongest predictor of prospective suicide attempts. Participants who previously attempted suicide (31.6 % of the sample) had more than 10 times greater odds of making another attempt in the 1-year follow-up period than were those who had made no previous attempt. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention programs for LGBT youth and suggest the importance of addressing depression and hopelessness as proximal determinants and family support and victimization, which have more distal effects.

  18. The characteristics of serious suicide attempters in Japanese adolescents- comparison study between adolescents and adults

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    Kawashima Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial

  19. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

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    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  20. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

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    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  1. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

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    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  2. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP.

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    Anja Gysin-Maillart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance.Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60 or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60. ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5 and 26.7% (n = 16. ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI 12.4-13.7, p < 0

  3. Attempted crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kalneja, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor paper is "Attempted Crime." Attempted crime is unfinished criminal offense and the person carrying out an attempted crime threat to the interests protected by the Criminal Law. In the Judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offenses, preparation for a crime. The judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offense, preparation for a crime....

  4. Studying survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts as a proxy for completed suicide in prisons.

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    Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena; Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith

    2012-07-10

    Suicides in prisons are common. There is a pressing need to understand more about the causes and prevention of prisoner suicides. A particularly informative approach is through studying survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts. However, the extent to which this approach is a good proxy for completed suicide requires verification. In this article we aimed to assess (1) the extent to which male and female prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts in prison are similar to prisoners who die by suicide; (2) the suicidal intent of those making near-lethal suicide attempts; and (3) the applicability of the Suicide Intent Scale in prisons. Survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts and prisoners who died by suicide were compared on sociodemographic and criminological characteristics. The suicidal intent of prisoners engaging in near-lethal self-harm was assessed using Beck's Suicide Intent Scale. There were no significant differences when the sociodemographic and criminological profiles of prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts and those who died by suicide were compared, except that male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts were somewhat younger. Most prisoners carrying out near-lethal acts had high suicidal intent. However, some questions in the Suicide Intent Scale were inappropriate for assessing intent in prisoners. Prisoners who survive near-lethal self-harm would appear to be a valid proxy for those who die by suicide in prison. The Suicide Intent Scale requires some modifications for use in prisons.

  5. Case-control association study of TGOLN2 in attempted suicide.

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    Mahon, Pamela B; Stütz, Adrian M; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Huo, Yuqing; Goes, Fernando S; Jancic, Dubravka; Judy, Jennifer T; Depaulo, J Raymond; Gershon, Elliot S; McMahon, Francis J; Zandi, Peter P; Potash, James B; Willour, Virginia L

    2010-07-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies provide convincing evidence for a genetic contribution to suicidal behavior. The heritability for suicidal behavior depends in part on the transmission of psychiatric disorders, such as mood disorders and substance use disorders, but is also partly independent of them. Three linkage studies using the attempted suicide phenotype in pedigrees with bipolar disorder, major depression, or alcoholism have provided consistent evidence that 2p11-12 harbors a susceptibility gene for attempted suicide. A microarray expression study using postmortem brain samples has implicated a gene from the 2p11-12 candidate region, the trans-Golgi network protein 2 (TGOLN2) gene, as being consistently up-regulated in suicide cases as compared to controls. Here, we present a TGOLN2 case-control association study using nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These nine SNPs, which include seven tag SNPs and two coding SNPs, have been genotyped in 517 mood disorder subjects with a history of attempted suicide and 515 normal controls. Allelic and genotypic analyses of the case-control sample did not provide evidence for association with the attempted suicide phenotype. Eight of the nine SNPs provided supportive evidence for association (P-values ranging from 0.008 to 0.03) when we compared the attempted suicide cases with a history of alcoholism to the attempted suicide cases without a history of alcoholism. However, this association finding was not replicated in an independent sample. Taken together, these analyses do not provide support for the hypothesis that common genetic variation in TGOLN2 contributes significantly to the risk for attempted suicide in subjects with major mood disorders.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of attempted suicide--a case-control study in Gent, Belgium.

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    van Heeringen, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of attempted suicide among the population of Gent, exploratory and analytical case-control studies were carried out. The strength of the association between attempted suicide and marital and employment status was calculated taking into account the confounding and/or effect-modifying roles of age, gender, and the living situation. Unmarried individuals who were not living alone were at increased risk of attempted suicide compared to (cohabiting) married individuals. Young and middle-aged unemployed males and middle-aged unemployed females had significantly increased risks compared to employed individuals. In addition to a causal interpretation of the demonstrated associations, the roles of chance, reverse causality, and confounding or bias were considered. Selection and information biases may have accounted for the observed associations. For instance, in previous monitoring studies on attempted suicide, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the reliability of the information collected. The question of how one can reliably assess patients who may provide unreliable information remains unanswered. However, several findings support a role of causality in explaining the associations. The present studies therefore provide additional evidence for a detrimental affect of certain socio-demographic or -economic conditions on the occurrence of attempted suicide.

  7. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  8. Strengthening evaluation through interactive problem structuring: a case study of hospital care after attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Harman, M.; Reuzel, R.; Grin, J.; Kramers, C.; van der Wilt, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of an evaluation largely depends on the quality of the underlying problem definition and the quality of the problem definition often improves as stakeholder involvement increases. By means of a study on the management of attempted suicides by drug overdose, we explored whether an

  9. Strengthening evaluation through interactive problem structuring: a case study of hospital care after attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Harman, M.; Reuzel, R.; Grin, J.; Kramers, C.; van der Wilt, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of an evaluation largely depends on the quality of the underlying problem definition and the quality of the problem definition often improves as stakeholder involvement increases. By means of a study on the management of attempted suicides by drug overdose, we explored whether an interac

  10. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  11. A Population-Based Study of the Association between Pathological Gambling and Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Stephen C.; Thompson, Angus H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide using data from a prevalence study. The odds ratio for pathological gambling was statistically significant when major depression was the only comorbid mental disorder in the model. As terms for additional mental disorders were included, pathological gambling ceased to be…

  12. Strengthening evaluation through interactive problem structuring: a case study of hospital care after attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Harman, M.; Reuzel, R.; Grin, J.; Kramers, C.; van der Wilt, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of an evaluation largely depends on the quality of the underlying problem definition and the quality of the problem definition often improves as stakeholder involvement increases. By means of a study on the management of attempted suicides by drug overdose, we explored whether an interac

  13. Intimate partner violence and incident depressive symptoms and suicide attempts: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Devries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs. Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I²  =  50.4%, p(heterogeneity = 0.073. There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I²  =  0%, p = 0.481. IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV

  14. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Stephanie S; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after discharge from an inpatient psychiatry unit. Results showed that higher trait anger and anger expressed outwardly over the follow-up was related to...

  15. Case-Control Association Study of TGOLN2 in Attempted Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, Pamela B.; Stütz, Adrian M.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Huo, Yuqing; Goes, Fernando S.; Jancic, Dubravka; Judy, Jennifer T.; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Gershon, Elliot S.; McMahon, Francis J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B; Willour, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies provide convincing evidence for a genetic contribution to suicidal behavior. The heritability for suicidal behavior depends in part on the transmission of psychiatric disorders, such as mood disorders and substance use disorders, but is also partly independent of them. Three linkage studies using the attempted suicide phenotype in pedigrees with bipolar disorder, major depression, or alcoholism have provided consistent evidence that 2p11-12 harbors a suscept...

  16. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  17. Qualitative Research to study the attempted suicide of Tabasco´s young people

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela B. Martínez G; Enrique Guinsberg B

    2009-01-01

    AbstractObjective: this paper intends to give an account concerning the progress of a doctoral research with regards to suicidal attempts in young people along with their meanings. Methodology: qualitative research. It presents the theories which support my work (collective health, cultural studies, and youth sociology) in the search of understanding how the hegemonic medical thinking has had an influence in the production of scientific knowledge about suicide. Results: there is a need to con...

  18. Tobacco retail availability and risk of relapse among smokers who make a quit attempt: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael O; Mecredy, Graham; Cohen, Joanna

    2017-04-21

    The availability of tobacco is thought to influence smoking behaviour, but there are few longitudinal studies examining if the location and number of tobacco outlets has a prospective impact on smoking cessation. The Ontario Tobacco Survey, a population-representative sample of Ontario adult smokers who were followed every 6 months for up to 3 years, was linked with tobacco outlet location data from the Ontario Ministry of Health. Proximity (distance), threshold (at least one outlet within 500 m) and density (number of outlets within 500 m) with respect to a smokers' home were calculated among urban and suburban current smokers (n=2414). Quit attempts and risk of relapse were assessed using logistic regression and survival analysis, adjusted for neighbourhood effects and individual characteristics. Increased density of tobacco outlets was associated with decreased odds of making a quit attempt (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.85) in high-income neighbourhoods, but not in lower income ones. There was an increased risk of relapse among those who had at least one store within 500 m (HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.88). Otherwise, there was no association of proximity with quit attempts or relapse. The existence of a tobacco retail outlet within walking distance from home was associated with difficulty in succeeding in a quit attempt, while the increased density of stores was associated with decreased attempts in higher income neighbourhoods. The availability of tobacco may influence tobacco use through multiple mechanisms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Qualitative Research to study the attempted suicide of Tabasco´s young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela B. Martínez G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: this paper intends to give an account concerning the progress of a doctoral research with regards to suicidal attempts in young people along with their meanings. Methodology: qualitative research. It presents the theories which support my work (collective health, cultural studies, and youth sociology in the search of understanding how the hegemonic medical thinking has had an influence in the production of scientific knowledge about suicide. Results: there is a need to construct an overlook which may allow discovering the meanings that death, life, and life style may have for men and women with suicidal attempts. Discussion: It concludes with the presentation of the development that has taken this research with regard to the analysis interviews that give it origin.

  20. Is it possible to overcome suicidal ideation and suicide attempts? A study of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre Souza; Mangas, Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento; de Sousa, Girliani Silva; Freitas, Jarlideire Soares; Conte, Marta; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2015-06-01

    This study presents a qualitative analysis of how older people who had attempted suicide began to overcome the desire and the urge to take their own life. This article is based on a survey of 87 Brazilian men and women aged 60 and over, living in different regions of Brazil, who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour; twenty of whom gave important information about their coping strategies. The analysis in this article only refers to the aforementioned twenty participants. All the participants were heard through semi-structured interviews, which included questions about the process of overcoming suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The central focus of the analysis - overcoming suicidal ideation and suicide attempts - was based on the following concepts: coping strategies, autonomy, and emotional balance. Irrespective of the gender of the respondents, five centers of meaning emerged from the discourses of the elderly, which highlighted the effectiveness of the following factors: religiosity and religious practices; social and family support; the support of health services; contact with pets; and the recovery of the autonomy to manage their own lives. This study can help to support the primary and secondary prevention of suicidal behavior in older people.

  1. Risk of Suicide Attempt among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Longitudinal Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Bai, Ya-Mei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    To assess the independent or comorbid effect of conduct and mood disorders on the risk of suicide. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to derive data for 3711 adolescents aged 12-17 years with conduct disorder and 14 844 age- and sex-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. The participants were followed up to the end of 2011, and those who attempted suicide during the follow-up period were identified. Adolescents with conduct disorder had a higher incidence of suicide (0.9% vs 0.1%; P conduct disorder was an independent risk factor for subsequent suicide attempts (hazard ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.29-11.70). The sensitivity after those with other psychiatric comorbidities were excluded revealed a consistent finding (hazard ratio, 10.32; 95% CI, 3.71-28.71). Adolescents with conduct disorder had an increased risk of suicide attempts over the next decade. Future studies are required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology and elucidate whether prompt intervention for conduct disorder could reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O'Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    broadcast their suicide attempts on social media. Results of this study support the need for improved public health programs in China and may be insightful for other countries and other social media platforms.

  3. What constitutes a nesting attempt? Variation in criteria causes bias and hinders comparisons across studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Because reliable estimates of nesting success are very important to avian studies, the definition of a "successful nest" and the use of different analytical methods to estimate success have received much attention. By contrast, variation in the criteria used to determine whether an occupied site that did not produce offspring contained a nesting attempt is a source of bias that has been largely ignored. This problem is especially severe in studies that deal with species whose nest contents are relatively inaccessible because observers cannot determine whether or not an egg was laid for a large proportion of occupied sites. Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) often lay their eggs ???3 m below ground, so past Burrowing Owl studies have used a variety of criteria to determine whether a nesting attempt was initiated. We searched the literature to document the extent of that variation and examined how that variation influenced estimates of daily nest survival. We found 13 different sets of criteria used by previous authors and applied each criterion to our data set of 1,300 occupied burrows. We found significant variation in estimates of daily nest survival depending on the criteria used. Moreover, differences in daily nest survival among populations were apparent using some sets of criteria but not others. These inconsistencies may lead to incorrect conclusions and invalidate comparisons of the productivity and relative site quality among populations. We encourage future authors working on cavity-, canopy-, or burrow-nesting birds to provide specific details on the criteria they used to identify a nesting attempt. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Paternal Addiction on Adolescent Suicide Attempts: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi Bazrafshan, Mohammad; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background Research shows that parents have an immense influence over their children’s behavior during adolescence. Adolescents who grow up with parents who are addicted to drugs and alcohol are more likely to turn to self-destructive behaviors such as suicide attempts. Because addiction in Iran is a primarily masculine phenomenon and in traditional Iranian culture, the father is responsible for family affairs and is recognized as the family provider, paternal addiction affects adolescent children. However, the impact of this type of parental addiction on adolescent suicide attempts has received little attention. Objectives This study was conducted to assess the impact of paternal addiction on adolescent suicide attempts. Patients and Methods This was a qualitative study that used a grounded theory approach. Thirteen participants, from two hospitals in Shiraz (southern Iran), were interviewed. We used purposeful sampling, followed by theoretical sampling. Data were collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was done using Strauss and Corbin’s (1998) approach, followed by the constant comparative method. Results The mean age of the adolescents was 15.75 ± 1.83, and all of them were single. Five main themes were extracted from the data: mental health problems, relationship problems, financial problems, family problems, and imitation of risky behaviors. Conclusions The findings suggest that in addition to the need to consider paternal addiction in health care plans, it is also necessary to pay attention to other family members, including the adolescents themselves. Health care providers, including nurses, can use the findings from this study for the purposes of prevention and education. PMID:27818961

  5. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    OpenAIRE

    Bae SM; Lee SA; Lee SH

    2015-01-01

    Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and hig...

  6. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim.

  7. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Li

    2015-09-01

    social media users to improve their attitudes towards those who broadcast their suicide attempts on social media. Results of this study support the need for improved public health programs in China and may be insightful for other countries and other social media platforms.

  8. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    with schizophrenia and related disorders. The thesis contains a review of the risk of suicide in homeless. In all the studies included, increased suicide mortality was found, and in the studies that evaluated suicide risk in different age groups, the excess suicide mortality was most dominant in younger age groups. Our own study revealed an increased risk of suicide, and in univariate analysis, significant predictors for suicide were found to be associated with shortest stay in hostel less than 11 days and more than one stay during one year. The thesis also contains a review of the risk of suicide in first-episode patients with schizophrenia, and it was concluded on the basis of the identified studies that long-term risk of suicide was not 10 percent as previously accepted, but lower. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in case control studies, in nested case control studies, and in prospective studies. The following risk factors were the most important and frequently observed predictors: male gender, young age, short duration of illness, many admissions during last year, current inpatient, short time since discharge, previous and recent suicide attempt, co-morbid depression, drug abuse, poor compliance with medication, poor adherence to treatment, high IQ, and suicidal ideations. The results of analyses of psychotic symptoms as risk factor for suicide were contradictory, but a recent meta-analysis concluded that both hallucinations and delusions seemed to be protective; however, there was a non-significant tendency that command hallucinations were associated with higher suicide risk. Prevention of suicide in schizophrenia must especially focus on improving assessment of risk of suicide during inpatient treatment and the first week after discharge, and special attention must be paid to patients with one or more of the identified risk factors. There is a need for large randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect on suicide and

  9. Visualizing Changes in Strategy Use across Attempts via State Diagrams: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Game log data have great potential to provide actionable information about the in-game behavior of players. However, these low-level behavioral data are notoriously difficult to analyze due to the challenges associated with extracting meaning from sparse data stored at such a small grain size. This paper describes a three-step solution that uses cluster analysis to determine which strategies players use to solve levels in the game, sequence mining to identify changes in strategy across multiple attempts at the same level, and state transition diagrams to visualize the strategy sequences identified by the sequence mining. In the educational video game used in this case study, cluster analysis successfully identified 15 different in-game strategies. The sequence mining found an average of 40 different sequences of strategy use per level, which the state transition diagrams successfully displayed in an interpretable way.

  10. Environmental cues and attempts to change in daily cannabis users: An intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J; Fingar, James R; Callas, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    We tested whether environmental cues prompt or inhibit quit or reduction attempts among heavy cannabis users. We recruited 196 daily cannabis users who intended to stop or reduce at some point in the next 3 months. Users called an Interactive Voice Response system daily over 3 months to report on cues that might prompt an attempt to quit or reduce (e.g., a request to stop), cues that might inhibit a quit/reduction attempt (e.g., someone offering cannabis), cannabis use, and attempts to stop or reduce cannabis. No treatment was provided. Our major findings were (a) cost and health/psychological problems were the most common prompting cues, and seeing others use and being offered cannabis were the most common inhibiting cues, (b) the number of different types of prompting cues prospectively predicted an increase in attempts to change in a dose-related manner, (c) more proximal cues appeared to be more strongly related to change, (d) requests to stop or reduce, and physical or psychological problems from cannabis, best predicted change attempts, and (e) inhibiting cues did not consistently predict the probability of an attempt to change. These preliminary results suggest several environmental cues prompt attempts to change cannabis use. Thus, interventions to increase the frequency of these cues, and specifically requests to stop or reduce cannabis use, and reinforcing concerns about health and mental adverse events from cannabis use, may increase cannabis reduction or cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S

    2009-03-01

    There are no previous studies about the association of childhood bullying behavior with later suicide attempts and completed suicides among both sexes. The aim was to study associations between childhood bullying behaviors at age 8 years and suicide attempts and completed suicides up to age 25 years in a large representative population-based birth cohort. The sample includes 5,302 Finnish children born in 1981. Information about bullying was gathered at age 8 years from self-report, as well as parent and teacher reports. Information about suicide attempts requiring hospital admission and completed suicides was gathered from three different Finnish registries until the study participants were 25 years old. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether children who experience childhood bullying behaviors are at risk for later suicide attempts and completed suicides after controlling for baseline conduct and depression symptoms. The association between bullying behavior at age 8 years and later suicide attempts and completed suicides varies by sex. Among boys, frequent bullying and victimization are associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicides but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms; frequent victimization among girls is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicides, even after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. When examining childhood bullying behavior as a risk factor for later suicide attempts and completed suicides, each sex has a different risk profile.

  12. Future risk of labour market marginalization in young suicide attempters--a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Tinghög, Petter; Alexanderson, Kristina; Dahlin, Marie; Wang, Mo; Beckman, Karin; Gould, Madeleine; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2014-10-01

    Research on future labour market marginalization following suicide attempt at young age is scarce. We investigated the effects of suicide attempts on three labour market outcomes: unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension. We conducted a prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 1,613,816 individuals who in 1994 were 16-30 years old and lived in Sweden. Suicide attempters treated in inpatient care during the 3 years preceding study entry, i.e. 1992-94 (N=5649) were compared with the general population of the same age without suicide attempt between 1973 and 2010 (n=1,608,167). Hazard ratios (HRs) for long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days) and disability pension in 1995-2010 were calculated by Cox regression models, adjusted for a number of parental and individual risk markers, and stratified for previous psychiatric inpatient care not due to suicide attempt. The risks for unemployment [HR 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-1.64], sickness absence (HR 2.16; 2.08-2.24) and disability pension (HR 4.57; 4.34-4.81) were considerably increased among suicide attempters. There was a dose-response relationship between number of suicide attempts and the risk of disability pension, for individuals both with or without previous psychiatric hospitalizations not due to suicide attempts. No such relationship was present with regard to unemployment. This study highlights the strong association of suicide attempts with future marginalization from the labour market, particularly for outcomes that are based on a medical assessment. Studies that focus only on unemployment may largely underestimate the true detrimental impact of suicide attempt on labour market marginalization. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Are the current attempts at standardization of antiphospholipid antibodies still useful? Emerging technologies signal a shift in direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Laura; Rizzini, Silvia; Allegri, Flavio; Meroni, Pierluigi; Tincani, Angela

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been widely established over past years in several experimental models and clinical studies. Accordingly, the detection of aPL by immunoassays (anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies) has become a routine practice in the clinical workup of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. aPL are mostly assayed using commercial ELISA kits, whose performance has not been found to be sufficiently concordant among the different manufacturers. In the past years, collaborative groups have spent considerable effort to reach some form of standardization but this process is still ongoing. Such lack of standardization has recently become even more crucial, as manufacturers have had to face an increasing demand for fully automated tests for aPL, like those test systems that have been developed for other autoantibodies (e.g., antinuclear antibodies, anti-ENA antibodies). We therefore report our recent experience with two newly developed automated methods for anticardiolipin antibodies testing. In particular, we discuss the results obtained using routine samples, as we believe that these better reflect the "real-life" situation in which those automated methods will operate. We also mention other emerging technologies in the field of aPL detection.

  14. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L;

    2011-01-01

    illness and low level of income were all significant independent risk factors for offspring's suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the effect of multiple risk factors on the likelihood of suicide attempts in children and adolescents is important for risk assessment. Dose-response effects......BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between the number of exposures and the risk of suicide attempts, with the increased risk seeming to be a multiplicative effect. Parental suicide, suicide attempt, psychiatric...

  15. NCAM1, TACR1 and NOS genes and temperament: a study on suicide attempters and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegling, Ina; Calati, Raffaella; Porcelli, Stefano; Hartmann, Annette M; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; De Ronchi, Diana; Rujescu, Dan; Serretti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Suicide, one of the leading causes of death among young adults, seems to be plausibly modulated by both genetic and personality factors. The aim of this study was to dissect the potential association between genetics and temperament in a sample of 111 suicide attempters and 289 healthy controls. We focused on 4 genes previously investigated in association with suicide on the same sample: the nitric oxide synthase 1 and 3 (NOS1 and NOS3), the neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1), and the tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) genes. In particular, we investigated whether a set of genetic variants in these genes (NOS1: rs2682826, rs1353939, rs693534; NOS3: rs2070744, rs1799983, rs891512; NCAM1: rs2301228, rs1884, rs1245113, rs1369816, rs2196456, rs584427; TACR1: rs3771810, rs3771825, rs726506, rs1477157) were associated with temperamental traits at the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). No strong evidence was found for the association between TCI personality traits and the polymorphisms considered in the 4 genes, with the exception of an association between reward dependence trait and the rs2682826 SNP in NOS1 in the healthy sample. However, this result could be plausibly interpreted as a false-positive finding. In conclusion, our study did not support the thesis of a direct modulation of these genes on temperament; however, further studies on larger samples are clearly required in order to confirm our preliminary findings and to exclude any possible minor influence.

  16. Sexual orientation and suicide attempt: a longitudinal study of the general Norwegian adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Hegna, Kristinn

    2003-02-01

    Past and future suicide attempt rates among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) young people were compared with those of heterosexual young people. A sample of Norwegian students (N = 2.924; grades 7-12) was followed in 3 data collection waves. Risk factors included previous suicide attempt,depressed mood, eating problems, conduct problems, early sexual debut, number of sexual partners, pubertal timing, self-concept, alcohol and drug use, atypical gender roles, loneliness, peer relations, social support, parental attachment, parental monitoring, and suicidal behavior among family and friends. When homosexual attraction, homosexual identity, and same-sex sexual behavior were entered to predict suicide attempt, only same-sex sexual behavior was significantly predictive. The increased odds could not be attributed to GLB students' greater exposure to risk factors for suicide attempt.

  17. Personality traits of patients with attempted suicide: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Nabi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Borderline personality dominated the personality trait in patients with attempted suicide. Counseling, simultaneous psychotherapy and medication are necessary for management of maladaptive personality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5399-5404

  18. Co-Occurring Physical Fighting and Suicide Attempts among U.S. High School Students: Examining Patterns of Early Alcohol Use Initiation and Current Binge Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H Swahn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A growing body of empirical research documents a significant co-occurrence of suicide attempts and interpersonal violence among youth. However, the potential role of early alcohol use initiation and current heavy alcohol use as correlates of this comorbidity has not been examined in a nationally representative sample of high school students.Methods: We based our analyses on cross-sectional data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which includes a nationally representative sample (n=16,410 of high school students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the associations between measures of alcohol use (early alcohol use initiation and heavy drinking and comorbid suicidal and violent behavior while controlling for potential confounders.Results: Among high school students, 3.6% reported comorbid physical fighting and suicide attempt in the past year. Early alcohol use (prior to age 13 and heavy drinking (5 or more drinks in a row were strongly associated with comorbid reports of physical fighting and suicide attempts (Adj. odds ratio [OR]=3.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.49-3.89 and (Adj. OR=3.45; 95%CI:2.63-4.52.Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of both early alcohol use initiation and heavy drinking as statistically significant correlates of comorbid fighting and suicide attempts among youth. While future research is needed to determine the temporal ordering between problem drinking and violent or suicidal behaviors, existing prevention programs may benefit from including components aimed at reducing and delaying alcohol use. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:341–346.

  19. Socio-demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients who Attempt Suicide: A Hospital-based Study from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, S; Mahato, A K

    2016-09-01

    Suicide has become an important public health concern with a high number of deaths and increasing number of attempted suicides every year. There are multiple factors that underlie a suicide attempt. Although mental illness and severe stress have long been known to be associated with suicide, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of those attempting suicide can also provide indications of suicidal intent. The present study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in Kolkata, India who attempted suicide. Consecutive patients (n = 100) with failed suicide attempt who were referred to the psychiatry department of 2 multispecialty hospitals in Kolkata were included in the study. Their socio-demographic details and clinical characteristics were recorded. Suicidal intent and depressive symptoms were assessed and psychosocial risk factors were identified following detailed clinical interview. Suicide attempt was more frequent among younger female patients. Reaction to stress was the most common risk factor. The majority of attempts were impulsive in nature rather than planned. Young adults under stress are more vulnerable. Early identification of such individuals and psychosocial support to prevent suicidal ideation is vital.

  20. Current studies on megapode phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, T.G.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic relationships between megapodes and other birds are reviewed, and it is concluded that the available evidence supports a sistergroup relationship between megapodes and all other galliforms. Current studies in this direction are discussed. The resolvement of intr

  1. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.

  2. Psychotic Symptoms and Population Risk for Suicide Attempt A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleher, Ian; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Devlin, Nina; Ramsay, Hugh; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina; Wasserman, Danuta; Cannon, Mary

    IMPORTANCE Up to 1 million persons die by suicide annually. However, a lack of risk markers makes suicide risk assessment one of the most difficult areas of clinical practice. OBJECTIVE To assess psychotic symptoms (attenuated or frank) as a clinical marker of risk for suicide attempt. DESIGN,

  3. Psychotic Symptoms and Population Risk for Suicide Attempt A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleher, Ian; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Devlin, Nina; Ramsay, Hugh; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina; Wasserman, Danuta; Cannon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Up to 1 million persons die by suicide annually. However, a lack of risk markers makes suicide risk assessment one of the most difficult areas of clinical practice. OBJECTIVE To assess psychotic symptoms (attenuated or frank) as a clinical marker of risk for suicide attempt. DESIGN, SETTI

  4. [Characteristics of murder and attempted murder in Cameroon. Study based on expert psychiatric court reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, psychopathologic and criminological features associated with homicide based on review of expert psychiatric court reports describing murder and attempted murder perpetrators examined at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study cohort comprised reports describing 12 offenders who were examined at the request of ajudge or public prosecutor from March 1, 2002 to July 31, 2006. There were 8 men (66.7%) and 4 women (33.3%) with a mean age of 18.3 years (range, 17 to 43 years). In 8 cases the criminal act coincided with a difficult period in the offender's life. In the remaining 4 cases the act could not be linked to a specific life event. Assaults were carried out by strangulation, battery, or stabbing (knifes or machetes) in 87.5% of cases and occurred at the victim's home in 68.8% of cases. The main mental disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 classification were schizophrenia in 41.7% of cases (n = 5), chronic delirium in 25.0% (n = 3), and personality disorder in 8.3 % (n = 1). Nine offenders (75.0%) had a history of mental disorder including 8 within at least six months preceding the assault. Four offenders had already received psychiatric treatment including 2 who required hospitalization following one or more episodes of psychotic decompensation. There were a total of 16 victims including 14 that died and 2 that were seriously wounded but survived thanks to prompt medical attention. The victims included 8 males and 8 females with 11 children (68.7%) and 5 adults (31.3%). In the child group 9 victims died (81.8%) and 2 survived (18.2%). Except one 17-year-old teenager, the 6 female and 3 male child victims were between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. The adult victims included 1 female and 4 males. The main findings of this study were the high incidence of mental disease, especially schizophrenics (66.7%), associated with homicide and the high number of child victims (62.5%). The first

  5. Alexithymia and low cooperativeness are associated with suicide attempts in male military personnel with adjustment disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Oh, Sei-Joong; Jung, Han-Yong; Irene Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Shin-Gyeom

    2013-02-28

    Subpopulations of patients with adjustment disorder are at increased risk for suicide. The current study investigated whether personality traits, including alexithymia, temperament, and character, are associated with an increased risk of suicide in individuals with adjustment disorder. Age- and sex-matched patients meeting the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for adjustment disorder with (n=92) and without (n=92) a history of suicide attempts were recruited for the present study. Ninety-two healthy individuals who did not meet diagnostic criteria for Axis I or II diagnoses were used as controls. The Toronto alexithymia scale-20 (TAS-20) and the temperament and character inventory (TCI) were used to assess personality traits. Significantly higher total and subscale scores on the TAS-20, including on the difficulty-identifying-feelings (DIF) and difficulty-describing-feelings (DDF) subscales, and lower scores on the TCI cooperativeness subscale were noted in adjustment-disorder patients with previous suicide attempts. In the multivariate regression analysis, high DDF and DIF and low cooperativeness increased the risk of suicide attempts in adjustment-disorder patients. A subsequent path analysis revealed that high DDF had a direct effect on suicide attempts, whereas high DIF had an indirect effect on suicide attempts via low cooperativeness.

  6. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  7. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  8. Ante- and perinatal circumstances and risk of attempted suicides and suicides in offspring: the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaräisänen, Antti; Miettunen, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Isohanni, Matti; Räsänen, Pirkko; Mäki, Pirjo

    2012-11-01

    To investigate those ante- and perinatal circumstances preceding suicide attempts and suicides, which have so far not been studied intensively. Examination of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,742), originally based on antenatal questionnaire data and now followed up from mid-pregnancy to age 39, to ascertain psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring and suicides or attempted suicides in the offspring using nationwide registers. A total of 121 suicide attempts (57 males) and 69 suicides (56 males) had occurred. Previously unstudied antenatal factors (maternal depressed mood and smoking, unwanted pregnancy) were not related to these after adjustment. Psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring were the risk factors in both genders. When adjusted for these, the statistically significant risk factors among males were a single-parent family for suicide attempts (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.62-8.50) and grand multiparity for suicides (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.15-6.18). When a psychiatric disorder in females was included among possible risk factors for suicide attempts, it alone remained significant (OR 15.55, 8.78-27.53). A single-parent family was a risk factor for attempted suicides and grand multiparity for suicides in male offspring even after adjusting for other ante- and perinatal circumstances and mental disorders in the parents and offspring. Mothers' antenatal depressed mood and smoking and unwanted pregnancy did not increase the risk of suicide, which is a novel finding.

  9. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  10. [Current studies in myotonic dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimeng; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2014-03-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a genetic, progressive, multisystemic disease with muscular disorder as its primary symptom. There are two types of DM (DM1 and DM2) caused by mutations in different genes, and in Japan, DM occurs with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the disease is RNA toxicity caused by transcripts of aberrantly elongated CTG or CCTG repeats located in the 3' untranslated region or in the intron. The current treatments for DM is limited to symptomatic care. In this review, we will discuss several new therapeutic strategies based on recent studies of RNA toxicity.

  11. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    percent as previously accepted, but lower. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in case control studies, in nested case control studies, and in prospective studies. The following risk factors were the most important and frequently observed predictors: male gender...... patients in the integrated treatment. There were four suicides and one probable suicide (drowning) in standard treatment and one suicide in integrated treatment at two-year follow-up, but the study did not have sufficient power to detect these differences in proportion to who committed suicide; more than......-up of persons who attempted suicide. It was concluded that the risk of repetition in short- and medium-term follow-up studies was approximately 16 percent, with lower risk among "first-evers" compared to repeaters. There was a large variation in repetition rate. The proportion who committed suicide in medium...

  12. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    percent as previously accepted, but lower. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in case control studies, in nested case control studies, and in prospective studies. The following risk factors were the most important and frequently observed predictors: male gender...... patients in the integrated treatment. There were four suicides and one probable suicide (drowning) in standard treatment and one suicide in integrated treatment at two-year follow-up, but the study did not have sufficient power to detect these differences in proportion to who committed suicide; more than......-up of persons who attempted suicide. It was concluded that the risk of repetition in short- and medium-term follow-up studies was approximately 16 percent, with lower risk among "first-evers" compared to repeaters. There was a large variation in repetition rate. The proportion who committed suicide in medium...

  13. Psychiatric assessment of suicide attempters in Japan: a pilot study at a critical emergency unit in an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishida Ikuko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of suicide has increased markedly in Japan since 1998. As psychological autopsy is not generally accepted in Japan, surveys of suicide attempts, an established risk factor of suicide, are highly regarded. We have carried out this study to gain insight into the psychiatric aspects of those attempting suicide in Japan. Methods Three hundred and twenty consecutive cases of attempted suicide who were admitted to an urban emergency department were interviewed, with the focus on psychosocial background and DSM-IV diagnosis. Moreover, they were divided into two groups according to the method of attempted suicide in terms of lethality, and the two groups were compared. Results Ninety-five percent of patients received a psychiatric diagnosis: 81% of subjects met the criteria for an axis I disorder. The most frequent diagnosis was mood disorder. The mean age was higher and living alone more common in the high-lethality group. Middle-aged men tended to have a higher prevalence of mood disorders. Conclusion This is the first large-scale study of cases of attempted suicide since the dramatic increase in suicides began in Japan. The identification and introduction of treatments for psychiatric disorders at emergency departments has been indicated to be important in suicide prevention.

  14. An Unmatched Case-Control Study of Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts in Houston, Texas: Research Methods and Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Ikeda, Robin M.; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Simon, Thomas R.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.

    2002-01-01

    This article details the research methods and measurements used in conducting a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among persons aged 13-34 years. This study was designed to extend understanding of suicidal behavior and prevention activities beyond identification of mental illnesses. Overall strengths and…

  15. Young people’s risk of suicide attempts in relation to parental death: A population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte

    2011-01-01

    confounding variables including age and gender were controlled for by conditional logistic regression analyses. Results:  The findings indicated that young people who had lost one biological parent showed a significantly increased risk of attempting suicide (relative risk = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.......49–1.96). Losing the remaining parent nearly doubled the risk (relative risk = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.48–5.06). Conclusion:  Experiencing the death of one or both biological parents increased the risk of suicide attempts in young people. Relative risk was moderated by high income of the father.......Background:  The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10–22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods:  The study used a nested case...

  16. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  17. Modelling the rate of change in a longitudinal study with missing data, adjusting for contact attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacha, Mouna; Hutton, Jane L

    2011-05-10

    The Collaborative Ankle Support Trial (CAST) is a longitudinal trial of treatments for severe ankle sprains in which interest lies in the rate of improvement, the effectiveness of reminders and potentially informative missingness. A model is proposed for continuous longitudinal data with non-ignorable or informative missingness, taking into account the nature of attempts made to contact initial non-responders. The model combines a non-linear mixed model for the outcome model with logistic regression models for the reminder processes. A sensitivity analysis is used to contrast this model with the traditional selection model, where we adjust for missingness by modelling the missingness process. The conclusions that recovery is slower, and less satisfactory with age and more rapid with below knee cast than with a tubular bandage do not alter materially across all models investigated. The results also suggest that phone calls are most effective in retrieving questionnaires.

  18. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  19. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alison J.; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Design Cohort study. Participants A total of 792 sm...

  20. Socio-demographic profile and suicidal intent of attempted suicide cases: A hospital based study in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Bharati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is one of the ten major causes of death in India. Suicidal intent score has been found to be a good predictor of a subsequent completed suicide. The present study was conducted to find out the socio-demographic profile and the suicidal intent score of the cases of attempted suicide as well as to determine the association of suicidal intent score with various factors. Methodology: We conducted the present hospital based observational cross sectional study at a rural hospital of Eastern India. 156 admitted cases with history of self-poisoning were interviewed after obtaining the informed consent. Socio-demographic information and suicidal intent score were recorded and analyzed. Results: 55.1% patients were in the age group of below 20 years, 69.2% were females, 58.3% belonged to socioeconomic class V and 17.3% patients were illiterate. 43.6% were students and 28.8% housewives. 17.3% patients had history of suicidal attempts in the past and in 23.1 % cases stress factor was present in the family. Suicidal intent score was medium in 63.5% patients, 10.3% patients had low score and 26.2% had high score. Different factors like age of 20 years and above, male sex, married people, people having addiction habit, previous suicidal attempt, positive family history and stress factors in family increased the suicidal intent score whereas aged less than 20 years, female sex, unmarried people, people having no previous attempt of suicide, negative family history and absence of stress factor in the family decreased the suicidal intent score. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the influencing factors of suicidal intent score based on a hospital set up. A larger community based study with follow up of study subjects is required to get a detailed idea about the influencing factors of suicidal intent score. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 122-125

  1. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  2. Do headache and abdominal pain in childhood predict suicides and severe suicide attempts? Finnish nationwide 1981 birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntamo, Terhi; Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aromaa, Minna; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Piha, Jorma

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated associations between pain symptoms in mid-childhood and severe suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. Severe suicidality was defined as completed suicide or suicidal attempt requiring hospital admission. In a nationwide prospective population-based study (n = 6,017), parents and children were asked about the child's headache and abdominal pain at age eight. The outcome was register-based data on suicide or suicidal attempt requiring hospital treatment by age 24. Family composition, parental educational level, and the child's psychiatric symptoms reported by the child, parents and teacher at baseline were included as covariates in statistical analyses. Boys' abdominal pain reported by the parents was associated with later severe suicidality after adjusting for family composition, parental educational level, and childhood psychiatric symptoms at baseline. In addition, the association between boys' own report of headache and later severe suicidality reached borderline significance in unadjusted analysis. Girls' pain symptoms did not predict later severe suicidality.

  3. Attempted Isolation, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Computational Study of Diazirinone (N2CO), its Analogs, and their Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Nolan, Alex M.; Amberger, Brent K.; Shaffer, Chris J.; Woods, R. Claude; Stanton, John F.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2010-11-01

    Intrigued by the 2005 reported synthesis of diazirinone, we carried out further experimental and theoretical studies aimed at the detailed matrix-isolation and millimeter-wave spectroscopic characterizations. Diazirinone is a peculiar isoconjugate of two very stable molecules, CO and N2, which may be of astrochemical interest. Unfortunately, the previous reported methods of diazirinone generation did not yield this species, but rather its decomposition products. Encouraged by the many computational studies of the N2CO potential energy surface that all found diazirinone to be the lowest energy isomer, save its decomposition products, we proposed a new method of preparation of diazirinone from the photolysis or thermolysis of carbonyl diazide by loss of two nitrogen molecules. We were able to generate the highly explosive carbonyl diazide in sufficient yield from the reaction of triphosgene and sodium azide. This has allowed us to obtain a matrix-isolation and gas phase IR spectrum of carbonyl diazide which has a gas-phase lifetime of several days. We are currently engaged in the safe purification and distillation of our sample and obtaining a millimeter-wave spectrum of carbonyl diazide. We will attempt to photolyze or thermolyze this molecule to release diazirinone and characterize it by millimeter-wave spectroscopy to pave the way for possible astrochemical detection. In order to provide better mechanistic insight into the decomposition of carbonyl diazide to diazirinone, we have engaged in a DFT and ab initio computational study of several possible pathways. Our preliminary results suggest that of the pathways studied, a step-wise process in which an acyclic CON4 species is generated by loss of nitrogen followed by possible rearrangement and further loss of N2 is most likely. These results will be compared to the analogous reactions for azirinone (HC2NO), our next likely synthetic and spectroscopic target. The millimeter-wave absorption spectrometer used in this

  4. An attempt for empowering education: A qualitative study of in-service training of nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Chaghari, Mahmood; Ebadi, Abbas; Ameryoun, Ahmad; Safari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: In-service training of nursing personnel has a significant role in increasing the empowerment of nurses and promotion of the quality of health services. The objective of this study is to identify and explain the process of in-service training of nursing personnel in the hospitals affiliated with Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in Tehran. Materials and Methods: The present study employed a qualitative approach using Corbin and Strauss method (2008) in 2015, and examined...

  5. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY: STUDY ON ATTEMPTS OF HDFC BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Malik

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the study about the Corporate Social Responsibilities of the banking industry in India. Social Responsibility of business refers to what a business does over and above the statutory requirement for the benefit of the society. The word “responsibility” emphasizes that the business has some moral obligations towards the society. Corporate Social Responsibility also called Corporate Conscience or Responsible Business is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated int...

  6. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  7. Case study of attempts to enact self service tobacco display ordinances: a tale of three communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, M.; Furlong, M.; Dunn, D.; Koegler, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine self service tobacco displays (SSTDs) and youth retail tobacco access by comparing longitudinal illegal tobacco sales rates in three communities in Santa Barbara County, California, that considered or implemented ordinances banning SSTDs. A confirmatory survey was also conducted to substantiate the longitudinal data.
DESIGN—A longitudinal case study design was utilised. Five undercover tobacco buys were conducted between 1994 and 1997 (n = 332). In addition, one confirmatory survey was conducted in a geographically separated area, which had no ordinances banning SSTDs (n = 57).
RESULTS—Decreases in youth buy rates were reported in all three communities. Most notably, the first city to enact a SSTD ban, Carpinteria, achieved a 0% sales rate, which was maintained throughout the study period. In contrast, Santa Barbara and Goleta experienced considerable drops in their illegal sales rates, but neither community obtained results as dramatic as those found in Carpinteria. The confirmatory survey showed that 32.1% of stores with SSTDs sold cigarettes to minors; this compares to a sales rate of 3.4% in stores without SSTDs (χ2 (1) = 8.11, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to enact self service bans are likely to meet with retail and tobacco industry opposition, as was the case in this study's three communities. The process of community debate, resultant publicity surrounding the issue, and enactment of SSTD ordinances may serve to not only increase merchant awareness of youth tobacco laws and their penalties but also may contribute to reduced youth cigarette sales rates. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.


Keywords: self service tobacco displays; youth tobacco access; community tobacco control efforts PMID:10691760

  8. Cognitive reappraisal fails when attempting to reduce the appetitive value of food: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Michela; Ubel, Sonja; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2013-12-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during the exposure to food cues. Thirty-three healthy, normal-weight women viewed images of high-caloric food and non-food items after an overnight fast. The participants were instructed to either passively look at the pictures, or to change (increase, decrease) the appetitive value of the food items. The P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) were higher across all conditions for food relative to non-food pictures. In the 'increase condition' the food images were rated as more appetizing and arousing than during passive viewing which was accompanied by increased amplitudes of the P300 and LPP. In contrast, the 'watch condition' and the 'decrease condition' did not differ with regard to appetite and arousal ratings as well as ERPs. Amplitudes of late positive potentials in the 'decrease condition' were positively correlated with scores on eating disorder scales indicating bulimic tendencies. The ERP data show that the appetitive value of food cues can easily be enhanced via reappraisal but is difficult to reduce, especially in women who display non-clinical forms of purging. The reduced ERP reactivity might constitute a risk factor for bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal-prospective studies should follow up on this aspect.

  9. Mind the Gap: An attempt to bridge computational and neuroscientific approaches to study creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraint eWiggins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is the hallmark of human cognition, yet scientific understanding of creative processes is limited. However, there is increasing interest in revealing the neural correlates of human creativity. Though many of these studies, pioneering in nature, help demystification of creativity, but the field is still dominated by popular beliefs in associating creativity with right brain thinking, divergent thinking, altered states and so on (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010 . In this article, we discuss a computational framework for creativity based on Baars' global workspace theory (Baars, 1988 enhanced with mechanisms based on information theory. Next we propose a neurocognitive architecture of creativity with a strong focus on various facets (i.e., unconscious thought theory, mind wandering, spontaneous brain states of un/pre-conscious brain responses. Our principal argument is that pre-conscious creativity happens prior to conscious creativity happens prior to conscious creativity and the proposed computational model may provide a mechanism by which this transition is managed. This integrative approach, albeit unconventional, will hopefully stimulate future neuroscientific studies of the inscrutable phenomenon of creativity.

  10. Mind the gap: an attempt to bridge computational and neuroscientific approaches to study creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Geraint A; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is the hallmark of human cognition and is behind every innovation, scientific discovery, piece of music, artwork, and idea that have shaped our lives, from ancient times till today. Yet scientific understanding of creative processes is quite limited, mostly due to the traditional belief that considers creativity as a mysterious puzzle, a paradox, defying empirical enquiry. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in revealing the neural correlates of human creativity. Though many of these studies, pioneering in nature, help demystification of creativity, but the field is still dominated by popular beliefs in associating creativity with "right brain thinking", "divergent thinking", "altered states" and so on (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010). In this article, we discuss a computational framework for creativity based on Baars' Global Workspace Theory (GWT; Baars, 1988) enhanced with mechanisms based on information theory. Next we propose a neurocognitive architecture of creativity with a strong focus on various facets (i.e., unconscious thought theory, mind wandering, spontaneous brain states) of un/pre-conscious brain responses. Our principal argument is that pre-conscious creativity happens prior to conscious creativity and the proposed computational model may provide a mechanism by which this transition is managed. This integrative approach, albeit unconventional, will hopefully stimulate future neuroscientific studies of the inscrutable phenomenon of creativity.

  11. Mind the gap: an attempt to bridge computational and neuroscientific approaches to study creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Geraint A.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is the hallmark of human cognition and is behind every innovation, scientific discovery, piece of music, artwork, and idea that have shaped our lives, from ancient times till today. Yet scientific understanding of creative processes is quite limited, mostly due to the traditional belief that considers creativity as a mysterious puzzle, a paradox, defying empirical enquiry. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in revealing the neural correlates of human creativity. Though many of these studies, pioneering in nature, help demystification of creativity, but the field is still dominated by popular beliefs in associating creativity with “right brain thinking”, “divergent thinking”, “altered states” and so on (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010). In this article, we discuss a computational framework for creativity based on Baars’ Global Workspace Theory (GWT; Baars, 1988) enhanced with mechanisms based on information theory. Next we propose a neurocognitive architecture of creativity with a strong focus on various facets (i.e., unconscious thought theory, mind wandering, spontaneous brain states) of un/pre-conscious brain responses. Our principal argument is that pre-conscious creativity happens prior to conscious creativity and the proposed computational model may provide a mechanism by which this transition is managed. This integrative approach, albeit unconventional, will hopefully stimulate future neuroscientific studies of the inscrutable phenomenon of creativity. PMID:25104930

  12. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Considerations for Public Health Organizations Attempting to Implement a Social Media Presence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole; Castaneda, Gail

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, social media has become an integral part of our everyday lives, but research on how this tool is used by public health workers and organizations is still developing. Budget cuts and staff reduction in county departments have required employees to take on more responsibilities. These reductions have caused a reduction in the time for training or collaborating with others in the field. To make up for the loss, many employees are seeking collaboration through social media sites but are unable to do so because state departments block these Internet sites. This study sought to highlight the key considerations and decision-making process for a public health organization deciding whether to implement a social media presence for their organization. Using 3 structured interviews, 15 stakeholders were questioned on their personal experience with social media, experience within the context of public health, and their thoughts on implementation for their center. Interviews were coded using constant comparative qualitative methods. The following themes emerged from the interviews: (1) personal experience with technology and social networking sites, (2) use of social networking sites in public health, (3) use of social networking sites in work environments, (4) social networking sites access, (5) ways the Rural South Public Health Training Center could use social networking sites, and (6) perceived outcomes of social networking site usage for the Rural South Public Health Training Center (positive and negative). The collective voice of the center showed a positive perceived perception of social media implementation, with the benefits outweighing the risks. Despite the benefits, there is a cautious skepticism of the importance of social networking site use.

  14. Suicide attempts and related factors in patients admitted to a general hospital: a ten-year cross-sectional study (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantes-Louzao Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide and suicide attempts represent a severe problem for public health services. The aim of this study is to determine the socio-demographic and psychopathological variables associated with suicide attempts in the population admitted to a General Hospital. Methods An observational-descriptive study of patients admitted to the A Coruña University Hospital (Spain during the period 1997-2007, assessed by the Consultation and Liaison Psychiatric Unit. We include n = 5,234 admissions from 4,509 patients. Among these admissions, n = 361 (6.9% were subsequent to a suicide attempt. Admissions arising from a suicide attempt were compared with admissions occurring due to other reasons. Multivariate generalised estimating equation logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with suicide attempts. Results Adjusting by age, gender, educational level, cohabitation status, being employed or unemployed, the psychiatric diagnosis at the time of the interview and the information on previous suicide attempts, we found that the variables associated with the risk of a suicide attempt were: age, psychiatric diagnosis and previous suicide attempts. The risk of suicide attempts decreases with age (OR = 0.969. Psychiatric diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of suicide attempts, with the highest risk being found for Mood or Affective Disorders (OR = 7.49, followed by Personality Disorders (OR = 7.31, and Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders (OR = 5.03. The strongest single predictive factor for suicide attempts was a prior history of attempts (OR = 23.63. Conclusions Age, psychopathological diagnosis and previous suicide attempts are determinants of suicide attempts.

  15. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA): Predictors of Suicidal Events in an Open Treatment Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Compton, Scott; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Bukstein, Oscar; Stanley, Barbara; Posner, Kelly; Kennard, Betsy D.; Cwik, Mary F.; Wagner, Ann; Coffey, Barbara; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Barnett, Shannon; Capasso, Lisa; Zelazny, Jamie; Hughes, Jennifer; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of suicidal events and attempts in adolescent suicide attempters with depression treated in an open treatment trial. Method: Adolescents who had made a recent suicide attempt and had unipolar depression (n =124) were either randomized (n = 22) or given a choice (n = 102) among three conditions. Two…

  16. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison J; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2007-10-01

    Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Cohort study. A total of 792 smokers, participating in a trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-assisted smoking cessation. Participants were informed that the trial investigated relationships between genetic markers and smoking behaviour, but personalized genetic feedback was not provided. Primary care in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, UK. Perceived control over smoking and perceived importance of genetic factors in causing smoking assessed pre-quit; abstinence 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment. A total of 515 smokers (65.0%) viewed genetic factors as playing some role in causing their smoking. They had lower perceived control over smoking than smokers who viewed genetic factors as having no role in causing their smoking. Attributing smoking to genetic causes was not associated significantly with a lower probability of quit attempt success. Attributing smoking to genetic factors was associated with lower levels of perceived control over smoking but not lower quit rates. This suggests that learning of one's genetic predisposition to smoking during a pharmacogenetically tailored smoking cessation intervention may not deter quitting. Further research should examine whether the lack of impact of genetic attributions on quit attempt success is also found in smokers provided with personalized genetic feedback.

  17. A study of suicide and attempted suicide by self-immolation in an Irish psychiatric population: an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, J M; Panchal, J L; O'Sullivan, S T; O'Shaughnessy, M; O'Connor, T P; Keeley, H; Kelleher, M J

    1998-03-01

    In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.

  18. A study of suicide and attempted suicide by self-immolation in an Irish psychiatric population: an increasing problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.

  19. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....

  20. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania.

  1. Assessment and treatment of asylum seekers after a suicide attempt: a comparative study of people registered at mental health services in a Swedish location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Maria; Tidemalm, Dag H; Titelman, David E; Runeson, Bo; Bäärnhielm, Sofie

    2015-10-07

    Even though asylum seekers are considered vulnerable to mental ill-health, knowledge of their suicidal behaviour is limited. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of factors that influence the clinical assessment of asylum seekers who have attempted suicide compared to the assessment of non-asylum seekers. The study focused on 88 asylum seekers registered for suicide attempts in mental health services 2005-2009, who were matched for age and gender and compared with 88 suicide attempters with Swedish personal identity numbers. The medical records were analysed with a quantitative protocol, focusing on social risk and protective factors, health history, current clinical picture as well as the assessment procedure, diagnostics, patterns of treatment and follow-up in this clinical group. Data was analysed using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact probability test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. As in earlier studies, asylum seekers were more traumatized, had different social risk factors and received different diagnoses than the controls. Asylum seekers were referred to less specialized follow-up after treatment, in spite of their health history and of previous and current clinical pictures indicating a similar or--in the case of the female asylum seekers--more serious mental health condition. Female asylum seekers also received more intense and prolonged in-patient treatment than female controls. Asylum seekers appeared to have social networks more often than the control group. However, there was less documentation of the social context, previous suicidal behaviour, and on suicide in the family and close environment of the asylum-seeking men. Information on suicidal intent was lacking in a majority of both groups. The time relation of the suicide attempt and the asylum process suggested the importance of the asylum decision, as well as the possible role of earlier mental health problems and premigration stress, for the suicidal behaviour. The groups had

  2. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  3. How many mailouts? Could attempts to increase the response rate in the Iraq war cohort study be counterproductive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low response and reporting errors are major concerns for survey epidemiologists. However, while nonresponse is commonly investigated, the effects of misclassification are often ignored, possibly because they are hard to quantify. We investigate both sources of bias in a recent study of the effects of deployment to the 2003 Iraq war on the health of UK military personnel, and attempt to determine whether improving response rates by multiple mailouts was associated with increased misclassification error and hence increased bias in the results. Methods Data for 17,162 UK military personnel were used to determine factors related to response and inverse probability weights were used to assess nonresponse bias. The percentages of inconsistent and missing answers to health questions from the 10,234 responders were used as measures of misclassification in a simulation of the 'true' relative risks that would have been observed if misclassification had not been present. Simulated and observed relative risks of multiple physical symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD were compared across response waves (number of contact attempts. Results Age, rank, gender, ethnic group, enlistment type (regular/reservist and contact address (military or civilian, but not fitness, were significantly related to response. Weighting for nonresponse had little effect on the relative risks. Of the respondents, 88% had responded by wave 2. Missing answers (total 3% increased significantly (p Conclusion Bias due to nonresponse appears to be small in this study, and increasing the response rates had little effect on the results. Although misclassification is difficult to assess, the results suggest that bias due to reporting errors could be greater than bias caused by nonresponse. Resources might be better spent on improving and validating the data, rather than on increasing the response rate.

  4. Prevalence of Suicide Ideation, Attempts and the Associated Factors among a Sample of Iranian Population in South Part of the Country: A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  Objective: "n "n "nSuicide represented 1.8% of the total global burden of disease in1998 and it will increase to 2.4% in 2020. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of suicide ideation, attempt and its associated factors. "nMethod: We designed a cross sectional study in Mahan and Bardsir cities, Kerman province, Iran. Based on the multistage cluster sampling, 860 subjects aged 15 and older were selected as the non-attempter group and 58 hospital cases admitted due to suicide attempts were selected as the attempter group. General Health Questionnaire, Suicide Ideation Scale and demographic form were filled for each participant. "nResults: This study showed that the prevalence of suicide ideation was 10% in total: 48.3% in the suicide attempters and 7.33% in the non-attempters. Being female, young, single, more educated and less religious, living in urban areas, opium use and having somatic complaints and other psychiatric problems were associated with suicide attempts. "nConclusion: Suicide ideation and attempt aren't uncommon in Iran and should be recognized as important problems existing in these two cities of Kerman province .

  5. A prospective study comparing attempted weight bearing in fiberglass below-knee casts and prefabricated pneumatic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lyndon W; Dodds, Alex

    2010-04-01

    Partial weight bearing is commonly advised after fracture of the lower extremity. Research has determined this to be inaccurate both in its instruction and its reproducibility. Many trauma departments are commonly using alternatives to plaster in the splintage of fractures, such as fiberglass and the prefabricated pneumatic braces. This study's null hypothesis is that there is no difference between partial weight bearing through a fiberglass cast as compared with a pneumatic walker. A prospective study was conducted in our department including all patients who had metatarsal or ankle fractures and could partially weight bear. Patients were excluded if they were not allowed to bear weight, had received operative fixation of their fracture, or were younger than age 16 years. The patients' total weight was measured first, and then they were trained to place 50% of their weight through the splinted limb. Three measurements were taken of their attempted weight bearing at 50%, and they were blinded to the results. Over a 16-month period, 117 patients were enrolled for this study: 72 in the pneumatic walker group and 45 in the fiberglass group. There was no significant difference in sex, age, or fracture type. There was a significant difference in percentage of weight placed through the splinted limb, with the pneumatic brace group placing much greater force than the fiberglass group. This may have been caused by altered proprioception from the walker. It is important to realize this when prescribing partial weight bearing in a particular splint as this may result in avoidable complications.

  6. Association between non-suicidal self-injuries and suicide attempts in Chinese adolescents and college students: a cross-section study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study examined the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and college students. METHODS: A total sample of 2013 Chinese students were randomly selected from five schools in Wuhan, China, including 1101 boys and 912 girls with the age ranging between 10 and 24 years. NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depressive symptoms were measured by self-rated questionnaires. Self-reported suicide attempts were regressed on suicidal ideation and NSSI, controlling for participants' depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The self-reported prevalence rates of NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were 15.5%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that NSSI was significantly associated with self-reported suicide attempts. Analyses examining the conditional association of NSSI and suicidal ideation with self-reported suicide attempts revealed that NSSI was significantly associated with greater risk of suicide attempts in those not reporting suicidal ideation than those reporting suicidal ideation in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of NSSI as a potentially independent risk factor for suicide attempts among Chinese/Han adolescents and college students.

  7. Population-based outreach versus care as usual to prevent suicide attempt: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Gregory E.; Beck, Arne; Rossom, Rebecca; Richards, Julie; Kirlin, Beth; King, Deborah; Shulman, Lisa; Ludman, Evette J; Penfold, Robert; Shortreed, Susan M.; Whiteside, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicide remains the 10th-ranked most frequent cause of death in the United States, accounting for over 40,000 deaths per year. Nonfatal suicide attempts lead to over 200,000 hospitalizations and 600,000 emergency department visits annually. Recent evidence indicates that responses to the commonly used Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) can identify outpatients who are at risk of suicide attempt and suicide death and that specific psychotherapy or Care Management programs can preve...

  8. A STUDY OF CLINICAL, PATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WHO ATTEMPTED SUICIDE BY HAIR DYE SUPERVASMOL 33 INGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Babu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : All the patient in the study consumed the hair dye available in the market with the trade name Supervasmol 33. The prevalence of Super vasmol 33 hair dye poisoning has been on a surge for the past 2 - 3 years as has been observed by the increase in number of cases being admitted into the hospitals. It was observed that the tendency of poisoning by Super vasmol 33 hair dye was more in females than in males and was more in the age group of 15 - 35 years, as with any other poisoning. METERIALS AND METHODS: Study of Clinical, pathological and biochemical findings in patients who attempted suicide by hair dye ingestion (Supervasmol 3 who were admitted in Government General Hospital/Guntur medical college, Guntur during June 2013 to March 2015 brought to emergency department and those who were admitted into the HDU, ICU and medical wards of the hospital, after the following exclusion criteria were ruled out. RESULTS: A significant statistical correlation was found to exist between development of AKI and the levels of CPK in blood, rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemia. The morbidity rates were 100% for angioedema, 58% for rhabdomyolysis and 32% for acute kidney injury (AKI. Institutional mortality rate was about 8% due to refractory hemodynamic shock. CONCLUSION: As the burden of handling Supervasmol 33 hair dye poisoning cases has been recently increasing, primary care physicians, intensive care physicians and nephrologists need to be aware of its clinical manifestation and management

  9. Role of the community matron in advance care planning and 'do not attempt CPR' decision-making: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierski, Mandy; King, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The community matron (CM) is often the key worker caring for patients with chronic, life-limiting, long-term conditions, but these patients are not always recognised as palliative cases. This study explored the experiences of CMs with regard to advance care planning (ACP) and 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' (DNACPR) decision-making to understand whether or not they felt adequately prepared for this aspect of their role, and why. Qualitative data were generated from six CMs using a broad interpretive phenomenological approach. Face-to-face recorded interviews were analysed using template analysis. The study found that although participants faced complex ethical situations around ACP and DNACPR almost on a daily basis, none had received any formal training despite the emphasis on training in national and local guidelines. Participants often struggled to get their patients accepted on to the Gold Standards Framework. The research found variability and complexity of cases to be the main barriers to clear identification of the palliative phase.

  10. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...

  11. Attempted and successful compensation in preclinical and early manifest neurodegeneration – a review of task fMRI studies

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    Elisa eScheller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several models of neural compensation in healthy aging have been suggested to explain brain activity that aids to sustain cognitive function. Applying recently suggested criteria of ‘attempted’ and ‘successful’ compensation, we reviewed existing literature on compensatory mechanisms in preclinical Huntington’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Both disorders constitute early stages of neurodegeneration ideal for examining compensatory mechanisms and developing targeted interventions. We strived to clarify whether compensation criteria derived from healthy aging populations can be applied to early neurodegeneration. To concentrate on the close coupling of cognitive performance and brain activity, we exclusively addressed task fMRI studies. First, we found evidence for parallels in compensatory mechanisms between healthy aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies fulfilled criteria of attempted compensation, while reports of successful compensation were largely absent, which made it difficult to conclude on. Second, comparing working memory studies in preclinical Huntington’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment, we identified similar compensatory patterns across neurodegenerative disorders in lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. Such patterns included an inverted U-shaped relationship of neurodegeneration and compensatory activity spanning from preclinical to manifest disease. Due to the lack of studies systematically targeting all criteria of compensation, we propose an exemplary study design, including the manipulation of compensating brain areas by brain stimulation. Furthermore, we delineate the benefits of targeted interventions by non-invasive brain stimulation, as well as of unspecific interventions such as physical activity or cognitive training. Unambiguously detecting compensation in early neurodegenerative disease will help tailor interventions aiming at sustained overall functioning and

  12. Effectiveness of a multimodal community intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempts: a quasi-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Ono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multilevel and multimodal interventions have been suggested for suicide prevention. However, few studies have reported the outcomes of such interventions for suicidal behaviours. METHODS: We examined the effectiveness of a community-based multimodal intervention for suicide prevention in rural areas with high suicide rates, compared with a parallel prevention-as-usual control group, covering a total of 631,133 persons. The effectiveness was also examined in highly populated areas near metropolitan cities (1,319,972 persons. The intervention started in July 2006, and continued for 3.5 years. The primary outcome was the incidence of composite outcome, consisting of completed suicides and suicide attempts requiring admission to an emergency ward for critical care. We compared the rate ratios (RRs of the outcomes adjusted by sex, age group, region, period and interaction terms. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis and stratified by sex and age groups. FINDINGS: In the rural areas, the overall median adherence of the intervention was significantly higher. The RR of the composite outcome in the intervention group decreased 7% compared with that of the control group. Subgroup analyses demonstrated heterogeneous effects among subpopulations: the RR of the composite outcome in the intervention group was significantly lower in males (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-0.998, p = 0.0485 and the RR of suicide attempts was significantly lower in males (RR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.22-0.68, p = 0.001 and the elderly (RR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.71, p = 0.004. The intervention had no effect on the RR of the composite outcome in the highly populated areas. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that this community-based multimodal intervention for suicide prevention could be implemented in rural areas, but not in highly populated areas. The effectiveness of the intervention was shown for males and for the elderly in rural areas

  13. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  14. Studies of Current Dependent Effects at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A S; Huttel, E; Pérez, F; Pont, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The ANKA electron storage ring is operated at energies between 0.5 and 2.5 GeV. A major requirement for a synchrotron light source, such as ANKA, is to achieve a high beam current. A multitude of mostly impedance related effects depend on either bunch or total beam current. This paper gives an overview over the various beam studies performed at ANKA in this context, specifically the observation of current dependent detuning, the determination of the bunch length change with current from a measurement of the ratio between coherent and incoherent synchrotron tune and an assessment of the effective longitudinal loss factor from the current dependent horizontal closed orbit distortion.

  15. Incidence and predictors of suicide attempts in bipolar I and II disorders: A 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Suominen, Kirsi; Ketokivi, Mikko; Valtonen, Hanna; Arvilommi, Petri; Mantere, Outi; Leppämäki, Sami; Isometsä, Erkki

    2017-02-01

    Few long-term studies on bipolar disorder (BD) have investigated the incidence and risk factors of suicide attempts (SAs) specifically related to illness phases. We examined the incidence of SAs during different phases of BD in a long-term prospective cohort of bipolar I (BD-I) and bipolar II (BD-II) patients, and risk factors specifically for SAs during major depressive episodes (MDEs). In the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS), 191 BD-I and BD-II patients were followed using life-chart methodology. Prospective information on SAs of 177 patients (92.7%) during different illness phases was available up to 5 years. The incidence of SAs and their predictors were investigated using logistic and Poisson regression models. Analyses of risk factors for SAs occurring during MDEs were conducted using two-level random-intercept logistic regression models. During the 5 years of follow-up, 90 SAs per 718 patient-years occurred. The incidence was highest, over 120-fold higher than in euthymia, during mixed states (765/1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 461-1269 person-years), and also very high in MDEs, almost 60-fold higher than in euthymia (354/1000 person-years; 95% CI 277-451 person-years). For risk of SAs during MDEs, the duration of MDEs, severity of depression, and cluster C personality disorders were significant predictors. We confirmed in this long-term study that the highest incidences of SAs occur in mixed and major depressive illness phases. The variations in incidence rates between euthymia and illness phases were remarkably large, suggesting that the question "when" rather than "who" may be more relevant for suicide risk in BD. However, risk during MDEs is likely also influenced by personality factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsay Hailu Gebremariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS continues to be an underrecognized risk for suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, and completion of suicide. Suicidal ideation and attempt in HIV/AIDS is not only a predictor of future attempted suicide and completed suicide. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive patients attending HIV care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 423 participants from April to May 2014. Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression was computed to assess factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. Result. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt were found to be 22.5% and 13.9%, respectively. WHO clinical stage of HIV, not being on HAART, depression, family history of suicidal attempt, and perceived stigma were associated with suicidal ideation. WHO clinical stage, being female, not being on HAART, use of substance, and depression were associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Early diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections, depression, and early initiation of ART need to be encouraged in HIV-positive adults. Furthermore, counseling on substance use and its consequences and early identification of HIV-positive people with family history of suicidal ideation have to be considered.

  17. Association study of the interleukin-1 gene complex and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene with suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, Paz; Paredes, Begoña; Arango, Celso; Morales, Blanca; Alvarez, Victoria; Coto, Eliécer; Bascarán, María-Teresa; Bousoño, Manuel; Bobes, Julio

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association between four functional polymorphisms in interleukin-1 (IL-1) [IL-1 alpha -889 C/T, IL-1 beta +3953 C/T, IL-1RA (86 bp)n] and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) (-308A/G) genes and suicide attempts. Distribution of the aforesaid polymorphisms was analyzed in 193 suicide attempters compared with 420 unrelated healthy controls from Asturias (Northern Spain). Genotypes were determined using standard methods. No significant differences were found in genotype or in allelic distribution of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1RA, or TNFalpha gene polymorphisms. No relationship was found between genotypes and the impulsivity of the suicide attempt. Estimated IL-1 haplotype frequencies were similar in both groups (likelihood ratio test=13.26, df=14, P=0.506). Our data do not suggest that genetically determined changes in the IL-1 or TNFalpha genes confer increased susceptibility to suicidal behavior.

  18. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people - A Danish observational register-based historical cohort study, using propensity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first prescription. The hazard ratio for suicide attempts after redeeming a prescription was estimated to 5.23, 95% CI 4.82-5.68. We conclude that the risk of suicide attempt is higher for young people in the first months after redeeming their first prescription for SSRIs, compared to non-users. For SSRI users with lower propensity score (fewer risk factors for SSRIs) the risk of suicide attempt is estimated to be highest. Although the design may miss some explicit reason for prescription of SSRIs and SSRIs might be a marker for those in high risk rather than a causal risk factor, we would recommend systematic risk assessment in the period after redeeming the first prescription.

  19. A nested case-control study of the risk of suicide attempts after discharge from psychiatric care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge

    2008-01-01

    abuse with mental illness raised risk in an additive way. We found only small gender differences in risk. In order to lower the risk of suicide attempts, we need to improve after-care when discharging from psychiatric care. A differentiation between the possibilities of after-care for different mental...

  20. Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Findings from the TORDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Keller, Martin; Birmaher, Boris; McCracken, James; Mayes, Taryn; Berk, Michelle; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of suicide attempts (SAs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed adolescents who did not improve with an adequate SSRI trial (N = 334) were randomized to a medication switch (SSRI or venlafaxine), with or without…

  1. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  2. Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Findings from the TORDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Keller, Martin; Birmaher, Boris; McCracken, James; Mayes, Taryn; Berk, Michelle; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of suicide attempts (SAs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed adolescents who did not improve with an adequate SSRI trial (N = 334) were randomized to a medication switch (SSRI or venlafaxine), with or without…

  3. Relationship between High School Mathematics Grade and Number of Attempts Required to Pass the Medication Calculation Test in Nurse Education: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Alteren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Norwegian nurse education, students are required to achieve a perfect score in a medication calculation test before undertaking their first practice period during the second semester. Passing the test is a challenge, and students often require several attempts. Adverse events in medication administration can be related to poor mathematical skills. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between high school mathematics grade and the number of attempts required to pass the medication calculation test in nurse education. The study used an exploratory design. The participants were 90 students enrolled in a bachelor’s nursing program. They completed a self-report questionnaire, and statistical analysis was performed. The results provided no basis for the conclusion that a statistical relationship existed between high school mathematics grade and number of attempts required to pass the medication calculation test. Regardless of their grades in mathematics, 43% of the students passed the medication calculation test on the first attempt. All of the students who had achieved grade 5 had passed by the third attempt. High grades in mathematics were not crucial to passing the medication calculation test. Nonetheless, the grade may be important in ensuring a pass within fewer attempts.

  4. Attempts toward biosynthesis of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone and studies on its breakdown in hypothalamic tissue preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K; Lipmann, F

    1976-07-01

    Attempts were made to study the reported biosynthesis of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH = pyroGlu-His-Pro-amide) by incubating extracts of freeze-dried hypothalamic tissue with radioactively labeled precursor amino acids. Chromatographic analysis indicated a fast incorporation of radioactivity into many metabolites, including one that initially co-migrated with TRH. However, on two-dimensional chromatography, such coincidence disappeared and thus a biosynthesis of TRH could not be confirmed. A very fast degradation of TRH by serum, as well as by brain tissue preparations, was observed and was studied in detail because it could be a cause of difficulties encountered in detecting an in vitro synthesis. In hypothalamic and cortical tissue preparations, on incubation with TRH labeled with [3H]proline, fast formation of radioactively labeled deamido-TRH and liberation of prolineamide and free proline were found. On incubation of serum with labeled TRH there was a similar rapid breakdown, but different products were yielded. Degradation of TRH by serum has been reported to be strongly inhibited by pyroGlu-His-OCH3, a dipeptide analogue of TRH (10). The peptidolytic cleavage of TRH by brain enzymes, yielding proline and prolineamide as split products, was also effectively reduced using comparatively high concentrations of the dipeptide ester without, however, preventing TRH deamidation. Presuming deamido-TRH to be a biosynthetic intermediary, we decided to continue studying the synthesis of TRH with hypothalamic tissue preparations in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of the dipeptide ester, aiming at the isolation of deamido-TRH. Using [14C]proline as the label, it appeared that rather large amounts of radioactively labeled deamido-TRH, which was identified as such by vigorous purification, could be isolated from such incubates. However, only proline was incorporated, but labelled histidine or glutamic acid were not, and ATP addition was, if anything

  5. Is socioeconomic position associated with risk of attempted suicide in rural Sri Lanka? A cross-sectional study of 165 000 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, D; Pieris, R; Priyadarshana, C; Weerasinghe, M; Pearson, M; Jayamanne, S; Dawson, A H; Mohamed, F; Gawarammana, I; Hawton, K; Konradsen, F; Eddleston, M; Metcalfe, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviour in high-income countries, but this association is unclear in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods We investigated the association of SEP with attempted suicide in a cross-sectional survey of 165 233 Sri Lankans. SEP data were collected at the household (assets, social standing (highest occupation of a household member), foreign employment and young (≤40 years) female-headed households) and individual level (education and occupation). Respondent-reported data on suicide attempts in the past year were recorded. Random-effects logistic regression models, accounting for clustering, were used to investigate the association of SEP with attempted suicide. Results Households reported 398 attempted suicides in the preceding year (239 per 100 000). Fewer assets (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) and having a daily wage labourer (ie, insecure/low-income job; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2) as the highest occupation increased the risk of an attempted suicide within households. At an individual level, daily wage labourers were at an increased risk of attempted suicide compared with farmers. The strongest associations were with low levels of education (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.5 to 8.4), with a stronger association in men than women. Conclusions We found that indicators of lower SEP are associated with increased risk of attempted suicide in rural Sri Lanka. Longitudinal studies with objective measures of suicide attempts are needed to confirm this association. Trial registration number NCT01146496; Pre-results. PMID:28336743

  6. Role of demographic and personality factors in mediating vulnerability to suicide attempts under intoxication with alcohol: A record-based exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying those who are likely to make suicide attempts under alcohol intoxication has important implications for management and prevention of further suicidal behavior. Aims: To identify the frequency of suicide attempts made under the influence of alcohol and the percentage of impulsive suicide attempts among them. We also aimed to identify predictors of attempted suicide under intoxication with alcohol. Setting and Design: Record-based study carried out at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The clinical charts of consecutive suicide attempters (n = 147 who presented to the crisis intervention clinic from July 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed, and relevant data were extracted. The participants were divided into three groups – nonusers of alcohol (n = 85, alcohol users who did not attempt under intoxication (n = 31 and alcohol users who attempted under intoxication (n = 31. These groups were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical variables. Logistic regression was done to identify predictors of suicide attempt under intoxication. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square (χ2 test, one-way ANOVA (F test and backward stepwise logistic regression. Results: About 21.08% of all suicide attempts occurred under alcohol intoxication. Such subjects were more likely to be older (F = 12.428, P< 0.001, male (χ2 = 87.367, P< 0.001, married (χ2 = 6.787, P = 0.034, employed (χ2 = 41.778, P< 0.001, and fewer years of formal schooling (F = 3.312, P = 0.039. Physical methods (hanging were used more often in this group (χ2 = 19.510, P = 0.012. In regression analysis, only marital status and living condition emerged as predictors of attempt under intoxication (odds ratios 4.52 [confidence interval (CI 1.34–15.24, P = 0.015] and 5.67 [CI 1.17–27.39, P = 0.031] respectively. Conclusion: Certain demographic features may help us in identifying those who are more likely to make attempts under intoxication. The role of

  7. Life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life in attempted suicide: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; George, Biju

    2013-01-01

    Background: Though deliberate self-harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life have not yet been explored in depth in India. Aims: The aim was to analyze and compare the type and severity of life events, coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading t...

  8. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boundary layers to influence the ambient larger-scale flow. We have studied these issues through ocean model simulations, adjoint sensitivity...circulation be monitored from pressure gauges, temperature sensors, current meters, or other measurements near the feature? • The influence of the

  9. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M Almutairi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom.Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations.Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco. The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices. Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries.If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA.

  10. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Characteristics of attempted suicide by patients with schizophrenia compared with those with mood disorders: a case-controlled study in northern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ishii

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a lifetime suicide risk for schizophrenia patients of approximately 5%. This figure is significantly higher than the general population suicide risk consequently, detection of those at risk is clinically important. This study was undertaken to define the characteristics of suicide attempts by schizophrenia patients compared with attempts by patients with mood disorders. All patients were diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria. The study population comprised 65 patients with F2 disorders (schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, i.e., "the F2 group", and 94 patients with F3 disorders (mood disorders, i.e., "the F3 group", who presented in the clinical setting of consultation-liaison psychiatry. The F2 group had a significantly younger mean age and significantly higher ratios of 'past/present psychiatric treatment' and 'more than 3 months interruption of psychiatric treatment'. In contrast, the ratios of 'physical disorder comorbidity', 'alcohol intake at suicide attempt' and 'suicide note left behind' were significantly higher in the F3 group. The F2 group attempted suicide by significantly more serious methods. Furthermore, 'hallucination-delusion' was the most prevalent motive in the F2 group and was the only factor that showed a significant association with the seriousness of the method of suicide attempt (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.05-11.33.

  12. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Camarena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n=95 and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P>0.05. In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents.

  13. [Current registry studies of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltkamp, R; Jüttler, E; Pfefferkorn, T; Purrucker, J; Ringleb, P

    2012-10-01

    Study registries offer the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new therapies or to observe the consequences of new treatments in clinical practice. The SITS-MOST registry confirmed the validity of findings from randomized trials on intravenous thrombolysis concerning safety and efficacy in the clinical routine. Current study registries concerning new interventional thrombectomy techniques suggest a high recanalization rate; however, the clinical benefit can only be evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Similarly, the experiences of the BASICS registry on basilar artery occlusion have led to the initiation of a controlled trial. The benefit of hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction has been demonstrated by the pooled analysis of three randomized trials. Numerous relevant aspects are currently documented in the DESTINY-R registry. Finally, the recently started RASUNOA registry examines diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurring during therapy with new oral anticoagulants.

  14. Depression and exposure to suicide predict suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Sonali; Misch, Diane; Chang, Laura; Henry, David

    2013-10-01

    To examine the role of depression and exposure to peer or family suicide and their interaction as risk factors for adolescent suicide attempts. The study used the public-use data set of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which is a nationally representative stratified sample of U.S. high school students. Sample size was 4,719. Analyses predicted suicide attempts from preexisting depression and exposure to suicide of a friend or family member, controlling for previous suicide attempts, exposure, and depression. The greatest risk for future suicide attempts (relative risk = 3.3), was attributable to an attempt in the preceding year, controlling for preexisting and current depression and exposure. There was a main effect of exposure with the next highest relative risk of 3.2. A similar risk ratio, 3.2, was found for the difference between no depression and current severe depression, controlling for past depression and attempts. There was no evidence of an interaction between exposure to a peer or family member suicide attempt and depression. Supplementary analyses found that exposure to a friend or family member suicide attempt or completed suicide each added significantly to risk for adolescents regardless of depression levels. Exposure to suicidal behavior in a friend or family member poses risk equivalent to the risk posed by becoming severely depressed. Attending to such risks could benefit clinical practice with adolescence and public health suicide prevention efforts. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. History of suicide attempts in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Weiss, Jonathan; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may be at higher risk for attempting suicide compared to the general population. This study examines the issue of suicidality in adults with AS. An online survey was completed by 50 adults from across Ontario. The sample was dichotomized into individuals who had attempted suicide (n = 18) and those who had not (n = 32). We examined the relationship between predictor variables and previous attempts, and compared the services that both groups are currently receiving. Over 35% of individuals with AS reported that they had attempted suicide in the past. Individuals who attempted suicide were more likely to have a history of depression and self-reported more severe autism symptomatology. Those with and without a suicidal history did not differ in terms of the services they were currently receiving. This study looks at predictors retrospectively and cannot ascertain how long ago the attempt was made. Although efforts were made to obtain a representative sample, there is the possibility that the individuals surveyed may be more or less distressed than the general population with AS. The suicide attempt rate in our sample is much higher than the 4.6% lifetime prevalence seen in the general population. These findings highlight a need for more specialized services to help prevent future attempts and to support this vulnerable group.

  16. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  17. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  18. A STUDY OF PSYCHIATRIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS PRESENTED WITH ATTEMPTED SUICIDE IN A STATE CAPITAL MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the commonest psychiatric emergencies. According to WHO report, 1999 suicide was one of the top three leading causes of death among people aged 15-34 years in all countries. In recent years, attempted suicide has become the focus of research as it has been found to be the predictor of suicide. Psychiatric factors are one of the important determinants in attempted suicide. OBEJCTIVES The aim of the present study was to analyse the psychiatric factors in attempted suicide. METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Medicine and Department of Psychiatry, Gandhi Medical College and associated Hamidia Hospital Bhopal. Study based on the patients admitted in Medicine/Psychiatry ward or attending Out Patients Department with history of suicidal attempts, during the period December 2006 to November 2007. RESULTS Psychiatric disorders were present in 74.25%, while no psychiatric disorder was present in rest of 25.75%. CONCLUSION Major depressive disorder accounting for 34.69% cases, was the most common concurrent psychiatric illness among the study group.

  19. Retaining a Legacy while Avoiding Trademark Infringement: A Case Study of One University's Attempt to Develop a Consistent Athletic Brand Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Sue Westcott

    2007-01-01

    This case study chronicles Syracuse University's athletic department's attempt to achieve consistency in its identity program by changing its identity during 2004, and then again in 2005. The changes were owing to high-level personnel changes on both the academic and athletic sides of the university. This case details the many issues arising from…

  20. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily ...

  1. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  2. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  3. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  4. The analysis of family risk factors associated with the occurrence of suicidal attempts among girls aged 12–16 years old. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rutkowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The analysis of family risk factors associated with the occurrence of suicidal attempts and self-mutilation in girls aged 12–16 years old. Material and method: The participants of this study consisted of 34 girls aged 12–16 years old, hospitalized in the Department of Paediatrics of the Medical University (Klinika Pediatrii UM in Lublin due to suicidal attempts. Fifty-five percent of the participants came from complete families, 20% were brought up by mothers only, 20% declared their parents to be divorced. The majority of the girls (76% were hospitalized due to medication overdose, 8% due to medication overdose and vein cutting, and 5% due to medication and alcohol overdose. The participants were presented with a complementary metric survey, and guided interviews were carried out with them. Results: A positive relationship between the number of self-mutilation acts and the number of suicidal attempts has been shown. The greatest number of suicidal attempts has been observed in the group of girls whose parents were divorced. Such a relationship has not been observed in the case of self-mutilation acts. A positive correlation has been observed between the feeling of isolation and the number of self-mutilation acts and suicidal attempts. The increase in the number of family rows was indicative of the increase in the number of self-mutilation acts. The feeling of being rejected by the family was positively related to the number of suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Adolescent girls with a tendency towards suicidal behaviours are simultaneously prone to self-destructive behaviours. Parental relationships affect the girls’ functioning, with the risk of suicidal attempts being higher in the group of girls whose parents are divorced. The risk of suicidal attempts and self-mutilation acts increases with the feeling of isolation in teenage girls.

  5. A study of model bivalve siphonal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Janet K.; O'Riordan, Catherine A.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    1990-01-01

    We carried out experiments studying the hydrodynamics of bivalve siphonal currents in a laboratory flume. Rather than use living animals, we devised a simple, model siphon pair connected to a pump. Fluorescence-based flow visualization was used to characterize siphon-jet flows for several geometric configurations and flow speeds. These measurements show that the boundary-layer velocity profile, siphon height, siphon pair orientation, and size of siphon structure all affect the vertical distribution of the excurrent flow downstream of the siphon pair and the fraction of excurrent that is refiltered. The observed flows may effect both the clearance rate of an entire population of siphonate bivalves as well as the efficiency of feeding of any individual. Our results imply that field conditions are properly represented in laboratory flume studies of phytoplankton biomass losses to benthic bivalves when the shear velocity and bottom roughness are matched to values found in the field. Numerical models of feeding by a bivalve population should include an effective sink distribution which is created by the combined incurrent-excurrent flow field. Near-bed flows need to be accounted for to properly represent these benthic-pelagic exchanges. We also present velocity measurements made with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) for a single configuration (siphons flush with bed, inlet downstream) that show that the siphonal currents have a significant local effect on the properties of a turbulent boundary layer.

  6. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation as predictors of suicide attempts in adolescent girls: a multi-wave prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2015-04-01

    Although both suicide ideation (SI) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are known risk factors for suicidal behavior, few longitudinal studies have examined whether having a history of one or both of these factors prospectively predicts increased risk for suicide attempts. According to the theory of acquired capability for suicide, engagement in NSSI may reduce inhibitions around self-inflicted violence, imparting greater risk for suicide attempts among those with SI than would be observed in those with SI who do not have a history of NSSI. We used prospective data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a large community sample, to compare groups of girls reporting no SI or NSSI, SI only, or both NSSI and SI between early to late adolescence on any lifetime or recent suicide attempts in late adolescence and early adulthood. As compared to girls with no SI or NSSI history and those with only an SI history, girls with a history of both NSSI and SI were significantly more likely to subsequently report both lifetime and recent suicide attempts. Results are consistent with the acquired capability theory for suicide and suggest that adolescent girls who have engaged in NSSI and also report SI represent a particularly high-risk group in need of prevention and intervention efforts.

  7. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  8. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    significant different in age, a phenomena known from similar studies on rock glaciers elsewhere. Already during sampling it became obvious that with increasing altitude and decreasing distance to the valley headwall the percentage of freshly appearing boulders vs. weathered boulders with a distinct micro-relief is getting higher. The means of the lowermost ridges of the rock glaciers show, however, no significant difference to the early Holocene moraines dated to c. 11.5 10Be ka ago. This may indicate that rock glacier formation initiated shortly after Termination 1 during the early Holocene and partly overrode some parts of the early Holocene moraines. During the field work, a network of 46 differential GPS points has been established to start future monitoring of any potential rock glacier movement. It will allow exploring the climatological control on rock glacier behaviour in in the Southern Alps, as well as comparisons with current velocities measured in the European Alps. References: Kaplan, M.R., Schaefer, J., Denton, G.H., Barrell, D.J.A., Chinn, T.J.H., Putnam, A.E., Anderson, B.G., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R. & Doughty, A.M. (2010): Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger DryasStadial. Nature 467, 194-197. Sattler, K., Anderson, B., Mackintosh, A., Norton, K., de Róiste, M. (2016): Estimating permafrost distribution in the maritime SouthernAlps, New Zealand, based on climatic conditions at rock glacier sites. Frontiers in Earth Science - Section Cryospheric Sciences. doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00004.

  9. [When a Suicide Attempt is Kid's Stuff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rojas, Rafael; Quijano-Serrano, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Attempted suicide in children and adolescents is a disturbing and painful issue for patients, their families and physicians. Current medical literature provides little information about minors who attempt suicide, possibly because there is under-reporting of this condition as a diagnosis, or maybe because it is sometimes considered as a way for the child to draw attention. To present the experience of the Department of Psychiatry (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia, from 2003 to 2013. An observational retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 213 cases of children and adolescents treated for attempted suicide at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia from January 1, 2003 to October 31, 2013, and who received hospital or outpatient care in Child Psychiatry. A review was performed of the diagnosis, the number of suicide attempts, the peak months of consultation for this reason, and the methods selected, as well as a detailed description of the group of patients under 12 years old, and those managed with outpatient follow-up. The average patient is a female teenager who becomes intoxicated with drugs. Most often, patients do not return to outpatient follow-up. Those with follow-up have multiple psychopathologies and a high level of suffering. The most common methods, other than poisoning by drugs, are hanging and jumping from heights. Patients under 12 years old generally have their first attempt by drug poisoning. There is a predominance of anxiety disorder and depression, with a strong association with cognitive dysfunction, as a vulnerability factor. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry

  11. Is organizational change associated with increased rates of readmission to general hospital in suicide attempters? A 10-year prospective catchment area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Jørgensen, Trond; Diep, Lien My; Nrugham, Latha

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine predictors for readmissions in patients admitted to a general hospital emergency ward for suicide attempts before and after organizational changes potentially affecting the chain of care. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected by clinicians from 1997 thru 2007. Data from the periods before and after 2004--when the hospital changed its catchment area--were compared. A substantial increase in readmission rates in the period after the organizational change was observed. This increase was not associated with any of the socio-demographic or clinical patient characteristics. Although no causal connection can be inferred, the observed association between organizational change and readmission rates could indicate that established post-discharge care systems for suicide attempters may be vulnerable to such change.

  12. Growing need to study foraminifera in the laboratory culture experiments: An attempt from the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Koli, N.Y.

    culture programme is studied. Initially, the effect of different media (like plain sea water and Erdschreiber medium), food and antibiotic drug on the growth of foraminiferal tests are monitored. The results suggest that Erdschreiber medium is condusive...

  13. Attempted Training of Alcohol Approach and Drinking Identity Associations in US Undergraduate Drinkers: Null Results from Two Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P Lindgren

    Full Text Available There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1 and at-risk drinkers (Study 2. Three adaptations of the approach avoid task (AAT were tested. The first adaptation - the approach avoid training - was a replication and targeted implicit alcohol approach associations. The remaining two adaptations - the general identity and personalized identity trainings - targeted implicit drinking identity associations, which are robust predictors of hazardous drinking in US undergraduates. Study 1 included 300 undergraduate social drinkers. They were randomly assigned to real or sham training conditions for one of the three training adaptations, and completed two training sessions, spaced one week apart. Study 2 included 288 undergraduates at risk for alcohol use disorders. The same training procedures were used, but the two training sessions occurred within a single week. Results were not as expected. Across both studies, the approach avoid training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. The general identity training also yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes with one exception; individuals who completed real training demonstrated no changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy whereas individuals who completed sham training had reductions in self-efficacy. Finally, across both studies, the personalized identity training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. Despite having relatively large samples and using a well-validated training task, study results indicated all three training adaptations were ineffective at this dose in US undergraduates. These findings are important because training studies are costly and labor

  14. Suicidal Ideation vs. Suicide Attempts: Clinical and Psychosocial Profile Differences Among Depressed Patients: A Study on Personality Traits, Psychopathological Variables, and Sociodemographic Factors in 228 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Spirling, Sina; Ritter, Dirk; Smolka, Michael; Goodday, Sarah; Bauer, Michael; Felber, Werner; Bschor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated whether personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors in depressed patients differentiate patients with only suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide. We investigated two groups of patients with an affective disorder: 198 patients with a suicide attempt within the last 3 months (sex ratio male to female, 1:1.3; mean age male to female, 44.8/44.7 years) and 30 patients without a suicide attempt but with suicidal thoughts (sex ratio male to female, 1:2; mean age male to female, 39.4/42.6 years) using a comprehensive measurement (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Axis II disorders, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Beck-Hopelessness Scale, Scale for Suicide Ideation, Impulsivity Rating Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Inventory for the Assessment of Aggression Factors, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Ways of Coping Checklist). Several differences distinguished the two groups, namely, in personality traits such as anxiety or coping strategies and sociodemographics (e.g., education level). Personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors are useful tools for assessing suicidal risk. Our findings encourage us to suggest that clinicians pay particular attention to sociodemographic variables such as separation/divorce and a lower education level when conducting risk assessments on suicidal patients.

  15. Childhood suicide attempts with acetaminophen in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... attempts. (3) The frequency of self-mutilation among children with suicidal behaviour. (4) The purposes and reasons for childhood suicide attempts. Methods: A retrospective case-control study based on medical records and in-hospital child psychiatric assessments at the Paediatric Department, Hillerød.......02). Prior to their suicide attempts, 41.5% of the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems but felt that they were not heard. There was a significant association among 'the feeling of not being heard' and the purpose of the suicide attempt (p = 0.002) and self-mutilation (p = 0...

  16. The Role of Case Study in Teacher Education: An Attempt to Bridge the Gap between Action and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Schrittesser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available International studies provide evidence that effective teachers are essential to students’ learning success. Research on teacher effectiveness in the United States began in the 1980’s, and valid and reliable methods for assessing teacher effectiveness have been developed in its context, research on this topic is still relatively new in German-speaking countries. While effective teaching is a highly complex construct which includes a whole repertoire of skills, there seems evidence that some of these skills play a particularly significant role for effective teaching. The present article will take a close look at these skills from the perspective of two mostly separate discourses: expertise research and the qualities of expert teachers, which are usually discussed in the Anglo-American context, and theories of teacher professionalism which is highly influential in the German speaking countries. The two concepts are explained and it is argued that–interestingly enough–research results of both discourses converge in the proposition that diagnostic and interpretative skills and an intuitive feel for situations –situation awareness–are decisive when it comes to successfully fostering students’ learning processes. These skills do not grow automatically with growing experience but need to be fostered by deliberate practice. Consequences for teacher education are drawn by suggesting that focusing on case study in teacher education as a particularly useful type of deliberate practice, is a promising approach to develop the above mentioned key skills.

  17. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  18. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  19. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CURRENT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Delev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to address problems of liquidity and in particular the values and factors that influenced the values of the coefficient of total liquidity sixty Bulgarian public companies for the period 2013 - 2007 year. In the analysis it was found that some businesses fail to achieve favorable values of the ratio between current assets and current liabilities. It was found that plants have a low level of total liquidity, which can create problems in repayment of short-term liabilities. It can be seen that there are companies with very high liquidity, which is not so good phenomenon, ie the retention of a high level of resources required. Businesses should conduct a thorough analysis and implement appropriate measures to correct adverse changes. The financial management of the companies surveyed had worked towards improving the state of the enterprise, thereby seeking to reduce liquidity risk.

  20. Coping Responses of Adolescent Suicide Attempters and Their Relation to Suicidal Ideation across a 2-Year Follow-Up: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquet, Michele L.; Wagner, Barry M.

    2003-01-01

    Coping responses of suicide attempters were compared to those of non-attempters. Suicide attempters made fewer effortful-approach and more automatic-approach coping responses, and were judged by trained raters to have coped less effectively. Discusses findings in light of model of coping that incorporates both individual differences and…

  1. Social Support among European Suicide Attempters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bille Brahe, U.; Egebo, H.; Crepet, P.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In order to measure social support among suicide attempters, an instrument was especially designed to be included in the follow-up interview study being part of the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide which is carried out in cooperation with EC Concerted Action on Attempted Suicide. I

  2. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  3. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  4. Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…

  5. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  6. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  7. Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozekicioglu Seda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

  8. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  9. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  10. Study of high current commutation by explosive switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuba, S.; Kakudate, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Miyamoto, M.; Morita, T.; Kubota, A.; den, M.

    1993-01-01

    The study presents the basic experimental data obtained with a large current opening switch for current commutation using explosives. It is shown that currents up to a maximum of 40 kA can be completely interrupted within 30 microsec. The mechanism of current interruption using a thin conductor plate and methods of measuring interrupting current with a pickup coil and taking photographs with a high-speed camera (one frame per microsec) are discussed.

  11. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  12. Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Noella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. Methods Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and its follow-up survey, the Tobacco Callback Survey, were used to assess determinants of having ever attempted to quit smoking and attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months. All analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Among 3,560 current smokers, 41.5% reported having tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months while 83.4% reported having ever tried to quit. Having a history of a tobacco-related medical condition was significantly associated with both recent (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.41 [Confidence Interval 1.19–1.65] and lifetime quit attempts (AOR 1.43 [1.15–1.79]. Greater nicotine dependence and being advised by a physician to quit smoking were also positively associated with lifetime quit attempts. Receipt of healthcare provider advice to quit smoking in the past 12 months and a strong belief that quitting following a long history of regular smoking would not result in health benefits and belief that there are health benefits to quitting smoking were associated with lifetime quit attempts. Conclusion Targeted smoking cessation interventions are needed for smokers with selected medical conditions and with high nicotine dependence. The importance of physician advice in encouraging individuals to quit is further highlighted.

  13. 精神病人自杀行为的随访研究%A 5-year follow-up study of suicide attempts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建初; 邓永清; 张德源

    2001-01-01

    Objective This was a follow-up study of suicidal patients to assess the influence over time of different risk factors.Method A cohort of 73 patients admitted to a psychiatric department after a suicide attempt was followed-up for 5 years.Results In total,61.6% reattemped,15.1% of which had committed suicide during the follow-up.The rist factors for suicide included history of family psychiatric or suicide,and a poor social support,et al.Conclusion The results suggest a high repetition rate of suicide attempters in the psychotic patients who had previous suicidal behaviour and them positive family history.The preventive strategy to suicide in patients,such as set up good social network and should pay mroe attention to psyciologic rehabilitation period after discharge.%目的探讨精神病人自杀行为的危险因素。方法对73例有自杀行为的精神病人出院后进行5年跟踪随访研究。结果出院后5年内有61.6%的病人再次出现自杀行为,其中15.1%的病人自杀身亡。再次出现自杀的因素有阳性家族史、社会支持状态较差等。结论有精神病和自杀家族史且有自杀行为者再次发生自杀的机率较大,病人出院后的心理康复治疗和建立良好的社会环境是防止自杀的重要措施。

  14. Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  16. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  17. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklander Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  18. Mermithid Nematodes: In Vitro Culture Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Finney, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    Few attempts at in vitro culture of mermithids have been undertaken. The various methods used to initiate cultures are described. The capacity of a range of media to promote growth and development of the nematodes has been evaluated and current approaches to in vitro outlined.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF RELIGION, SUPERSTITION, AND PERCEIVED GENDER INEQUALITY ON THE DEGREE OF SUICIDE INTENT: A STUDY OF SERIOUS ATTEMPTERS IN CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JIE; XU, HUILAN

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecutively sampled serious attempters of suicide hospitalized to emergency rooms immediately after the suicidal act in Dalian areas, China. Both univariate analyses and the multiple regression model have found that the higher the degree the religiosity and superstition on metempsychosis, the stronger the suicide intent Chinese women had. The perceived gender inequality is positively correlated with suicide intent, and it is especially true for Chinese women. The socio-psychological traits and traditional culture values and norms have important impacts on suicide patterns in Chinese societies. PMID:18214067

  20. A multisystems analysis of adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S R; Jurkovic, G L; Spirito, A

    1995-04-01

    The present study tested an ecologically based model, which predicted that hopelessness (individual level) mediates the effects of family dysfunction (interpersonal level) and socioeconomic status (sociocultural level) on both suicidal intent and suicidal ideation, within a sample of attempters. Subjects included adolescent males and females presenting at a general hospital emergency room following suicide attempts. Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for testing mediation models through multiple-regression analyses were employed. Little evidence of mediation was found. Hopelessness proved to be the best predictor of suicidal intent and ideation within a sample of attempters.

  1. How do cathartic drugs act? A case study on Gregor Horst (1578-1636) and his attempt to defend Galenist theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, C

    1998-12-01

    This case study deals with the argument of the Galenist author Gregor Horst (1578-1636), Medical Professor at Giessen University, Germany, and later town phyusician in Ulm, in the discussion on how purgatives act. Horst tried to reconcile a number of different opinions within a Galenist framework. His vast erudition enabled him to compare several classical as well as contemporary opinions. He takes into account Galen (129-c.200/216), Erasistratos (c. 330-255 BC), Asclepiades (fl. 1st century BC), the Hippocratic Corpus and the Problemata Aristotelis from antiquity, Mesue and Mundinus (c. 1270-1326) from the Middle Ages, and Jean Fernel (c. 1497-1558), Girolamo Cardano (1501-c. 1576), Johannes Costaeus (d. 1603), Laurent Joubert (1529-1583), Francisco Valles (1524-1592), Tobias Dorncreilius (1571-1605) and Gavriele Falloppio (1523-1562) from contemporary authors. Horst also integrated some Paracelsian ideas from Joseph Duchesne alias Quercetanus (1549-1609). In his attempt to preserve fundamentals of Galenic thought, Horst created a complicated theory nearly breaking under its own weight. He shows a rising divergence within traditional views as well as the fragmentation of Renaissance Galenism which took place already before the discovery of the blood circulation.

  2. Theoretical studies of non inductive current drive in compact toroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farengo, R; Lifschitz, AF; Caputi, KI; Arista, NR; Clemente, RA

    2002-01-01

    Three non inductive current drive methods that can be applied to compact toroids axe studied. The use of neutral beams to drive current in field reversed configurations and spheromaks is studied using a Monte Carlo code that includes a complete ionization package and follows the exact particle orbit

  3. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in a population-based study of Chinese people: risk attributable to hopelessness, depression, and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Law, C K; Chan, Brandford; Liu, Ka Yuet; Yip, Paul S F

    2006-02-01

    The population attributable fraction of hopelessness, depression and other risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in Asian population is unknown. Social support is often said to be a buffer against the effect of hopelessness and depression. Suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts as well as demographic and psychometric data were delineated in a random and representative population sample of 2,219 Chinese people in Hong Kong. The population attributable fraction was used to determine the contribution of hopelessness, depression and other risk factors to suicidal ideation and attempts. Multivariate modelling shows that about 40% of suicidal ideation and attempts was attributable to depression and about 20% was attributable to hopelessness. Drug abuse and marital dissolution were also significant contributors to suicidality. The impact of hopelessness and depression was not affected by social support. Suicidality was self-reported. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were to a large extent attributable to depression and hopelessness, and, to a lesser extent, drug abuse and marital dissolution. Social support appeared to play little role as a buffer.

  4. Do personality traits such as impulsivity and hostility-aggressiveness predict severity of intent in attempted suicide? Findings from a record based study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the association of personality traits with intent in attempted suicide. Aims: Our objectives were to assess the levels of selected personality factors among suicide attempters and to examine their association with suicide intent. Materials and Methods: A chart review of 156 consecutive suicide attempters was carried out. All participants were administered the Beck Suicide Intent Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale to assess suicide intent, trait impulsivity, hostility-aggression, and violence, respectively. Pearson′s product moment correlation was the used as the test of association. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify predictors of suicide intent. Results: Suicide intent was significantly correlated with verbal aggression (Pearson r = 0.90, P = 0.030, hostility (Pearson r = 0.316, P < 0.001, and nonplanning impulsivity (r = -0.174, P = 0.049. High hostility and low motor impulsivity emerged as significant predictors of suicide intent. Conclusion: Personality traits such as hostility and to an extent, impulsivity are accurate predictors of intentionality in attempted suicide. Clinicians should focus on these personality attributes during a routine evaluation of suicide attempters. They can also be considered as potential targets for suicide prevention programs.

  5. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  6. Family-based study of HTR2A in suicide attempts: observed gene, gene × environment and parent-of-origin associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Efraim, Y J; Wasserman, D; Wasserman, J; Sokolowski, M

    2013-07-01

    While suicidal behavior is frequently accompanied by serotonergic system alterations, specific associations with genetic variation in the serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) gene have been inconsistent. Using a family-based study design of 660 offspring who have made a suicide attempt (SA) and both parents, we conducted an association and linkage analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with extensive gene coverage, and included the study of parent-of-origin (POE) and gene-environment interaction (G × E), also using previously unstudied exposures. The main finding was a G × E between the exon 1 SNP rs6313 and exposure to cumulative types of lifetime stressful life events (SLEs), driven by overtransmission of CT and undertransmission of TT, both in relation to other genotypes. Further exploratory analysis revealed a significant POE in this G × E in female subjects, which followed a polar overdominant inheritance pattern. In addition, rs6310 and rs6305 were found to significantly associate with SA in the total sample. A G × E in female subjects (rs7322347 × physical assault in childhood/adolescence) confirmed features of a previously observed association with SA. Other potentially interesting nominally significant findings were observed, but like the G × E of rs7322347 did not pass a false-discovery rate cutoff. Taken together, this study found multiple associations of HTR2A SNPs on SA, with strongest statistical evidence for a G × E involving rs6313, and further suggested the importance of taking into account different inheritance patterns and G × Es with regard to HTR2A.

  7. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Robert

    2011-11-18

    Abstract Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact

  8. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Robert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15 followed up in early adulthood (age 19. At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc. and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use. In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.. Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84 to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than

  9. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Riordan, Vincent; Stark, Cameron

    2011-11-18

    Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with psychiatric service.

  10. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  11. Matched case-control study of medically serious attempted suicides in rural China%中国农村严重自杀未遂危险因素的配对病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜春玲; 李献云; 费立鹏; 许永臣

    2013-01-01

    Background:Suicide rates in rural China are two-fold to three-fold those in urban China but the reasons for this large difference remain unclear. Aim:Assess the characteristics and risk factors of medically serious suicide attempts in rural China. Methods:A comprehensive 2 to 3 hour structured interview was administered by psychiatrists to 297 medically serious suicide attempters (defined as those who remained in hospital for 6 hours or longer) treated in the emergency room of the People’s Hospital of Yuncheng County in Shandong Province and, separately, to their accompanying co-resident family members. A parallel interview was administered to control subjects matched for age and gender from the same village who had never made a suicide attempt and to their co-resident family members. Risk factors for attempted suicide were identified using Cox regression models. Results:Among the 297 suicide attempters, 74%were female, 78%were farmers, their mean (sd) age was 33.2 (14.6) years, their mean length of formal schooling was 4.8 (3.1) years, 80%had attempted suicide by ingesting pesticides, 57%reported considering suicide for five minutes or less before acting, 76%had a score of less than 50 (range, 0 to 100) on the planning subscale of the Suicide Intent Scale, 11%had made prior attempts, and only 38%met DSM-IV criteria for a current mental disorder. After controlling for gender, age, location of residence and prior suicide attempt (in the matched analysis), risk factors identified in the multivariate analysis included a low level of education, having relatives or associates with prior suicidal behavior, experiencing four or more negative life events in the prior year, a low quality of life and low family cohesion over the prior month, high depressive symptom scores over the prior two weeks, and (only assessed in a subsample) high impulsivity and aggression. Conclusion:Many of the medically treated suicide attempts in rural China are low-intent attempts by the

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among suicide attempters attending emergency services at two hospitals in Hawassa city, South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayehu, Moges; Solomon, Tarekegn; Lemma, Kinfe

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. It contributes for more than one million deaths each year. Since previous suicidal attempt was considered as the best predictor of future suicide, identifying factors behind suicidal attempt are helpful to design suicide prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among patients presenting with suicidal attempt to emergency services of general hospitals in South Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients presenting with complications of suicidal attempt to emergency departments of two general hospitals in Hawassa city from November, 2014 to August, 2015. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire which contained socio-demographic and clinical variables. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5 (MINI PLUs) was used to assess the prevalence of existing mental illness among study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 21 software package. A total of 96 individuals were assessed, of whom 56 (58.3%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 21.5 (8.0) years. The majority, 75 (78.1%), of the study participants were aged below 25 years. Ingesting pesticide poisons and corrosive agent were used by the majority to attempt suicide. Mental illness was found in only three (3.1%) of the study participants. Impulsivity (the time between decision to attempt suicide and the actual attempt of less than 5 min) was reported by 30 (31.2%) of the study participants, of whom 18 (60%) were males. Males were found three times more likely to attempt suicide impulsively than women (COR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3). Quarreling with family members, facing financial crisis, and having unplanned and unwanted pregnancy were reported by the majority of study participants as immediate reasons to attempt suicide. The presence of stressful life events and

  13. Study of the outcome of suicide attempts: characteristics of hospitalization in a psychiatric ward group, critical care center group, and non-hospitalized group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemuyama Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allocation of outcome of suicide attempters is extremely important in emergency situations. Following categorization of suicidal attempters who visited the emergency room by outcome, we aimed to identify the characteristics and potential needs of each group. Methods The outcomes of 1348 individuals who attempted suicide and visited the critical care center or the psychiatry emergency department of the hospital were categorized into 3 groups, "hospitalization in the critical care center (HICCC", "hospitalization in the psychiatry ward (HIPW", or "non-hospitalization (NH", and the physical, mental, and social characteristics of these groups were compared. In addition, multiple logistic analysis was used to extract factors related to outcome. Results The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. The hospitalized groups, particularly the HICCC group, were found to have biopsychosocially serious findings with regard to disturbance of consciousness (JCS, general health performance (GAS, psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, and life events (LCU, while most subjects in the NH group were women who tended to repeat suicide-related behaviors induced by relatively light stress. The HIPW group had the highest number of cases, and their symptoms were psychologically serious but physically mild. On multiple logistic analysis, outcome was found to be closely correlated with physical severity, risk factor of suicide, assessment of emergent medical intervention, and overall care. Conclusion There are different potential needs for each group. The HICCC group needs psychiatrists on a full-time basis and also social workers and clinical psychotherapists to immediately initiate comprehensive care by a medical team composed of multiple professionals. The HIPW group needs psychological education to prevent repetition of suicide attempts, and high-quality physical treatment and management skill of the staff in the psychiatric ward. The NH group subjects need a

  14. Study of a fibre optics current sensor for the measurement of plasma current in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuilpart, Marc; Vanus, Benoit; Andrasan, Alina; Gusarov, Andrei; Moreau, Philippe; Mégret, Patrice

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study the feasibility of using a fibre-optics current sensor (FOCS) for the measurement of plasma current in the future fusion reactor ITER. The sensor is based on a classical FOCS interrogator involving the measurement of the state of polarization rotation undergone by the light in presence of a magnetic field (Faraday effect) in an optical fibre surrounding the current and terminated by a Faraday mirror. We considered a uniformly spun optical fibre as the sensing element and we used the Stokes formalism to simulate the sensor. The objective of the simulations is to quantify the ratio LB/SP (beat length over the spun period of the spun fibre) enabling a measurement error in agreement with the ITER specifications. The simulator takes into account the temperature variations undergone by the measurement system under ITER operation. The simulation work showed that a LB/SP ratio of 19.2 is adequate.

  15. Attempted suicide in manic-depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, N; Fieve, R R

    1984-07-01

    Structured interviews were used to study rates of past suicide attempts among 123 outpatients treated for affective disorders. Subjects met the Feighner criteria for major affective illness, and bipolar and unipolar groups were identified in accordance with the Fieve-Dunner criteria. Although a small group (N = 6), the women with a history of hospitalization for depression and outpatient treatment for hypomania (BP II) had the highest rate of past suicide attempts. (66 percent). This confirms previous findings. Women showed higher rates overall (39 percent vs. 28 percent for men). Suicide attempters were found to be significantly younger than nonattempters, which is in line with previous reports that suicide risk is high early in the course of bipolar illness. A trend for attempters to have received their first treatment at a younger age suggests that early onset may be a risk factor. No differences in marital status were found between attempters and nonattempters. Males and females did not differ in number, seriousness, or lethality of attempts.

  16. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  17. Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S; Gibb, Brandon E

    2010-06-30

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) differ in several important ways, a significant number of individuals report histories of both behaviors. The current study further examined the relations between NSSI and attempted suicide among psychiatric inpatients. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 117 psychiatric inpatients at a general hospital (M=39.45 years old, S.D.=12.84 years, range=17-73 years). We found that presence and number of NSSI episodes were significantly related to presence and number of suicide attempts. Supporting the importance of NSSI assessment, patients' history of NSSI (presence and frequency) was more strongly associated with history of suicide attempts than were patients' depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and as strongly associated with suicide attempt history as current levels of suicidal ideation. Finally, among patients with a history of suicide attempts, those with an NSSI history reported significantly greater lethal intent for their most severe attempt, and patients' number of prior NSSI episodes was positively correlated with the level of lethal intent associated with their most severe suicide attempt.

  18. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  19. Suicide Risk Factors and Mediators between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide Ideation Among Male and Female Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; BECK, AARON T.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the manner in which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history relates to risk factors for suicidal behavior among recent suicide attempters (n = 166). Men who recently attempted suicide and endorsed a CSA history had higher scores on measures of hopelessness and suicide ideation than men without a CSA history. Men with a CSA history were also more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts and meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline p...

  20. Type of sexual intercourse experience and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among youths: a cross-sectional study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Hee; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-12-07

    Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts) from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12-17 years for the years 2012 and 2013. We defined lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth as youths who engaged in a type of sexual intercourse (same-sex or both-sex intercourse). A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between intercourse experience and SROs. The results showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among youths with same-sex intercourse experience (45.9% for females, 33.7% for males) than among youths with opposite-sex intercourse experience (42.2% for females, 23.8% for males) and those with no experience in intercourse (21.0% for females, 12.7% for males). After adjusting for revealed risk factors that were associated with suicide risks, among males, suicide risks based on intercourse experience seemed to increase in the following order: no experience in sexual intercourse, opposite-sex, same-sex, and then both-sexes sexual intercourse experience. Same- and both-sexes intercourse related SROs are strongly linked to violence (being physically assaulted, threatened, or bullied) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV infection. Those having no sexual intercourse experience showed the least probability of suicide risks among youths. The SROs of youths with same-sex or both-sex intercourse experience had strong associations with gender (males), violence, and STDs. Therefore, school educators must continue to advocate for and to implement LGB inclusive policies and programs in order to

  1. The current status of structural studies on proteins of the myelin sheath (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursula, P

    2001-11-01

    Myelin, the multilayered membrane structure surrounding axons, provides a unique environment to its proteins, which are either transmembrane proteins or interacting intimately with the membrane surface. Although myelin-specific proteins have been studied for decades, remarkably little is known of their three-dimensional structures. In addition, the exact functions of myelin proteins are to a large extent unknown. In this report, our current knowledge of peripheral nervous system myelin protein structures is reviewed, and the current status of attempts to solve the structures of full-length myelin proteins is evaluated. Furthermore, molecular models for the extracellular domain of the myelin-associated glycoprotein and the putative kinase-like domain of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase are presented and discussed.

  2. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  3. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangping Kong; Zhe Zhang; Xianggen Yin; Zhenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influenc...

  4. Medical students′ attitude toward suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of health professionals have unfavorable attitudes toward the patients presenting with self-harm, which further compromises their therapeutic endeavors and outcomes. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the medical students' attitudes toward suicide attempters. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care medical institute of Haryana, a Northern state of India. Two hundred and five final year medical students were recruited through total enumeration method. “Suicide Opinion Questionnaire” was administered to assess their attitudes toward suicide attempters. Results: Only minority had previous exposure of managing any suicidal patient and attended suicide prevention programs. Majority agreed for suicide attempters being lonely and depressed. Nearly half of the students reported small family, disturbed interpersonal relationship, weak personality, self-punishment approach, cultural inhibitions in emotional expression, national instability, and disbelief in afterlife, as a major push to attempt suicide. Compared to boys, girls reported the greater contribution of weak personality and self-destructive behaviors and lesser contribution of family disturbances and religious convictions as suicide triggers. They held favorable attitude for only one-third of the attitudinal statement, and they were uncertain for two-third of the attitudinal statements. Conclusions: Such a high proportion of uncertain responses imply toward lack of awareness and clinical expertise for managing suicide attempters. It also signifies the urgent need for enhancing their educational and clinical exposure, to improve their attitudes toward patients presenting with self-harm.

  5. Attempted suicide, suicidal intent, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A S; Stenager, E; Brahe, U B

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate suicidal intent to the suicide method chosen and the medical lethality of the suicidal act, and to discuss how ingestion of alcohol impacts these three factors. The study was based upon interviews with 139 suicidal patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital. The results indicated a tendency for suicide attempters using wrist-cutting to score low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. Patients using kinds of self-injury other than self-poisoning or wrist-cutting scored high. In the case of self-poisoning, suicidal intent did not influence the choice of toxic agent, nor was the choice of method and/or choice of toxic agent affected by alcohol ingestion. A correlation between suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt was seen only among patients without a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients who made highly lethal attempts scored relatively low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. The results indicate that the lethality of the suicidal act is only an incomplete guide to a patient's suicidal intent. However, it should be stressed that, despite the fact that alcohol-dependent suicide attempters may not strongly wish to die, they are nonetheless at high risk for making fatal suicide attempts.

  6. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  7. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  8. Study of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alpat, B.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Antreasyan, D.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chan, A.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boeck, H.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; Efremenko, Yu.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Fenyi, B.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gougas, A.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jenkes, K.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A. J. W.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moore, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulik, T.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Muheim, F.; Nagy, E.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Opitz, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petrak, S.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Strauch, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Tang, X. W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tuchscherer, H.; Tung, K. L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Völkert, R.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xu, J.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yao, X. Y.; Ye, J. B.; Yeh, S. C.; You, J. M.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.

    1997-02-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69+/-0.07 (stat.)+/-0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40+/-17% of the produced mesons are light-flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the π0 multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays.

  9. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  10. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  11. Attempted suicide in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees; Vervaet, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of mortality for patients with eating disorders (ED), especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Attempted suicide is also relatively common in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa. This study aimed at examining associations between attempted suicide and trait- and state-dependent characteristics in a large clinical population of ED patients. The sample consisted of 1,436 in- and outpatients of the Centre for Eating Disorders of the Ghent University Hospital. Measures of ED symptoms, psychopathology, and personality traits were compared between ED patients with and ED patients without a history of attempted suicide. A history of attempted suicide was found in 11.8% of the ED patients and lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by 43.3%. Multivariate analyses showed that a history of attempted suicide was associated with higher scores on depression, purging symptomatology, early-developed cognitive schemes (impaired autonomy and increased inhibition), and social insecurity. These findings support the increased risk of suicidal behavior in ED. The presence of particular personality traits, of cognitive schemes, and of purging and depressive symptoms should increase vigilance for suicidal behavior.

  12. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  13. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  14. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  15. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  16. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  17. A study of eddy current measurement (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted in 1986 to evaluate a modified eddy current system for measuring copper thickness on Kapton. Results showed a measurement error of 0.42 {mu}in. for a thickness range of 165 to 170 {mu}in. and a measurement variability of 3.2 {mu}in.

  18. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  19. Differential Thermostimulated Discharge Current Method for Studying Electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekishev, G. A.; Yovcheva, T. A.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    The thermostimulated discharge current method (TSDC) is widely used for the study of charge storage mechanisms in electrets. A new discharged technique, called differential, which consists in discharging a charged sample through an otherwise identical but uncharged one, has been proposed by J.-P. Reboul and A. Toureille. In the present paper a new version of the differential thermostimulated discharge current method is advanced. In contrast to the differential technique described earlier, the measuring cell allows to realize typical differential technique. In this case the measuring system records the difference of the thermostimulated currents of two samples which have been preliminary charged (or thermally treated) under the same or different conditions. Samples of 0.85 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate are used to demonstrate an operation of the developed differential TSDC method.

  20. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Kong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influence of controller parameters of converter on the fault current characteristics is analyzed emphatically. It builds a basis for the construction of relay protection which is suitable for the power gird with accession of DFIG.

  1. Suicide attempt and genes : psychiatric and genetic characteristics of suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Maj-Liz

    1999-01-01

    Suicide affects an appreciable number of people in all societies. Finding genes that predispose to suicidal behavior may help to identify individuals at risk and an appropriate counseling and support can be extended to them. The studies of the present thesis focuse on suicide attempt. In order to characterize suicide attempters, DSM-III-R/DSM-IV classification, Axes I-V were used. Ninety-nine per cent of the patients had at least one Axis I diagnosis. Mood disorders ...

  2. Lifetime suicide attempts in juvenile assessment center youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Scott; McReynolds, Larkin S; DeComo, Robert E; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M; Wasserman, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    To describe suicide risk in youth seen at a Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC), we examined relationships among self-reported lifetime attempts and demographic, justice, and psychiatric data via logistic regression. Similar to other settings, youth reporting lifetime attempts were more likely to be older, female, not living with both parents and currently arrested for a violent or felony crime. Mood, substance use, and behavior disorder each increased prediction substantially. Anxiety Disorder was associated with elevated attempt rates for boys only. JACs need to develop protocols for identifying suicide risk; further, since suicide history predicts future attempts, Anxiety Disordered boys may be at particular risk.

  3. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  4. Comparison of completed and attempted suicide in Akita, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Masahito; Sugawara, Junya; Saito, Seiji

    2006-06-01

    To determine the factors underlying suicide in Akita prefecture, a questionnaire survey was conducted among members of the Akita Prefectural Medical Association (APMA), regarding suicide cases they attended. During the investigation period (1 July 2001-30 June 2002), the total number of suicide cases was 243 (138 completed, 105 attempted). Significant differences were identified between completed and attempted suicide groups in terms of gender, age distribution, and suicidal methods. Specifically, in the completed suicide group, the number of male completers exceeded that of female completers, the number of middle-aged or elderly completers was high, and the majority of completed suicide cases involved hanging as the suicide method. Conversely, in the attempted suicide group, the number of female attempters exceeded that of male attempters, younger attempters were frequent, hanging was rare, and drug overdose or cutting was common. In addition, the number of cases involving a history of previous suicide attempts was significantly higher in the attempted suicide group than in the completed suicide group. The results of the present study support the concept that the completed and attempted suicide groups are essentially of a different nature. Furthermore, the number of cases involving a history of previous suicide attempts was found to be significantly lower in the completed suicide group than in the attempted suicide group. This result indicates the difficulty in decreasing the number of completed suicides by simply providing intervention and care for individuals who have attempted suicide.

  5. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Nikolai D.; Blaunshtein, Natan Sh.; Erukhimov, Lev M.; Ivanov, Vladimir A.; Uriadov, Valerii P.

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations.

  6. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  7. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  8. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  9. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild; Kragh Andersen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses......OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...... were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions...

  10. Experimental study of the dependence of beam current on injection magnetic field in 6.4 GHz ECR ion source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Taki; P R Sarma; D K Chakraborty; R K Bhandari; P K Ray

    2006-09-01

    The ion current from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heavy ion source depends on the confining axial and radial magnetic fields. Some efforts were made by earlier workers to investigate magnetic field scaling on the performance of the ECR source. In order to study the dependence of the ion current on the injection magnetic field in the 6.4 GHz ECR source, we have measured the current by varying the peak injection field and have inferred that the variation of the current is exponential up to our maximum design injection field of 7.5 kG. An attempt has been made to understand this exponential nature on the basis of ion confinement time.

  11. Negative life events and attempted suicide in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs and attempted suicide in rural China. METHODS: Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. RESULTS: Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%. There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6-12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. CONCLUSION: NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China.

  12. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to investigate the mental health status in patients with asthma and assess the effects of asthma on suicidal ideation and attempts using a representative sample from Korea. Methods Individual-level data were obtained from 228,744 participants (6372 with asthma and 222,372 without asthma) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patient...

  13. [Suicidal attempts in child and adolescent and bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugand, N; Thümmler, S; Pradier, C; Askenazy, F

    2017-03-02

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are frequently confronted with suicide attempts and comorbid mood disorders. Diagnoses of juvenile bipolar disorders (BD) are rare and controversial and standardized assessment is helpful for a reliable diagnosis. The main objective of this study was to identify the number of juvenile bipolar disorder diagnoses according to DSM-5 criteria in a population of children and adolescents hospitalized for suicide attempts. Secondary objectives were the assessment of a patient's characteristics and the comparison of suicide attempt recurrence during 12 months of follow-up. This current practice study consecutively included children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years and hospitalized for a suicide attempt in a French University Pediatric Hospital over a 4-month period. Patients were assessed at baseline, at 3 months and at 12 months. The standardized assessment was realized by the investigator using semi-structured interview K-SADS-PL (2013) to diagnose juvenile bipolar disorders based on DSM-5 criteria. Clinical diagnoses based on medical charts and according to ICD-10 criteria were also collected at 12-month follow-up. Standardized assessment was completed by the French validated K-SADS-PL (2004) for comorbidities (DSM-IV), dimensional assessment by MADRS-YMRS-ARI-C-SSR, and C-GAS at inclusion. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) those presenting juvenile bipolar disorder according to DSM 5 (BD+) and (2) those without criteria for bipolar disorder (BD-). Suicide risk factors and suicide attempt relapse were assessed at 3 and 12 months of follow-up. Twenty-six inpatients (22 female and 4 male) aged 14.5 years (SD 1,5) were consecutively included. Twenty patients were followed up during the 12-month period. At baseline, 5 patients (19.2 %) presented a diagnosis of BD (DSM-5): 1 BD type 2, 2 non specified BD, 2 cyclothymic disorders. According to the medical charts (ICD-10), none of the patients had been diagnosed

  14. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  15. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  16. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  17. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...

  18. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    . The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...... psychiatric treatment (AHR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.97-2.43). Predictors of suicide included age over 35 years (AHR = 5.56; 95% CI, 2.89-10.69); hanging, strangling, or suffocation as the method of the index attempt (AHR = 2.55; 95% CI, 1.29-5.01); and receiving psychiatric hospitalization for the index attempt (AHR...... = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49). The cumulative rates of repeated attempts and suicide deaths in the total sample were particularly high within the first week of the index attempt, reaching 3.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive efforts need to target the period close to discharge from...

  19. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Yuangklang, C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requiremen

  20. Differences in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a…

  1. The EPIC nutrient database project (ENDB): a first attempt to standardize nutrient databases across the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Deharveng, G.; Unwin, I.

    2007-01-01

    because there is currently no European reference NDB available. Design: A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer science was set up for the 'EPIC Nutrient DataBase' ( ENDB) project. A total of 550-1500 foods derived from about 37 000......Objective: This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases ( NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC). This was required...... standardized EPIC 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRS) were matched as closely as possible to foods available in the 10 national NDBs. The resulting national data sets ( NDS) were then successively documented, standardized and evaluated according to common guidelines and using a DataBase Management System...

  2. Simulation studies of direct-current microdischarges for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Thomas Dominique

    The structure of direct-current microdischarges is investigated using a detailed two-dimensional multi-species continuum model. Microdischarges are direct-current discharges that operate at a relatively high pressure of about 100 Torr and geometric dimensions in the 10-100 micrometer range. Our motivation for the study of microdischarges comes from a potential application of these devices in microthrusters for small satellite propulsion. The Micro Plasma Thruster (MPT) concept consists of a direct-current microdischarge in a geometry comprising a constant area flow section followed by a diverging exit nozzle. A detailed description of the plasma dynamics inside the MPT including power deposition, ionization, coupling of the plasma phenomena with high-speed flow, and propulsion system performance is reported in this study. A two-dimensional model is developed as part of this study. The model consists of a plasma module coupled to a flow module and is solved on a hybrid unstructured mesh framework. The plasma module provides a self-consistent, multi-species, multi-temperature description of the microdischarge phenomena while the flow module provides a description of the low Reynolds number compressible flow through the system. The plasma module solves conservation equations for plasma species continuity and electron energy, and Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field. The flow module solves mass, bulk gas momentum and energy equations. The coupling of energy from the electrostatic field to the plasma species is modeled by the Joule heating term which appears in the electron and heavy species energy equations. Discretization of the Joule heating term on unstructured meshes requires special attention. We propose a new robust method for the numerical discretization of the Joule heating term on such meshes using a cell-centered, finite volume approach. A prototypical microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is studied to guide and validate the modeling

  3. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  4. Sociodemographic profile, clinical factors, and mode of attempt in suicide attempters in consultation liaison psychiatry in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.

  5. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  6. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  7. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention....

  8. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  9. Numerical Study on the Bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yulong; WANG Qi; SONG Jun; ZHU Xiande; GONG Xiaoqing; WU Fang

    2011-01-01

    A 1.5-layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress is used to study the bifurcations of the North Equatorial Current (NEC).The authors found that after removing the Ekman drift,the modelled circulations can serve well as a proxy of the SODA circulations on the σθ=25.0kgm-3 potential density surface based on available long-term reanalysis wind stress data.The modelled results show that the location of the western boundary bifurcation of the NEC depends on both zonal averaged and local zero wind stress curl latitude.The effects of the anomalous wind stress curl added in different areas are also investigated and it is found that they can change the strength of the Mindanao Eddy (ME),and then influence the interior pathway.

  10. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  11. Does a history of suicide attempt predict higher antipsychotic dosage in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettige, Nuwan C; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Antipsychotic dosage is generally adjusted by physicians depending on the stability of the patient and the response to that particular drug. Our hypothesis is that patients with previous suicide attempt are prescribed higher doses of antipsychotics. We examined the dosage and patterns of antipsychotic use in regard to past suicidal behaviour. For this study, 304 subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders between the ages of 18 and 75 were recruited. A cross-sectional assessment was used for this study, in which data were collected from each patient through an interview and self-report questionnaires. The percentages of the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS) maximum recommended daily dose were applied to standardize antipsychotic dosages across different treatments. We compared the standardized dosage of antipsychotics in schizophrenics with previous suicide attempts and those who have never attempted suicide. Applying the ANCOVA, our preliminary results show no significant difference (P = 0.467) in antipsychotic dosage in the attempters and non-attempters. The prescribed clozapine dosage fails to show a significant relationship with suicidal history (P >0.05). In summary, our analysis does not show antipsychotic dosage adjustment based on past suicide attempt, after controlling for the current suicidal ideation and hopelessness.

  12. Experimental Study on Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Tanigawa, H.; Yano, K.; Kasai, S.

    2006-06-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion for a well-defined single DW in a micro-fabricated magnetic wire with submicron width was investigated by real-space observation with magnetic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed-current, respectively. Effect of the Joule heating, reduction of the threshold current density by shape control, and magnetic ratchet effect are also presented.

  13. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, H.; Hiraki, N. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Toi, K. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 {<=} {rho} {<=} 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear {Delta}`-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  14. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  15. Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject.

  16. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (nonlinear attribution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuchar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979–2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  17. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  18. The Fear of Being Assessed: An Auto-Ethnographic Case Study on Attempts to Engage and Motivate an Individual Disaffected Access Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebor, Merv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a tutor engaged an individual student who was abusive to teachers and would not carry out coursework assessments which tutors had set him in the Lifelong Learning Sector. It offers strategies to overcome barriers to achievement, particularly where a student resists carrying out required assessment tasks. It is a self-reflexive, auto-ethnographic case study. The research is based on observation, interview and a narratology of the researcher’s own involvement in the situation. It is concerned with strategies that worked with this particular student. It argues a case for personal engagement, solution-focused and cognitive behavioural strategies in the teaching/learning situation and offers an overall humanist approach. It ultimately argues for the complexity of understanding the key relationship between teacher and student. It is also concerned with ‘improving practice’ which is the central agenda of this journal.

  19. A paleo-seismological study of the Dauki fault at Jaflong, Sylhet, Bangladesh: Historical seismic events and an attempted rupture segmentation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Michio; Kamal, A. S. M. Maksud; Akhter, S. Humayun; Rahman, Md. Zillur; Ali, Reshad Md. Ekram; Talukder, Animesh; Khan, Md. Mahmood Hossain; Matsuo, Jun; Kaneko, Fumio

    2014-09-01

    A paleo-seismological study was conducted at Jaflong, Sylhet, Bangladesh, which is on the eastern part of the Dauki fault. The geomorphology around Jaflong is divided into the Shillong Plateau, the foothills, the lower terraces, and the alluvial plain from north to south. Because the foothills and lower terraces are considered to be uplifted tectonically, an active fault is inferred to the south of the lower terraces. This fault, which branches from the Dauki fault as a foreland migration, is known as the Jaflong fault in this paper. The trench investigation was conducted at the southern edge of the lower terrace. The angular unconformity accompanied by folding, which is thought to be the top of the growth strata, was identified in the trench. An asymmetric anticline with a steep southern limb and gentle northern limb is inferred from the back-tilted lower terrace and the folding of the gravel layer parallel to the lower terrace surface. The timing of the seismic event which formed the folding and unconformity is dated to between AD 840 and 920. The trench investigation at Gabrakhari, on the western part of the Dauki fault, revealed that the Dauki fault ruptured in AD 1548 (Morino et al., 2011). Because the 1897 great Indian earthquake (M ⩾ 8.0; Yeats et al., 1997) was caused by the rupture of the Dauki fault (Oldham, 1899), it is clear that the Dauki fault has ruptured three times in the past one thousand years. The timing of these seismic events coincides with that of the paleo-liquefactions confirmed on the Shillong Plateau. It is essential for the paleo-seismological study of the Dauki fault to determine the surface ruptures of the 1897 earthquake. The Dauki fault might be divided into four rupture segments, the western, central, eastern, and easternmost segments. The eastern and western segments ruptured in AD 840-920 and in 1548, respectively. The 1897 earthquake might have been caused by the rupture of the central segment.

  20. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  1. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  2. Attempts to lose weight among overweight and non-overweight adolescents: a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynjälä Jorma

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. The prevalence and likelihood of attempts to lose weight were determined. The effect of weight status, self-perception of overweight, age and country of residence upon the likelihood of current attempts to lose weight were evaluated using multilevel multivariate logistic regression in separate analyses for boys and girls. The study also presented the prevalence of weight control practices of overweight and non-overweight adolescents who had controlled their weight in seven countries. Results In general, overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to be engaged in current attempts to lose weight and had tried to control their weight during the past 12 months more often than non-overweight adolescents. Besides weight status, self-perception of overweight and age were significant individual-level factors determining current attempts to lose weight. Country of residence was a significant second-level factor but no clear geographical pattern was found. Several gender-related differences existed. Conclusion The findings indicated that most overweight adolescents were motivated to reduce their weight. The importance of promoting a healthy body image for all adolescents was highlighted by the fact that self-perception of overweight was found to be the most important factor leading to attempts to lose weight.

  3. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  4. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  5. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  6. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  7. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio José Felix; Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas; Faria, Roberto Mendonça

    2009-12-01

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak β), an intermediate peak (peak α), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak ρ). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes.

  8. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Antonio Jose Felix [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Laboratory of Polymers and Renewable Materials, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faria, Roberto Mendonca [USP, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak {beta}), an intermediate peak (peak {alpha}), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak {rho}). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes. (orig.)

  9. MODEL STUDY OF THE DOUBLE FED MACHINE WITH CURRENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lyapin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling results of the double fed induction machine with current control in the rotor circuit. We show the most promising applications of electric drives on the basis of the double fed induction machine and their advantages. We present and consider functional scheme of the electric drive on the basis of the double fed induction machine with current control. Equations are obtained for creation of such machine mathematical model. Expressions for vector projections of rotor current are given. According to the obtained results, the change of the vector projections of rotor current ensures operation of the double fed induction machine with the specified values of active and reactive stator power throughout the variation range of sliding motion. We consider static characteristics of double fed machine with current control. Energy processes proceeding in the machine are analyzed. We confirm the operationpossibility of double fed induction machine with current controlin the rotor circuit with given values of active and reactive stator power. The presented results can be used for creation of mathematical models and static characteristics of double fed machines with current control of various capacities.

  10. Study of wavelet transform type high-current transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文科; 朱长纯; 刘君华; 张建军

    2002-01-01

    The wavelet transformation is applied to the high-current transformer.The high-current transformer elaborated in the paper is mainly applied to the measurement of AC/DC high-current.The principle of the transformer is the Hall direct-measurement principle.The transformer has the following three characteristics:firstly, the effect of the remnant field of the iron core on the measurement is decreased;secondly,because the temperature compensation is adopted,the transformer has good temperature charactreristic;thirdly,be-cause the wavelet transfomation technology is adopted,the transformer has the capacity of good antijanming.

  11. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  12. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  13. Durability Study of SOFCs Under Cycling Current Load Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cell applications, the cells must be able to withstand varying operating conditions. Anode supported solid oxide fuel cells were tested under cycling current load in order to determine the durability and possibly identify degradation mechanisms. At 750 °C and a cycling between zero and 0.......75 A cm-2, the cell voltage degradation rate was similar to tests with the corresponding high constant current density. However, by analyzing the impedance spectra it was found that anode degradation was becoming more important when going from constant to cycling conditions. Running the cycling load tests...... at 850 °C, the cells degraded similarly as under the corresponding constant current load whereas, in some cases, cells failed mechanically after a few hundred hours. These cells did not experience severe additional degradation due to the cycling of the current density until the point of failure...

  14. Stability in the choice of method during the period preceding a suicide attempt and in attempt repeaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard A. Deisenhammer

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Understanding the mental processes preceding a suicidal act is important for the potential to intervene. This study investigates stability and possible changes of suicide methods considered during the time immediately preceding a suicide attempt. Methods: Patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed shortly thereafter with regard to whether there was a change in the conception of the method to be used during the period preceding the attempt. In addition, the course of methods applied in previous suicide attempts was assessed in attempt repeaters. Results: In total, 130 patients were included. In 63.1% one method only was envisaged during the entire suicidal crisis, in 26.9% the initial and the actual method differed. Stability rate was higher in those older than 40 years, if the duration of the suicidal crisis was ≤ 60 minutes and if a non-violent suicide method was initially intended. Of repeaters, 46.5% used the same method in all recorded attempts. Use of a non-violent method in the first suicide attempt predicted method stability in subsequent attempts. Conclusions: Focusing on one single suicide method during the time immediately preceding a suicide attempt is common. Reduced flexibility to rapidly switch mentally to another method may contribute to explain the effectiveness of limiting access to suicide means for suicide prevention.

  15. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  16. Nicotine Therapy Sampling to Induce Quit Attempts Among Smokers Unmotivated to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hughes, John R.; Gray, Kevin M.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Saladin, Michael E.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Methods Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N=849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Results Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1–1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9–1.6). Conclusion Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979 PMID:22123796

  17. Nicotine therapy sampling to induce quit attempts among smokers unmotivated to quit: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Hughes, John R; Gray, Kevin M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Saladin, Michael E; Alberg, Anthony J

    2011-11-28

    Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N = 849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1-1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9-1.6). Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979.

  18. Suicide attempts in U.S. Army combat arms, special forces and combat medics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Mash, Holly Herberman; Fullerton, Carol S; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B

    2017-05-25

    The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Risk may vary according to occupation, which significantly influences the stressors that soldiers experience. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records for all active duty Regular Army enlisted soldiers who had a medically documented suicide attempt from 2004 through 2009 (n = 9650) and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined the association of combat occupation (combat arms [CA], special forces [SF], combat medic [CM]) with suicide attempt, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. In adjusted models, the odds of attempting suicide were higher in CA (OR = 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.2]) and CM (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.3-1.5]), but lower in SF (OR = 0.3 [95% CI: 0.2-0.5]) compared to all other occupations. CA and CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than other occupations if never deployed (ORs = 1.1-1.5) or previously deployed (ORs = 1.2-1.3), but not when currently deployed. Occupation was associated with suicide attempt in the first ten years of service, but not beyond. In the first year of service, primarily a time of training, CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than both CA (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.2-1.6]) and other occupations (OR = 1.5 [95% CI: 1.3-1.7]). Discrete-time hazard functions revealed that these occupations had distinct patterns of monthly risk during the first year of service. Military occupation can inform the understanding suicide attempt risk among soldiers.

  19. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments have had great success in monitoring the stratospheric ozone and in understanding the processes that control its daily to decadal scale variations. This field is now reaching its zenith with a number of satellite instruments from the US, Europe and Canada capping several decades of active research in this field. The primary public policy imperative of this research was to make reliable prediction of increases in biologically active surface UV radiation due to human activity. By contrast retrieval from satellite data of atmospheric constituents and photo-chemically active radiation that affect air quality is a new and growing field that is presenting us with unique challenges in measurement and data interpretation. A key distinction compared to stratospheric sensors is the greatly enhanced role of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces (CAS) in determining the quality and quantity of useful data that is available for air quality research. In our presentation we will use data from several sensors that are currently flying on the A-train satellite constellation, including OMI, MODIS, CLOUDSAT, and CALIPSO, to highlight that CAS can have both positive and negative effects on the information content of satellite measurements. This is in sharp contrast to other fields of remote sensing where CAS are usually considered an interference except in those cases when they are the primary subject of study. Our analysis has revealed that in the reflected wavelengths one often sees much further down into the atmosphere, through most cirrus, than one does in the emitted wavelengths. The lower level clouds provide a nice background against which one can track long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols. In addition, differences in trace gas columns estimated over cloudy and adjacent clear pixels can be used to measure boundary layer trace gases. However, in order to take full advantage of these features it will be necessary to greatly advance our understanding of

  20. Study on the school-related-factors of attempted suicide among rural middle school students%安徽省4县农村中学生自杀未遂的学校相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢秀雅; 陶芳标; 郝加虎; 许韶君; 苏普玉; 黄朝辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to examine possible relationship between attempted suicide and underachievement,bullying,low life satisfaction and low self-concept at school.Methods An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major risk factors of teenage attempted suicide was completed by students from 16 middle schools in grades seven to twelve in 4 counties of Anhui province (age 10 to 21 years).An anonymous questionnaire was used to rate attempted suicide,bullying involvement and learning performance.Attempted suicide was defined as: experiencing specific suicide actions at least one time during the 12 months preceding the survey.Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and Children' s Self-concept Scale were used to evaluate satisfaction and self-conscience on and at respectively.In total,10 894 respondents substantially completed the survey.Multiple logistic-regression analyses,controlling for socio-demographic variables,was used to analyze if underachievement,bullying,low school life satisfaction and low children' s self-conscience at school had been risk factors.Results 629 participants (5.8%) reported having made at least one attempted suicide within the last 12 months.Students being underachieved were significantly having more attempted suicide events than those excellent students (X2=11.39,P=0.023).Students being both bully-victims and practiced bully were significantly more than those being only practiced bully (28.7% vs.15.8%,P<0.001),being victims (28.7% vs.10.6%,P<0.001) or having neither of them (28.7% vs.4.8%,P<0.001).Results from multiple logistic regression analyses showed that underachievement,bullying,lower school life satisfaction and low self-conscience were risk factors for attempted suicide.Conclusion Data from this study confirmed that school bullying and children' s self-conscience at school were significantly associated with attempted suicide among rural middle school students in

  1. Association between Weight and Smoking Not Mediated by Weight Loss Attempts or Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.

  2. Examining the unique relations between anxiety sensitivity factors and suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Boffa, Jay W; Durmaz, Daphne; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has recently been linked to suicidality. Specifically, AS cognitive concerns has been implicated as a risk factor, and AS physical concerns as a protective factor, for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, no studies have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to address issues of skewed suicide variables and bifactor modeling of AS to address the high degree of overlap between the lower-order dimensions of AS that limit interpretation of these past findings. AS, suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and depression were assessed in a clinical sample of 267 individuals (M age=35.45 years, SD=16.53; 52.1% female). The global AS and AS cognitive concerns factors were positively, significantly associated with suicidal ideation, though these effects were nonsignificant controlling for depression. The global AS factor was positively, significantly associated with suicide attempts, controlling for depression. The current study demonstrated that the relations between AS and suicidal ideation are not maintained when accounting for depression, suggesting that the relation between AS and suicidal ideation may be mediated by depression. The positive relation between global AS and suicide attempts is consistent with theories positing suicide attempts as a consequence of an inability to cope with intolerable distress.

  3. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic...... characterization of wind farm harmonic currents is analyzed. Specific issues addressed in the paper include the harmonic variation with the wind farm operating point and the random characteristics of their magnitude and phase angle....

  4. Zinc electrowinning: anode conditioning and current distribution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.A. [Cominco Research, Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    In the zinc electrowinning (EW) process, Pb-Ag anodes are widely used. Prior to their use in the EW process, anodes are conditioned to form a stable oxide layer that can evolve O{sub 2} without excessive Pb contamination of the cathode and MnO{sub 2} precipitation. The most widely used conditioning techniques are: passivation in a KF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolysis bath, chemical oxidation in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and sandblasting. In this paper, a comparison of these treatments using flat and corrugated anodes is presented. Laboratory and industrial-scale tests carried out at Cominco's Trail and Cajamarquilla zinc plants indicated that flat anodes should be sandblasted or electrochemically passivated before their use in the Zn electrowinning process. Further, corrugated anodes should be sandblasted or chemically conditioned in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} -electrolyte. The beneficial effects of chemical conditioning are lost if the anode is non-corrugated. Flat, chemically conditioned anodes generate up to 10 times more mud than corrugated-chemically conditioned anodes. Because anode mud growth is evenly distributed on sandblasted anodes, short-circuit frequency may decrease and anode life may increase. Sandblasting does not appear to affect anode performance. Parallel to the industrial anode conditioning tests, current distribution measurements were made. Current flow measurements were used to correct troublesome electrodes and/or bad electrical contacts. In Cajamarquilla, this technique was used in four industrial electrowinning cells and energy consumption values lower than 3000 kWh/t Zn were obtained at current efficiencies as high as 95% and at current densities up to 450 A/m{sup 2}. (author)

  5. Patient-Identified Priorities Leading to Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulz, Niklaus; Hepp, Urs; Gosoniu, Dominic G; Grize, Leticia; Muheim, Flavio; Weiss, Mitchell G; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2017-08-10

    Attempted suicide is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify patient-identified problems and triggers typically leading to attempted suicide. A representative sample of 66 adult patients was recruited from all clinical sites and psychiatrists who treat patients after attempted suicide in the Canton of Basel-City (Switzerland). Patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and interviewed with a local adaptation of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to study underlying problems and triggers of attempted suicide. Of the patients, 92.4% had at least one DSM-IV disorder, with depressive disorders being the most prevalent disorder. Although half (50.0%) of the patients identified a health problem, 71.2% identified an interpersonal conflict as underlying problem leading to the suicide attempt. Furthermore, an interpersonal conflict was identified as the trigger of the suicide attempt by more than half of the patients (54.5%). The study included German-speaking patients only. According to patients, interpersonal problems often amplify underlying psychiatric problems, leading to suicide attempts. Social and interpersonal stressors should be acknowledged with integrated clinical and social interventions to prevent suicidal behavior in patients and populations.

  6. Factors Associated with the Medical Severity of Suicide Attempts in Youths and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the medical severity of suicide attempts focusing on demographic characteristics, and circumstances of the suicide attempt. Results show that young age was significantly associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt. Prior attempts, hopelessness, depression, and help-seeking were significantly and…

  7. Trends of attempted suicide in Albanian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola, Vuksan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attempted suicides and suicides are becoming pertinent social phenomena in Albania, with increasing trend in the last years, exceeding the road traffic accident numbers. Our objective was to examine suicide attempts trends among Albanian children and adolescents. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of standardized suicide attempts rates in Statistic Department at University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”; epidemiology data for the period spanning from 2006 to 2012. We analyzed the data by age, sex and by suicide attempts method over time for two age groups: 10–14 year old (children and 15–19 year old (adolescents. Results. We found an average annual increase of the suicide attempts rate for children and adolescents (p<0.001, but stratification by age and sex showed significant variation. By comparing the two age groups it came out that the suicidal phenomena is more present at adolescence age (p<0.001. According to the statistic data and by analyzing the cases on yearly bases it resulted that female gender is more attempt to commit suicide that male gender, with a significant statistical variation of (p<0.001. From the study it was noted that the suicidal attempt methods, in the most of cases, were drug overdose (97.6% and 2.4% hang themselves (suffocation or cut their vein. Conclusions. The increasing cases of suicidal tendency among children and adolescents necessitate further studies to identify the causes and risk factors, and to develop suitable preventive programs .

  8. Comorbidity of psychiatric and personality disorders in first suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nagaraja Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt ( n=100 treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31% and suicide (11% were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71% employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46% were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%, personality disorders (52%, and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%. Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners.

  9. A study of the current collecting sectors of a U-25B diagonal megnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V.V.; Panovka, M.Ya.; Semenov, V.D.; Sokolov, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of an experimental study and a calculated analysis of the operation of current collecting sectors of the U-25B magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The effect was studied of the parameters of the current, the coefficient of electrical loading, the disposition of the current collecting sectors (T) relative to the diagram of the magnetic field on the distribution of current along the length of the current collecting sectors. It is established that with optimal disposition of the current collecting sectors a uniform distribution of current is achieved. A simplified calculation model of the current collecting sector is developed. It is shown that the experimental and calculated relationships match well. The effect of the ballast resisters installed in the current collecting circuits on the distribution of current is examined. Their positive role in preventing current overloads on the frames and in supporting the uniform distribution of current is noted.

  10. The Study of the Geomagnetic Variation for Sq current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Du, A.

    2012-04-01

    The solar quiet variation (Sq) with a period of 24 hrs is a typical one of the quiet variations. Sq is generally caused by atmospheric tide-dynamo in ionosphere and it is controlled by the electric field, electric conductivity in ionosphere and neutral wind in middle-high altitude atmosphere. In our work, the geomagnetic field data observed by 90 ground-based observatories is used to analyze the local time variation of Sq. Sq is derived from five quiet-day geomagnetic data in every month by the FFT method. According to the pattern of geomagnetic X component in Sq, there is a prenoon-postnoon (before noon and after noon) asymmetry. This asymmetry is obvious in spring, summer and winter. The X component at 12:00-13:00 LT is about 5 nT larger than it at 11:00-12:00 LT. The ratio between the X component of daily variable amplitude and Y component of daily variable amplitude in middle and low (high) latitude regions in summer is greater (smaller) than that in winter. Used the sphere harmonic analysis method, the Sq equivalent current system is obtained. From the pattern of Sq current system, the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry may be caused by the electric field in the high latitude region. This electric field has two effects: the one is that the electric field from high latitude maps to the low latitude region; the other is this electric field penetrate to the middle latitude region directly. The combined action of these two effects makes the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry of Sq. The asymmetry also has an obvious seasonal effect. It may relate to the polar Sq and DP2 in the high latitude region.

  11. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  12. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Turu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  13. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eReato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by which weak currents could affect neuronal oscillations at different frequency bands are not well known and this, in turn, limits the rational optimization of human experiments. Here we review the available in vitro and in vivo animal studies that attempt to provide mechanistic explanations. The findings can be summarized into a few generic principles, such as periodic modulation of excitability, shifts in spike timing, modulation of firing rate, and shifts in the balance of excitation and inhibition. These effects result from weak but simultaneous polarization of a large number of neurons. Whether this can lead to an entrainment or a modulation of brain oscillations, or whether AC currents have no effect at all, depends entirely on the specific dynamic that gives rise to the different brain rhythms, as discussed here for slow wave oscillations (~1 Hz and gamma oscillations (~30 Hz. We conclude with suggestions for further experiments to investigate the role of AC stimulation for other physiologically relevant brain rhythms.

  14. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thiangtum, W; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T; C. Yuangklang; M.W.A. Verstegen; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requirement of lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions by measuring Na levels in saliva, milk and faeces. RESULTS: The concentrations of Na and potassium (K) in milk, faeces and serum were not affecte...

  15. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  16. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Retooling the Social Studies Classroom for the Current Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth K.; Wright, Vivian H.; Inman, Christopher T.; Matherson, Lisa H.

    2011-01-01

    Digital technologies have changed the way students read and communicate. Subsequently, teachers must use technology to engage their students in learning. This article illustrates the value of using Web 2.0 tools (blogs, wikis, and digital media-sharing) in the social studies classroom. Additionally, a social studies teacher shares insights into…

  18. A Review of Current Studies on Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思雅

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces some previous studies on human capital, mainly regarding human capital’s properties and its relationship with corporate performance and capital structure. This study shows the importance of human capital and suggests that managers should pay more attention to employees.

  19. Suicide Attempts Among Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jody L Herman; Haas, Ann P.; Rodgers, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    New analysis of responses to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS) shows that transgender respondents who experienced rejection by family and friends, discrimination, victimization, or violence have a higher risk of attempting suicide. 78 percent of survey respondents who suffered physical or sexual violence at school reported suicide attempts, as did 65 percent of respondents who experienced violence at work. The study suggests that several minority stressors – negat...

  20. Review of current study methods for VRU safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Kamaluddin, Noor Azreena; Várhelyi, András

    written questionnaires (either online or paper-based), interviews may be performed (either face-to-face or via telephone) and people may be asked to report their accident via an app on their mobile device. The method for gaining self-reported information thus varies greatly – and so does the information...... that people are asked to give. In most studies, only the number of accidents in which the respondent was involved is relevant for the researcher. In other studies, respondents are asked about possible accident causation factors, and some studies deal with respondents’ recall of the accident details. In other...

  1. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE To study time at risk to suicide attempt hospitalization among offspring of suicide decedents as compared with offspring of unintentional injury decedents by their developmental period at the time of parental death. DESIGN Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING Sweden. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six thousand ninety-six offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32 395 offspring of unintentional injury decedents prior to age 25 years between the years 1973 and 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12 years old), adolescence (13-17 years old), and young adulthood (18-24 years old). RESULTS The risk in offspring who lost a parent to suicide or an unintentional injury during childhood surpassed the other age groups' risk approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental death, and risk declined over time. Offspring who lost a parent to suicide in childhood and young adulthood had earlier onset of hospitalization for suicide attempt compared with offspring who lost a parent to an unintentional injury. CONCLUSIONS The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent later in development. The results suggest critical windows for careful monitoring and intervention for suicide attempt risk, especially 1 to 2 years after parental death for the

  2. Detection of mental imagery and attempted movements in patients with disorders of consciousness using EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar eHorki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Further development of an EEG based communication device for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC could benefit from addressing the following gaps in knowledge – first, an evaluation of different types of motor imagery; second, an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup; and third, rapid delivery of biased feedback. To that end we investigated whether complex and / or familiar mental imagery, passive, and attempted feet movement can be reliably detected in patients with DoC using EEG recordings, aiming to provide them with a means of communication. Six patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS took part in this study. The patients were verbally instructed to perform different mental imagery tasks (sport, navigation, as well as attempted feet movements, to induce distinctive event-related (desynchronization (ERD/S patterns in the EEG. Offline classification accuracies above chance level were reached in all three tasks (i.e. attempted feet, sport, and navigation, with motor tasks yielding significant (p<0.05 results more often than navigation (sport: 10 out of 18 sessions; attempted feet: 7 out of 14 sessions; navigation: 4 out of 12 sessions. The passive feet movements, evaluated in one patient, yielded mixed results: whereas time-frequency analysis revealed task-related EEG changes over neurophysiological plausible cortical areas, the classification results were not significant enough (p<0.05 to setup an initial classifier for the detection of attempted movements. Concluding, the results presented in this study are consistent with the current state of the art in similar studies, to which we contributed by comparing different types of mental tasks, notably complex motor imagery and attempted feet movements, within patients. Furthermore, we explored new venues, such as an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup, and rapid delivery of biased feedback.

  3. Current approaches of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Xu

    2008-01-01

    @@ With rapid advances in high-throughput genotyping technology and the great increase in information available on SNPs throughout the genuine, genuine-wide association(GWA) studies have now become feasible.

  4. Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere Akobundu; Jing Ju; Lisa Blatt; C Daniel Mullins

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods...

  5. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh faraji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.

  6. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults.

  7. The Course of Schizophrenia: E. Kraepelin's View and Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Müller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kraepelin's concept of dementia praecox and Bleuler's concept of the group of schizophrenias differ mainly under the aspect of course of the disorder. Follow-up studies play an important role for research regarding course, outcome and prognosis of psychiatric disorders, especially in terms of validation of psychiatric diagnosis and other psychiatric concepts, such as the concept of schizophrenic negative symptoms. Long-term studies also have their place in the description and evaluation of first treatment procedures. This paper will describe some general aspects of the long-term course and outcome of schizophrenic psychoses. The problem of relapses and relapse prevention will then be discussed. Especially data from recent studies will be considered in this overview.

  8. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  9. Modeling migration attempts and the role of gender in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litchfield Julie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the 2002 Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey to model whether an individual has attempted to migrate conditional on having previously considered migrating. The study addresses the methodological concerns that arise from potential selection bias and empirical issues associated with gender differences. We test for the presence of selection bias using a bivariate probit and apply an Oaxaca-style decomposition technique to analyze gender differentials in the conditional probability of attempted migration. We focus on the roles an individual's living standard, geographic location and local labour market conditions exert on the attempt to migrate. Our empirical findings suggest that there are significant differences in both the conditional probability of attempting to migrate and the relative importance of determining factors across gender.

  10. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... prescription. The hazard ratio for suicide attempts after redeeming a prescription was estimated to 5.23, 95% CI 4.82-5.68. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the risk of suicide attempt is higher for young people in the first months after redeeming their first prescription for SSRIs, compared to non-users. For SSRI...

  11. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

    2007-05-01

    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures.

  12. Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2012-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2012, 27 April). Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts. Presentation during the ‘Symposium 4C-ID: Hoe implementer je de blauwdruk?’, Studiecentrum Open Universiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  13. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  14. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...

  15. Is attempted suicide different in adolescent and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parellada, Mara; Saiz, Pilar; Moreno, Dolores; Vidal, Jorge; Llorente, Cloe; Alvarez, Mar; García-Portilla, Paz; Ruiz-Sancho, Ana; Arango, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    2008-01-15

    Attempted suicide may be a different phenomenon in adolescents than in adults. To our knowledge, direct comparisons between these two populations are very scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences between adolescents and adults in methods of attempted suicide, accompanying certainty of death, and intentionality. All cases admitted to one adult (n=173) and one adolescent (n=104) inpatient unit who attempted suicide in the period from January 2003 through October 2005 were included in a prospective, common, national register, with data on methods, circumstances, and intentionality. The methodology followed that of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Parasuicide. A stratified analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure in order to control for the effects of gender and diagnosis. Adolescents used significantly more over-the-counter medicines. Adults were significantly more certain of the possible fatal outcome of their attempt and had a significantly more severe intention when harming themselves. Individuals appear to use the methods that are available to them to attempt suicide. Adolescents may display more impulsive and less lethal directed behavior than adults or, alternatively, they are more frequently admitted for less severe attempts.

  16. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods (P atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  17. Factors associated with suicidal ideations and suicidal attempts in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gourav; Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Singh, Shubh Mohan

    2014-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideations (SI) and to study the risk factors for SI and suicide attempt in patients with OCD. One hundred and thirty patients with OCD were assessed on Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale and Symptom Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Buss–Durkee Hostility Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Family Interview for Genetic Studies, Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale and DSM-IV insight criteria for OCD. Of the 130 patients, 60 (46.1%) had current SI and 81 (62.3%) patients had life time SI. Of the 60 patients with current SI, 30 had current depression as assessed on SCID-CV. More than half (48 out of 81; 59.25%) of the patients with lifetime SI had lifetime comorbid depression. Ten patients had history of lifetime suicide attempts. Current SI in patients without current depression were associated with female gender, presence of comorbid psychiatric illness, contamination obsessions and cleaning/washing compulsions. To conclude this study suggests that SI are highly prevalent in patients with OCD and although depression may be a contributory factor for suicidal ideations in patients with OCD, but it is not the sole risk factor for suicidal ideations.

  18. Organ preconditioning: the past, current status, and related lung studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUH Shi-ping; YANG Pan-chyr

    2006-01-01

    Preconditioning (PC) has emerged as a powerful method for experimentally and clinically attenuating various types of organ injuries. In this paper related clinical and basic research issues on organ preconditioning issues were systemically reviewed.Since lung injuries, including ischemia-reperfusion and others, play important roles in many clinical results, including thromboembolism, trauma, thermal injury, hypovolemic and endotoxin shock, reimplantation response after organ transplantation, and many respiratory diseases in critical care. It is of interest to uncover methods, including the PCs, to protect the lung from the above injuries. However, related studies on pulmonary PC are relatively rare and still being developed, so we will review previous literature on experimental and clinical studies on pulmonary PC in the following paragraphs.

  19. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri; N; Utkin

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom ofthese animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  20. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah

    2007-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came...

  1. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  2. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah; Rouhani, Sherin; Saliba, Kevin J.; Shen, Crystal; Solomon, Tsione; Thomas, Serge L. Y.; Verloo, Patrick; Desai, Sanjay A.

    2009-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came together for a week of discussion and experimentation. In this article, the various models for altered transport are reviewed, together with the areas of consensus in the field and those that require a better understanding. PMID:17292372

  3. The end of universality: new collectivities in current literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Greene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how the literary studies reacted to the conceptual crises of universalism, especially after WWII. In order to replace a concept that refers to the ability of a literary work to transcend time and space, literary studies should focus on different and specific collectivities that, situated in time and space, read and interpret literary works. The author makes use of the concept of the obverse, in which two poems, from different historical moments and intellectual traditions are compared based on a common social-historical problem they are trying to solve.    O autor investiga sobre como os estudos literários reagiram à crise do conceito de universalismo, sobretudo depois da II Guerra Mundial. Para substituir um conceito que se refere à capacidade de uma obra literária transcender tempo e espaço, os estudos literários deveriam indagar sobre as diferentes coletividades específicas, no tempo e no espaço, que leem e dão significado à obra literária. Para isso, o autor se utiliza do conceito de “obverso”, em que dois poemas, de épocas e tradições intelectuais diferentes, são comparados a partir de um problema sócio-histórico que tentam resolver.      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  4. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes.

  5. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of descriptive varieties of philosophy of religion primarily concerned with understanding and the clarification of meaning rather than with the stereotypical tasks of propositional justification or critical evaluation. Three examples are discussed in the article: analytic traditions (Wittgensteinianism and ordinarylanguage philosophy, phenomenological perspectives involving reduction (bracketing and comparative philosophy of religion that works in tandem with the history of religion and comparative religion.

  6. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  7. Psychiatric genocide: Nazi attempts to eradicate schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220,000 and 269,500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia.

  8. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found ...

  9. Modeling studies of the coastal/littoral current system off Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Henry A.

    2006-01-01

    Both theoretical and numerical modeling studies of the current system off western and southern Australia are conducted to characterize the features of the current system, their temporal variability, and their impact on the sound speed structure. The theoretical study examines why boundary current separation occurs off Cape Leeuwin creating an area of enhanced eddy generation. It is shown that the beta effect, vortex stretching, and streamline curvature all act to decelerate the current a...

  10. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    KAUST Repository

    Kubiak, Jan J.

    2012-04-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As remediation and collected from a ditch in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The tanks were filled with surface water without any pre-cleaning, therefore containing various elements including metals as Mn (2.9mgL -1), Cu (0.05mgL -1), Fe (1.39mgL -1), and Ba (0.13mgL -1). This water was then spiked with As and allocated to a feed container, guaranteeing a continuous flow of 0.12mLs -1 to each tank. Two experiments were performed: Exp. 1 with 3 consecutive stages with rising applied voltage and Exp. 2, with a constant voltage over a period of 6d. Measurements of pH and temperature were taken every working day, as well as water samples from outlets of all tanks including feed container for control. From the present study, there was no evidence that As had been taken up by the plants, but a strong depletion of As was observed in the tanks where current was applied. Preliminary results clearly showed that applying voltage to the electrodes caused 90% removal of As from the spiked surface water. © 2012 .

  11. An exploratory analysis of personality factors contributed to suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck′s Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r". Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide.

  12. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    . Statistically, the risk of repetition of parasuicide for patients with a somatic disease but without depression was significantly less. The 7 patients committing suicide were older and a tendency was found towards painful somatic diseases and depression as risk factors for suicide....... on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine...

  13. Effects of Asthma on Nicotine Dependence Development and Smoking Cessation Attempts in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.O.M. van de; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether asthma predicts the development of nicotine dependence and unsuccessful smoking cessation attempts in adolescent smokers. In addition, whether nicotine dependence could explain the relation between asthma and unsuccessful cessation attempts

  14. Single and multiple suicide attempts and associated health risk factors in New Hampshire adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harriet J; Jankowski, Mary K; Sengupta, Anjana; Wolfe, Rosemarie S; Wolford, George L; Rosenberg, Stanley D

    2005-10-01

    In this study we examined self-reported suicide attempts and their relationship to other health risk factors in a community sample of 16,644 adolescents. Fifteen percent endorsed suicide attempts (10% single; 5% multiple attempts) We hypothesized that multiple attempters would show higher prevalence of comorbid health risks than single or non-attempters. The three groups showed significant differences in ten health risk domains, on factors such as depressed mood, sexual assault, weight problems, and drug and alcohol use (ORs: 3.26-13.57). Repeated suicide attempts appear to be related to increased vulnerability and likelihood of harm in multiple domains of health risk.

  15. Equity perceptions and marital satisfaction in former and current marriage : A study among the remarried

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Mutsaers, W

    1999-01-01

    A study among 290 remarried individuals examined equity perceptions in the former and the current marriage. The results showed that equity in the former and the current marriage were not related to each other. In general, respondents perceived much more inequity in the former than in the current mar

  16. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress.

  17. Adolescent attachment security, family functioning, and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Mathias, Charles W; Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all three types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention.

  18. COMMON PROBLEMS AFFECTING SUPRANATIONAL ATTEMPTS IN AFRICA: AN ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Fagbayibo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the colonial era, attempts have been made throughout the various regions of Africa at building supranational units chiefly for administrative and legal convenience. Examples of such attempts include the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the East African High Commission and the federations in former French West and Equatorial Africa, all of which were attempts at forging a supranational nation state. These experiments laid the foundation for further supranational initiatives in post-colonial Africa. In this respect, every region in Africa has either experimented with or is currently experimenting with the idea of supranational regional organisations. This article aims at investigating selected attempts at supranationalism on the continent, the successes and failures of such experiments, and the lessons to be learnt from them. As Africa embarks on the journey of solidifying its unity through the establishment of leviathan continental institutions, efforts should be geared towards building on the experiences of past and present experiments at the sub-regional level. Such experiments offer instructive lessons as they are rooted in similar historical and social contexts.

  19. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  20. The Arab World Attempts Third Revival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shaoxian

    2011-01-01

    Many theories have been put forward to explain the civil unrest that erupted across the Middle East and North Africa at the beginningof this year. The author of this paper believes that seen from an historical perspective the unrest was an attempt by the Arab world to stage a third revival.

  1. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  2. Comment: Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Shirley L.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that subject of transgenerational patterns of suicide attempt calls for examination of variables extending beyond those examined in previous article (Sorenson and Rutter, 1991). Considers possible significance of such variables as respondent's income, employment status, and length of residence in the community. Contends that scales assessing…

  3. Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E David; May, Alexis M; Saffer, Boaz Y

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Fortunately, recent developments in suicide theory and research promise to meaningfully advance knowledge and prevention. One key development is the ideation-to-action framework, which stipulates that (a) the development of suicidal ideation and (b) the progression from ideation to suicide attempts are distinct phenomena with distinct explanations and predictors. A second key development is a growing body of research distinguishing factors that predict ideation from those that predict suicide attempts. For example, it is becoming clear that depression, hopelessness, most mental disorders, and even impulsivity predict ideation, but these factors struggle to distinguish those who have attempted suicide from those who have only considered suicide. Means restriction is also emerging as a highly effective way to block progression from ideation to attempt. A third key development is the proliferation of theories of suicide that are positioned within the ideation-to-action framework. These include the interpersonal theory, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. These perspectives can and should inform the next generation of suicide research and prevention.

  4. Duloxetine and suicide attempts: a possible relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Bilal A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The possible increase of suicidal ideation with some antidepressants is still a matter of debate. We are reporting two cases of suicidal attempt that occurred concomitantly with the use of Duloxetine. To our knowledge there is no prior publication about a possible Duloxetine related increase in the risk of suicidality.

  5. A concept model for learning: An attempt to define a proper relations scheme between instruction, learning and to establish the dynamics of learning in relation to modern political concepts as study-fairness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, F.B.M.; Vos, Henk; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; van Dijkum, C.; van Dijkum, C.

    2000-01-01

    For years, it has been attempted within educational science to establish the process of learning. A lot is known about instruction, but as to learning and acquiring knowledge and insight, we still know very little. A lot of research is conducted on methods of instruction, but very little on learning

  6. Obesity, traumatic brain injury, childhood abuse, and suicide attempts in females at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that obesity is related to history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), severity and frequency of childhood physical (CPA) and sexual abuse (CSA), and suicide attempts, adjusting for related variables in a high risk female population. This cross-sectional study of 81 females compared obese to non-obese. All variables were verified by private interviews, physical examination, and documented evidence, then statistically analyzed with logistic regression. Obesity at the time of interview was related to history of a decreased number of TBIs per person, greater CSA, suicide attempts, and decreased CPA, adjusting for current smoking, depression, currently using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and age. Number of TBIs per person and CPA were inversely related to obesity, adjusting for related variables. Greater CSA frequency and severity, and having attempted suicide were significantly related to greater risk of obesity, adjusting for related variables. Though causes of obesity cannot be determined by this design, and findings should be viewed with caution, this study provides new insight into the obesity epidemic that requires further investigation. Rehabilitation nurses are in ideal settings when patient's conditions are less acute, providing opportunities to address complex serious underlying etiologies of obesity. Obesity has not been alleviated by teaching about diet and exercise because obesity may be the result of dietary self-medication of pain from previous experiences. CSA is a very serious problem that could precipitate suicide attempts, obesity, and multifaceted poor health outcomes throughout the life span; subsequently placing individuals at greater risk of requiring rehabilitation services. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  7. Low CSF oxytocin reflects high intent in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Hellström, Christer; Nordström, Peter; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Asberg, Marie

    2012-04-01

    Data from animal studies suggest that oxytocin is an important modulating neuropeptide in regulation of social interaction. One human study has reported a negative correlation between CSF oxytocin levels, life history of aggression and suicidal behaviour. We hypothesized that CSF oxytocin levels would be related to suicidal behaviour, suicide intent, lifetime interpersonal violence and suicide risk. 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this cross sectional and longitudinal study. CSF and plasma morning basal levels of oxytocin were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), the Freeman scale and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used to assess suicide intent and lifetime violent behaviour. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up was 21 years. Suicide attempters had lower CSF oxytocin levels compared to healthy volunteers p=0.077. In suicide attempters CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with the planning subscale of SIS. CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with suicide intent, the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability in male suicide attempters. Correlations between plasma oxytocin levels and the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability were significant in male suicide attempters. Lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to negative correlation with CSF oxytocin. In the regression analysis suicide intent remained a significant predictor of CSF oxytocin corrected for age and gender whereas lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to be a predictor of CSF oxytocin. Oxytocin levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. CSF oxytocin may be an important modulator of suicide intent and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters.

  8. Psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping in adolescent suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Different risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts have been identified including those of socio-demographic and clinical variables. Relatively, little research has been done in the area of their stressors and coping patterns. Aims: To study the recent psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Tertiary care hospital, case-control study. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive cases of adolescent attempted suicide admitted to the hospital and an equal number of controls, matched individually for age and sex, from the relatives and friends of other patients in the ward, were studied. Assessment included details regarding socio-demographic data, psychiatric and physical morbidity, their recent stressors, and patterns of coping. Stressors were assessed using Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale and coping strategies by Ways of Coping Questionnaire (revised. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The number of stressful life events and mean stress scores in the preceding 1 month and certain coping strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance were found to be significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Strategies such as self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibilities, problem solving, and positive appraisal act as protective factors. Conclusions: Recent stressors and strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance are significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts, whereas certain coping strategies act as protective factors. Teaching adolescents these protective coping patterns may be a promising strategy for prevention of adolescent suicide attempts.

  9. Estudio preliminar de las características del intento de suicidio en la provincia de Granada Preliminary study of the characteristics of attempted suicide in the province of Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mejías

    2011-12-01

    in a greater proportion than such behaviour with a deadly outcome. There are many causes for this behaviour and it is important to become familiar with them if it is to be prevented. The aim of this article is to describe the characteristics of non-mortal suicidal behaviour in the province of Granada. Method. A retrospective descriptive study of the characteristics of non-mortal suicidal behaviour in Granada during the years 2008 and 2009, according to the database of the Provincial 061 Service in Granada. The sample includes the demands made to this service in which the literal reason for the alert included the terms: suicide, self-harm or the threat of suicide. The statistical analysis was done with the SPSS 15.0 program. We analyzed the variable non-mortal suicidal behaviour with respect to the independent variables: sex, age, month, day of the week, time slot, health district, resolution of the demand (assigned priority and further attempts. Results. In total we analyzed 535 demands typified as intentional self-injury by unspecified means. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the data for the two years with respect to the month chosen, and in the relationship between age range and time slot of the suicide attempts. Conclusions. Despite its limitations, the characterization of suicidal behaviour in our province offers essential information, and could be useful in designing and developing a program of psychosocial intervention for the prevention of suicidal behaviour adjusted to the specific profiles of our population.

  10. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...... agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic...

  11. Discerning reported suicide attempts within a youthful offender population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher; De Rigne, Lea A; Quinn, Linda; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    With suicide being the third leading cause of death among young people, early identification of risk is critical, particularly for those involved with the juvenile courts. In this study of court-involved youth (N = 433) in two Midwest counties, logistic regression analysis identified some expected and unexpected findings of important demographic, educational, mental health, child welfare, and juvenile court-related variables that were linked to reported suicide attempts. Some of the expected suicide attempt risk factors for these youth included prior psychiatric hospitalization and related mental health services, residential placement, and diagnoses of depression and alcohol dependence. However, the most unexpected finding was that a court disposition to shelter care (group home) was related to a nearly tenfold increased risk in reported suicide attempt. These findings are of importance to families, mental health professionals, and juvenile court personnel to identify those youth who are most at risk and subsequently provide appropriate interventions to prevent such outcomes.

  12. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chao Zhang; Cun-Xian Jia; Ji-Yu Zhang; Lin-Lin Wang; Xian-Chen Liu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. METHODS: Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-2 months prior to att...

  13. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  14. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P R; Gislason, G H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. METHODS: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  15. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  16. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  17. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data ana

  18. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  19. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-MMPI-2. The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves.

  20. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-01

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  1. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly B Kraus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain.

  2. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Molly B Kraus; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain.

  3. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73...

  4. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  5. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  6. Revisiting Mental Simulation in Language Comprehension: Six Replication Attempts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Zwaan (Rolf); D. Pecher (Diane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of language comprehension as mental simulation has become popular in cognitive science. We revisit some of the original empirical evidence for this. Specifically, we attempted to replicate the findings from earlier studies that examined the mental simulation of object orientat

  7. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  8. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubiak, J.J.; Khankhane, P.J.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As

  9. EFL Teachers' Attempts at Feedback Innovation in the Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icy; Mak, Pauline; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on feedback in second language (L2) writing has primarily focused on feedback per se, with little attention paid to the teachers' professional development with regard to feedback in writing. This study aims to explore the ways in which two secondary teachers in Hong Kong attempted to implement feedback innovation in their writing…

  10. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubiak, J.J.; Khankhane, P.J.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As remediat

  11. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  12. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  13. Medically Serious Suicide Attempters With or Without Plan in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15-54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale was used to estimate the planned and unplanned suicide attempt. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors related to planned or unplanned suicide attempt. The results showed that the planned suicide attempts were associated with higher education, hopelessness, and previous suicide act. The unplanned suicide attempt tends to be suicide by pesticide and store pesticide at home. A ban of lethal pesticides may be a method for suicide prevention in rural China.

  14. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo......RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows...... whereas under intermediate and high sediment rates there was consistent cumulative growth throughout a 15 d experiment. This highlights the importance of suspended sediment for S. spinulosa and also the suitability of the VoRT system for maintaining organisms with suspended matter requirements....

  15. [Morbidity-mortality review in psychiatry: suicide or suicide attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A; Combalbert, N; Fay, J; Paquis, J

    2010-06-01

    (diversion of the possessions with suicidal aim, and importance of the "almost incident") and on the interest in exchanging on the current and\\or local professional practices (exchange on tools possibly used in the other psychiatric health establishments; favor the training). The actions of improvement put in perspective mainly concerned the professional practices. In this particular case, the awareness of professional knowledge was the most sought by the ancillary medical members of the team. We observed an important investment of the team, as far as the MMR bases are concerned, on a shared clinical method. The participants easily got to grips with the tool. The initiation with the MMR tool was time consuming, in particular for the doctor coordinating the project and the referent doctor of the department (30 hours). The exchanges also permitted the assessment of the competence of each professional present, and the common priorities were fast identified and focused on sharing the professional practices. The intervention of an external speaker (doctor, qualitician or other) seems important since it favors the emergence of questionings in the team. When faced with unwanted events such as suicides or suicide attempts, the MMR method allows the care teams to have time to ponder, listen and argument. What is learnt from dealing with unexpected events should enable the collective development of the capacity to react with the right reflexes when a surprising situation occurs. The RMM should find a place in the systems of clinical risk management, as a supplement to the declaration of the incidence. The results make it possible to anticipate on the use of the MMR in other thematic studies or issues of risk management. Copyright (c) 2009 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. DST non-suppression predicts suicide after attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Carlborg, Andreas; Mårtensson, Björn; Forslund, Kaj; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2007-04-15

    Most prospective studies of HPA axis have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during the follow-up. Attempted suicide is a strong clinical predictor of suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DST for suicide in a group of depressed inpatients with and without an index suicide attempt. Historical cohort of 382 psychiatric inpatients with mood disorder admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000 were submitted to the DST and followed up for causes of death. During the follow-up (mean 18 years), 36 suicides (9.4%) occurred, 20 of these were non-suppressors and 16 were suppressors. There was no statistically significant difference in suicide risk between the suppressors and non-suppressors for the sample as a whole. An index suicide attempt predicted suicide. In suicide attempters with mood disorder, the non-suppressor status was significantly associated with suicide indicating that HPA axis hyperactivity is a risk factor for suicide in this group. The dexamethasone suppression test may be a useful predictor within this population.

  17. Suicide in rural central India: Profile of attempters of deliberate self harm presenting to padhar hospital in Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Alex Ebenezer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a significant public health issue. India currently has the largest number of suicides in the world and has a disproportionate number of youth suicides including young women. The studies on patterns of suicide in rural central India are sparse, particularly among tribal communities. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the profile of suicide attempters presenting to a secondary-level hospital in rural central India and identify areas for potential future research toward preventive strategies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was carried out of eighty patients who were admitted with presenting complaints of deliberate self-harm and survived until psychiatric consultation. Descriptive statistics was employed to generate the results. Results and Conclusions: 86% of the attempts were isolated impulsive attempts following triggers, the most common of which was interpersonal disputes (71%. Only 67% of patients had a mental health condition, the most common syndrome being alcohol use disorder, followed by depression, and personality disorders. Although 45% of attempters had background interpersonal conflicts, only 5% reported financial stressors as contributory. Psychosocial stressors, especially interpersonal conflicts within the family, appear to be at least as important factors as mental illnesses in contributing to suicide attempts in the area.

  18. Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three major periods of research, their influence on current studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S; Veronesi, E; Mullens, B; Venter, G

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular and unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) that have occurred in Europe since 1998 have led to increased interest in those factors that determine competence of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for arboviruses. In this review the authors critically examine three major periods of research into the biological transmission by Culicoides of two economically important arboviruses ofthefamily Reoviridae: African horse sicknessvirus (AHSV) and BTV. First they examine early studies, largely conducted in southern Africa, that played a key role in initially implicating Culicoides as agents of AHSV and BTV transmission. Then they examine advances in understanding made following the establishment of colonies of the BTV vector species Culicoides sonorensis, which have largely shaped our current understanding of BTV and AHSV transmission. They then consider attempts in recent years to implicate vectors of BTV in the European Union during what has become the most economically damaging series of outbreaks in recorded history. In some cases the origin of these outbreaks was uncertain and unexpected, particularly in northern Europe, where BTV had not previously occurred. Limitations imposed on studies of vector competence by the biology of Culicoides are then discussed, along with advances in the technologies now available and the logistics of working upon agents requiring biosecure containment outside their endemic range. Finally, the authors suggest areas that have either been poorly addressed to date or entirely ignored and ways in which studies could be conducted to provide standardised data for comparison worldwide.

  19. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.

  20. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  1. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993 have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China’s usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China’s usability research, particularly in HIT.

  2. Study of eddy current power loss in an RCS vacuum chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS),power loss due to an eddy current on the metal vacuum chamber would cause heating of the vacuum chamber.It is important to study the effect for estimating eddy current induced power loss and temperature growth.Analytical formulas for eddy current power loss for various types of vacuum chambers are derived for dipole and quadrupole repectively.By using the prototype of dipole of CSNS/RCS,an experiment was done to test the analytical formula.The derived formulas were applied to calculating the eddy current power loss on some special structures of an RCS vacuum chamber.

  3. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  4. Attempt on construction of human friendly man-machine interface. Study and apply about human communication; Human friendly na man machine interface kochiku no kokoromi. Ningen no communication no kento to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, J. [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Kokubo, Y.; Matsumura, I.; Kobayashi, H. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes an attempt on a construction way of human friendly man-machine interface. At first, we do a simple experiment to find out the characteristic of human verbal communication. From the experimental results, we get some rules in case in human verbal communication. We construct the man-machine interface which is based on these rules. Through teaching process, we examine our verbal communication interface comparing with conventional interfaces. From this comparison, we recognize that the verbal communication interface is valid to construct the user-friendly man-machine interface. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, S.; Erné, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant

  6. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in general hospitals. Persons with Psychiatric disorders and poor quality of life are at increased risk for suicide. There are few case-control studies on psychiatric morbidity and quality of life of suicide attempters in India. AIMS: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and to study the quality of life in survivors following their first suicide attempt, to age and sex matched comparison subjects. SETTING AND DESIGN: This study is cross sectional, hospital based, case control study. Ethical clearance was given from the Ethical Committee of MGMC, Jaipur. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 100 cases of first suicide attempt (Group-I were compared with an equal number of randomly selected controls (Group-II. Variables related to psychiatric morbidity and quality of life were analyzed. Schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry (SCAN was used for psychiatric diagnosis as ICD-10 criteria, MADRS was used for assessing level of depression and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A was used for assessing level of anxiety in both the groups. Quality of Life of both groups was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF version. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The two groups were compared by calculating percentages, applying chi-square test and t-test with appropriate statistical measures. RESULTS: 90% of the group-I compared to 25% of the group-II had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders (52%, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (33%, and substance related disorders (28% were the most common disorders. Psychotic disorders were diagnosed in 13% of cases. Alcohol dependence was third most common diagnosis that presented exclusively among males (16%. Mean of the total transformed score of WHO quality of life-bref was lower (56.58 in attempters for all the domains. CONCLUSION: Individuals who made first suicide attempt had high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, had

  7. Study of risk factors of attempted suicides for women in rural Tianshui%天水市农村女性自杀未遂者危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蕊芳; 费立鹏; 陈琼琼; 孙伟伟; 张静倩; 李忠义; 麻赪; 张子明; 王军; 马元业; 温钧; 王志青; 李献云

    2017-01-01

    目的:探讨甘肃天水市农村自杀未遂女性的自杀危险因素. 方法:对天水市3个县区23个乡镇自杀未遂报告系统2007年6月至2009年1月报告的年龄≥14岁的自杀未遂女性150人(自杀未遂组)及由同一报告者提供的近1年内无自杀行为、年龄、居住地相匹配的正常女性150人(正常对照组)分别采用自编《伤害幸存者研究问卷》和《正常对照者研究问卷》进行自由访谈及问卷调查;分析自杀行为的危险因素. 结果:自杀未遂组在文盲、人均年收入低、现患精神障碍、有人格障碍、对自杀接受性高、自杀意念强、既往有自杀未遂史、近1个月有过失眠、近1个月因心理问题难以工作、近1年有生活事件、急/慢性应激高、生命质量低、冲动性及攻击性高、家庭亲密性及家庭适应性低、社会支持差的发生率上明显高于正常对照组(x2=5.051~71.082,P<0.05或P<0.001);自杀行为特征为冲动性、服农药、家庭纠纷或为解脱痛苦.Logistic回归分析显示年龄<40岁、文盲、现患精神障碍、对自杀接受性高、近1月因心理问题难以工作、近1年有生活事件、急性应激高、攻击性高、家庭亲密性低进入方程. 结论:服药是天水市农村女性最常见的自杀方式;年龄<40岁、文盲、现患精神障碍、对自杀接受性高、近1月因心理问题难以工作、近1年有生活事件、急性应激高、攻击性高、家庭亲密性低是天水农村女性自杀行为的危险因素.%Objective:To explore the general characteristics and related risk fecfors of female suicide attempts in rural areas of Tianshui.Method:The unstructured interview and survivors as well as normal control research questionnaire were administered to 150 suicide attempt women(suicide attempt group) aged ≥14 years from 23 township suicide attempt reporting system in June 2007 to January 2009 in Tianshui County and 150 age, residency

  8. NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE FORMATION OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA WARM CURRENT I. BAROTROPIC CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was used to study the formation of the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in the barotropic case. Monthly averaged wind stress and the inflow/outflow transports in January were used in the numerical simulation which reproduced the SCSWC. The effects of wind stress and inflow/outflow were studied separately. Numerical experiments showed that the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait and the slope shelf in the northern SCS are necessary conditions for the formation of the SCSWC. In a flat bottom topography experiment, the wind stress driven northeast current in the northern SCS is a compensatory current.

  9. A status analysis of current digital marketing: a case study of Kauneusstudio FAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a small company's current digital marketing status. This study was con-ducted in order for the owners of the beauty and hair salon Kauneusstudio FAB to improve their understanding of their customers’ behavior online and the significance of each digital channel they are using in the present marketing strategy. The goal of this study is to provide information for the company to recognize the strengths and the development points of the current digital marketing stra...

  10. Numerical study on short-circuit current of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the cathode work function,carriers mobilities and temperature on the short-circuit current of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts was numerically studied,and the quantitative dependences of the short-circuit current on these quantities were obtained.The results provide the theoretical foundation for experimental study of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts.

  11. Synchronous Study of Ferroresonance and Inrush Current Phenomena and their Related Reasons in Ground Power Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Amin; Ghaderi, Mohammad; Ghadi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energizing the power transformers usually results in flowing very high inrush currents. This harmful current can be minimized using controlled switching and considering the value of residual flux. But nowadays, developing the ground power networks results in high increment of ferroresonance phenomenon occurrence due to the line' capacitance reactance and nonlinear inductive reactance of power transformer's core. In this study, these transient phenomena and their cause have studied synchronously.

  12. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362 and repeat attempters (n = 61 presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034. In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020. Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts.

  13. Study of social identity of smoking-attempting behavior among female high school students in Shanghai%上海市女中学生尝试吸烟行为的社会认同研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚平; 朱静芬; 李娜; 蔡泳; 马进

    2012-01-01

    目的 对上海市女中学生尝试吸烟行为的社会认同进行调查和分析.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,对上海市29所全日制学校的6535名女中学生(12~18岁)进行涉及人口学特征、对待烟草使用态度和行为、学校控烟教育状况、社会和家庭环境等方面的问卷调查.采用多元Logistic回归进行尝试吸烟行为的社会认同分析.结果 在尝试吸烟的女中学生中,95.9%的女生知晓吸烟有害健康,分别有11.4%和8.7%的女生认为吸烟使男生和女生更有吸引力.在对同龄人吸烟的态度方面,其中持“无所谓”和“支持”态度者分别占46.2%和2.9%.在对吸烟原因的选择中,尝试吸烟者选择内在影响者占55.5%,选择环境影响者31.2%,而非吸烟者选择内在影响者占61.5%,选择环境影响者占24.8%.结论 与非吸烟者比较,尝试吸烟者对吸烟群体的社会认同呈现明显的积极取向,并以拒斥性认同抵抗吸烟“污名”的压力.%Objective To investigate the social identity of smoking-attempting behavior among female high school students in Shanghai. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 6 535 female high school students (aged 12 to 18 years) selected from 29 full-time high schools in Shanghai through stratified random cluster sampling, which was concerned with demographic characteristics, attitude and behavior towards tobacco use, school education on tobacco control and environment of society and family. The social identity of smoking-attempting behavior was analysed by Logistic regression analysis. Results Though 95.9% of the female high school students who attempted to smoke were aware that smoking was bad for health, 11.4% and 8.7% of them thought smoking made male or female students more attractive. In terms of their attitude towards peer smoking, the percentages of "doesn't matter" and "support" were 46. 2% and 2. 9% respectively. Regarding the reasons for smoking

  14. Study of Leakage Current Behaviour on Artificially Polluted Surface of Ceramic Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Subba Reddy; G. R. Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current be-haviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observedthat there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage.The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV.Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flowas the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dryband and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, herealso, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages.Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis - the leakage currents are lowerin the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutantlayer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a directquantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized.

  15. Cognitive and social factors associated with NSSI and suicide attempts in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jennifer; Frazier, Elisabeth A; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Burke, Taylor; Sloan, Emma; Spirito, Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Although non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) frequently co-occur among youth, there is increasing evidence that both the risk factors and the phenomenology of the behaviors are distinct. This study examined how individuals who engage in NSSI only, individuals who attempt suicide only, and those who have histories of both NSSI and at least one suicide attempt may differ in terms of cognitions and perceived social support. Participants were 185 adolescents (78.1 % female) between the ages of 13 and 18 recruited from a psychiatric inpatient facility in the northeastern United States. One hundred forty-eight teens were identified with a history of self-injurious behavior and divided into three groups: NSSI only (n = 45), SA only (n = 24) or both NSSI and SA (NSSI+SA; n = 79). Analyses showed that the NSSI+SA group exhibited more cognitive errors, negative self-statements, and negative views of self, world, and future, as well as less perceived familial support than either the NSSI or SA only groups. There were no differences between groups on perceived support from teachers or peers. No significant demographic or diagnostic differences were found between the NSSI and SA groups. Limitations and clinical implications of the current research are discussed.

  16. An fMRI investigation of the effects of attempted naming on word retrieval in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiree eHeath

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In healthy controls, picture naming performance can be facilitated by a single prior exposure to the same picture (priming. This priming phenomenon is utilized in the treatment of aphasia, which often includes repeated picture naming as part of a therapeutic task. The current study sought to determine whether single and/or multiple exposures facilitate subsequent naming in aphasia and whether such facilitatory effects act through normal priming mechanisms. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm was employed to explore the beneficial effects of attempted naming in two individuals with aphasia and a control group. The timing and number of prior exposures was manipulated, with investigation of both short-term effects (single prior exposure over a period of minutes and long-term effects (multiple presentations over a period of days. Following attempted naming, both short-term and long-term facilitated items showed improvement for controls, while only the long-term condition showed benefits at a behavioral level for the participants with aphasia. At a neural level, effects of long-term facilitation were noted in the left precuneus for one participant with aphasia, a result also identified for the equivalent contrast in controls. It appears that multiple attempts are required to improve naming performance in the presence of anomia and that for some individuals with aphasia the source of facilitation may be similar to unimpaired mechanisms engaged outside the language network.

  17. Social Class Status and Suicide Characteristics: A Survey among Patients Who Attempted Suicide in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafour; Karami, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is one of the most prominent problems in health care system in current Iran. It could be impacted by various factors such as social, economic, individual and so on. Researchers show that socio-economic factors and suicide has significantly related. The people in low social class may more engage with social problems than higher social class. They may confront to problems such as crime, violence, unemployment, financial hardship, population density, disorder personality, etc. However, these difficulties could be resulted from relationship of inequality socio-economic and mental or physical health. This research attempted to examine social class status and its relationship with parts of suicide characteristics. This study applied a descriptive approach. In the cross-sectional research 179 patients who attempted suicide and admitted to the toxicology ward of Nour hospital and to the burning ward of Imam Mousa Kazem hospital, in Isfahan, during a period of 6 months in 2010 were recruited. The randomize sampling for patients admitted to toxicology ward and census for burning ward are applied. Data collected through a questionnaire which Chronbagh coefficient's alpha was calculated (r= 0/72). Data was analyzed in SPSS software. The data showed that the majority of patients who attempted suicide were young married women who had diploma and under diploma of level education. They were housewife, engaged in education and unemployment. Finding showed that there are no significant relationships between sex, age, marital status, frequency of attempted suicide and their social class. But there is significant relationship between methods of suicide and social class. Similarly, there are significant relationship between social factors (i.e. family friction, betrothal, unemployment, financial problems and so on) effected on suicide and their social classes. Parts of findings were supported by previous studies.

  18. Active and passive problem solving as moderators of the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation among suicide attempters and non-attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda, Wendy P; Marroquín, Brett; Miranda, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether active problem solving would buffer against, whereas passive problem solving would exacerbate, the association of negative life stress with suicidal ideation. Young adult college students (73 females, M(age) = 19.0) from a diverse urban public university, with (n = 37) and without (n = 59) a suicide attempt history completed measures of life stress, problem solving, hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to test moderating roles of active and passive problem solving, along with suicide attempt history, on the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation. There was a weaker relation between life stress and suicidal ideation at high and average levels of relevant problem solving than at low levels, and this was the case primarily for suicide attempters but not for non-attempters. Individuals with a past attempt produced more passive solutions than non-attempters, but among attempters, even passive problem solving buffered the association of life stress with suicidal ideation. Relevant problem solving in the face of life stress may be especially important for individuals vulnerable to suicidal ideation due to an attempt history. Among such at-risk individuals, generating even passive solutions in the face of life stress may be more adaptive than generating few solutions. Thus, clinical interventions with suicide attempters that focus on generating solutions to problems, even if these are initially passive, may help mitigate the effect of life stress on suicidal ideation.

  19. Parenting-by-gender interactions in child psychopathology: attempting to address inconsistencies with a Canadian national database

    OpenAIRE

    Thabane Lehana; Odueyungbo Adefowope; Browne Dillon T; Byrne Carolyn; Smart Lindsay A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereot...

  20. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  2. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  3. Sight-Singing Assessment: A Study of Current Beliefs and Practices of Georgia Middle and High School Choral Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Douglass Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain the specific assessment strategies used by middle- and high-school choral directors in Georgia to evaluate sight-singing. Data was further gathered to determine which assessment practices choral directors considered to be the most effective. Although there had been previous studies that attempted to determine the…

  4. Can CCTV identify people in public transit stations who are at risk of attempting suicide? An analysis of CCTV video recordings of attempters and a comparative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile; Dupont, Serge

    2016-12-15

    Suicides incur in all public transit systems which do not completely impede access to tracks. We conducted two studies to determine if we can reliably identify in stations people at risk of suicide in order to intervene in a timely manner. The first study analysed all CCTV recordings of suicide attempters in Montreal underground stations over 2 years to identify behaviours indicating suicide risk. The second study verified the potential of using those behaviours to discriminate attempters from other passengers in real time. First study: Trained observers watched CCTV video recordings of 60 attempters, with 2-3 independent observers coding seven easily observable behaviours and five behaviours requiring interpretation (e.g. "strange behaviours," "anxious behaviour"). Second study: We randomly mixed 63 five-minute CCTV recordings before an attempt with 56 recordings from the same cameras at the same time of day, and day of week, but when no suicide attempt was to occur. Thirty-three undergraduate students after only 10 min of instructions watched the recordings and indicated if they observed each of 13 behaviours identified in the First Study. First study: Fifty (83%) of attempters had easily observable behaviours potentially indicative of an impending attempt, and 37 (61%) had two or more of these behaviours. Forty-five (75%) had at least one behaviours requiring interpretation. Twenty-two witnesses attempted to intervene to stop the attempt, and 75% of attempters had behaviours indicating possible ambivalence (e.g. waiting for several trains to pass; trying to get out of the path of the train). Second study: Two behaviours, leaving an object on the platform and pacing back and forth from the yellow line (just before the edge of the platform), could identify 24% of attempters with no false positives. The other target behaviours were also present in non-attempters. However, having two or more of these behaviours indicated a likelihood of being at risk of attempting

  5. Experimental study on directional solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räbiger, D.; Zhang, Y.; Galindo, V.; Franke, S.; Willers, B.; Eckert, S.

    2016-07-01

    The application of electric currents during solidification can cause grain refinement in metallic alloys. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the decrease in grain size remains fragmentary. This study considers the solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents for the configuration of two parallel electrodes at the free surface. Solidification experiments were performed under the influence of both direct currents (DC) and rectangular electric current pulses (ECP). The interaction between the applied current and its own induced magnetic field causes a Lorentz force which produces an electro-vortex flow. Numerical simulations were conducted to calculate the Lorentz force, the Joule heating and the induced melt flow. The numerical predictions were confirmed by isothermal flow measurements in eutectic GaInSn. The results demonstrate that the grain refining effect observed in our experiments can be ascribed solely to the forced melt flow driven by the Lorentz force.

  6. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male. There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%, drug dependence or abuse (21.8%, psychoses (21.2%, depression (18.5%, and hypertension (14.2%. A total of 1,836 (18.1% veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years. The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1. Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22

  7. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  8. Suicides and medically serious attempters are of the same population in Chinese rural young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on signal processing in Eddy current testing for defects in spline gear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Tae Sug; Park, Ik Keun [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is commonly applied for the inspection of automated production lines of metallic products, because it has a high inspection speed and a reasonable price. When ECT is applied for the inspection of a metallic object having an uneven target surface, such as the spline gear of a spline shaft, it is difficult to distinguish between the original signal obtained from the sensor and the signal generated by a defect because of the relatively large surface signals having similar frequency distributions. To facilitate the detection of defect signals from the spline gear, implementation of high-order filters is essential, so that the fault signals can be distinguished from the surrounding noise signals, and simultaneously, the pass-band of the filter can be adjusted according to the status of each production line and the object to be inspected. We will examine the infinite impulse filters (IIR filters) available for implementing an advanced filter for ECT, and attempt to detect the flaw signals through optimization of system design parameters for detecting the signals at the system level.

  10. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  11. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students...

  12. Using direct current resistivity sounding and geostatistics to aid in hydrogeological studies in the Choshuichi alluvial fan, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chieh-Hou; Lee, Wei-Feng

    2002-01-01

    Ground water reservoirs in the Choshuichi alluvial fan, central western Taiwan, were investigated using direct-current (DC) resistivity soundings at 190 locations, combined with hydrogeological measurements from 37 wells. In addition, attempts were made to calculate aquifer transmissivity from both surface DC resistivity measurements and geostatistically derived predictions of aquifer properties. DC resistivity sounding data are highly correlated to the hydraulic parameters in the Choshuichi alluvial fan. By estimating the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity from the kriged well data and the cokriged thickness of the correlative aquifer from both resistivity sounding data and well information, the transmissivity of the aquifer at each location can be obtained from the product of kriged hydraulic conductivity and computed thickness of the geoelectric layer. Thus, the spatial variation of the transmissivities in the study area is obtained. Our work is more comparable to Ahmed et al. (1988) than to the work of Niwas and Singhal (1981). The first "constraint" from Niwas and Singhal's work is a result of their use of linear regression. The geostatistical approach taken here (and by Ahmed et al. [1988]) is a natural improvement on the linear regression approach.

  13. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia.

  14. Electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy with individualized current amplitude: a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H; Laine, Andrew F; Peterchev, Angel V

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the electric field induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with individualized current amplitude. The electric field induced by bilateral (BL), bifrontal (BF), right unilateral (RUL), and frontomedial (FM) ECT electrode configurations was computed in anatomically realistic finite element models of four nonhuman primates (NHPs). We generated maps of the electric field strength relative to an empirical neural activation threshold, and determined the stimulation strength and focality at fixed current amplitude and at individualized current amplitudes corresponding to seizure threshold (ST) measured in the anesthetized NHPs. The results show less variation in brain volume stimulated above threshold with individualized current amplitudes (16-36%) compared to fixed current amplitude (30-62%). Further, the stimulated brain volume at amplitude-titrated ST is substantially lower than that for ECT with conventional fixed current amplitudes. Thus individualizing the ECT stimulus current could compensate for individual anatomical variability and result in more focal and uniform electric field exposure across different subjects compared to the standard clinical practice of using high, fixed current for all patients.

  15. Coupled Numerical Study of Turbidity Currents, Internal Hydraulic Jump and Morphological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P.; Cao, Z.; He, Z.; Gareth, P.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The last two decades have seen intensive experimental and numerical studies of the occurrence condition of internal hydraulic jump in turbidity currents and the induced morphological signatures (Garcia and Parker 1989; Kostic and Parker 2006). Yet there are two critical issues that remain insufficiently or inappropriately addressed. First, depositional turbidity currents are imposed on steep slopes in both flume experiments and numerical cases, exclusively based on a configuration consisting of an upstream sloping portion and a downstream horizontal portion linked by a slope break. This appears physically counterintuitive as steep slope should favour self-accelerating erosional turbidity currents (Parker et al. 1986). The second issue concerns the numerical studies. There exist significant interactions among the current, sediment transport and bed topography. Due to the slope break in bed, the current may experience an internal hydraulic jump, leaving morphological signatures on the bed, which in turn affects the current evolution. Nevertheless, simplified decoupled models are exclusively employed in previous numerical investigations, in which the interactions are either partly or completely ignored without sufficient justification. The present paper aims to address the above-mentioned two issues relevant to the occurrence condition of the internal hydraulic jump and the induced morphological signatures. A recently developed well-balanced coupled numerical model for turbidity currents (Hu et al. 2012) is applied. In contrast to previous studies, erosional turbidity currents will be imposed at the upstream boundary, which is much more typical of the field. The effects of sediment size, bed slope decrease, and upstream and downstream boundary conditions are revealed in detail. In addition, the evolution of turbidity currents over a bed characterized by gradual decrease in slope is also discussed. References Garcia, M. H., and Parker, G. (1989). Experiments

  16. Multimodal Study of Adult-Infant Interaction: A Review of Its Origins and Its Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Carretero Pérez

    Full Text Available Abstract An interpretative review of research on adult-infant interactions involving the analysis of movement behaviors is presented, systematically linking previous studies to current research on the subject. Forty-two articles analyzing the dyad's interactive movement in the period 1970-2015 were found. Twelve papers were excluded, including only those that studied the phenomenon in the baby's first year of life. The results revealed that movement was a central topic in early interaction studies in the 70s. In the 1980's and 1990's, its study was marginal and it is currently resurging under the embodiment perspective. The conceptual framework and research methods used in the pioneering work are presented, and the thematic foci shared with current research are highlighted. Thus, essential keys are provided for the updated study of early interactions from a multimodal perspective.

  17. Langmuir probe study in the nonresonant current drive regime of helicon discharge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manash Kumar Paul; Dhiraj Bora

    2008-07-01

    Characterization of the current drive regime is done for helicon wave-generated plasma in a torus, at a very high operating frequency. A radiofrequency-compensated Langmuir probe is designed and used for the measurement of plasma parameters along with the electron energy distributions in radial scans of the plasma. The electron energy distribution patterns obtained in the operational regime suggest that Landau damping cannot be responsible for the efficient helicon discharge in the present study. A typical peaked radial density profile, high plasma temperature and absence of an appreciable amount of energetic electrons for resonant wave–particle interactions, suggest that the chosen operational regime is suitable for the study of nonresonant current drive by helicon wave. Successful and significant current drive achieved in our device clearly demonstrates the capability of nonresonant current drive by helicon waves in the present operational regime.

  18. Study on Catastrophic Air Current Early-warning and Control System of Coalmines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic air current significantly influences the stability of ventilation system, and existing studies have not considered the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current when designing the control systems. To analyze the effects of different kinds of coalmine accidents on safety production, grey relation entropy theory was used to analyze the hazard assessment of coalmine accidents. Fluent software was employed to study the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current, and the catastrophic air current early-warning and control system of coalmine was researched according to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The threat of fire accidents and roof accidents were larger than other accidents. The influence of temperature and CO volume fraction distribution of fire accidents to the tailwind side was larger than that of the weather side, and gradient decreased on the weather side. This system can effectively control the spread of fire and poisonous gas,

  19. Relation between attempted suicide and suicide rates among young people in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hawton, K.; Arensman, E.; Wasserman, D.; Hulten, A.; Bille-Brahe, U.; Bjerke, T.; Crepet, P.; Deisenhammer, E; Kerkhof, A.; De Leo, D; Michel, K.; Ostamo, A.; Philippe, A.; I. Querejeta; Salander-Renberg, E.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if there are associations between rates of suicide and attempted suicide in 15-24 year olds in different countries in Europe. DESIGN: Attempted suicide rates were based on data collected in centres in Europe between 1989 and 1992 as part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Parasuicide. Comparison was made with both national suicide rates and local suicide rates for the areas in which the attempted suicide monitoring centres are based. SETTING: 15 centres i...

  20. Perspective of the study on the ring current - past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The study of the ring current has a long history going back to the early 20th century. The ring current was predicted by Carl Stoermer to explain the equatorward movement of the auroral zone during magnetic storms. In 1917, Adolf Schmidt introduced the concept of the ring current to explain the global decrease of the geomagnetic field. Since then, number of studies have been accomplished in the context of the growth and recovery of magnetic storms. Observations have shown that protons and oxygen ions with energies 1 - 100 keV significantly increase during the storm main phase, which are most likely the major contributor to the storm-time ring current. When the loss of the ions dominates the injection of them, the storm recovery phase takes place. Immediate problems are the origin, transport and loss of the ions. All these relevant processes are essential to understand the growth and decay of the ring current. Derived problems, for example, include the entry of solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere, the outflow of ionospheric ions, generation of the convection electric field, influence of substorm-associated electric field, and pitch angle scattering of ions. Recalling that the ring current is the diamagnetic current, we shall consider the force balance and stress carefully. Generation of field-aligned currents is one of the consequences, which might redistribute the state of the inner magnetosphere including the plasmasphere, the ring current and the radiation belts. The ring current may also have a large influence on the geomagnetically induced current (GIC) on the ground at mid- and low-latitudes. The magnetic storms can be easily identified by looking at magnetograms, but the processes behind the magnetic storms cannot be easily understood because the processes depend on each other. From this sense, we shall pay much attention to the detailed function of each process as well as its role on the overall system. Dealing with the ring current as a complex system

  1. Theoretical study of the source-drain current and gate leakage current to understand the graphene field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui; Liu, Hongmei; Ni, Wenbin; Gao, Nengyue; Zhao, Jianwei; Zhang, Haoli

    2011-02-28

    We designed acene molecules attached to two semi-infinite metallic electrodes to explore the source-drain current of graphene and the gate leakage current of the gate dielectric material in the field-effect transistors (FETs) device using the first-principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In the acene-based molecular junctions, we modify the connection position of the thiol group at one side, forming different electron transport routes. The electron transport routes besides the shortest one are defined as the cross channels. The simulation results indicate that electron transport through the cross channels is as efficient as that through the shortest one, since the conductance is weakly dependent on the distance. Thus, it is possible to connect the graphene with multiple leads, leading the graphene as a channel utilized in the graphene-based FETs in the mesoscopic system. When the conjugation of the cross channel is blocked, the junction conductance decreases dramatically. The differential conductance of the BA-1 is nearly 7 (54.57 μS) times as large as that of the BA-4 (7.35 μS) at zero bias. Therefore, the blocked graphene can be employed as the gate dielectric material in the top-gated graphene FET device, since the leakage current is small. The graphene-based field-effect transistors fabricated with a single layer of graphene as the channel and the blocked graphene as the gate dielectric material represent one way to overcome the problem of miniaturization which faces the new generation of transistors.

  2. Suicide attempts among children and adolescents: partial or total injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents between the age of 3 and 18 years were selected. It was revealed that the health professionals, particularly physicians and nurses, fail to register the cases appropriately, invalidating information about the problem and potential prevention measures. The conclusion reached was that underreporting and the discrepancy of the diagnoses which were not duly referred to the competent agencies require rethinking and reviewing medical practices, and taking a systematic and careful look to address the individual as a complex whole.

  3. [Experiences of Individuals With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Quintero, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt. A qualitative study with a psychodynamic approach. In-depth interviews were conducted in order to explore thought processes, emotions, motivations and experiences that underlie and accompany the suicide attempt. Five women and 3 men were interviewed. The average age was 29 years. The exploration of subjective experiences in the present study showed that loneliness and psychic pain were linked to hopelessness, pessimism and discouragement. Also, the illusion of death represents an invitation to suicide attempt. It is important to consider the subjective assessment that patients with suicidal risk make of their depression and stressful life situations. Additionally, the concepts of loneliness and psychic pain have a leading role in the interaction between discourse and the experiences of the participants interviewed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Suicidal Plans and Attempts Among Adolescents in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasambuu, Sarantsetseg; Batbaatar, Suvd; Witte, Susan; Hamid, Phillip; Oquendo, Maria A; Kleinman, Marjorie; Olivares, Michael; Gould, Madelyn

    2017-02-23

    Although 75% of suicides occur in low- and middle-income countries, few studies have examined suicidal behaviors among young people in these countries. This study aimed to examine what individual characteristics were associated with suicidal plans and attempts among Mongolian youth and whether suicidal risks and behaviors varied by urban and rural locations. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to investigate suicidal plans and attempts among 5,393 adolescents using the Global Student Health Survey - 2013. Adolescents who lived in urban areas were at higher risk for suicidal plans and behaviors than those who lived in rural areas; however, the patterns of suicidal risks were similar. Specifically, individual characteristics, such as being female, feeling lonely and worried, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and having fights at school, were associated with suicidal plans and behaviors regardless of the residential places. A number of important variables have not been included in the questionnaire such as depression, family and parental support, household income, family constructs etc. Given the comparable patterns of risk between urban and rural adolescents and the relatively high rates of suicidal plans and attempts, similar mental health services and interventions are necessitated for both urban and rural areas.

  5. Stressful life events, hopelessness, and coping strategies among impulsive suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides are among the most important causes of death in the economically productive population. Characteristics of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters may differ which would have a bearing on planning preventive measures. Aims: This study aimed to characterize the clinical and psychological profile of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters. Settings and Design: This retrospective comprehensive chart-based study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: The study utilized records of patients over a period of 3 years. An attempt was considered impulsive if the time between suicidal idea and the attempt was <30 min. Stressful life events were assessed using presumptive stressful life events scale; hopelessness was evaluated using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and coping was measured using Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form. Statistical Analysis Used: Impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results: Of 316 patients, 151 were classified as having an impulsive suicidal attempt (47.8% of the sample. The impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters did not differ on demographic characteristics. Use of natural plant products was more common in impulsive attempters (27.2% vs. 12.7%, while physical methods like hanging was less common (0.7% vs. 7.3%. Those with an impulsive attempt were more likely to have a recent contact with a health professional (24.5% vs. 4.5%. Impulsive suicide attempters had higher scores on BHS (Mann-Whitney U = 7680.5, P < 0.001, and had recollected greater number of stressors. Conclusion: Impulsive suicide attempters differ from nonimpulsive suicide attempters in clinical features like methods of attempt, presence of hopelessness, and stressors.

  6. Factors Related in Suicide Attempts in Admitted Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is considered as a public health problem. Approximately 0.9% of all deaths worldwide are due to suicide. This study was performed to identify risk factors of suicide attempts among patients who admitted in a medical toxicology centre during three months. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out; all admitted patients in our medical toxicology centre due to suicidal attempt who completed consent form were included from December to March 2013. A researcher designed questionnaire was prepared and its validity and reliability was confirmed; it was fulfilled by a psychologist via clinical interview. Data were analyzed by SPSS software 11.5 and results were discussed. Results:198 participants included; of whom 67.2% were female and 94.9% were less than 45 year old. Among the patients, approximately 48% of the patients were married; 27.77% were employed. More than 96% suffered from severe depression, 3.53% of the patients had psychotic symptoms. Personality disorders, previous suicidal attempt, unemployment, full stressed family, family history of suicidal attempt, moderate to severe depression and a history of dependence on antipsychotic drugs and lack of family support were identified as risk factors for suicide. Conclusion: Attention to personality trait  and family environment can be mainly effective in long-term prevention of suicide, treatment of physical illness in patients with chronic health conditions, evaluation and treatment of psychiatric issues in addition to family and social problems, and organizing educational courses  to families with suicide history can be helpful.

  7. Mother’s filicide with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. Case Outline. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Conclusion. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.

  8. Hydraulic fracturing - an attempt of DEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Alicja; Foltyn, Natalia; Klejment, Piotr; Dębski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique widely used in oil, gas and unconventional reservoirs exploitation in order to enable the oil/gas to flow more easily and enhance the production. It relays on pumping into a rock a special fluid under a high pressure which creates a set of microcracks which enhance porosity of the reservoir rock. In this research, attempt of simulation of such hydrofracturing process using the Discrete Element Method approach is presented. The basic assumption of this approach is that the rock can be represented as an assembly of discrete particles cemented into a rigid sample (Potyondy 2004). An existence of voids among particles simulates then a pore system which can be filled out by fracturing fluid, numerically represented by much smaller particles. Following this microscopic point of view and its numerical representation by DEM method we present primary results of numerical analysis of hydrofracturing phenomena, using the ESyS-Particle Software. In particular, we consider what is happening in distinct vicinity of the border between rock sample and fracking particles, how cracks are creating and evolving by breaking bonds between particles, how acoustic/seismic energy is releasing and so on. D.O. Potyondy, P.A. Cundall. A bonded-particle model for rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (2004), pp. 1329-1364.

  9. [Euthanasia - an attempt to organize issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmes, Tomasz; Wilk, Mateusz; Chowaniec, Czesław

    This article is an attempt to complete and holistically discuss problem of euthanasia, especially its ethical and legal aspects, comparing to Polish law. The subject of euthanasia arouse interest of the society because it touches one of the most important aspects of life, which is the death. Even bigger emotions are aroused amongst physicians. They are forced to put on the line the life as biggest value on the one side and autonomy of human being on the other. It also touches the empathy for suffering. The euthanasia was divided into three forms: active euthanasia, passive euthanasia and assisted suicide. Any form of euthanasia is illegal in Poland according to both the Penal Code and Code of Medical Ethics. Range of possible penal consequences perpetrator is very wide from waiver of punishment to life imprisonment and it comes from different penal qualification of the euthanasia. Qualification of the euthanasia is based on terms of intent of perpetrator's act, request of patient, strong empathy for suffering if the patient and decision based on up-to-date medical knowledge. It is valuable to mention "do-not-resuscitate" DNR procedure, which in case of medical futility is legally accepted in Poland, but in other form may be qualified as passive euthanasia.

  10. Evaluation of pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Zengin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pregnancy period, the incidence of suicide attempt is lower compared to other life-periods. However, according to the recent studies, suicide attempts may lead life-threatening consequences in high-risk pregnant women. The aim of this study is to compare pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department for suicide attempt in terms of their sociodemographic and clinical properties and suicide attempt methods. Methods: In this study, 56 patients admitted to the emergency department of university for suicide attempt between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were included and they were classified according to suicide attempt methods into 2 groups as violent ones. Group 1 included violent methods as hanging, jumping, shooting and Group 2 included non-violent method as drugs. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. The sociodemographic, psychiatric and clinical properties of the patients were identified by patient registry system and patient files, and inter-group differences were compared. Results: In this study, 15 (26.7% patients in the violent suicide attempt group, and 41 (73.3% patients in the non-violent suicide attempt group, totally 56 patients were included. In the non-violent suicide attempt group, cigarette smoking, suicide attempt due to boredom, and live birth was significantly higher as compared to violent group; hospitalization period and fetal death was lower (p=0.04; p=0.006; p=0.004; p=0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Most of our pregnant suicide attempt patients are in the non-violent group, however, violent suicide attempt increased hospitalization period and fetal mortality significantly. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 115-120

  11. A control study about the clinical features of attempted suicide behavior in inpatient with schizophrenia%住院精神分裂症患者自杀未遂行为临床特征对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春平; 李学武; 曾姣瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解住院精神分裂症患者自杀未遂行为的临床特征.方法 回顾性分析225例精神分裂症患者,其中自杀组72例,非自杀组153例.用自编临床资料收集表登记一般资料,评定入院时简明精神病量表总分及各因子分,及汉密尔顿抑郁量表总分,比较两组一般资料及各量表评分.结果 自杀组中有家族史(69.4%)、既往有自杀未遂史(52.7%)、病前有社会应激事件(56.9%)、起病形式为急性或亚急性(70.8%)、合并躯体疾病(68.0%)、有物质滥用(12.5%)、治疗依从性差(76.4%)、无社会保险(77.8%)所占比例明高于非自杀组,两组比较有显著性差异(P<0.01).BPRS总分及焦虑抑郁因子分、思维障碍因子分、敌对猜疑因子分,自杀组明显高于非自杀组(P<0.05).HAMD总分自杀组明显高于非自杀组(P<0.01).自杀组中存在抑郁症状者的比例(70.8%)明显高于非自杀组(19.6%)(P<0.01).结论 精神分裂症患者的自杀未遂行为的临床特征较为明显,是可以提前预测及早预防的.%Objective To investigate the clinical features of attempted suicide behavior in inpatients with schizophrenia. Methods 225 cases with schizophrenia (72 cases in suicide group and 153 cases in non-suicide group) were analyzed retrospectivly. General information were collected by using serf-designed clinical data questionaire. All the patients were assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( BPRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ( HAMD) at the admission. The general information and the scores of BPRS and HAMD were compared between suicide group and non-suicide group. Results Compared with non-suicide group, the incidence of positive family history (69.4%), history of attempted suicide (52. 7% ) , social stress events before onset (56. 9% ) , being acute or subacute onset (70.8%), comorbiding with physical disease (68. 0%), comorbiding with substance abuse (12. 5%), poor compliance (76. 4

  12. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005. Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005.

  13. Numerical study of magnetic reconnection process near in- terplanetary current sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The third order accurate upwind compact difference scheme has been applied to the numerical study of the magnetic reconnection process possibly occurring near the interplanetary current sheet, under the framework of the two-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Our results here show that the driven reconnection near the current sheet can occur within 10-30 min for the interplanetary high magnetic Reynolds number, RM =2 000-10 000, the stable magnetic reconnection structure can be formed in hour-order of magnitude, and there are some ba- sic properties such as the multiple X-line reconnections, vortical velocity structures, filament current systems, split-ting and collapse of the high-density plasma bulk. These results are helpful in understanding and identifying the magnetic reconnection phenomena near the interplanetary current sheets.

  14. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  15. Semi-automatic determination of the Azores Current axis using satellite altimetry: Application to the study of the current variability during 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, C.; Juliano, M. F.; Fernandes, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Satellite altimetry has been widely used to study the variability of the ocean currents such as the Azores Current (AzC) in the North Atlantic. Most analyses are performed over the region that encloses the current, thus being somehow affected by other oceanographic signals, e.g., eddies. In this study, a new approach for extracting the axis of a zonal current solely based on satellite altimetry is presented. This is a semi-automatic procedure that searches for the maximum values of the gradient of absolute dynamic topography (ADT), using the geostrophic velocity as auxiliary information. The advantage of this approach is to allow the analyses to be performed over a buffer centered on the current axis instead of using a wider region. It is here applied to the AzC for the period June 1995-October 2006.

  16. The Return-Stroke of Lightning Current, Source of Electromagnetic Fields (Study, Analysis and Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Djalel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present and analysis of the return-stroke lightning current and described their models which existing in the literature by several authors for the evaluation of radiated electromagnetic fields and modelling the coupling with electrical systems based on the calculation of induced voltages. the objective of this work was to take part in the improvement of the coordination of electric insulations and to put device also for calculation of the over-voltages induced in the electrical networks by the indirect lightning strokes which represent the most dangerous constraint and most frequent. A comparative study between the existing models and the analysis of the parameters which affect the space and temporal behaviour of the current lightning strokes as well as the importance of the lightning current at the channel base form the essential consequence of this study.

  17. EVALUATION OF SUICIDE ATTEMPT CASES ADMITTED TO EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2015-06-01

    Material and Methods: A total of 70 attempted suicide cases admitted to Emergency Department of Kahramanmaras Sutcu imam University Medical Faculty Hospital between 01.03.2012 and 01.03.2013 examined retrospectively. Results: Among the 70 patients included in the study, 26 (37.1% were male and 44 (62.9% were female with a mean age of 26.3+/-11.2 years. Of all, 10 (14.3% cases were reported to have one or more previous suicide attempts. Investigation of methods of suicide revealed that 64 (91.4% used medication or toxic substance ingestion, 5 (7.1% stabbing, and 1 (1.4% preferred hanging as suicide method. All of those of preferred stabbing as a means of suicide were males. Conclusion: In order to tackle suicidal attempts author suggests that collective preventive policies should be developed by local governments, non-governmental organizations and health care providers. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 102-105

  18. Attempt to Suicide in Young Ages with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mehdizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The suicidal rate among epileptic patients is up to 5 times more than general population and depression is the most common mood disturbance among them while usually under noticed. This study was performed to determine possible symptoms of psychiatric disorders for suicidal behavior in pediatric patients with epilepsy that had attempted suicide.Methods: Among medical records of 1169 patients under 17 years of age being admitted to the exclusive university hospital for poisoning in Tehran since April 2006 to Feb 2008 due to attempt to suicide, 31 cases(13 male and 18 female with mean age 15.8±1.3 years had concomitant epilepsy. Mental status and epilepsydata sheet of these patients were analyzed.Findings: The psychological evaluation of these 31 cases revealed long lasting symptoms of psychological disorder in 21 (91.4% cases before their attempt to suicide while only 5(16% cases had been noticed for psychiatric care and merely 3 of them had been under treatment.Conclusion: Despite strong correlation between affective disorders and epilepsy it is unfortunately underdiagnosed or undertreated. Since overdose of antiepileptic drugs used for treatment of epilepsy may be lethal,dismissing suicidal behavior can be life threatening.

  19. Risk factors for suicide attempts in a clinic-based sample of people living with HIV in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Clatts, Michael C; Rodriguez-Diaz, Carlos E; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico (PR) has a large and rapidly growing population of people living with HIV. However, relatively little behavioral or clinical research has been done in this population. As treatment for HIV increasingly moves into a chronic condition model, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the needs of this population so critical social and behavioral interventions can be developed, thus enabling the individual and community-level benefits of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment to be fully realized. To date, however, there has been very little research on the mental health needs of people living with HIV in PR, a fact that constrains intervention development and implementation. This paper describes data from a public sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV clinic study in the San Juan metropolitan area between April 2010 and December 2012 (n = 1185), roughly a third (36%) of whom are living with HIV. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, t-tests, and binary logistic regressions were used to assess associations between HIV status and a history of suicide attempt. The overall prevalence of a history of suicide attempt was 20.4%. No statistically significant relationship was found between a history of suicide attempt and being HIV positive, although people with HIV infection did evidence a higher prevalence of attempts than HIV-negative subjects (23.4% vs. 19.0%). Factors associated with having a history of suicide attempt within the overall sample included gender, current employment status, a lifetime history of drug use, and a lifetime history of sex work. Similar patterns were seen in the HIV-positive subsample. There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased risk for a post-diagnosis suicide attempt. These findings suggest that additional research on mental health risks among populations at risk for HIV in PR is needed.

  20. Study of magnetic fields and current in the Z pinch at stagnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Anderson, A. A.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Nalajala, V.; Dmitriev, O. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Papp, D. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Nkft., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    The structure of magnetic fields in wire-array Z pinches at stagnation was studied using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The electron plasma density and the Faraday rotation angle in plasma were calculated from images of the three-channel polarimeter. The magnetic field was reconstructed with Abel transform, and the current was estimated using a simple model. Several shots with wire-array Z pinches at 0.5–1.5 MA were analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field measured in plasma of the stagnated pinch was in the range of 1–2 MG. The magnetic field and current profile in plasma near the neck on the pinch were reconstructed, and the size of the current-carrying plasma was estimated. It was found that current flowed in the large-size trailing plasma near the dense neck. Measurements of the magnetic field near the bulge on the pinch also showed current in trailing plasma. A distribution of current in the large-size trailing plasma can prevent the formation of multi-MG fields in the Z pinch.

  1. Experimental study of the velocity of density currents in convergent and divergent channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan Torabi POUDEH; Samad EMAMGHOLIZADEH; Manoocher Fathi-MOGHADAM

    2014-01-01

    The head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel is a key parameter for evaluating the extent to which suspended material travels, and for determining the type and distribution of sediment in the water body. This study experimentally evaluated the effects of the reach degree of convergence and divergence on the head velocity of the density current. Experiments were conducted in the flume with 6.0 m long, 0.72 m width and 0.6 m height. The head velocity was measured at three convergent degrees (-8o;-12o;-26o), at three divergent degrees (8o; 12o; 26o) and two slopes (0.009, 0.016) for various discharges. The measured head velocity of the density current is compared with the head velocity of the density current in the constant cross section channel. Based on non-dimensional and statistical analysis, relations as linear multiple regression are offered for predicting head velocity of the density current in the convergent, divergent and constant cross section channel. Also the results of this research show that for the same slope and discharge, the head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel are greater and less than the head velocity of the constant cross section, respectively.

  2. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  3. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  4. An observational study of a shallow gravity current triggered by katabatic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adachi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations from a wind profiler and a meteorological tower are utilized to study the evolution of a gravity current that passed over the Meteorological Research Institute's (MRI field site in Tsukuba, Japan. The gravity current was created by katabatic flow originating on the mountainous slopes west of the field site. The passage of the shallow current was marked by a pronounced pressure disturbance and was accompanied by vertical circulations seen in the tower and profiler data. Direct vertical-beam measurements are difficult, especially at low heights during high-gradient events like density currents. In this study vertical velocities from the profiler are derived from the four oblique beams by use of the Minimizing the Variance of the Differences (MVD method. The vertical velocities derived from the MVD method agree well with in situ vertical velocities measured by a sonic anemometer on the tower.

    The gravity current is analyzed with surface observations, the wind profiler/RASS and tower-mounted instruments. Observations from the profiler/RASS and the tower-mounted instruments illustrate the structure of the gravity current in both wind and temperature fields. The profiler data reveal that there were three regions of waves in the vertical velocity field: lee-type waves, a solitary wave and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. The lee-type waves in the head region of the gravity current seem to have been generated by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to prefrontal flow. The solitary wave was formed from the elevated head of the gravity current that separated from the feeder flow. Profiler vertical-motion observations resolve this wave and enable us to classify it as a Benjamin-Davis-Ono (BDO type solitary wave. The ducting mechanism that enabled the solitary wave to propagate is also revealed from the wind profiler/RASS measurements. The combination of high-resolution instruments at the MRI site allow us to

  5. Attempted suicide, by mail order: Abrus precatorius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2010-12-01

    Abrus precatorius is cultivated in many subtropical areas. The seeds exist in a variety of colors such as black, orange, and most commonly, glossy red. A black band is found at the end of the seed. The plant contains multiple pods which typically contain three to five Abrus seeds. The seeds contain abrin, which inhibits ribosomal function, halting protein synthesis and leading to cellular death. A unique aspect of this case is the use of the internet to order a potentially lethal poison as well as transmission of a picture to identify the seed. A 20-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of vomiting and watery diarrhea for 6-8 h prior to arrival. He denied any medication use, recent illness, travel, or changes in his diet. Initial vital signs were normal. The patient was diagnosed with viral gastroenteritis. During his evaluation, the patient admitted to feeling suicidal. While awaiting psychiatry evaluation, the patient's father arrived with a box of small hard red seeds, which he believed that his son ingested in a suicide attempt. The seeds could not be identified by the staff. A picture of the seeds was transmitted by e-mail to the New York City Poison Control Center, allowing their identification as A. precatorius. The patient was reinterviewed and admitted to chewing and swallowing 10 seeds. Given the potential toxicity of abrin, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. He continued to have frequent episodes of emesis as well as diarrhea. He gradually improved over 2 days. He admitted to ordering a box of Abrus seeds online from Asia after reading on the Internet about their use in suicide. He was eventually discharged for outpatient follow-up with no permanent sequelae. Abrin has an estimated human fatal dose of 0.1-1 μg/kg. Most cases of Abrus seed ingestions are unintentional and occur in children. Ingesting the intact seeds typically results in no clinical findings, as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract

  6. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  7. A study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety is concerned with in this paper. The author adopted Horwitz's Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) to measure the level of foreign language anxiety of 325 participants and then the conclusions are drawn.

  8. A historical study to understand students’ current difficulties about RMS values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantine-Langlois, Françoise; Munier, Valérie

    2016-07-01

    Several studies show that students experience more and more difficulties managing the measurements of electrical values in alternating current and that they have trouble making links between theory and practice. They find it difficult to give meaning to root mean square (RMS; or effective) values, which are not understood as average values and are confused with instantaneous values. This shows that students do not clearly differentiate variable and direct currents. In this paper we try, with a historical study and a study of teaching the concept of RMS values, to understand students’ difficulties with this concept. In the first part we present an epistemological analysis of the concept of RMS values, showing that it is multifaceted and can be approached from different points of view. In the second part we analyse the evolution of French secondary school curricula and textbooks from the explicit introduction of variable currents to today, questioning the links between the evolution of the curricula and the evolution of the place of science and technology in our societies. We point out that the evolution of the curricula is linked to the social context and to the connections between science, technology and society, and also to the relationship with mathematics curricula. We show that alternating current is introduced earlier in the curriculum but has gradually lost all phenomenological description. This study allows us to better understand students’ difficulties and to discuss some implications for teaching.

  9. Understandings of Current Environmental Issues: Turkish Case Study in Six Teacher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa; Irez, Serhat; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile future science teachers' understandings of current environmental issues in the context of an education reform in Turkey. Knowledge base and understandings of elementary and secondary prospective science teachers about biodiversity, carbon cycle, global warming and ozone layer depletion were targeted in the…

  10. Study of multipass regimes in lower hybrid current drive experiments on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.; Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T.; Kazarian, F.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shoucri, M.; Shkarofsky, I.P. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Baranov, Y. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Kupfer, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This document presents a study of multipass regimes in Lower Hybrid Current Drive on Tore Supra. A statistical model of the plasma wave propagation based on the Fokker-Planck theory is proposed, together with experimental results performed on Tore Supra. (TEC). 9 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were ...

  12. Relevance of animal studies in regulatory toxicology : current approaches and future opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    With rapidly increasing knowledge of toxicological processes, the scientific value and relevance of toxicity studies for risk assessment must be re-evaluated. In this paper, it is proposed that the rigid risk evaluation currently required should be replaced by a more flexible, case-by-case approach,

  13. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  14. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  15. Field Study on the Effects of Waves and Currents on a Distributed Explosive Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    taken during each deployment. Table 1 Summary of Video Camera Resources Used During Study Camra ID [LoGato Formal Availabilty BWTEL Top of tower Black... usage . First, the offshore-flowing current would help extend the array seaward from the rocket anchors while reducing the longshore deformation

  16. Some Gaps in the Current Studies of Reading in Second/Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The ability to read written material is very important in the civilized world. In a society characterized by globalization and technological change, where knowledge is becoming increasingly important, reading ability is a key skill for active participation. The intent of the current study is to set out the nature of reading alongside express…

  17. Predictors of attempted suicide among Swiss patients with alcohol-use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Caroline; von Bonin, Beatrice; Strik, Werner; Moggi, Franz

    2009-09-01

    Suicide attempts are common in patients being treated for alcohol-use disorders (AUDs). However, clinical assessment of suicide risk is difficult. In this Swiss multisite study, we propose a decision tree to facilitate identification of profiles of AUD patients at high risk for suicidal behavior. In this retrospective study, we used a sample of 700 patients (243 female), attending 1 of 12 treatment programs for AUDs in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Sixty-nine patients who reported a suicide attempt in the 3 months before the index treatment were compared using risk factors with 631 patients without a suicide attempt. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to identify patients at risk of having had a suicide attempt in the previous 3 months. Consistent with previous empirical findings in AUD patients, a prior history of attempted suicide and severe symptoms of depression and aggression considerably increased the risk of a suicide attempt and, in combination, raised the likelihood of a prior suicide attempt to 52%. In addition, one third of AUD patients who had a history of suicide attempts and previous inpatient psychiatric treatment, or who were male and had previous inpatient psychiatric treatment, also reported a suicide attempt. The empirically supported decision tree helps to identify profiles of suicidal AUD patients in Switzerland and supplements clinicians' judgments in making triage decisions for suicide management.

  18. A New Regime for Studying the High Bootstrap Current Fraction Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Isayama; Y. Kamada; K. Ushigusa; T. Fujita; T. Suzuki; X. Gao

    2001-01-01

    A new experimental regime has recently been studied for achieving the high fraction of the bootstrap current in the JT-60U hydrogen discharges. The high poloidal beta(βp ~ 3.61) plasma was obtained by high-power neutral beam injection heating at a very high edge safety factor (Ip = 0.3 MA, Bt = 3.65 T, qeff = 25 - 35) region, and the bootstrap current fraction (fBS) was correspondingly about 40% using the ACCOME code calculation. It was observed that there were no magnetohydrodynamic instabilities to retard the increase of the βp and fBS parameters in the new regime.

  19. A Study of Strange Particles Produced in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Naumov, D V; Naumova, E; Popov, B; Astier, Pierre; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R C; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Das, R; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hong, T M; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Rico, J; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M E; Shih, D; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2004-01-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles (K0s, Lambda, Lambda-bar) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified K0s or Lambda in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K* and Sigma(1385) have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Lambda polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  20. A study of strange particles produced in neutrino neutral current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, D.; Chukanov, A.; Naumova, E.; Popov, B.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Das, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T. M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2004-11-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles ( Ks0, Λ, Λ¯) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified Ks0 or Λ in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K and Σ(1385 have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Λ polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  1. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162339.html Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often ... HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans who attempted suicide and wound up in the emergency room has ...

  2. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  3. An Aspect of the Capability for Suicide-Fearlessness of the Pain Involved in Dying-Amplifies the Association Between Suicide Ideation and Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip N; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie J; Van Orden, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that individuals who experience suicide ideation will only develop suicidal intent, and subsequently engage in suicidal behavior when they have concomitant fearlessness about death and tolerance for physical pain (i.e., the capability for suicide). The current studies examined the hypothesis that one aspect of the capability for suicide-fearlessness of the pain involved in dying-would amplify the positive association between current suicide ideation and a previous suicide attempt in two samples at high risk for experiencing suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Study 1 examined this relation using self-report methods in a sample of adults entering treatment in a mental health outpatient clinic. Study 2 utilized similar methods in a sample of adults admitted to inpatient psychiatry. Both studies indicated that those individuals who reported suicide ideation were more likely than non-ideators to report having attempted suicide only if they also reported greater fearlessness of the pain involved in dying. The current findings support the theorized role of the capability for suicide in the transition from ideation to attempt and also support assessing the capability for suicide in risk assessment.

  4. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke : a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L.; de Heyning, van, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Method: Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were register...

  6. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  7. Computational and experimental studies of laser cutting of the current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Patwa, Rahul; Herfurth, Hans; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy

    2012-07-01

    Sizing electrodes is an important step during Lithium-ion battery manufacturing processes since poor cut edge affects battery performance significantly and sometime leads to fire hazard. Mechanical cutting could result in a poor cut quality with defects. The cutting quality can be improved by using a laser, due to its high energy concentration, fast processing time, small heat-affected zone, and high precision. The cutting quality is highly influenced by operating parameters such as laser power and scanning speed. Thus, we studied a numerical simulation to provide a guideline for achieving clear edge quality. In order to simulate electrodes laser cutting for Lithium-Ion batteries, understanding the behavior of current collectors is crucial. This study focuses on current collectors, such as pure copper and aluminium. Numerical studies utilized a 3D self-consistent mathematical model for laser-material interaction. Observations of penetration time, depth, and threshold during laser cutting processes of current collectors are described. The model is validated experimentally by cutting current collectors and single side-coated electrodes with a single mode fiber laser. The copper laser cutting is laser intensity and interaction time dependent process. The aluminium laser cutting depends more on laser intensity than the interaction time. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement.

  8. Quantitative study of electrophoretic and electroosmotic enhancement during alternating current iontophoresis across synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guang; Li, S Kevin; Peck, Kendall D; Zhu, Honggang; Higuchi, William I

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary safety and tolerability limitations of direct current iontophoresis is the potential for electrochemical burns associated with the necessary current densities and/or application times required for effective treatment. Alternating current (AC) transdermal iontophoresis has the potential to eliminate electrochemical burns that are frequently observed during direct current transdermal iontophoresis. Although it has been demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of skin can be increased by applying low-to-moderate AC voltages, transdermal transport phenomena and enhancement under AC conditions have not been systematically studied and are not well understood. The aim of the present work was to study the fundamental transport mechanisms of square-wave AC iontophoresis using a synthetic membrane system. The model synthetic membrane used was a composite Nuclepore membrane. AC frequencies ranging from 20 to 1000 Hz and AC fields ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 V/membrane were investigated. A charged permeant, tetraethyl ammonium, and a neutral permeant, arabinose, were used. The transport studies showed that flux was enhanced by increasing the AC voltage and decreasing AC frequency. Two theoretical transport models were developed: one is a homogeneous membrane model; the other is a heterogeneous membrane model. Experimental transport data were compared with computer simulations based on these models. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was observed when the data were compared with the simulations from the heterogeneous membrane model.

  9. Turbulent Gravity Current of Lock Release Type:A Numerical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Q.CHEN; J.H.W.LEE

    1999-01-01

    The time evolution of a turbulent gravity current of lock release type,formed by a finite volume of homogenous fluid released instantaneously into another fluid of slightly lower density,is studied numerically via the renormalization group(RNG)κ-ε model for Reynolds-stress closure to characterize the flow with transitional and highly localized turbulence,Consistent with previous experimental observations,the numerical results show that the gravity current passes through two distinct phases,an initial slumping phase in which the current head advances steadily,and a second self-similar phase in which the front velocity decreases like the negative third power of the time after release.An overall entrainment ratio proportional to the distance from the release point is found and comares well with available experimental data for the slumping phase.

  10. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  11. Amnioinfusion among women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, T H; Vega, J S; O'Shaughnessy, M J; Feldman, D B; Koemptgen, J G

    1992-05-01

    Eighteen of 901 women (2%) attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) received amnioinfusion. No untoward effects occurred in the subjects or their fetuses. We conclude that, though amnioinfusion in the setting of a VBAC attempt is needed only infrequently, it appears to be a reasonable intrapartum management option. The usual safeguards for a VBAC attempt should be followed.

  12. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... home-based programme while the control group will receive no advice or coaching throughout the study period. Outcomes will be assessed after the end of CR and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is VO2peak and secondary outcomes include variables describing CR uptake, adherence, efficacy...

  13. A Study on the Current Oil and Gas Price Formula and Its Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Won; Lee, Young Koo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest some improvements on current price formulas on oil and gas which have been pivotal roles in the process of Korean economic growth. This study first examines basic frames and transition of oil and gas pricing in Korea and then finds some suggestions on them by scrutinizing their theoretical backgrounds. This study finds several problems on oil and gas pricing formulas. (a) In a model that is now studied to evaluate the current domestic oil price, the costs associated with oil security such as oil stockpile are fully penetrated into oil price without their fair evaluations. There is no evaluation principle on the costs occurred in oil supply security. (b) The Rate Of Equity(ROE), a crucial factor in town-gas pricing which is strictly controlled, is directly connected to the average interest rate on saving accounts of domestic commercial banks. Some arguments may have rise about inclusion a risk factor on ROE in order to compensate the uncertainty of town-gas business. (c) New demand for natural gas which is generated by new technologies or machinery and tools can help reduce the costs occurred from seasonal imbalance between power sector and gas sector. So it is also important to decide how to include the beneficiary of cost reduction in town-gas pricing. In order to evaluate the proper price levels, this study tests energy supply security by adopting methodologies such as Herfindahl Index and Portfolio Variance Risk. They can help develop the method to effectively improve the energy security and include the proper energy security costs into energy prices. This study also provides some suggestions for betterment of current ROE decision rule in town-gas business and for improvement of current town-gas policy that government subsidizes newly developed demand for strengthening price competitiveness in the early stage. (author). 145 refs., 16 figs., 49 tabs.

  14. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders and Risk Factor Interactions for Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Donovan, John E.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents diagnosed with at least one mental disorder were studied to determine predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Major depression was predictive of suicidal ideation and attempts for both genders. Chronic stress was found predictive of male suicidal ideations, while low self esteem and family dysfunction were predictive in…

  16. Toward an Integrative Model of Suicide Attempt: A Cognitive Psychological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieserud, Gudrun; Roysamb, Espen; Ekeberg, Oivind; Kraft, Pal

    2001-01-01

    Applying a cognitive approach, this study expanded previous research on stress vulnerability models of depression and problem solving deficits, as it relates to suicide attempt. Results indicated a two path model of suicide attempt. The importance of addressing both depression/hopelessness, and problem solving deficits when working with suicide…

  17. Are mist nets a menace for threatened insects? A first attempt to gather quantitative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Maltzeff, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to identify the threat to flying beetles imposed by mist nets deployed for bird studies in an area of Mediterranean mosaic of evergreen scrub and deciduous forest in Italy. The present paper is the first attempt to identify the non-target species which die in these artificial traps...

  18. [Are near-death experiences following attempted suicide important for suicide risk assessment? A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Plöderl, Martin; Aistleiner, Ursula; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 59-year old patient who reported a near-death experience following attempted suicide. The near-death experience induced reduction of suicidality. Previous studies suggested a high prevalence of near-death experiences following attempted suicide and that near-death experiences may decrease rather than increase subsequent suicide risk. Implications for suicide risk assessment are discussed.

  19. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafsma, T.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Gibson, D.; Badloe, R.; Beek, van L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years

  20. Lifetime physical and sexual abuse, substance abuse, depression, and suicide attempts among Native American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Diane K

    2003-01-01

    Although there is preliminary evidence that violence against women and children may be particularly prevalent in some Native American communities, associations between abuse and substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide attempts have rarely been studied in this population. This study examined lifetime and current physical and sexual abuse among 30 Native American women. Nearly half had experienced physical and/or sexual abuse as children, over half were sexually abused at some time in their lives, and over three-fourths were abused by a partner. All but four women (87%) had experience physical or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Significant relationships were found among childhood abuse, substance abuse, and adult revictimization, and among cumulative lifetime abuse events, substance abuse, and depression. Further research is needed to examine abuse and relationships between abuse and health sequelae in Native American populations. An accelerated public health and community response is needed to address abuse issues in this community.

  1. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...... and deaths in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies...... to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4-14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23-26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic...

  2. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340

  3. Rates and risk factors for suicide, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in chronic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana E; Hermann, Bruce P; Barry, John J; Gilliam, Frank G; Kanner, Andres M; Meador, Kimford J

    2003-10-01

    Studies of causes of death among people with epilepsy suggest that the lifetime prevalence rate of suicide is elevated. Although not all of the studies have reported an increased risk for suicide, the collective data yield an average rate of approximately 12% among people with epilepsy, compared with 1.1-1.2% in the general population. The increased risk for suicide appears to affect children and adolescents as well as adults. Rates of suicide attempts have also been reported to be elevated among people with epilepsy. A suicide attempt is a significant risk factor for completed suicide. Certain psychiatric disorders, including primary mood disorders, also increase the risk for suicide. Among people with epilepsy, psychiatric comorbidity is common, and rates of mood disorders, particularly major depression, have consistently been reported to be elevated. Other potential risk factors are family issues, physical health, personality, life stress, previous suicidal behavior, and access to firearms. Assessing severity of risk helps to determine the appropriate level of intervention. The suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview is a practical tool to help quantify current suicide risk.

  4. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Baglivio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13 were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  5. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wasilenko, L; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y; Fujiwara, M C

    2008-01-01

    We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

  6. A multidimensional risk factor model for suicide attempts in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan SMS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sau Man Sandra Chan,1 Fung Kum Helen Chiu,1 Chiu Wa Linda Lam,1 Sau Man Corine Wong,1 Yeates Conwell2 1Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA Background: Elderly suicide is a public health problem worldwide, and the risk factors are multidimensional. Chronic mental health problems, personality traits, stressful life events, comorbid medical conditions, social isolation, unemployment, and poverty are associated with higher risk for suicide in later life. There was a relative paucity of data on the neurobiological markers of elderly suicide. Objective: This study examines the conjoint roles of cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs and other established biopsychosocial risk factors in older adults who had made a recent suicide attempt.Design: A cross-sectional, case-controlled study.Setting: A tertiary care setting in a public sector and a community setting.Subjects and methods: Cases (N=77 were nondemented Chinese adults aged ≥65 years, enrolled in a regional psychogeriatric service following a suicide attempt; comparison subjects (N=99 were community-dwelling nondemented older adults with no lifetime history of suicide. Measures of sociodemographic profile, life events, suicidal behavior, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV Axis I psychopathology, personality traits, functional status, physical health, CVRFs, and executive cognitive functions were administered. Results: Weighted sum of CVRF score was significantly higher in older women who had made a recent suicide attempt (mean: 10.56; standard deviation [SD]: 5.46 than comparison subjects (mean: 7.24; SD: 4.04 (t=3.52, P=0.001; df=99. Logistic regression showed that CVRF score (Exp[B]: 1.289, P=0.033, DSM-IV depressive disorders (current (Exp[B]: 348, P<0.001, number of life events in the past 12 weeks (Exp[B]: 10.4; P

  7. Review of the Studies about Environmental Education: Current Status in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kızılay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to reveal current status of studies in environmental education, which were published in Turkey between 2007-2011. Within the content of this study, 112 studies were reviewed using content analysis based on the following grouping criteria; i.e., publication year, language, participant, research design, research topic, data gathering instruments and data analysis program. The results indicated that 78% of them were published in Turkish and most of them were at university level (36.2%.A majority of the reviewed studies were about affective domain (31.9%. Quantitative studies (57.1% were very commonly used by the researchers . Questionnaires (45% were the most commonly used data gathering instruments, and SPSS was the most frequently used quantitative data analysis program (88.6%. Presenting an overview of relevant literature, this study may guide the researchers who will conduct further studies on environmental education.

  8. Experimental study on hydrodynamic characteristics of vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Li, Teng-fei; Zhang, Liang; Sheng, Qi-hu; Zhang, Xue-wei; Jiang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    To study the characteristics of attenuation, hydrostatic towage and wave response of the vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device (VAFTCEPGD), a prototype is designed and experiment is carried out in the towing tank. Free decay is conducted to obtain attenuation characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD, and characteristics of mooring forces and motion response, floating condition, especially the lateral displacement of the VAFTCEPGD are obtained from the towing in still water. Tension response of the #1 mooring line and vibration characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD in regular waves as well as in level 4 irregular wave sea state with the current velocity of 0.6 m/s. The results can be reference for theoretical study and engineering applications related to VAFTCEPGD.

  9. Differences between youth with a single suicide attempt and repeaters regarding their and their parents history of psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Waaktaar, Trine

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine predictors of repeated suicide attempts in young people, focusing on psychiatric illness. A longitudinal population-based register study of all adolescents born in Denmark between 1984 and 2006 was conducted. Greater numbers of hospitalizations, psychiatric diagnoses, and psychopharmacological medications prescribed to youth before and after the index attempt were risk factors for repeated suicide attempts. Parental diagnoses and drug prescriptions following a child's first suicide attempt moderated the risk of repeated attempts. Psychiatric illness is a strong predictor of repeated suicide attempts in young people, and those with co-morbid diagnoses are at increased risk of repeated suicide attempts. Treatment of psychiatric illness in the parents after their child's first suicide attempt is a potential protective factor.

  10. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar Kanti Bera; Nagaraju, J.

    2013-01-01

    Phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying the inverse solver performance in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). A MATLAB-based boundary data simulator (BDS) is developed to generate accurate boundary data using neighbouring current pattern for assessing the EIT inverse solvers. Domain diameter, inhomogeneity number, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size, and position), background conductivity, and inhomogeneity conductivity are all set as BDS input variables. D...

  11. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere. Sovremennye metody issledovaniia dinamicheskikh protsessov v ionosfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipp, N.D.; Blaunshtein, N.SH.; Erukhimov, L.M.; Ivanov, V.A.; Uriadov, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations. 251 refs.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D;

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  13. Counseling psychology and psychotherapy skills’ studies: current status in Western and Russian Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryuchkov K.S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief review of studies concerning the current status of the psychotherapeutic and counseling skills in the West (mainly in the USA and in Russia. Papers written by the fellows of the leading US labs in this field and by other scientists are reviewed in this article alongside with investigations of several Russian psychological institutions. We also introduce some theoretical and methodological papers of Russian scholars

  14. Investigation of scaling properties of a thin current sheet by means of particle trajectories study

    CERN Document Server

    Sasunov, Yu L; Alexeev, I I; Belenkaya, E S; Semenov, V S; Kubyshkin, I V; Mingalev, O V

    2015-01-01

    A thin current sheet (TCS), with the width of an order of thermal proton gyroradius, appears a fundamental physical object which plays an important role in structuring of major magnetospheric current systems (magnetotail, magnetodisk, etc.). The TCSs are nowadays under extensive study by means of space missions and theoretical models. We consider a simple model of the TCS separating two half-spaces occupied by a homogenous magnetic field of opposite sign tangential to the TCS; a small normal component of the magnetic field is prescribed. An analytical solution for the electric current and plasma density in the close vicinity of the TCS has been obtained and compared with numerical simulation. The number density and the electric current profiles have two maxima each. The characteristic spatial scale $z_S$ of the maxima location was investigated as a function of initial pitch-angle of an incoming charge particle. The effect of the thermal dispersion of the incoming proton beam have been taken into consideration...

  15. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth who report bully victimization, bully perpetration and/or low social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Alejandra; Opperman, Kiel J; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined characteristics of bullying involvement and social connectedness in relation to suicide ideation and attempts in a sample of youth who report bully victimization, bully perpetration, and/or low social connectedness. The sample was comprised of 321 youth (67% female), ages 12-15 years (M = 13.6), recruited from an emergency department in the Midwest region of the United States. Results indicated that lower levels of social connectedness and higher levels of bully victimization and perpetration were significantly associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Level of social connectedness did not moderate the relationship between bullying involvement and suicide risk. The associations between the severity of subtypes of bully victimization and perpetration (verbal, relational, physical), electronic bullying involvement, and suicide risk were examined. Results highlight a continuum in severity of bullying involvement and social connectedness associated with suicide risk. Implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Kilaru Kessler

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is being widely investigated in adults as a therapeutic modality for brain disorders involving abnormal cortical excitability or disordered network activity. Interest is also growing in studying tDCS in children. Limited empirical studies in children suggest that tDCS is well tolerated and may have a similar safety profile as in adults. However, in electrotherapy as in pharmacotherapy, dose selection in children requires special attention, and simple extrapolation from adult studies may be inadequate. Critical aspects of dose adjustment include 1 differences in neurophysiology and disease, and 2 variation in brain electric fields for a specified dose due to gross anatomical differences between children and adults. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI derived finite element modeling simulations of two healthy children, ages 8 years and 12 years, and three healthy adults with varying head size to compare differences in electric field intensity and distribution. Multiple conventional and high-definition tDCS montages were tested. Our results suggest that on average, children will be exposed to higher peak electrical fields for a given applied current intensity than adults, but there is likely to be overlap between adults with smaller head size and children. In addition, exposure is montage specific. Variations in peak electrical fields were seen between the two pediatric models, despite comparable head size, suggesting that the relationship between neuroanatomic factors and bioavailable current dose is not trivial. In conclusion, caution is advised in using higher tDCS doses in children until 1 further modeling studies in a larger group shed light on the range of exposure possible by applied dose and age and 2 further studies correlate bioavailable dose estimates from modeling studies with empirically tested physiologic effects, such as modulation of motor evoked potentials after stimulation.

  17. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  18. Study on Eddy-current of Disc Permanent-magnet Eddy-current Couplings%盘式永磁涡流耦合器涡流研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官璇峰; 杨帅

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究盘式涡流耦合器涡流分布特点。采用解析法得到了涡流密度的函数表达式;利用三维有限元法分别计算正常工作状态和起动状态下涡流径向分量和周向分量沿径向和周向分布的三维图形并总结涡流沿周向、径向、轴向的分布特点。根据涡流密度的函数表达式着重分析了导体盘材料、气隙长度和转差率三个重要因素对涡流的影响。通过对盘式永磁涡流耦合器涡流特点的把握,合理的解释了轴向磁力随转差率变化的规律。%The purpose of this paper is to study the changing discipline of eddy-current of disc permanent-magnet eddy-current coupling.Analytical method was adopted to get expression of the eddy-current density. 3D FEMwas adopted to obtain the 3D distribution graph along with radial and circumferential direction of eddy-current on radial and circumferential components.And the characteristics of distribution of eddy-current along with radial,circumferential and axial directions were summarized.Three important factors of the influence of eddy-current,conductor plate material,air-gap length and slip were analyzed according to the expression of eddy-current density.Through the grasp of the characteristics of eddy-current,the law of the axial magnetic force changing with slip was explained reasonably.

  19. Ocean surface currents from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere drives entire ocean motions, and yet the exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and ocean occurs in the thin layer where they meet, involving the smallest scales of turbulence. The Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) project attempts to better understand this exchange using satellite observations with simplified physics to calculate global ocean currents. The goal is to continually improve the physics in OSCAR and more accurately model the currents. The theoretical study will help coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling efforts whereas the societal benefits of measuring ocean currents are broad, e.g., fish larval dispersion, heat transport, commercial shipping, and search and rescue.

  20. A Snapshot Study of Current Practices among Sellers of Translation Services between Japanese and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stephen Crabbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-part study was launched in light of the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement in its guide, 翻訳で失敗しないために翻訳発注の手引き [lit. For not getting it wrong with translation: a guide to ordering translation], that “外国語の文書を母国語に翻訳するのがプロの原則です” [lit. It is a fundamental principle that professional translators work into their native languages] (Japan Translation Federation, 2012, p. 15. The key goal is to gauge the extent to which this 2012 statement is reflected in current practices among the sellers and buyers of translation services between Japanese and English. In this paper, which describes the first part of the study, the focus is on the practices of sellers of translation services between Japanese and English: specifically, professional freelance translators. Twenty-four professional freelance translators completed an online questionnaire. The results of this questionnaire, first, suggest that current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English are consistent with the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement and, second, broadly support secondary literature on L1 translation (translation into the first language and L2 translation (translation into the second language. Whilst this is only a snapshot of current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English, the overall results are informative. In the second, follow-up part of the study the focus will be on the current practices of buyers of translation services between Japanese and English.