WorldWideScience

Sample records for current study aims

  1. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives: a mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijmen, Matthijs P S; Pasman, H Roeline W; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-06-01

    What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n=5768). A purposive sample of people suffering from an illness was selected from the cohort for an in-depth interview (n=29). About half of our population had no direct motivation to draft their AD. Most mentioned motivation for the other half was an illness of a family member or friend. Many different and specific aims for drafting an AD were mentioned. An often mentioned more general aim in people with different ADs was to prevent unnecessary lengthening of life or treatment (14-16%). Most respondents communicated about having an AD with close-ones (63-88%) and with their GP (65-79%). In the interviews people gave vivid examples of experiences of what they hoped to prevent at the end of life. Some mentioned difficulties foreseeing the future and gave examples of response shift. ADs can give directions to caregivers about what people want at the end of life. ADs have to be discussed in detail by their owners and caregivers, since owners often have specific aims with their AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives A mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijmen, M.P.S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Methods: Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n= 5768). A purposive sample of people

  4. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  5. Research and development of an aimed magnetic lead current density-magnetic field diagnostic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostics survey was made to provide a clear definition of advanced diagnostic needs and the limitations of current approaches in addressing those needs. Special attention was given to the adequacy with which current diagnostics are interfaced to signal processing/data acquisition devices and systems. Critical evaluations of selected alternative diagnostic techniques for future R and D activities are presented. The conceptual basis of the Aimed Magnetic Lead Gradiometric system as a current density/magnetic field diagnostic is established

  6. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  7. Progress of MCT Detector Technology at AIM Towards Smaller Pitch and Lower Dark Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, D.; Schirmacher, W.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, K. M.; Fries, P.; Figgemeier, H.

    2017-09-01

    We present our latest results on cooled p-on- n planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology. Along with a reduction in dark current for raising the operating temperature ( T op), AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) has devoted its development efforts to shrinking the pixel size. Both are essential requirements to meet the market demands for reduced size, weight and power and high-operating temperature applications. Detectors based on the p-on- n technology developed at AIM now span the spectrum from the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) to the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) with cut-off wavelengths from 5 μm to about 13.5 μm at 80 K. The development of the p-on- n technology for VLWIR as well as for MWIR is mainly implemented in a planar photodetector design with a 20- μm pixel pitch. For the VLWIR, dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' are demonstrated for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at a 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. For MWIR detectors with a 20- μm pitch, noise equivalent temperature differences of less than 30 mK are obtained up to 170 K. This technology has been transferred to our small pixel pitch high resolution (XGA) MWIR detector with 1024 × 768 pixels at a 10- μm pitch. Excellent performance at an operating temperature of 160 K is demonstrated.

  8. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  9. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  10. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  11. Efforts Aimed To Reduce Attrition in Antimalarial Drug Discovery: A Systematic Evaluation of the Current Antimalarial Targets Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María Jesús; Calderón, Félix; Castañeda, Pablo; Fernández-Alvaro, Elena; Gabarró, Raquel; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Lorenzo, María G; Martín, Julio; Fernández, Esther

    2018-04-13

    Malaria remains a major global health problem. In 2015 alone, more than 200 million cases of malaria were reported, and more than 400,000 deaths occurred. Since 2010, emerging resistance to current front-line ACTs (artemisinin combination therapies) has been detected in endemic countries. Therefore, there is an urgency for new therapies based on novel modes of action, able to relieve symptoms as fast as the artemisinins and/or block malaria transmission. During the past few years, the antimalarial community has focused their efforts on phenotypic screening as a pragmatic approach to identify new hits. Optimization efforts on several chemical series have been successful, and clinical candidates have been identified. In addition, recent advances in genetics and proteomics have led to the target deconvolution of phenotypic clinical candidates. New mechanisms of action will also be critical to overcome resistance and reduce attrition. Therefore, a complementary strategy focused on identifying well-validated targets to start hit identification programs is essential to reinforce the clinical pipeline. Leveraging published data, we have assessed the status quo of the current antimalarial target portfolio with a focus on the blood stage clinical disease. From an extensive list of reported Plasmodium targets, we have defined triage criteria. These criteria consider genetic, pharmacological, and chemical validation, as well as tractability/doability, and safety implications. These criteria have provided a quantitative score that has led us to prioritize those targets with the highest probability to deliver successful and differentiated new drugs.

  12. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  13. Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Leslie R.

    1982-09-01

    Readily accepting that study abroad programmes may have as many differing forms and aims as there are participating institutions, and that by no means all programmes include academic content in their goals, I would nevertheless maintain: 1. that a sociological perspective is as necessary as the hitherto predominantly psychological approach in obtaining a balanced assessment of study abroad programmes;

  14. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  15. A Correlational and Descriptive Study of Student Writing in Three Aims of Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    than the old abondend house does now. As it stands it is the perfect target and meeting place for criminals and drug addicts . If the house were C... Whale and Robinson (1978) discovered that, in a free-writing situation, students most often chose to write transactional (referential and persuasive...discourse.27 (Perhaps in the transactional aim they used the narrative mode more than any other, as Pianko’s study suggested, but Whale and Robinson did

  16. Aims and tasks in parental caregiving for children receiving palliative care at home: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Lisa M; Kars, Marijke C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Bosman, Diederik K; Colenbrander, Derk A; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-03-01

    In paediatric palliative care (PPC), parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. More children are cared for at home, and the need for PPC of children is lengthened due to technical and medical improvements. Therefore, a clear understanding of the content of parental caregiving in PPC becomes increasingly important. The objective is to gain insight into parental caregiving based on the lived experience of parents with a child with a life-limiting disease. An interpretative qualitative study using thematic analysis was performed. Single or repeated interviews were undertaken with 42 parents of 24 children with a malignant or non-malignant disease, receiving PPC. Based on their ambition to be a 'good parent', parents caring for a child with a life-limiting disease strived for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their ill child and family balance. These aims resulted in four tasks that parents performed: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care and treatment, making sound decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life. Parents need early explanation from professionals about balancing between their aims and the related tasks to get a grip on their situation and to prevent becoming overburdened. What is Known: • In paediatric palliative care, parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. • Parenting is often approached from the perspective of stress. What is New: • Parents strive for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their child and family balance. • Parents perform four tasks: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care, making decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life. • Professionals need insight into the parents' aims and tasks from the parental perspective to strengthen parents' resilience.

  17. Computational study of formamide-water complexes using the SAPT and AIM methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parreira, Renato L.T.; Valdes, Haydee; Galembeck, Sergio E.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the complexes formed between formamide and water were studied by means of the SAPT and AIM methods. Complexation leads to significant alterations in the geometries and electronic structure of formamide. Intermolecular interactions in the complexes are intense, especially in the cases where the solvent interacts with the carbonyl and amide groups simultaneously. In the transition states, the interaction between the water molecule and the lone pair on the amide nitrogen is also important. In all the complexes studied herein, the electrostatic interactions between formamide and water are the main attractive force, and their contribution may be five times as large as the corresponding contribution from dispersion, and twice as large as the contribution from induction. However, an increase in the resonance of planar formamide with the successive addition of water molecules may suggest that the hydrogen bonds taking place between formamide and water have some covalent character

  18. SU-E-T-531: Large--Scale DVH Quality Study: Correlated Aims Lead Relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohadani, O; Roy, A [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Das, I [Indiana University- School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans are designed to optimally target a tumor while sparing surrounding tissue. Desired dose distributions are iteratively approached via inverse planning. This leads to tradeoffs between clinical objectives for the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk, and normal tissues. Dose volume histogram (DVHs) related aims are followed that are either institutional or internationally recommended. We analyze common goals and identify potential reasons that often lead to tradeoffs. Methods: 524 IMRT plans for various tumor sites were analyzed based on the main institutional DVH goal for PTV (D95) and the recommendations by ICRU-83 (D2, D50, and D98). Robust statistical tools are developed and applied to ensure that the results are immune to data uncertainties. The probability of violation was measured for each of the DVH goals based on the frequency of not meeting recommended doses. Conditional probabilities for satisfying and/or violating DVH aims were computed to test the hypothesized pair-wise relations between DVH aims. For example, for plans that satisfied D50, the probability of violating D98 was computed via P(D98 < 95% | 98% ≤ D50 ≤ 102%). The equality constraint D50 = 100% was relaxed to encompass the range [98,102]%. Results: A large majority of cases (88%) satisfied the institutional goal for PTV of D95 ≤ 95%. Similar consensus existed for D98. 51% of cases satisfied D2 ≥ 107%. However, only 18% of cases satisfied D50. The conditional probability showed correlations amongst the studied DVH goals. In fact, a negative correlation was revealed between D50 and D95 (and D98), suggesting that these competing goals cannot be satisfied concurrently. Conclusion: The majority of plans followed the institutional guidelines. The reason for their deviation from international recommendations seems to be that the latter goals are competing and cannot be satisfied concurrently in clinical practice.

  19. Aims and theoretical frameworks in nursing students' Bachelor's theses in Sweden: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Marit; Johansson, Linda

    2016-02-01

    Nursing students' independent projects in Sweden not only provide an opportunity to receive a professional qualification as a nurse but also gain a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The aim of these projects is to demonstrate knowledge and understanding within the major field of the education. This study aimed to describe and analyze the topics as well as theoretical frameworks and concepts in nursing students' independent projects, which lead to a Bachelor's degree, in a Swedish context. A total of 491 independent projects, written by nursing students in Sweden, were included in the study. Topics together with theoretical frameworks and concepts in the projects were identified. Similar topics and theoretical frameworks and concepts, respectively, were grouped into subcategories, and similar subcategories were then merged into a main category. The number of entries in each category was counted for descriptive statistics in order to allow for the demonstration of magnitude. The most common topics concerned experiences and managing when having an illness, experiences of care and of being a caregiver, and healthcare staff's care and knowledge. The nursing theories/models that were most often used were Eriksson's Theory of Caritative Caring, Travelbee's Human-to-Human Relationship Model, and Orem's Self-care Theory. Among the non-nursing theories/models, perspectives and concepts lifeworld, ethical values and principles, existential concepts and quality of life/health-related quality of life, were most often used by these students. There may be some difficulty in finding a topic for the project that is relevant for both a professional qualification as a nurse, as well as for achieving the requirements of a Bachelor's degree in nursing. The study indicates that there is a need to widen the student's understanding of different nursing theories/perspectives/models/concepts during nursing education so that students are familiar with a broad range of these when conducting their

  20. Surgical outcome in patients taking concomitant or recent intake of oral isotretinoin: A multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Heggadahalli Mahadevappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. Aim: To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Materials and Methods: Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. Results: No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. Conclusion: The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised.

  1. High-current railgap studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-03

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field-distortion-triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Image-converter streak photographs were used to study channel evolution and current division. Transient gas-pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance and lifetime are discussed. Lifetime tests of the rail gap were performed. Degradation in the channel current-sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  2. High-current railgap studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-01

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field distortion triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Channel evolution and current division were studied on image converter streak photographs. Transient gas pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance in the channel current sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  3. BIBLIOGRAPHIC STUDY IN RISK MANAGEMENT AIMED TO IDENTIFY MORE REFERENCED TOOLS, METHODS AND RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamir Costa Louro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss trends in tools and methods used in project risk management and its relationship to other matters, using current scientific articles. The focus isn´t in understanding how they work in technical terms, but think about the possibilities of deepening in academic studies, including making several suggestions for future research. Adjacent to the article there is a discussion about an alleged "one best way" imperative normativity approach. It was answered the following research questions: what subjects and theories are related to project risk management tools and methods? The first contribution is related to the importance of the academic Chris Chapman as an author who has more published and also more referenced in the survey. There are several contributions on various subjects such as: the perception of the existence of many conceptual papers; papers about construction industry, problematization of contracts according to agency theory, IT and ERPs issues. Other contributions came from the bibliometric method that brings lot of consolidated information about terms, topics, authors, references, periods and, of course, methods and tools about Project Risk Management.

  4. Dental Faculty Members' Pedagogic Beliefs and Curriculum Aims in Problem-Based Learning: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, HsingChi; Walker, Judith; Dalrymple, Kirsten R; Shuler, Charles F

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this exploratory study were to explore dental faculty members' views and beliefs regarding knowledge, the dental profession, and teaching and learning and to determine how these views related to their problem-based learning (PBL) instructional practices. Prior to a PBL in dental education conference held in 2011, all attendees were invited to complete a survey focused on their pedagogical beliefs and practices in PBL. Out of a possible 55 participants, 28 responded. Additionally, during the conference, a forum was held in which preliminary survey findings were shared and participants contributed to focus group data collection. The forum results served to validate and bring deeper understanding to the survey findings. The conference participants who joined the forum (N=32) likely included some or many of the anonymous respondents to the survey, along with additional participants interested in dental educators' beliefs. The findings of the survey and follow-up forum indicated a disconnect between dental educators' reported views of knowledge and their pedagogical practices in a PBL environment. The results suggested that the degree of participants' tolerance of uncertainty in knowledge and the discrepancy between their epistemological and ontological beliefs about PBL pedagogy influenced their pedagogical choices. These findings support the idea that learner-centered, inquiry-based pedagogical approaches such as PBL may create dissonance between beliefs about knowledge and pedagogical practice that require the building of a shared understanding of and commitment to curricular goals prior to implementation to ensure success. The methods used in this study can be useful tools for faculty development in PBL programs in dental education.

  5. Adsorption of lanthanides in aqueous solution aiming to study of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belline, Jean de Brito

    2009-01-01

    The problem of radioactive wastes is a concern of world-wide scope, a time that does not still have a defined local for the construction of a repository for radioactive wastes of high level. One of the preliminary stages for the choice of the place more appropriate is the geologic study associated to the experimental studies of adsorption of the involved chemical species in the process. In this work, a sample of basaltic rock was used, of the South Region of the Formation Serra Geral, collected in Frederico Westphalen Town (RS), that it will be probably a candidate to the rock hostess for location of radioactive wastes. Two experiments have been carried out through, namely: 'Test Batch' and Percolating, both under atmospheric pressure, at the ambient temperature of 25 deg C, with the purpose to study the capacity of sorption of the rare earth elements - REE. The REE are used in this work in function of its analogy with the actinides, aiming at to investigate the chemistry behavior and the speciation of the same in natural waters, searching the possibility of geologic storage of radioactive wastes, a time that the adsorption of the REE depends on variables of the environment as pH, ionic strength, temperature and presence of ligands, as carbonates and constituent of surfaces of minerals. Experiment of percolating of the REE was carried through, 100ppb, in the basalt (with 80 mesh) in solutions with ionic strength 1= 0,025 M and 1=0,5 M of NaCl. pH was controlled in a range of 5,6 the 7,6 with HNO 3 addition. The concentrations were analyzed by ICP-MS. The 'Batch Test' is an efficient form of studying sorption/desorption isotherms, beyond values of the reason between the distributions solid/solution and estimation of the solubility. The percolating experiment, was carried through under pH controlled around 6, and allowed to verify the behaviour of heavy REE in comparison with the light REE. (author)

  6. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Kevin; Youngson, Gord

    2007-01-01

    To enhance the capability of airborne search and rescue (SAR) and surveillance, particularly at night and in poor weather, a multi sensor electro optical imaging system, the Advanced Integrated Multi sensor Surveillance (AIMS...

  7. Clinical trial aims to study immunotherapy for central nervous system tumors | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial aims to determine whether nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, can improve control of cancer for patients with several types of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord and the cause of most CNS tumors in adults is unknown. Learn more...

  8. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an oxidizing medium and nitric acid. The results indicated that the printed circuit board is mainly composed of copper (19.42%. Silver content of 0.045% was found. The route for silver recovery was leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C for 18 hours. Then, leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C in an oxidizing medium for 6 hours and nitric acid leaching at room temperature for 2 hours. Through of this route, 96.6% of silver was recovered.

  9. Cathodoluminescence study of SnO{sub 2} powders aimed for gas sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotcenkov, G. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)]. E-mail: ghkoro@yahoo.com; Nazarov, M. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Zamoryanskaya, M.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Cirera, A. [EME/CERMAE. Dep. Elect., University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Shimanoe, K. [Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    In this paper we report on cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of SnO{sub 2} powders, synthesized using the wet chemical route. The analysis of influence of the modes of calcination (T {sub an}-450-800 deg. C), and doping by both Pd and Pt (0.01-10.0 wt.%) on CL spectra was made. It was found that the measurement of CL spectra could be an effective research method of nanostructured metal oxides, aimed for gas sensor applications. It was established that in nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} the same system of energy levels, associated with radiative recombination, as in single crystalline and polycrystalline SnO{sub 2}, is retained. It was found that doping by both Pd and Pt modifies the structural properties of SnO{sub 2} grains. Also, there is an optimum doping; near 0.1-0.2 wt.%, at which a maximum intensity of cathodoluminescence is reached. It was concluded that for low concentrations of both Pd and Pt additives in SnO{sub 2} an improvement of the material's crystal structure is promoted, and is associated with a decrease in the non-radiating recombination rate.

  10. Exploring Study Designs for Evaluation of Interventions Aimed to Reduce Occupational Diseases and Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk F. van der Molen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective interventions to reduce work-related exposures are available for many types of work-related diseases or injuries. However, knowledge of the impact of these interventions on injury or disease outcomes is scarce due to practical and methodological reasons. Study designs are considered for the evaluation of occupational health interventions on occupational disease or injury. Latency and frequency of occurrence of the health outcomes are two important features when designing an evaluation study with occupational disease or occupational injury as an outcome measure. Controlled evaluation studies—giving strong indications for an intervention effect—seem more suitable for more frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Uncontrolled evaluation time or case series studies are an option for evaluating less frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Interrupted time series offer alternatives to experimental randomized controlled trials to give an insight into the effectiveness of preventive actions in the work setting to decision and policy makers.

  11. Radioecological studies tied to the French nuclear power station programme: aims, nature and mode of execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delile, G.

    1980-01-01

    Under present French practice, assessing the effects of radioactive discharges due to the various likely accident situations comes under 'L'Analyse de Surete Nucleaire' (Nuclear Safety Analysis). The assessment of radioactive discharges relating to normal working comes within the framework of radioecologic studies. Radioecology studies are undertkaen for every power station project. They consist in: - studying what is to be done with radioelements discharged as liquids or gases, - estimating their impact on the populations in the areas of influence of the power station and checking that this impact is permissible, - establishing a surveillance measuring programme for checking against the predictions made and, if required, determining the modifications to be made to the facilities or to their method of operation [fr

  12. Physics Teacher Knowledge Aimed in Pedagogical Studies in Finland and in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywacki, Heidi; Kim, Byeong-Chan; Lavonen, Jari

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the pedagogical studies of Finnish and South Korean physics teacher education programs that guide teacher educators to support student teachers' to build readiness for acting as professional teachers in a secondary school classroom. Research on the domains and origin of teachers' professional knowledge provides a framework for…

  13. Distributed Leadership with the Aim of "Reculturing": A Departmental Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Jones, Doug; Campbell, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This article considers a secondary science department that has, since 2000, developed distributed leadership as a form of human capacity building. Using a longitudinal ethnographic case study allowed us to consider how distributed leadership can be nurtured and developed in a department. Our analysis centres on two key issues: the nature and…

  14. U-target irradiation at FRM II aiming the production of Mo-99 - A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, H.; Mueller, C.; Neuhaus, I.; Roehrmoser, A.

    2010-01-01

    Following the shortage in radioisotope availability the Technische Unversitaet Muenchen and the Belgian Institut National des Radioelements conducted a common study on the suitability of the FRM II reactor for the generation of Mo-99 as a fission product. A suitable irradiation channel was determined and neutronic calculations resulted in sufficiently high neutron flux densities to make FRM II a promising candidate for Mo-99 production. In addition the feasibility study provides thermohydraulic calculations as input for the design and integration of the additional cooling circuit into the existing heat removal systems of FRM II. The required in-house processes for a regular uranium target irradiation programme have been defined and necessary upgrades identified. Finally the required investment cost was estimated and a possible time schedule was given. (author)

  15. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-01-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  16. The Home Observation of Periconceptional Exposures (HOPE) study, a prospective cohort: aims, design, recruitment and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Schliep, Karen C; Wilkins, Diana G; Stanford, Joseph B

    2016-06-08

    To examine transient environmental exposures and their relationship with human fecundity, exposure assessment should occur optimally at the time of conception in both members of the couple. We performed an observational, prospective cohort study with biomonitoring in both members of a heterosexual couple trying to conceive. Couples collected urine, saliva, and semen specimens for up to two menstrual cycles on days corresponding to the time windows of fertilization, implantation, and early pregnancy, identified based on the woman's observations of her cervical fluid. Three hundred nine eligible couples were screened between 2011 and 2015, of which 183 enrolled. Eleven couples (6.0 %) withdrew or were lost to follow up. The most successful and cost effective recruiting strategies were word of mouth (40 % of participating couples), posters and flyers (37 %), and targeted Facebook advertising (13 %) with an overall investment of $37.35 spent on recruitment per couple. Both men and women collected ≥97.2 % of requested saliva samples, and men collected ≥89.9 % of requested semen samples. Within the periovulatory days (±3 days), there was at least one urine specimen collected by women in 97.1 % of cycles, and at least one by men in 91.7 % of cycles. Daily compliance with periovulatory urine specimens ranged from 66.5 to 92.4 % for women and from 55.7 to 75.0 % for men. Compliance was ≥88 % for questionnaire completion at specified time points. Couples planning to conceive can be recruited successfully for periconceptional monitoring, and will comply with intensive study protocols involving home collection of biospecimens and questionnaire data.

  17. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  18. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  19. Phenomenological study on crystalline rock aiming at evaluation of long-term behaviour of rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke

    2005-02-01

    This study was started on the basis of the outcomes of the research project conducted between 1994 and 2003. In the fiscal year of 1994 when this project was started, a pneumatic creep testing machine was modified. At the end of the fiscal year of 1994, Inada granite was purchased, and the preliminary tests such as P-wave velocity measurement and Schmidt hammer testing were carried out. Through the fiscal year of 1995, a specimen of Tage tuff under water-saturated condition had been loaded in uniaxial condition in the pneumatic creep testing machine. In the fiscal year of 1995, the uniaxial compression and tension tests, and the short-term creep test of Inada granite were also carried out in the servo-controlled testing machines to obtain the complete stress-strain curves. A hydraulic creep testing machine which was planned to use in the next year was modified for long-term creep testing. Finally, a constitutive equation of variable compliance type was examined based on the experimental results. In the fiscal year of 1996, creep, compression and tension tests were carried out. Two types of pressure maintenance equipment (hydraulic and pneumatic types) were developed and examined. In the fiscal year of 1997, creep, compression and tension tests etc. were again carried out on the basis of the results heretofore. The experimental results of long-term creep testing of Tage tuff, middle-term creep testing of Inada granite were described. In both creep tests, samples were submerged in water. In the fiscal year of 1998, creep testing of Tage tuff was conducted. Results of relatively short-term (middle-term) creep conducted on a servo-controlled testing machine were also described. Sample rock was Sirahama sandstone that showed a considerably large creep strain in low stress level such as 17 % of the uniaxial compression strength. Results of triaxial compression test and uniaxial tension test including unloading-reloading tests were described. In the fiscal years of 1999

  20. Asthma Insights and Management in India: Lessons Learnt from the Asia Pacific - Asthma Insights and Management (AP-AIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Sundeep S; Apte, Komalkirti K; Dhar, Raja; Shetty, Pradeep; Faruqi, Rab A; Thompson, Philip J; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-09-01

    Despite a better understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, presence of reliable diagnostic tools, availability of a wide array of effective and affordable inhaled drugs and simplified national and international asthma management guidelines, asthma remains poorly managed in India. The Asia-Pacific Asthma Insight and Management (AP-AIM) study was aimed at understanding the characteristics of asthma, current management, level of asthma control and its impact on quality of life across Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. This paper describes the results of asthma management issues in India in detail and provides a unique insight into asthma in India. The AP-AIM India study was conducted in eight urban cities in India, viz: Ajmer, Delhi, Kolkata, Rourkela, Chennai, Mangalore, Mumbai and Rajkot from February to July 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in adult asthmatics and parents of asthmatic children between the ages of 12 and 17 years with a confirmed diagnosis or a treatment history of 1 year for asthma. Four hundred asthmatics (M:F::1:1.273), with a mean age of 50 ± 17.8 years, from across India were studied. 91% of the asthmatics in India perceived their asthma to be under control, however, none of the asthmatics had controlled asthma by objective measures. Asthmatics in India believed that their asthma was under control if they have up to 2 emergency doctor visits a year. The quality of life of these patients was significantly affected with 93% school/work absenteeism and a loss of 50% productivity. Seventy-five percent of the asthmatics have never had a lung function test. The common triggers for asthmatics in India were dust (49%) and air pollution (49%), while only 5% reported of pollen as triggers. Eighty-nine percent of Indian asthmatics reported an average use of oral steroids 10.5 times a year. Only 36% and 50% of Indian asthmatics used controller and rescue inhalers with a majority

  1. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos Sianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual

  2. Feasibility of Gamified Mobile Service Aimed at Physical Activation in Young Men: Population-Based Randomized Controlled Study (MOPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Siirtola, Pekka; Luoto, Tim; Enwald, Heidi; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Röning, Juha; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Mäntysaari, Matti; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2017-10-10

    The majority of young people do not meet the recommendations on physical activity for health. New innovative ways to motivate young people to adopt a physically active lifestyle are needed. The study aimed to study the feasibility of an automated, gamified, tailored Web-based mobile service aimed at physical and social activation among young men. A population-based sample of 496 young men (mean age 17.8 years [standard deviation 0.6]) participated in a 6-month randomized controlled trial (MOPO study). Participants were randomized to an intervention (n=250) and a control group (n=246). The intervention group was given a wrist-worn physical activity monitor (Polar Active) with physical activity feedback and access to a gamified Web-based mobile service, providing fitness guidelines, tailored health information, advice of youth services, social networking, and feedback on physical activity. Through the trial, the physical activity of the men in the control group was measured continuously with an otherwise similar monitor but providing only the time of day and no feedback. The primary outcome was the feasibility of the service based on log data and questionnaires. Among completers, we also analyzed the change in anthropometry and fitness between baseline and 6 months and the change over time in weekly time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Mobile service users considered the various functionalities related to physical activity important. However, compliance of the service was limited, with 161 (64.4%, 161/250) participants visiting the service, 118 (47.2%, 118/250) logging in more than once, and 41 (16.4%, 41/250) more than 5 times. Baseline sedentary time was higher in those who uploaded physical activity data until the end of the trial (P=.02). A total of 187 (74.8%, 187/250) participants in the intervention and 167 (67.9%, 167/246) in the control group participated in the final measurements. There were no differences in the change in anthropometry and

  3. From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Food portion-sizes might be a promising starting point for interventions targeting obesity. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess how representatives of point-of-purchase settings perceived the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Methods: Semi-structured

  4. Benchmarking Investments in Advancement: Results of the Inaugural CASE Advancement Investment Metrics Study (AIMS). CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Juidith A.

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural Advancement Investment Metrics Study, or AIMS, benchmarked investments and staffing in each of the advancement disciplines (advancement services, alumni relations, communications and marketing, fundraising and advancement management) as well as the return on the investment in fundraising specifically. This white paper reports on the…

  5. Developing a dashboard to help measure and achieve the triple aim: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Hsien-Yeang; Sibley, Lyn M

    2014-08-30

    Health system planners aim to pursue the three goals of Triple Aim: 1) reduce health care costs; 2) improve population health; and 3) improve the care experience. Moreover, they also need measures that can reliably predict future health care needs in order to manage effectively the health system performance. Yet few measures exist to assess Triple Aim and predict future needs at a health system level. The purpose of this study is to explore the novel application of a case-mix adjustment method in order to measure and help improve the Triple Aim of health system performance. We applied a case-mix adjustment method to a population-based analysis to assess its usefulness as a measure of health system performance and Triple Aim. The study design was a retrospective, cohort study of adults from Ontario, Canada using administrative databases: individuals were assigned a predicted illness burden score using a case-mix adjustment system from diagnoses and health utilization data in 2008, and then followed forward to assess the actual health care utilization and costs in the following year (2009). We applied the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) Case-Mix System to categorize individuals into 60 levels of healthcare need, called ACGs. The outcomes were: 1) Number of individuals per ACG; 2) Total system costs per ACG; and 3) Mean cost per person per ACG, which together formed a health system "dashboard". We identified 11.4 million adults. 16.1% were aged 65 or older, 3.2 million (28%) did not use health care services that year, and 45,000 (0.4%) were in the highest acuity ACG category using 12 times more than an average adult. The sickest 1%, 5% and 15% of the population use about 10%, 30% and 50% of total health system costs respectively. The dashboard measures 2 dimensions of Triple Aim: 1) reduced costs: when total system costs per ACG or when average costs per person is reduced; and 2) improved population health: when more people move into healthier rather than

  6. What Impact Do Chaplains Have? A Pilot Study of Spiritual AIM for Advanced Cancer Patients in Outpatient Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Allison; Shields, Michele; James, Jennifer; Hocker, Will; Morgan, Stefana; Karve, Shweta; Rabow, Michael W; Dunn, Laura B

    2017-11-01

    Spiritual care is integral to quality palliative care. Although chaplains are uniquely trained to provide spiritual care, studies evaluating chaplains' work in palliative care are scarce. The goals of this pre-post study, conducted among patients with advanced cancer receiving outpatient palliative care, were to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of chaplain-delivered spiritual care, utilizing the Spiritual Assessment and Intervention Model ("Spiritual AIM"), and to gather pilot data on Spiritual AIM's effects on spiritual well-being, religious and cancer-specific coping, and physical and psychological symptoms. Patients with advanced cancer (N = 31) who were receiving outpatient palliative care were assigned based on chaplains' and patients' outpatient schedules, to one of three professional chaplains for three individual Spiritual AIM sessions, conducted over the course of approximately six to eight weeks. Patients completed the following measures at baseline and post-intervention: Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, Steinhauser Spirituality, Brief RCOPE, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual (FACIT-Sp-12), Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC), Patient Dignity Inventory, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (10 items), and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. From baseline to post-Spiritual AIM, significant increases were found on the FACIT-Sp-12 Faith subscale, the Mini-MAC Fighting Spirit subscale, and Mini-MAC Adaptive Coping factor. Two trends were observed, i.e., an increase in Positive religious coping on the Brief RCOPE and an increase in Fatalism (a subscale of the Mini-MAC). Spiritual AIM, a brief chaplain-led intervention, holds potential to address spiritual needs and religious and general coping in patients with serious illnesses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  8. Using the Quadruple Aim Framework to Measure Impact of Heath Technology Implementation: A Case Study of eConsult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare; Keely, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Health technology solutions are too often implemented without a true understanding of the system-level problem they seek to address, resulting in excessive costs, poor adoption, ineffectiveness, and ultimately failure. Before implementing or adopting health care innovations, stakeholders should complete a thorough assessment to ensure effectiveness and value. In this article, we describe how to evaluate the impact of a health technology innovation through the 4 dimensions of care outlined by the Quadruple Aim Framework, using our experience with the Champlain Building Access to Specialists through eConsultation (BASE) eConsult service as a case example. A descriptive overview of data was collected between April 1, 2011, and August 31, 2017, using 4 dimensions of care outlined by the Quadruple Aim Framework: patient experience, provider experience, costs, and population health. Findings were drawn from use data, primary care provider closeout surveys, surveys/interviews with patients and provider, and costing data. Overall, patients have received access to specialist advice within days and find the advice useful in 86% of cases. Provider experience is very positive, with satisfaction ratings of high/very high value in 94% of cases. The service cost a weighted average of $47.35/case, compared with $133.60/case for traditional referrals. In total, 1,299 primary care providers have enrolled in the service, completing 28,838 cases since 2011. Monthly case volumes have grown from an average of 13 cases/month in 2011 to 969 cases/month in 2016. The eConsult service has been widely adopted in our region and is currently expanding to new jurisdictions across Canada. However, although we successfully demonstrated eConsult's impact on patient experience, provider satisfaction, and reducing costs, we met several challenges in evaluating its impact on population health. More work is needed to evaluate eConsult's impact on key population health metrics (eg, mortality, morbidity

  9. From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2009-04-01

    Food portion-sizes might be a promising starting point for interventions targeting obesity. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess how representatives of point-of-purchase settings perceived the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 representatives of various point-of-purchase settings. Constructs derived from the diffusion of innovations theory were incorporated into the interview guide. Each interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analysed with Atlas.ti 5.2 using the framework approach. According to the participants, offering a larger variety of portion-sizes had the most relative advantages, and reducing portions was the most disadvantageous. The participants also considered portion-size reduction and linear pricing of portion-sizes to be risky. Lastly, a larger variety of portion-sizes, pricing strategies and portion-size labelling were seen as the most complex interventions. In general, participants considered offering a larger variety of portion-sizes, portion-size labelling and, to a lesser extent, pricing strategies with respect to portion-sizes as most feasible to implement. Interventions aimed at portion-size were seen as innovative by most participants. Developing adequate communication strategies about portion-size interventions with both decision-makers in point-of-purchase settings and the general public is crucial for successful implementation.

  10. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  11. Considerations on aims and approaches of the study on the transport of trace elements in a river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi

    2002-10-01

    Concerning the study subject on the transport of trace, toxic chemicals and radioactive elements in a river watershed, that has been developed in the Research Group for Terrestrial Environment, its aims and methodological approaches have been discussed in the light of related social and technological aspects of today. It is stressed that a study of the transport of radionuclides originated from a nuclear installation is needed to assess the physiological impact and to provide appropriate countermeasures in case of an accident. A numerical model is prerequisite for these objectives and to be keenly developed. The outcome of the modeling will be also important for a quantitative analysis of cycling of trace toxic elements in the atmosphere- lithosphere-hydrosphere, and also of the mechanisms of contamination of the surface aquatic environment. Accordingly, the study will contribute to the key issues stated in the national programs of science and technologies such as conservation of the natural and living environment. The present large consumption of metals and metalloids may cause an extensive contamination in the future. The study can provide solutions to the problems associated with metals and metalloids, because their environmental behavior resembles to that of radionuclides. From a methodological aspect, an importance of a direct investigation of physicochemical forms of trace, toxic elements must be stressed. A simultaneous use of experimental methods and chemical modeling to study the physico-chemical forms will be a good exemption to be realized hereafter. Experimentally, partitioning between solid and liquid phases using radioisotopes, and identification of solid species using various X-ray spectrometric techniques, for example, have been recognized very promising to investigate physico-chemical form of trace elements. These techniques are much ought to the nuclear sciences, suggesting further possible contribution of the nuclear sciences to the questions of

  12. A 3-month jump-landing training program: a feasibility study using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Inne; Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Mathieu, Niels; Van Schuerbeeck, Sander; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention program has become as important as determining the effectiveness of the intervention. To evaluate the applicability of a 3-month jump-landing training program in basketball players, using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Randomized controlled trial. National and regional basketball teams. Twenty-four teams of the second highest national division and regional basketball divisions in Flanders, Belgium, were randomly assigned (1:1) to a control group and intervention group. A total of 243 athletes (control group = 129, intervention group = 114), ages 15 to 41 years, volunteered. All exercises in the intervention program followed a progressive development, emphasizing lower extremity alignment during jump-landing activities. The results of the process evaluation of the intervention program were based on the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. The injury incidence density, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were determined. The participation rate of the total sample was 100% (reach). The hazard ratio was different between the intervention group and the control group (0.40 [95% confidence interval = 0.16, 0.99]; effectiveness). Of the 12 teams in the intervention group, 8 teams (66.7%) agreed to participate in the study (adoption). Eight of the participating coaches (66.7%) felt positively about the intervention program and stated that they had implemented the training sessions of the program as intended (implementation). All coaches except 1 (87.5%) intended to continue the intervention program the next season (maintenance). Compliance of the coaches in this coach-supervised jump-landing training program was high. In addition, the program was effective in preventing lower extremity injuries.

  13. Built environment interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in rural Ontario health units: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Cara-Lee; Valaitis, Ruta K; Eyles, John D

    2015-05-03

    Few studies to date have explored the relationship between the built environment and physical activity specifically in rural settings. The Ontario Public Health Standards policies mandate that health units in Ontario address the built environment; however, it is unclear how public health practitioners are integrating the built environment into public health interventions aimed at improving physical activity in chronic disease prevention programs. This descriptive qualitative study explored interventions that have or are being implemented which address the built environment specifically related to physical activity in rural Ontario health units, and the impact of these interventions. Data were collected through twelve in-depth semi-structured interviews with rural public health practitioners and managers representing 12 of 13 health units serving rural communities. Key themes were identified using qualitative content analysis. Themes that emerged regarding the types of interventions that health units are employing included: Engagement with policy work at a municipal level; building and working with community partners, committees and coalitions; gathering and providing evidence; developing and implementing programs; and social marketing and awareness raising. Evaluation of interventions to date has been limited. Public health interventions, and their evaluations, are complex. Health units who serve large rural populations in Ontario are engaging in numerous activities to address physical activity levels. There is a need to further evaluate the impact of these interventions on population health.

  14. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  15. A systematic review of studies that aim to determine which outcomes to measure in clinical trials in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Sinha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In clinical trials the selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial to the assessment of whether one intervention is better than another. Selection of inappropriate outcomes can compromise the utility of a trial. However, the process of selecting the most suitable outcomes to include can be complex. Our aim was to systematically review studies that address the process of selecting outcomes or outcome domains to measure in clinical trials in children.We searched Cochrane databases (no date restrictions in December 2006; and MEDLINE (1950 to 2006, CINAHL (1982 to 2006, and SCOPUS (1966 to 2006 in January 2007 for studies of the selection of outcomes for use in clinical trials in children. We also asked a group of experts in paediatric clinical research to refer us to any other relevant studies. From these articles we extracted data on the clinical condition of interest, description of the method used to select outcomes, the people involved in the selection process, the outcomes selected, and limitations of the method as defined by the authors. The literature search identified 8,889 potentially relevant abstracts. Of these, 70 were retrieved, and 25 were included in the review. These studies described the work of 13 collaborations representing various paediatric specialties including critical care, gastroenterology, haematology, psychiatry, neurology, respiratory paediatrics, rheumatology, neonatal medicine, and dentistry. Two groups utilised the Delphi technique, one used the nominal group technique, and one used both methods to reach a consensus about which outcomes should be measured in clinical trials. Other groups used semistructured discussion, and one group used a questionnaire-based survey. The collaborations involved clinical experts, research experts, and industry representatives. Three groups involved parents of children affected by the particular condition.Very few studies address the appropriate choice of outcomes for clinical research

  16. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  17. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  18. A physical and engineering study on the irradiation techniques in neutron capture therapy aiming for wider application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Y.; Ono, K.; Suzuki, M.; Katoh, I.; Miyatake, S.-I.; Yanagie, H.

    2003-01-01

    The solo-irradiation of thermal neutrons has been applied for brain cancer and malignant melanoma in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the medical irradiation facility of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), from the first clinical trial in 1974. In 1997, after the facility remodeling, the application of the mix-irradiation of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons was started, and the depth dose distribution for brain cancer has been improved in some degree. In 2001, the solo-irradiation of epi-thermal neutrons also started. It is specially mentioned that the application to oral cancers started at the same time. The BNCT clinical trial using epi-thermal neutron irradiation at KUR, amounts to twelve as of March 2003. The seven trials; more than a half of the total trials, are for oral cancers. From this fact, we think that the wider application to the other cancers is required for the future prosperity of BNCT. The cancers applied for BNCT in KUR at the present time, are brain cancer, melanoma and oral cancers, as mentioned above. The cancers, expected to be applied in near future, are liver cancer, pancreas cancer, lung cancer, tongue cancer, breast cancer, etc.. Any cancer is almost incurable by the other therapy including the other radiation therapy. In the wider application of BNCT to these cancers, the dose-distribution control suitable to each cancer and/or each part, is important. The introduction of multi-directional and/or multi-divisional irradiation is also needed. Here, a physical and engineering study using two-dimensional transport calculation and three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation for the irradiation techniques in BNCT aiming for wider application is reported

  19. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P; Eriksen, B; Crutzen, S [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  20. A 3-Month Jump-Landing Training Program: A Feasibility Study Using the RE-AIM Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, I.; Cumps, E.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mathieu, N.; Van Schuerbeeck, S.; Meeusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention program has become as important as determining the effectiveness of the intervention. Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a 3-month jumplanding training program in basketball players, using the RE-AIM (reach,

  1. A study on activities of nuclear stations in the U.S. in the aim of enhancing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Kuniyasu

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery of a Reactor Vessel Head Degradation at Davis Besse, the NRC, a regulatory body in the U.S., launched an evaluation scheme regarding nuclear stations' Safety Culture. In this evaluation, the NRC examines every inspection finding of conventional Reactor Oversight Program inspections to find out what was the most dominant causal factor with SC aspects. There are no similar analyses of this kind opened to public. This study has its goal of obtaining some useful clue for realizing how to project SC enhancement activities, by making analysis on every ROP inspection finding as well as collecting examples of good practices in improving organizational performance of stations in the U.S. As for the inspection results of ROP, there are no obvious change in the trend of number and types of ROP findings. On the other hand, because of the variety in average number of findings at stations, we could assume that actual condition of SC within a particular station quite differs from other stations. Looking at ROP reports minutely, you may realize that all U.S. stations have been making great effort to improve the efficiency of its Corrective Action Program which is regarded as the key ability to identify and fix undesirable incidents broke out at the station. It is a noteworthy aspect that CAP is not a simple program of quality assurance but also one of the items in power stations to be improved continuously. The concrete elements of this process are realizing current organizational condition by series of Performance Indicators, setting the next goals with the PIs, also evaluating the degree of the achievements with them, and modifying or re-defining new goal of the organization in accordance with new situation. This idea is introduced into broad range of organizational activities all over the U.S., which assure their improvement to be objective and effective. Simultaneously, such way of operation have its staff devoted in own responsibility, which eventually

  2. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  3. The persuasive aims of Metal Gear Solid: A discourse theoretical approach to the study of argumentation in video games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamenkovic, Dusan; Jacevic, Milan; Wildfeuer, Janina

    2017-01-01

    in a representative video game combine so as to convince the player to act, play, and perhaps think accordingly. The multimodal approach employed in the paper combines the notion of discourse aims and the rhetorical and argumentative structure of Metal Gear Solid (Kojima, 1998), and analyses different narrative...... strategies and verbal cues, as well as the overall interface, control, and gameplay. The results suggest that verbal and textual cues combine with audio-visual elements and highly specific gameplay strategies in order to refrain the player from killing enemies. This might indicate that video games are likely...

  4. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  6. Can inequality be tamed through boundary work? A qualitative study of health promotion aimed at reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pia Vivian; Hjelmar, Ulf; Høybye, Mette Terp; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the organisational dynamics that arise in health promotion aimed at reducing health inequalities. The paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork among public health officers in Danish municipalities and qualitative interviews from an evaluation of health promotion programmes targeting homeless and other marginalised citizens. Analytically, we focus on 'boundary work', i.e. the ways in which social and symbolic boundaries are established, maintained, transgressed and negotiated, both at the administrative level and among frontline professionals. The paper discusses three types of boundary work: (i) demarcating professional domains; (ii) setting the boundaries of the task itself; and (iii) managing administrative boundaries. The main argument is that the production, maintenance and transgression of these three types of boundaries constitute central and time-consuming aspects of the practices of public health professionals, and that boundary work constitutes an important element in professional practices seeking to 'tame a wicked problem', such as social inequalities in health. A cross-cutting feature of the three types of boundary work is the management of the divide between health and social issues, which the professionals seemingly seek to uphold and transgress at the same time. The paper thus contributes to ongoing discussions of intersectoral action to address health inequalities. Furthermore, it extends the scope and application of the concept of boundary work in the sociology of public health by suggesting that the focus in previous research on professional demarcation be broadened in order to capture other types of boundaries that shape, and are shaped by, professional practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    chose CHOP as our primary target for drug development. Currently, we are in the process of screening a library of 1274 drugs, all of which are already used in human subjects, for CHOP inhibitors. The last topic of our discussion is future possibilities for glaucoma management. First, we discuss the development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities that allow detailed description of pathomechanisms of this multifactorial disease, glaucoma. The purpose of this research was to improve the efficacy of glaucoma diagnosis and to visualize its pathology at a cellular/molecular level and develop molecule-specific therapies. Currently available visual field tests are subjective, since they rely on a determination of the threshold of light perception, and are affected by poor reproducibility. The current dependence on visual field tests to ascertain the progression of glaucoma is thus a serious limitation on an important task of ophthalmologists. We, therefore, turned our focus to the establishment of an in vivo imaging method to detect dying retinal ganglion cells, which would highlight the pathologic state of glaucoma with high sensitivity. To this end, we used confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy to assess the usefulness of SYTOX Orange as a cell death probe. Our results showed that this probe could reveal dying retinal ganglion cells clearly, quickly and with high sensitivity. We, therefore, believe that the clinical application of probes that can sensitively detect dying retinal ganglion cells is a highly promising approach. This also applies to the use of molecular tools that can provide information on the molecular pathology of glaucoma. Finally, we would like to introduce our national collaborative work on the analysis of "big-data". The project aims to collect as wide a range of data as possible at an unprecedented scale. The data to be registered ranges from basic glaucoma data, such as IOP and visual field test results, to data from the most sophisticated

  8. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results of a seismic risk assessment study are often applied and interpreted by users unspecialised on the topic or lacking a scientific background. In this context, the availability of tools that help translating essentially scientific contents to broader audiences (such as decision makers or civil defence officials) as well as representing and managing results in a user-friendly fashion, are on indubitable value. On of such tools is the visualization tool VISOR-RISNA, a web tool developed within the RISNA project (financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre, Spain) for regional seismic risk assessment of Navarre and the subsequent development of emergency plans. The RISNA study included seismic hazard evaluation, geotechnical characterization of soils, incorporation of site effects to expected ground motions, vulnerability distribution assessment and estimation of expected damage distributions for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The main goal of RISNA was the identification of higher risk area where focusing detailed, local-scale risk studies in the future and the corresponding urban emergency plans. A geographic information system was used to combine different information layers, generate tables of results and represent maps with partial and final results. The visualization tool VISOR-RISNA is intended to facilitate the interpretation and representation of the collection of results, with the ultimate purpose of defining actuation plans. A number of criteria for defining actuation priorities are proposed in this work. They are based on combinations of risk parameters resulting from the risk study (such as expected ground motion and damage and exposed population), as determined by risk assessment specialists. Although the values that these parameters take are a result of the risk study, their distribution in several classes depends on the intervals defined by decision takers or civil defense officials. These criteria provide a ranking of

  9. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  10. Fast diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of the mouse brain at ultrahigh-field: aiming at cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Müller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In-vivo high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI of the mouse brain is often limited by the low signal to noise ratio (SNR resulting from the required small voxel sizes. Recently, cryogenically cooled resonators (CCR have demonstrated significant increase of the effective SNR. It is the objective of this study to enable fast DTI of the mouse brain. In this context, CCRs appear attractive for SNR improvement. METHODS: Three mice underwent a DTI examination at 156²×250 µm³ spatial resolution with a CCR at ultrahigh field (11.7T. Diffusion images were acquired along 30 gradient directions plus 5 references without diffusion encoding, resulting in a total acquisition time of 35 minutes. For comparison, mice additionally underwent a standardized 110 minutes acquisition protocol published earlier. Fractional anisotropy (FA and fiber tracking (FT results including quantitative tractwise fractional anisotropy statistics (TFAS were qualitatively and quantitatively compared. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the calculated fractional anisotropy maps and fibre tracking results showed coinciding outcome comparing 35 minute scans to the standardized 110 minute scan. Coefficients of variation for ROI-based FA-comparison as well as for TFAS revealed comparable results for the different scanning protocols. CONCLUSION: Mouse DTI at 11.7 T was performed with an acquisition time of approximately 30 minutes, which is considered feasible for cohort studies. The rapid acquisition protocol reveals reliable and reproducible FA-values and FT reconstructions, thus allowing an experimental setup for in-vivo large scale whole brain murine DTI cohort studies.

  11. Money's (Not) On My Mind: A Qualitative Study Of How Staff And Managers Understand Health Care's Triple Aim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkholm, Marie Højriis

    as a dilemma between quality and cost, managers saw it as a paradox that invited improvement efforts. To create alignment between external efficiency requirements and staff understandings of the need for change, managers choose an action strategy that resonated with the professional ethos of staff. Limitations...... in redesigning clinical care. This case illustrates how managers can be guided by mental models in order to create alignment between change efforts and the organizations overall purpose. Originality/value This study makes an empirical contribution to thus far conceptual papers on how mental models guide change...

  12. Portion size: a qualitative study of consumers' attitudes toward point-of-purchase interventions aimed at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-02-01

    This qualitative study assessed consumers' opinions of food portion sizes and their attitudes toward portion-size interventions located in various point-of-purchase settings targeting overweight and obese people. Eight semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 49 participants. Constructs from the diffusion of innovations theory were included in the interview guide. Each focus group was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and analyzed with Atlas.ti 5.2 using the framework approach. Results showed that many participants thought that portion sizes of various products have increased during the past decades and are larger than acceptable. The majority also indicated that value for money is important when purchasing and that large portion sizes offer more value for money than small portion sizes. Furthermore, many experienced difficulties with self-regulating the consumption of large portion sizes. Among the portion-size interventions that were discussed, participants had most positive attitudes toward a larger availability of portion sizes and pricing strategies, followed by serving-size labeling. In general, reducing package serving sizes as an intervention strategy to control food intake met resistance. The study concludes that consumers consider interventions consisting of a larger variety of available portion sizes, pricing strategies and serving-size labeling as most acceptable to implement.

  13. Study on crystalline rock aiming at evaluation method of long-term behavior of rock mass (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Katsunori; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Matsui, Hiroya

    2017-11-01

    It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior such as creep and stress relaxation. Therefore, development of methodology to evaluate the past long-term behavior of rock mass is considered to be an issue. In view of above points, this study has been started as a collaboration study with the University of Tokyo from Fiscal Year 2016. In FY 2016, creep testing on Tage tuff was continuously conducted. Existing theory of rate process and stochastic process was modified to be applied to evaluate effects of water, and then the modified theory was validated based on the results of strength and creep tests performed under dry and wet conditions. Furthermore, effects of water contents on stress-strain curves were examined by uniaxial compression testing under various water content conditions. (author)

  14. Report of special study meeting on 'Atomic energy research aiming at consistent nuclear fuel cycle', fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, Kojiro; Nishihara, Hideaki; Mishima, Kaichiro

    1994-12-01

    This meeting was held on March 4, 1993. Since the first power generation with the JPDR and the initial criticality of the KUR, 30 years, and since the initial criticality of the KUCA, 20 years have elapsed. The researchers in universities have contributed greatly to the research and education of atomic energy, but the perspective of leading the world hereafter in this field is very uncertain. This study meeting was held to seek the way to make the proper contribution. In the meeting, lectures were given on Japanese policy on nuclear fuel cycle, the present state of the upstream research and the downstream research in Japan, the experimental plan in NUCEF, the present state of the researches on TRU decay heat data and TRU nucleus data, the present state of the experimental researches at KUCA and at FCA, the present state of the research on the heat removal from high conversion LWRs and the KUR, the present state of the research on radioactive waste treatment, and the present state of TRU chemical research. The record of the holding of this study meeting is added. (K.I.)

  15. Study of the main parameters involved in carbothermal reduction reaction of silica aiming to obtain silicon nitride powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da; Greca, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of main parameters involved in the method of silicon nitride attainment by carbothermal reduction of silica followed by nitridation were studied in isothermal experiments of fine powder mixtures of silica and graphite in a nitrogen gas flow. The time, temperature, rate C/SiO 2 and flow of nitrogen were varied since they are the main parameters involved in this kind of reaction. The products of reaction were analysed by X-ray diffraction to identify the crystalline phases and as a result was obtained the nucleation of silicon nitride phase. Meanwhile, corroborating prior results, we verified to be difficult the progress of the reaction and the inhibition of formation of silicon carbide phase, the last one being associated to the formation of silicon nitride phase due to thermodynamic matters [pt

  16. Aiming at a Moving Target: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Intraindividual Goal Conflict between Personal Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-goal pursuit and conflict between personal life-defining goals can be considered part of everyday business in most individuals' lives. Given the potentially detrimental effects of goal conflict—for example, impaired well-being or poor performance—the literature on goal conflict is surprisingly scattered due to heterogeneous methodological approaches and technical terms. Little empirical research has addressed the conceptualization of goal conflict against the background of differing understandings from a structure-like and a process-like perspective. In the present article, we outline theoretical foundations of goal conflict from two perspectives: a structure- and a process-like perspective. Based on a comparative analysis and integration of these two perspectives, we systematically review empirical studies on goal conflict over 30 years of research. In doing so, we identify and discuss important conceptual dimensions of goal conflict, namely, goal conflict as a cognitive construct and an experiential instance, a focus on goal interrelations or on specific goal properties, and resource vs. inherent conflict, and the potential of these distinctions to further research on goal conflict. Finally, we present major challenges and pose questions that need to be addressed by future research.

  17. Aiming at a Moving Target: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Intraindividual Goal Conflict between Personal Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, Julia; Grund, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-goal pursuit and conflict between personal life-defining goals can be considered part of everyday business in most individuals' lives. Given the potentially detrimental effects of goal conflict-for example, impaired well-being or poor performance-the literature on goal conflict is surprisingly scattered due to heterogeneous methodological approaches and technical terms. Little empirical research has addressed the conceptualization of goal conflict against the background of differing understandings from a structure-like and a process-like perspective. In the present article, we outline theoretical foundations of goal conflict from two perspectives: a structure- and a process-like perspective. Based on a comparative analysis and integration of these two perspectives, we systematically review empirical studies on goal conflict over 30 years of research. In doing so, we identify and discuss important conceptual dimensions of goal conflict, namely, goal conflict as a cognitive construct and an experiential instance, a focus on goal interrelations or on specific goal properties, and resource vs. inherent conflict, and the potential of these distinctions to further research on goal conflict. Finally, we present major challenges and pose questions that need to be addressed by future research.

  18. Adherence to Biobehavioral Recommendations in Pediatric Migraine as Measured by Electronic Monitoring: The Adherence in Migraine (AIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Ramsey, Rachelle; Aylward, Brandon; Kroner, John W; Sullivan, Stephanie M; Nause, Katie; Allen, Janelle R; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Slater, Shalonda; Hommel, Kevin; LeCates, Susan L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine treatment adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations among pediatric migraine patients using electronic monitoring systems. Nonadherence to medical treatment is a significant public health concern, and can result in poorer treatment outcomes, decreased cost-effectiveness of medical care, and increased morbidity. No studies have systematically examined adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations in adolescents with migraine outside of a clinical trial. Participants included 56 adolescents ages 11-17 who were presenting for clinical care. All were diagnosed with migraine with or without aura or chronic migraine and had at least 4 headache days per month. Medication adherence was objectively measured using electronic monitoring systems (Medication Event Monitoring Systems technology) and daily, prospective self-report via personal electronic devices. Adherence to lifestyle recommendations of regular exercise, eating, and fluid intake were also assessed using daily self-report on personal electronic devices. Electronic monitoring indicates that adolescents adhere to their medication 75% of the time, which was significantly higher than self-reported rates of medication adherence (64%). Use of electronic monitoring of medication detected rates of adherence that were significantly higher for participants taking once daily medication (85%) versus participants taking twice daily medication (59%). Average reported adherence to lifestyle recommendations of consistent noncaffeinated fluid intake (M = 5 cups per day) was below recommended levels of a minimum of 8 cups per day. Participants on average also reported skipping 1 meal per week despite recommendations of consistently eating three meals per day. Results suggest that intervention focused on adherence to preventive treatments (such as medication) and lifestyle recommendations may provide more optimal outcomes for children and adolescents with

  19. MAGIC Study: Aims, Design and Methods using SystemCHANGE™ to Improve Immunosuppressive Medication Adherence in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L; Moore, Shirley; Hathaway, Donna; Cheng, An-Lin; Chen, Guoqing; Goggin, Kathy

    2016-07-16

    Among adult kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence to immunosuppressive medications is the leading predictor of poor outcomes, including rejection, kidney loss, and death. An alarming one-third of kidney transplant patients experience medication non-adherence even though the problem is preventable. Existing adherence interventions have proven marginally effective for those with acute and chronic illnesses and ineffective for adult kidney transplant recipients. Our purpose is to describe the design and methods of the MAGIC (Medication Adherence Given Individual SystemCHANGE™) trial We report the design of a randomized controlled trial with an attention-control group to test an innovative 6-month SystemCHANGE™ intervention designed to enhance immunosuppressive medication adherence in adult non-adherent kidney transplant recipients from two transplant centers. Grounded in the Socio-Ecological Model, SystemCHANGE™ seeks to systematically improve medication adherence behaviors by identifying and shaping routines, involving supportive others in routines, and using medication taking feedback through small patient-led experiments to change and maintain behavior. After a 3-month screening phase of 190 eligible adult kidney transplant recipients, those who are adherent as measured by electronic monitoring, will be randomized into a 6-month SystemCHANGE™ intervention or attention-control phase, followed by a 6-month maintenance phase without intervention or attention. Differences in adherence between the two groups will be assessed at baseline, 6 months (intervention phase) and 12 months (maintenance phase). Adherence mediators (social support, systems-thinking) and moderators (ethnicity, perceived health) are examined. Patient outcomes (creatinine/blood urea nitrogen, infection, acute/chronic rejection, graft loss, death) and cost effectiveness are to be examined. Based on the large effect size of 1.4 found in our pilot study, intervention shows great promise

  20. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  1. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  2. AIM Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scholz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM Data Services as a virtual facility provides virtual 3D reference tracks for simulation applications in the domain of automotive and railway systems. It offers tools for management and analysis of experiment data and a platform for survey and processing of vehicle data in the public transport domain. Collected spatial data is bundled in a database cluster and published through common web mapping interfaces.

  3. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  4. Aiming for the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

    that the Danes are encouraged to be alert to still earlier and vaguer bodily signs of potential cancer and seek care ‘in time’. With biomedical constructions such as ‘cancer awareness’ and ‘alarm symptoms of cancer’ and the retrospectively oriented definition of life before symptoms-based healthcare seeking...... and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... on a continuum between what is locally considered ordinary and extraordinary. Overall, the dissertation argues that inquiries into morality and potentiality provide valuable insights into healthcare seeking practices and the making and management of symptoms in everyday life. The dissertation is based on 18...

  5. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  6. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  7. Experimental studies of coaxial plasma gun current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 μF, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated from the dielectric/vacuum interface in the AFWL system. Two gas values deliver gas in the system. The first delivers gas from the gun breech and the second optional valve delivers gas to the gun muzzle. Currents and voltages are measured by Rogowski coils, B probes and capacitive voltage probes. A O-D slug model is used to predict the current, inductance, gun voltage and plasma sheath velocity. The slug model assumes the sheath transits the gun with all mass in the sheath. In the snowplow mode, the plasma sheath is thin with a sharp current rise and drop. Our system operated in a transition mode between the snowplow and deflagration modes with early snowplow behavior and late deflagration behavior. Neutrons are produced in a plasma pinch at the gun muzzle, indicating snowplow behavior. The slug theory models overall gun behavior to experimental accuracy. Experimental results are compared to four theories for plasma sheath velocities: the Alfven collisionally limited model, the Rosenbluth model, the Fishbine saturated model and a single particle drift model. Experimental velocities vary from 10 5 to 10 6 m/s. Only the single particle drift and the slug model calculations are of the right magnitude (8 x 10 5 m/s). The Fishbine and the Rosenbluth models predict slower velocities (2 x 10 5 m/s). The Alfven model is not applicable to this system

  8. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  9. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha C. Mulakkal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy.

  10. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  11. Study, design and manufacture eddy current probes for industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Phuc; Nguyen Van Thuy; Vuong Binh Duong; Do Minh Duc; Trinh Dinh Truong; Tran Trong Duc; Do Tung Khanh; Dang Quang Trung

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the studying, designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications. The main tasks of this study include: i) Describes the overview and classification of eddy current probes (which can be classified into three categories based on the mode of operation: absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe); ii) Describes the three methods of probe designing and manufacturing (including experimental, analytical and numerical designs); iii) Describes the designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications, which based on experimental and analytical methods. Based on this study, we have successfully manufactured some current probes (including absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe) for surface and tube inspections. (author)

  12. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wisetborisut, Anawat; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Uaphanthasath, Ronnaphob; Gomutbutra, Patama; Jiraniramai, Surin; Lerssrimonkol, Chawin; Aramrattanna, Apinun; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual's behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU) Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%). About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg) and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL), and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL), which was found in 19.2% of participants. The study of health workers offers three potential advantages. The first is that the study of migrants was possible. Socioenvironmental influence on NCD risk factors can be explored, as changes in environmental exposures can be documented. Second, it allows the investigators to control for access to care. Access to care is potentially a key confounder toward understanding the development of NCDs. Lastly, a study of health personnel allows easy access to laboratory investigations and potential for long-term follow-up. This enables ascertainment of a number of clinical outcomes and provides potential for future studies focusing on therapeutic and prognostic issues

  13. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes Riveros, M.A.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed

  14. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Riveros, M A [PELT, Puno (Peru); Gonfiantini, R [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed.

  15. Current status of studies on nodular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Satoru; Echigoya, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yutaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Takao; Yamanaka, Tuneyasu.

    1993-01-01

    The studies on nodular corrosion formed on the outer surface of BWR fuel cladding tubes were reviewed. Main factors affecting the corrosion behavior were material and environmental conditions and combined effect. The effects of such material conditions as fabrication process, alloy elements, texture and surface treatment and environmental factors as neutron irradiation, thermo-hydrodynamic, water chemistry, purity of the coolant and contact with foreign metals on the corrosion phenomena were surveyed. Out-of-reactor corrosion test methods and models for the corrosion mechanism were also reviewed. Suppression of the accumulated annealing temperature during tube reduction process improved the nodular corrosion resistance of Zircaloys. Improved resistance for the nodular corrosion was reported for the unirradiated Zircaloys with some additives. Detailed irradiation test under the BWR conditions is needed to confirm the trend. Concerning the environmental factors, boiling on the cladding surface due to heat flux reduces the nodular corrosion susceptibility, while oxidizing radical generated from dissolved oxygen accelerates the corrosion. Concerning corrosion mechanisms, importance of such phenomena as the depleted zone of alloying elements in zirconium matrix, reduction of H + to H 2 in oxide layer, electrochemical property of precipitates, crystallographic anisotropy of oxidation rates were revealed. (author) 59 refs

  16. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of

  17. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Impact of a University Module That Aims to Challenge Students' Perspectives on Ageing and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if a module on an undergraduate degree programme had challenged students' perspectives on ageing and older adults. Courses on gerontology are on the increase within the UK to support increasingly ageing populations, with agendas to promote ethical care and to challenge the incidence of elderly abuse. Research…

  18. Data scan. With access to a newly available trove of private insurers' claims data, new institute aims to study what's driving spiraling healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie

    2011-09-26

    A new research initiative aims to delve into private-insurer claims data to study utilization and what's driving healthcare costs. The Health Care Cost Institute will help researchers, who have been limited to Medicare data or limited private claims. "We're optimistic. We have nothing to hide here," says Michael Richards, left, of Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center.

  19. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers’ knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12–20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are par...

  20. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are pa...

  1. Evaluating a Dutch cardiology primary care plus intervention on the Triple Aim outcomes: study design of a practice-based quantitative and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjel, Tessa C C; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2017-09-06

    In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the health-care system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study focuses on a cardiology primary care plus intervention. Primary care plus (PC+) is a new health-care delivery model focused on substitution of specialist care in the hospital setting with specialist care in the primary care setting. The intervention consists of a cardiology PC+ centre in which cardiologists, supported by other health-care professionals, provide consultations in a primary care setting. The PC+ centre aims to improve the health of the population and quality of care as experienced by patients, and reduce the number of referrals to hospital-based outpatient specialist care in order to reduce health-care costs. These aims reflect the Triple Aim principle. Hence, the objectives of the study are to evaluate the cardiology PC+ centre in terms of the Triple Aim outcomes and to evaluate the process of the introduction of PC+. The study is a practice-based, quantitative study with a longitudinal observational design, and an additional qualitative study to supplement, interpret and improve the quantitative study. The study population of the quantitative part will consist of adult patients (≥18 years) with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints, who will be referred to the cardiology PC+ centre (intervention group) or hospital-based outpatient cardiology care (control group). All eligible patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at three different time points consisting of questions about their demographics, health status and experience of care. Additionally, quantitative data will be collected about health-care utilization and related health-care costs at the PC+ centre and the hospital. The qualitative part, consisting of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and observations, is designed to evaluate the process as well as to amplify, clarify and explain quantitative results. This study

  2. Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.P.; Krasnobaeva, O.N.; Nosova, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

  3. Theoretical studies aiming at the IEA-R1 reactor core conversion from high U-235 enrichment to low U-235 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frajndlich, R.

    1982-01-01

    The research reactors, of which the fuel elements are of MTR type, functions presently, almost in their majority with high U-235 enrichment. The fear that those fuel elements might generate a considerabLe proliferation of nuclear weapons rendered almost mandatory the conversion of highly enriched fuel elements to a low U-235 enrichment. As the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN is operating with highly enriched fuel elements a study aiming at this conversion was done. The problems related to the conversion and the results obtained, demonstrated the technical viabilty for its realization. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  5. External equivalent type Ward aiming optimization studies in power systems; Equivalentes externos tipo Ward visando estudos de otimizacao em sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepomuceno, Leonardo

    1993-07-01

    The execution of functions such as contingency analysis, optimization, reactive dispatch, etc, at the control centers requires appropriate models representing the non-observable parts (external system). The classical external equivalents have been developed considering basically the contingency analysis. This work points out the performance of the Extended Ward Equivalent (W.E.), which currently represents the state of art concerning reduced circuit based models. the work analyzes the W.E. response to changes occurred in optimization studied. Moreover, a new model, named INTERNAL REACTIVE WARD (WRINT), resulting from an adaptation of the W.E. is proposed focusing on the improvement of the equivalent in case of changes occurs in optimization studies. The model's general idea is to reflect the equivalent's capacity of reactive response into the internal system. Comparative computational test results are shown. The details of routines implementation are also pointed out. (author)

  6. External equivalent type Ward aiming optimization studies in power systems; Equivalentes externos tipo Ward visando estudos de otimizacao em sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepomuceno, Leonardo

    1993-07-01

    The execution of functions such as contingency analysis, optimization, reactive dispatch, etc, at the control centers requires appropriate models representing the non-observable parts (external system). The classical external equivalents have been developed considering basically the contingency analysis. This work points out the performance of the Extended Ward Equivalent (W.E.), which currently represents the state of art concerning reduced circuit based models. the work analyzes the W.E. response to changes occurred in optimization studied. Moreover, a new model, named INTERNAL REACTIVE WARD (WRINT), resulting from an adaptation of the W.E. is proposed focusing on the improvement of the equivalent in case of changes occurs in optimization studies. The model's general idea is to reflect the equivalent's capacity of reactive response into the internal system. Comparative computational test results are shown. The details of routines implementation are also pointed out. (author)

  7. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  8. Pilot Study for Managing Complex Chronic Care Medicaid Patients With Diabetes Using a Mobile Health Application Achieves "Triple Aim" Improvement in a Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovbjerg, Marit L; Lee, Jenney; Wolff, Rosa; Bangs, Bobby; May, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    IN BRIEF Cost-effective innovations to improve health and health care in patients with complex chronic diseases are urgently needed. Mobile health (mHealth) remote monitoring applications (apps) are a promising technology to meet this need. This article reports on a study evaluating patients' use of a tablet device with an mHealth app and a cellular-enabled glucose meter that automatically uploaded blood glucose values to the app. Improvements were observed across all three components of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's "triple aim." Self-rated wellness and numerous quality-of-care metrics improved, billed charges and paid claims decreased, but no changes in clinical endpoints were observed.

  9. A qualitative study exploring how the aims, language and actions of yoga for pregnancy teachers may impact upon women's self-efficacy for labour and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Virginia R; Nolan, Mary

    2016-02-01

    As women's anxiety and the rate of medical intervention in labour and birth continue to increase, it is important to identify how antenatal education can increase women's confidence and their ability to manage the intense sensations of labour. To report a grounded theory study of how the aims, language and actions of yoga for pregnancy teachers may impact upon women's self-efficacy for labour and birth. Yoga for pregnancy classes in three locations were filmed. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with the teachers to explore what they were trying to achieve in their classes, and how. Interviews and classes were transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. There was considerable consistency in the teachers' aims, the language they used in classes and in their thinking about class structure. Four main themes emerged: creating a sisterhood, modelling labour, building confidence and enhancing learning. Teachers see yoga for pregnancy as a multi-faceted, non-prescriptive intervention that enhances women's physical, emotional and social readiness for labour and birth, and supports women to make their own decisions across the transition to parenthood. Women's self-efficacy for labour is complex and multi-factorial. This study offers insights into the factors which may be involved in increasing it. These include not only traditional elements of yoga such as postures, breathing and meditation, but also the creation of safe, women-only groups where anxieties, experiences and stories can be shared, and pain-coping techniques for labour learned and practised. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Treat-to-target Strategies Aiming at Remission of Arterial Stiffness in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Lydia Ho-Pui; Shang, Qing; Li, Edmund Kwok-Ming; Wong, Priscilla Ching-Han; Kwok, Kitty Yan; Kun, Emily Wai-Lin; Yim, Isaac Cheuk-Wan; Lee, Violet Ka-Lai; Yip, Ronald Man-Lung; Pang, Steve Hin-Ting; Lao, Virginia Weng-Nga; Mak, Queenie Wah-Yan; Cheng, Isaac Tsz-Ho; Lau, Xerox Sze-Lok; Li, Tena Ka-Yan; Zhu, Tracy Yaner; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2018-05-15

    To determine the efficacy of 2 tight control treatment strategies aiming at Simplified Disease Activity Score (SDAI) remission (SDAI ≤ 3.3) compared to 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) remission (DAS28 < 2.6) in the prevention of arterial stiffness in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This was an open-label study in which 120 patients with early RA were randomized to receive 1 year of tight control treatment. Group 1 (n = 60) aimed to achieve SDAI ≤ 3.3 and Group 2 (n = 60), DAS28 < 2.6. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured at baseline and 12 months. A posthoc analysis was also performed to ascertain whether achieving sustained remission could prevent progression in arterial stiffness. The proportions of patients receiving methotrexate monotherapy were significantly lower in Group 1 throughout the study period. At 12 months, the proportions of patients achieving DAS28 and SDAI remission, and the change in PWV and AIx, were comparable between the 2 groups. In view of the lack of differences between the 2 groups, a posthoc analysis was performed at Month 12, including all 110 patients with PWV, to elucidate the independent predictors associated with the change in PWV. Multivariate analysis revealed that achieving sustained DAS28 remission at months 6, 9, and 12 and a shorter disease duration were independent explanatory variables associated with less progression of PWV. With limited access to biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, treatment efforts toward DAS28 and SDAI remission had similar effects in preventing the progression of arterial stiffness at 1 year. However, achieving sustained DAS28 remission was associated with a significantly greater improvement in PWV. [Clinical Trial registration: Clinicaltrial.gov NCT01768923.].

  11. Municipal policies and plans of action aiming to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits among schoolchildren in Stockholm, Sweden: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Wennerstad, Karin Modig; Rasmussen, Finn

    2009-08-03

    Promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits by structural measures that reach most children in a society is presumably the most sustainable way of preventing development of overweight and obesity in childhood. The main purpose of the present study was to analyse whether policies and plans of action at the central level in municipalities increased the number of measures that aim to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits among schoolchildren aged six to 16. Another purpose was to analyse whether demographic and socio-economic characteristics were associated with the level of such measures. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 25 municipalities and 18 town districts in Stockholm County, Sweden. The questions were developed to capture municipal structural work and factors facilitating physical activity and the development of healthy eating habits for children. Local policy documents and plans of action were gathered. Information regarding municipal demographic and socio-economic characteristics was collected from public statistics. Policy documents and plans of action in municipalities and town districts did not seem to influence the number of measures aiming to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits among schoolchildren in Stockholm County. Municipal demographic and socio-economic characteristics were, however, shown to influence the number of measures. In town districts with a high total population size, and in municipalities and town districts with a high proportion of adults with more than 12 years of education, a higher level of health-promoting measures was found. In municipalities with a high annual population growth, the number of measures was lower than in municipalities with a lower annual population growth. Another key finding was the lack of agreement between what was reported in the questionnaires regarding existence and contents of local policies and plans of action and what was actually found when these

  12. Evaluation of a Mindfulness-Based Mobile App Aimed at Promoting Awareness of Weight-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tami; Hingle, Melanie

    2017-04-26

    Mindfulness-based interventions are reported to be highly acceptable and have positive effects on youth, yet most are clinic- or school-based aimed at emotional regulation or academic performance. To provide flexible program delivery, we developed and tested a standalone mindfulness-based app aimed at improving weight-related behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity, sleep) in adolescents. Our objective was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of a mindfulness-based mobile app. In a single-arm pilot study, 15 adolescents (14-18 years) were prompted to access the app once a day, every day for 6 weeks. Outcomes were measured by in-app and poststudy surveys, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Time within a mindfulness state was self-reported during weekly timed practices. The app was rated highly for content and encouraging the practice of activities to promote mindfulness states. Teens reported increased awareness of eating behaviors and high adherence, particularly during physically active practices. Average self-reported time spent in a mindfulness state increased 2.5 times by week 6 (78 [SD 17] seconds) compared to week 1 (31 [SD 21] seconds). The high acceptability and utility ratings of the app, increases in reported time in mindfulness states, and high frequency of participation, including mindful eating and physical activity, suggest the mindfulness-based mobile app has the potential to improve awareness of weight-related behaviors. ©Tami Turner, Melanie Hingle. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.04.2017.

  13. Prediction of autoimmune diabetes and celiac disease in childhood by genes and perinatal environment: Design and initial aims of the PAGE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars C. Stene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes and celiac disease result from misdirected immune mediated destruction of host cells, and are among the most common chronic diseases in children. Despite changes in incidence over the past 3 decades, little is known about non-genetic risk factors (except for dietary gluten for celiac disease. Norway is among the countries in the world with the highest incidence of these two diseases. We describe here plans and study design for the PAGE study (Prediction of Autoimmune diabetes and celiac disease in childhood by Genes and perinatal Environment. PAGE is a sub-study within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study, including follow-up of more than 100,000 pregnancies. Children who develop type 1 diabetes or celiac disease are identified via linkage to the Norwegian Patient Register and the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry, with complementing information from questionnaires. The overall aim is to test hypotheses about potential non-genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes and for celiac disease, with focus on factors operating early in life. In addition to a full cohort analysis of factors registered in questionnaires, we will analyse biomarkers in maternal blood plasma and cord blood plasma. Mothers and children will be genotyped for well-established susceptibility polymorphisms. Biomarkers will be analysed in cases and controls within the cohort. Factors to be tested in the full cohort include infant feeding, diet and dietary supplements in the mother during pregnancy and in the child, and use of antibiotics and non-prescription drugs. Biomarkers to be tested include 25-hydroxyvitamin D, markers of immune activation, and small metabolites (metabolomics. We will also explore the potential role of maternal cells in the fetal circulation (maternal microchimerism in later risk of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes.

  14. An exploration of factors related to dissemination of and exposure to internet-delivered behavior change interventions aimed at adults: a Delphi study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2008-04-16

    The Internet is an attractive medium for delivering individualized, computer-tailored behavior change interventions to large numbers of people. However, the actual numbers of people reached seem to fall behind the high expectations. Insight into factors that determine use of and exposure to these Internet interventions is important to be able to increase the reach and improve exposure. The aim was to identify potentially important factors that determine whether adults visit an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention, extend their visit, and revisit the intervention. A systematic, three-round Delphi study was conducted among national and international experts from Internet intervention research and practice, e-marketing/e-commerce, Web design, and technical website development. In the first round, 30 experts completed a structured, open-ended online questionnaire assessing factors that were, in their opinion, important for a first visit, an extended visit, a revisit and for effective promotion strategies. Based on the responses in this first questionnaire, a closed-ended online questionnaire was developed for use in the second round. A total of 233 experts were invited to complete this questionnaire. Median and interquartile deviation (IQD) scores were computed to calculate agreement and consensus on the importance of the factors. The factors for which no consensus was obtained (IQD > 1) were included in the third-round questionnaire. Factors with a median score of six or higher and with an IQD word-of-mouth by family and friends, a publicity campaign with simultaneous use of various mass media, and recommendation by health professionals, were indicated as effective ways to encourage adults to visit an Internet intervention. This systematic study identified important factors related to the dissemination of and exposure to Internet interventions aimed at adults. In order to improve optimal use of and exposure to Internet interventions, potential users may

  15. Internal consistency and content validity of a questionnaire aimed to assess the stages of behavioral lifestyle changes in Colombian schoolchildren: The Fuprecol study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmira CARRILLO-BERNATE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess internal consistency and content validity of a questionnaire aimed to assess the stages of Behavioural Lifestyle Changes in a sample of school-aged children and adolescents aged 9 to 17 years-old. Methods This validation study involved 675 schoolchildren from three official school in the city of Bogota, Colombia. A self-administered questionnaire called Behavioural Lifestyle Changes has been designed to explore stages of change regarding to physical activity/exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and drug abuse. Cronbach-α, Kappa index and exploratory factor analysis were used for evaluating the internal consistency and validity of content, respectively. Results The study population consisted of 51.1% males and the participants’ average age was 12.7±2.4 years-old. Behavioural Lifestyle Changes scored 0.720 (range 0.691 to 0.730 on the Cronbach α and intra-observer reproducibility was good (Kappa=0.71. Exploratory factor analysis determined two factors (factor 1: physical activity/exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, and factor 2: alcohol abuse tobacco use and drug abuse, explaining 67.78% of variance by the items and six interactions χ2/gL=11649.833; p<0.001. Conclusion Behavioural Lifestyle Changes Questionnaire was seen to have suitable internal consistency and validity. This instrument can be recommended, mainly within the context of primary attention for studying the stages involved in the lifestyle behavioural changes model on a school-based population.

  16. A case study evaluation of an intervention aiming to strengthen the midwifery professional role in Morocco: anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Malham, Sabina; Hatem, Marie; Leduc, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, Morocco is strongly committed to strengthen its midwifery professional role. This study aimed to identify barriers that could potentially hinder an action plan to strengthen the midwifery professional role from achieving desired outcomes. We used a conceptual framework, which is derived from Hatem-Asmar’s (1997) framework on the interaction of educational, professional, and sociocultural systems in which a professional role evolves and from Damschroder et al’s (2009) framework for the implementation analysis. Methods This paper builds on a qualitative case study on the factors affecting the action plan’s implementation process that also revealed rich data about anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes. Data were collected through training sessions, field observations, documents, focus groups (n=20), and semistructured interviews (n=11) with stakeholders pertaining to the three systems under study. Content analysis was used to identify themes related to barriers. Results Seven barriers that may compromise the achievement of desired results were found. They relate to the legal framework, social representations, and media support in the sociocultural system and the practice environment, networks and communication mechanisms, and characteristics related to the role and the readiness in the professional system. Conclusion Disregarding sociocultural and professional system level, barriers may impede efforts to strengthen the midwife’s role and to provide qualified midwives who can improve the quality of maternal care. Making changes in the educational system cannot be thought of as an isolated process. Its success is closely tied with multiple contextual factors pertaining to the two other systems. Activities recommended to address these barriers may have great potential to build a competent midwifery workforce that contributes to positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:26445547

  17. Aiming for excellence - A simulation-based study on adapting and testing an instrument for developing non-technical skills in Norwegian student nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Fiona M; Sandaker, Kjersti; Ballangrud, Randi

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing focus on building safety into anaesthesia practice, with excellence in anaesthesia as an aspirational goal. Non-technical skills are an important factor in excellence and improved patient safety, though there have been few systematic attempts at integrating them into anaesthesia nursing education. This study aimed to test the reliability of NANTS-no, a specially adapted behavioural marker system for nurse anaesthetists in Norway, and explore the development of non-technical skills in student nurse anaesthetists. The pre-test post-test design incorporated a 10-week simulation-based programme, where non-technical skills in 14 student nurse anaesthetists were rated on three different occasions during high-fidelity simulation, before and after taking part in a training course. NANTS-no demonstrated high overall inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.91), high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.92). A significant improvement was demonstrated across all categories of non-technical skills, with greatest improvements between the first and third and second and third sessions. There was also a significant improvement in two categories between the first and second sessions. NANTS-no is therefore suitable for assessing non-technical skills during simulation training in anaesthesia nursing education. More research is needed to validate its use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure: background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alings, M; Smit, M D; Moes, M L; Crijns, H J G M; Tijssen, J G P; Brügemann, J; Hillege, H L; Lane, D A; Lip, G Y H; Smeets, J R L M; Tieleman, R G; Tukkie, R; Willems, F F; Vermond, R A; Van Veldhuisen, D J; Van Gelder, I C

    2013-07-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control for prevention of Early AF in heart failure (RACE 3) study hypothesises that aggressive upstream rhythm control increases persistence of sinus rhythm compared with conventional rhythm control in patients with early AF and mild-to-moderate early systolic or diastolic heart failure undergoing electrical cardioversion. RACE 3 is a prospective, randomised, open, multinational, multicenter trial. Upstream rhythm control consists of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, statins, cardiac rehabilitation therapy, and intensive counselling on dietary restrictions, exercise maintenance, and drug adherence. Conventional rhythm control consists of routine rhythm control therapy without cardiac rehabilitation therapy and intensive counselling. In both arms, every effort is made to keep patients in the rhythm control strategy, and ion channel antiarrhythmic drugs or pulmonary vein ablation may be instituted if AF relapses. Total inclusion will be 250 patients. If upstream therapy proves to be effective in improving maintenance of sinus rhythm, it could become a new approach to rhythm control supporting conventional pharmacological and non-pharmacological rhythm control.

  19. Competitive service centers location in the cities with aim to reduce traffic (Case study: Health centers location in the city if Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Distribution of goods and services in cities is of utmost importance. Selecting appropriate venues for different service centers in a city not only enables the citizens to access these services much more easily, but also reduces the traffic load caused by trips made to reach them. Unfortunately, the lack of a correct urban planning has led to inappropriate formation of many cities around the world in terms of the locations assumed for different service centers. Since the private sector has been given the responsibility to construct most of these centers, changing their current locations may be restricted due to legal obligations. Therefore, it seems necessary for the government to construct new service centers with high competitive facilities to attract customers and to compete with those built by the private sector. In this paper, the selection of appropriate locations to construct new service centers has been studied. Such locations have been selected in a way to fulfill goals such as rapid and easy accessibility for the customers and reduction of traffic drawbacks caused by the related trips. In this regard, a model for service centers with restricted capacity has been designed and a parallel simulated annealing algorithm has been proposed to solve it. Finally, the proposed algorithm has been utilized to locate the health centers around the city of Isfahan and its efficiency has been investigated. The findings highlight the accuracy and speed of the proposed algorithm in location of the health centers of Isfahan.

  20. A scoping study for an environmental impact field programme in tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study to identify the environmental impacts of tidal current energy with the aim of prioritising research. The background to the study is traced, and the interaction between tidal current energy technology and the marine environment, the modeling of the consequences of the environmental interactions, the quantification of the environmental impacts of key environmental interactions, and the formulation of a programme of research are discussed. Recommendations are given and research needs are highlighted.

  1. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Koot, Hans M

    2014-02-08

    Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are participant's ratings on perceived knowledge, perceived self-confidence, and actual knowledge regarding adolescent suicidality. A randomized controlled trial will be carried out among 154 gatekeepers. After completing the first assessment (pre-test), participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the waitlist control group. One week after completing the first assessment the experimental group will have access to the website Mental Health Online containing the eight e-learning modules and additional information on adolescent suicide prevention. Participants in both conditions will be assessed 4 weeks after completing the first assessment (post-test), and 12 weeks after completing the post-test (follow-up). At post-test, participants from the experimental group are asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire on the modules. The waitlist control group will have access to the modules and additional information on the website after completing the follow-up assessment. Gatekeepers can benefit from e-learning modules on adolescent suicide prevention. This approach allows them to learn about this sensitive subject at their own pace and from any given location, as long as they have access to the Internet. Given the flexible nature of the program, each participant can compose his/her own training creating an instant customized course with the required steps in adolescent suicide prevention. Netherlands Trial Register NTR3625.

  2. Standardization of radiochemical techniques aiming the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee

    1992-09-01

    Methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic systems is a key process in the environmental cycling of this metal, not yet studied in tropical conditions. Radiochemical techniques were adapted and simplified, aiming at the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region. Preliminary experiments showed, in 35 days volatilization of up to 32 % of 203 Hg 2+ added to aqueous solutions. Acid K 2 Cr 2 0 7 0.1 M solutions were not effective in 203 Hg 0 trapping and the latter was highly and irreversibly absorbed by a variety of synthetic materials commonly used in laboratory work. Considerably simplified versions of the Furutani and Rudd (1980) radiochemical technique for the determination of methylation rates in environmental samples were developed and showed efficiencies close to 90 % in tests with methyl- 2 0 3 H g standards. In-situ incubations of surface sediments were performed in the Madeira River gold mining region, Rondonia State, Brazil, and potential net Hg methylation rates (MR) of up to 1 %.g-1.h-1 were found in black-water affluent like the Mutum-Parana and Jamari rivers and in the Samuel reservoir. MRs in the Madeira River sediments were lower, ranging 10-5 to 10-3 %.g-1.h-1 . MRs obtained in incubations of samples some weeks after collection were one or two orders of magnitude lower than those resulting from in-situ incubations. Methylation in autoclaved samples was close to minimum detectable rates. MRs in surface water samples was in all cases < 7.10-7 %.ml-1.h-1. The determination of the predominant methylation sites will allow a better standardization of the technique described herein, suitable for MR determinations even under the unfavorable conditions prevailing in the Amazon region. (author)

  3. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jeanny Ja; Maessen, José Mc; Slangen, Brigitte Fm; Winkens, Bjorn; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2015-07-30

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological surgery in the Netherlands. The trial will evaluate effectiveness and costs of a stepped implementation approach that is characterised by tailoring the intensity of implementation activities to the needs of organisations and local barriers for change, in comparison with the generic breakthrough strategy that is usually applied in large-scale improvement projects in the Netherlands. All Dutch hospitals authorised to perform major abdominal surgery in gynaecological oncology patients are eligible for inclusion in this cluster randomised controlled trial. The hospitals that already fully implemented the ERAS programme in their local perioperative management or those who predominantly admit gynaecological surgery patients to an external hospital replacement care facility will be excluded. Cluster randomisation will be applied at the hospital level and will be stratified based on tertiary status. Hospitals will be randomly assigned to the stepped implementation strategy or the breakthrough strategy. The control group will receive the traditional breakthrough strategy with three educational sessions and the use of plan-do-study-act cycles for planning and executing local improvement activities. The intervention group will receive an innovative stepped strategy comprising four levels of intensity of support. Implementation starts with generic low-cost activities and may build up to the highest level of tailored and labour-intensive activities. The decision for a stepwise increase in intensive support will be based on the success of implementation so far. Both implementation strategies will be completed within 1 year and evaluated on effect, process, and cost-effectiveness. The primary

  4. Study of runaway current generation following disruptions in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z Y; Kim, W C; Yu, Y W; England, A C; Yoo, J W; Hahn, S H; Yoon, S W; Lee, K D; Oh, Y K; Kwak, J G; Kwon, M

    2013-01-01

    The high fraction of runaway current conversion following disruptions has an important effect on the first wall for next-generation tokamaks. Because of the potentially severe consequences of a large full current runaway beam on the first wall in an unmitigated disruption, runaway suppression is given a high priority. The behavior of runaway currents both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 massive gas injection (MGI) shutdown experiments is investigated in the KSTAR tokamak. The experiments in KSTAR show that the toroidal magnetic field threshold, B T >2 T, for runaway generation is not absolute. A high fraction of runaway current conversion following spontaneous disruptions is observed at a much lower toroidal magnetic field of B T = 1.3 T. A dedicated fast valve for high-pressure gas injection with 39.7 bar is developed for the study of disruptions. A study of runaway current parameters shows that the conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway current can reach over 80% both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 MGI shutdown experiments in KSTAR. (paper)

  5. The Effectiveness of a 6-Week Intervention Program Aimed at Modifying Running Style in Patients With Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Results From a Series of Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmhout, Pieter H; Diebal, Angela R; van der Kaaden, Lisanne; Harts, Chris C; Beutler, Anthony; Zimmermann, Wes O

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have reported on the promising effects of changing running style in patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) using a 6-week training program aimed at adopting a forefoot strike technique. This study expands that work by comparing a 6-week in-house, center-based run training program with a less extensive, supervised, home-based run training program (50% home training). An alteration in running technique will lead to improvements in CECS complaints and running performance, with the less supervised program producing less dramatic results. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Nineteen patients with CECS were prospectively enrolled. Postrunning intracompartmental pressure (ICP), run performance, and self-reported questionnaires were taken for all patients at baseline and after 6 weeks of running intervention. Questionnaires were also taken from 14 patients (7 center-based, 6 home-based) 4 months posttreatment. Significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention rates was found for running distance (43%), ICP values (36%), and scores on the questionnaires Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE; 36%), Lower Leg Outcome Survey (LLOS; 18%), and Patient Specific Complaints (PSC; 60%). The mean posttreatment score on the Global Rating of Change (GROC) was between +4 and +5 ("somewhat better" to "moderately better"). In 14 participants (74%), no elevation of pain was reported posttreatment, compared with 3 participants (16%) at baseline; in all these cases, the running test was aborted because of a lack of cardiorespiratory fitness. Self-reported scores continued to improve 4 months after the end of the intervention program, with mean improvement rates of 48% (SANE), 26% (LLOS), and 81% (PSC). The mean GROC score improved to +6 points ("a great deal better"). In 19 patients diagnosed with CECS, a 6-week forefoot running intervention performed in both a center-based and home-based training setting led to decreased

  6. Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard; Brown, C Hendricks; Ford, Carla; Windham, Amy; Keegan, Natalie; Wang, Wei

    2009-09-02

    While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD), aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC). Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. NCT00257088.

  7. Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Natalie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD, aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. Methods The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC. Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. Discussion The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00257088

  8. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, H.; Muramatsu, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  9. Safety and tolerability of transcranial direct current stimulation to stroke patients - A phase I current escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Chen, Rong; Deardorff, Rachael; Dellenbach, Blair; Kautz, Steven A; George, Mark S; Feng, Wuwei

    A prior meta-analysis revealed that higher doses of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have a better post-stroke upper-extremity motor recovery. While this finding suggests that currents greater than the typically used 2 mA may be more efficacious, the safety and tolerability of higher currents have not been assessed in stroke patients. We aim to assess the safety and tolerability of single session of up to 4 mA in stroke patients. We adapted a traditional 3 + 3 study design with a current escalation schedule of 1»2»2.5»3»3.5»4 mA for this tDCS safety study. We administered one 30-min session of bihemispheric montage tDCS and simultaneous customary occupational therapy to patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. We assessed safety with pre-defined stopping rules and investigated tolerability through a questionnaire. Additionally, we monitored body resistance and skin temperature in real-time at the electrode contact site. Eighteen patients completed the study. The current was escalated to 4 mA without meeting the pre-defined stopping rules or causing any major safety concern. 50% of patients experienced transient skin redness without injury. No rise in temperature (range 26°C-35 °C) was noted and skin barrier function remained intact (i.e. body resistance >1 kΩ). Our phase I safety study supports that single session of bihemispheric tDCS with current up to 4 mA is safe and tolerable in stroke patients. A phase II study to further test the safety and preliminary efficacy with multi-session tDCS at 4 mA (as compared with lower current and sham stimulation) is a logical next step. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02763826. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ENTERPRISE RESTRUCTURING AIM AND TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Baranenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise restructuring is aimed at adapting it to market conditions and improving its competitiveness through selection of most effective model of using material, technical, technological, organizational, commercial, economical, financial, tax-related and other resources with due account of the demand. Restructuring classification signs and types as well as restructuring aims specific for industrial enterprises are provided for.

  11. Numerical study of gravity currents in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional, primitive-equation model was used to study gravity currents produced by instantaneous releases of a buoyant fluid in a rectangular channel. Without rotation, the gravity current passes through two distinct phases: an initial adjustment phase in which the front speed is constant, and an eventual self-similar phase in which the front speed decreases with time. With rotation, the gravity current is confined to the right-hand wall, forming a coastal jet. The initial front-speed is constant; however, the front speed decreases rapidly due to strong mixing at the horizontal edge of the gravity current. Also, with rotation, part of the buoyant fluid is trapped near the source region, forming an anticyclonic vortex

  12. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  13. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  14. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  15. An fMRI study of differences in brain activity among elite, expert, and novice archers at the moment of optimal aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woojong; Chang, Yongmin; Kim, Jingu; Seo, Jeehye; Ryu, Kwangmin; Lee, Eunkyung; Woo, Minjung; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    We investigated brain activity in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated archery aiming task to determine whether neural correlates of performance differ by skill level. Success in shooting sports depends on complex mental routines just before the shot, when the brain prepares to execute the movement. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 40 elite, expert, or novice archers aimed at a simulated 70-meter-distant target and pushed a button when they mentally released the bowstring. At the moment of optimal aiming, the elite and expert archers relied primarily on a dorsal pathway, with greatest activity in the occipital lobe, temporoparietal lobe, and dorsolateral pre-motor cortex. The elites showed activity in the supplementary motor area, temporoparietal area, and cerebellar dentate, while the experts showed activity only in the superior frontal area. The novices showed concurrent activity in not only the dorsolateral pre-motor cortex but also the ventral pathways linked to the ventrolateral pre-motor cortex. The novices exhibited broad activity in the superior frontal area, inferior frontal area, ventral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, superior parietal lobule, and primary somatosensory cortex. The more localized neural activity of elite and expert archers than novices permits greater efficiency in the complex processes subserved by these regions. The elite group's high activity in the cerebellar dentate indicates that the cerebellum is involved in automating simultaneous movements by integrating the sensorimotor memory enabled by greater expertise in self-paced aiming tasks. A companion article comments on and generalizes our findings.

  16. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure : background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alings, M.; Smit, M. D.; Moes, M. L.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Brugemann, J.; Hillege, H. L.; Lane, D. A.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Smeets, J. R. L. M.; Tieleman, R. G.; Tukkie, R.; Willems, F. F.; Vermond, R. A.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Van Gelder, I. C.

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control

  17. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure: background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alings, M.; Smit, M. D.; Moes, M. L.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Brügemann, J.; Hillege, H. L.; Lane, D. A.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Smeets, J. R. L. M.; Tieleman, R. G.; Tukkie, R.; Willems, F. F.; Vermond, R. A.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van Gelder, I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control

  18. Citizenship and Nationality in Changing Europe: A Comparative Study of the Aims of Citizenship Education in Russian and Finnish National Education Policy Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses how the formal aims of citizenship education, as declared in legislation and policy documents, have changed since the end of the 1980s in response to the transformation of the political scenery in Finland and the Russian Federation. One central question framing the analysis of Finnish citizenship education is whether…

  19. Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Morgan, M.V.; Buechley, R.W.; Key, C.R.; Valdivia, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

  20. A pilot study of StopAdvisor: a theory-based interactive internet-based smoking cessation intervention aimed across the social spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Geraghty, Adam W A; Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Gardner, Benjamin; Shahab, Lion; Stapleton, John A; West, Robert

    2012-12-01

    This article reports a pilot study of a new smoking cessation website ('StopAdvisor'), which has been developed on the basis of PRIME theory, evidence, web-design expertise and user-testing. The aims were to i) evaluate whether cessation, website usage and satisfaction were sufficiently high to warrant a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and ii) assess whether outcomes were affected by socio-economic status. This was an uncontrolled pilot study. Two hundred and four adult daily smokers willing to make a serious quit attempt were included. All participants received support from 'StopAdvisor', which recommends a structured quit plan and a variety of evidence-based behaviour change techniques for smoking cessation. A series of tunnelled sessions and a variety of interactive menus provide tailored support for up to a month before quitting through until one-month post-quit (http://www.lifeguideonline.org/player/play/stopadvisordemonstration). The primary outcome was self-report of at least 1month of continuous abstinence collected at 2months post-enrolment and verified by saliva cotinine or anabasine. Usage was indexed by log-ins and page views. Satisfaction was assessed by dichotomous ratings of helpfulness, personal relevance, likelihood of recommendation and future use, which were collected using an online questionnaire at 2months post-enrolment. Outcomes according to socio-economic status were assessed. At 8weeks post-enrolment, 19.6% (40/204) of participants were abstinent according to the primary outcome criteria (95% C.I.=14.1% to 25.1%). Participants viewed a mean of 133.5 pages (median=71.5) during 6.4 log-ins (median=3). A majority of respondents rated the website positively on each of the four satisfaction `ratings (range=66.7% to 75.3%). There was no evidence of an effect of socio-economic status on abstinence (OR=1.01, C.I.=0.50-2.07), usage (page-views, t(202)=0.11, p=.91; log-ins, t(202)=0.21, p=.83), or satisfaction (helpfulness, OR=1.09, C.I.=0

  1. Study of Adhesion and Survival of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria on Table Olives with the Aim of Formulating a New Probiotic Food

    OpenAIRE

    Lavermicocca, Paola; Valerio, Francesca; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; De Angelis, Maria; Morelli, Lorenzo; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Visconti, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of developing new functional foods, a traditional product, the table olive, was used as a vehicle for incorporating probiotic bacterial species. Survival on table olives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (three strains), Lactobacillus paracasei (two strains), Bifidobacterium bifidum (one strain), and Bifidobacterium longum (one strain) at room temperature was investigated. The results obtained using a selected olive sample demonstrated that bifidobacteria and one strain of L. rhamnosus ...

  2. Study program for constant current capacitor charging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C.

    1978-10-04

    The objective of the study program was to determine the best method of charging 20,000 to 132,000 microfarads of capacitance to 22 kVdc in 14 to 15 sec. Component costs, sizes, weights, line current graphs, copies of calculations and manufacturer's data are included.

  3. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  4. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  5. Business Management Coaching: Focusing on Entrepreneur's Current Position and Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kheng T.

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one business coaching over 6 months was provided to nine clients in Hawaii to help them acquire business transition skills. The STARS model was used to determine the individual business situation and to explore suitable leadership strategies to move forward. Systematically, each client developed a business model, business strategies, a…

  6. The diverse aims of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The study aims at the structural analysis of Nezami's tale of "the Evil and the Good" in terms of Greimas's structural semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SayydAhmad Parsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present research focuses on the investigation of Nezami's tale of "the Evil and the Good" in terms of Greimas's structural semantics. The study aims at the structural analysis of the tale above through the identification of binary oppositions, sequences, the contractual, performative, and disjunctive ones and a good grasp of the structure of Haft Peikar to generalize the research findings to other verse narratives in Persian classic literature. The reason for the selection of Nezami lies in his artifice in narrative production, the narrativity of Haft Peikar and the popularity of the tale of "The Evil and the Good". The research method is descriptive-analytic and the findings are analyzed through content analysis along with Gremasian semantic analysis. The findings reveal that hero (subject and goal (object and the central actors in the narrative and the subject (the good as the base part plays an active role in then narrative with respect to the adaptability of Gremasian approach to the "the Evil and the Good" and conducting more researches, one can confide in Greimas's structural analysis of the other verse narratives. Keywords: structuralism Greimasactantial pattern, Haft Peikar, "the Evil and the Good"  Professor of Persian language and literature, kurdistan university * MA. student of Persian language and literature, kurdistan University**   The present research investigates the tale of "Evil and Good" in Nezami's Haft Peikar in terms of Greimasian semantic structuralism and tries through binary oppositions to verify the degree of applicability of Greimas' actantial modelto the Persian versified narratives and generalization of the results to other verse narratives to achieve a better understanding of the structure of these narratives. Greimas was able to drive semantic square from binary oppositions. He discovered, through these oppositions, a new type of dialectic whereby each concepts generates another concept, and

  8. A population-based study of associations between current posttraumatic stress symptoms and current fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdal, Anners; Lee, Kathryn A; Rokne, Berit; Knudsen, Øistein; Wahl, Astrid K; Dahl, Alv A

    2010-10-01

    This study explores current experience with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other variables (sociodemographic, mental distress, somatic morbidity, self-rated health, and quality of life [QoL]) in relation to fatigue. A representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 3,944) was invited to participate in a mailed survey, and 1,857 (47%) returned valid responses on the questionnaire that included the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale-10. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed a strong association with fatigue in univariate (β = .41) and multivariate analyses (β = .33). Associations between psychosocial health variables, QoL, and fatigue were confirmed. However, PTSD symptoms showed the strongest association with fatigue in the analyses. Findings need to be replicated in other population samples and in clinical samples with PTSD and fatigue.

  9. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...

  10. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  11. Study on current limiting characteristics of SFCL with two trigger current levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with two trigger current levels was suggested and its effectiveness through the analysis on the current limiting characteristics was described. The proposed SFCL, which consists of the triggering and the limiting components, can limit the fault current by generating the limiting impedance through two steps according to the amplitude of the initial fault current. In case that the fault happens, the lower initial fault current causes the only superconducting element of the triggering component to be quenched. On the other hand, the higher initial fault current makes both the superconducting elements comprising the triggering and the limiting components of the SFCL to be quenched, which contributes to the higher impedance of the SFCL. Therefore, the effective fault current limiting operation of the SFCL can be performed by generating the SFCL's impedance in proportion to the amplitude of the initial fault current. To confirm the current limiting operation of the proposed SFCL, the short-circuit tests of the SFCL according to the fault angle were carried out and its effective fault current limiting operations could be discussed.

  12. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  13. Proposal for a radiation shielding study aiming the implantation of neutrons beam shutter in the J-9 radiation channel of the Argonauta reactor of the Nuclear Engineering Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Larissa R.P.; Cardoso, Domingos D’Oliveira, E-mail: larissa.xavier@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: domingosoliveiralvr71@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco José de Oliveira; Voi, Dante Luiz, E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: dante@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Argonauta, the only nuclear research reactor situated in Rio de Janeiro, located at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN), regularly serves a network of users focused on research and development, and also provides its infrastructure for experimental classes and completion work course. Due to increasing demand for non-destructive thermal neutron assays and production of radioisotopes, there is a search for new procedures and/or devices that optimize users' exposure to neutrons. The implementation of mechanisms that allow access to the irradiation channels without the reactor being turned off and with a shielding configuration that limits the occupational doses at this location is very useful for the operation of the reactor. In order to achieve this, the present work proposes the establishment of a neutron beam shutter of the J-9 irradiation channel of the IEN's Argonauta reactor. In a first step, experimental measurements were made in the irradiation channel of the reactor using a BF3 detector, which is coupled to a spectrometer. In this phase, the neutron beam was aligned to the spectrometer, and different materials were used as shields, aiming the attenuation of the beam. To validate and/or change the configuration of the barrier that best meets the material irradiation needs, a second planned phase is involving the neutron flux simulation of the reactor and the various shields with different boundary conditions using the particle transport code, Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNP- X). (author)

  14. Study of adhesion and survival of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria on table olives with the aim of formulating a new probiotic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavermicocca, Paola; Valerio, Francesca; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; De Angelis, Maria; Morelli, Lorenzo; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Rizzello, Carlo G; Visconti, Angelo

    2005-08-01

    With the aim of developing new functional foods, a traditional product, the table olive, was used as a vehicle for incorporating probiotic bacterial species. Survival on table olives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (three strains), Lactobacillus paracasei (two strains), Bifidobacterium bifidum (one strain), and Bifidobacterium longum (one strain) at room temperature was investigated. The results obtained using a selected olive sample demonstrated that bifidobacteria and one strain of L. rhamnosus (Lactobacillus GG) showed a good survival rate, with a recovery of about 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 30 days. The Lactobacillus GG population remained unvaried until the end of the experiment, while a slight decline (to about 10(5) CFU g(-1)) was observed for bifidobacteria. High viability, with more than 10(7) CFU g(-1), was observed throughout the 3-month experiment for L. paracasei IMPC2.1. This strain, selected for its potential probiotic characteristics and for its lengthy survival on olives, was used to validate table olives as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. L. paracasei IMPC2.1 was recovered from fecal samples in four out of five volunteers fed 10 to 15 olives per day carrying about 10(9) to 10(10) viable cells for 10 days.

  15. Proposal for a radiation shielding study aiming the implantation of neutrons beam shutter in the J-9 radiation channel of the Argonauta reactor of the Nuclear Engineering Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Larissa R.P.; Cardoso, Domingos D’Oliveira; Ferreira, Francisco José de Oliveira; Voi, Dante Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Argonauta, the only nuclear research reactor situated in Rio de Janeiro, located at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN), regularly serves a network of users focused on research and development, and also provides its infrastructure for experimental classes and completion work course. Due to increasing demand for non-destructive thermal neutron assays and production of radioisotopes, there is a search for new procedures and/or devices that optimize users' exposure to neutrons. The implementation of mechanisms that allow access to the irradiation channels without the reactor being turned off and with a shielding configuration that limits the occupational doses at this location is very useful for the operation of the reactor. In order to achieve this, the present work proposes the establishment of a neutron beam shutter of the J-9 irradiation channel of the IEN's Argonauta reactor. In a first step, experimental measurements were made in the irradiation channel of the reactor using a BF3 detector, which is coupled to a spectrometer. In this phase, the neutron beam was aligned to the spectrometer, and different materials were used as shields, aiming the attenuation of the beam. To validate and/or change the configuration of the barrier that best meets the material irradiation needs, a second planned phase is involving the neutron flux simulation of the reactor and the various shields with different boundary conditions using the particle transport code, Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNP- X). (author)

  16. Study of noninductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three aspects of noninductive current generation are treated: (1) The kinetic problem, i.e., coupling between current-carrying energetic electrons on the one hand, and the electromagnetic wave and thermal particles on the other. (2). The electromagnetic problem, i.e., calculation of the wave structure produced by the antennas. (3) The study of nonthermal radiation and electrical responses. Green's functions are used to solve the kinetic problem. The electron distribution function is calculated. For the electromagnetic problem of wave structure at different wave numbers, the Green's function of the Maxwell equations in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium which is spatially and temporally scattered was calculated. Perturbation of propagation by diffusion and conversion was studied. The calculation of nonthermal radiation and of transfer of electromagnetic wave energy into magnetic energy is derived from the two preceding problems. A method to produce fusion power quasi-continuously using two inductively and thermally coupled tokamaks is proposed [fr

  17. Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    detonation intense Electromagnetic Pulse Eergy (DIP) is gene - rated which could seriously affect the electronic equipment. 2-105 The intense...speciality efforts, such as integrated logistics support (ILS), human factors engineering ( HFE ), and reliability, availability and m aintainability...task analyiis is outlined in detail in Appendix C: Human Fac- tors Enqineering Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders. The HFE

  18. Study on pulsed current cathodic protection in a simulated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Milin; Li, Helin [Xi' an Jiao Tong Universitiy (China)]|[Tubular Goods Research Center of China National Petroleum Corp. (China); Qiu, Yubing; Guo, Xingpeng [Hua Zhong University of Science and Techonology (China)

    2004-07-01

    The pulsed current cathodic protection (PCCP) is a new cathodic protection (CP) technology and shows more advantages over the conventional DC cathodic protection (DCCP) in oil well casing system. However, little information about PCCP is reported. In this research, a simulated CP system was set up in a pool of 3.5 m x 2.0 m x 3.0 m size, in which the effects of the square wave pulsed current (SWPC) parameters (amplitude: IA, frequency: f, duty cycle: P), auxiliary anode distance (d) and media conductivity ({mu}) on the cathodic potential (E) distribution were studied, and the protection effects of PCCP and DCCP were compared. The results show that with increase of the square wave parameters (IA, f, P), the E distribution becomes more negative and the effects of each current parameter are relate closely to the cathode polarizing state. Only with suitable square wave parameters can the whole cathode be effectively protected. With increase of d and {mu}, the E distribution becomes more uniform. Compared with DCCP system, PCCP system has much more uniform E distribution, costs less average current, and gains much better protection effects. Further, the mechanism of PCCP was analyzed. (authors)

  19. Study of optical absorption in the ultraviolet region of mixed crystals ADA/ADP aiming to investigate defects and centers formed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of a crystal model to explain the ionizing radiation effect on the color centers is presented. The methods of crystal growth used in the sample preparation and the requirements necessary for an efficient optical study, such as area, thickness purity, etc, are described. The processes of color center production are analysed and the techniques used in the study of color centers, such as optical absorption, spectrometry and spin resonance, are described. The computer programs used in curve adjustment and the approximated calculation of centers per cm 3 are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Consociation as a Nominal Retention Strategy: A Qualitative Case Study of a Specific Charter School and University College Partnership Aimed at Scholastic Impetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarvis

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation as an exploratory study examines the characteristics of the students of a charter school participating in a partnership with a university located in an improving low socioeconomic environment in the northeastern U.S., which has been dedicated to providing educational opportunities to the underserved. This dissertation also…

  1. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  2. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Gajananda P; Subedi, Narayan; Thapa, Janak; Choulagai, Bishnu; Maskey, Mahesh K; Onta, Sharad R

    2014-03-19

    Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. The intervention package is designed to increase the utilization of skilled

  3. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  4. To Conclude: India can aim big

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Transmission and Distribution Losses. If 100 million middle class homes deploy 1 kW on rooftops. 100 GW peak power capacity added at homes alone; 40% of current peak power installed in India today. India must aim by 2030. To have 50% of its electric power from SOLAR; To have 50% of vehicles as Electric Vehicles ...

  5. The Aomori Prefecture Brain Blood Flow SPECT Phantom Study (First information). Comparison between reference image and each facility to aim at grasp of the situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Makihito; Narita, Kazuo; Terayama, Yoshio; Kudou, Sukehiro

    2008-01-01

    As the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image has rather big between-facility and -machine differences, a questionnaire was done to 18 SPECT facilities in Aomori Prefecture in May, 03, 15 of which answered, for the purpose of standardization of the brain blood flow images in the prefecture. The questionnaire concerned the condition of data collection, image display and reconstruction, and quantitative analysis, based on whose results the Phantom Study was then conducted to see the relationship between the average count and Butterworth filter (BWF) cut-off value by comparison of reference and facilities' images. The gamma camera PRISM 200XP, processor Odyssey Fx and low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator were used for the reference image with collection matrix 128 x 128, 3.5 mm pixel size, Ramp reconstruction filter, Chang decay correction (coefficient μ=0.09) and null scattering correction. Used was the Hoffman phantom containing 30-37 MBq of 99m Tc or 8-18 MBq of 123 I. It was found that the fluctuation of cut-off values became small depending on the increase of count and the collection count was low for both nuclides in those facilities, and thus further study of the measure for increasing the collection count was thought necessary. (R.T.)

  6. Study of a communication strategy aimed at achieving a possible better understanding of the consequence of radioactive waste management in a well defined group of public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhove, V.

    1993-01-01

    This study is performed and partially funded within the framework of the European Communities (R and D-programme on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste). The purpose of this study is to work out an information strategy on radioactive waste management for a selected target public (15-to-18 year old youngsters), with a view to raising public opinion and achieving a better understanding of this matter. The choice of this target public has been inspired among others by the importance of the youngsters as future opinion leaders. The results of an opinion poll, conducted in the autumn of 1991, were used to define the scope of the project and to determine the communication model and plan that will serve as a basis for the further development of the project. The first steps were taken to develop a pedagogical package, the structure, form and content of which have been determined. Preparations were also made to define the concept and the content of an information centre tuned to the pedagogical package and, like the other information, intended to inform 15-to-18 year old students. (author)

  7. Experimental study of anti-tumor activity of direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1989-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of direct current combined with radiation was studied. The experiments were performed with fibrosarcomas (FSA, NFSA) syngenetic to C3H mice. Direct current (0.6mA, 120min) alone was effective to reduce the tumor sizes, but could not cure the tumors. When the direct current therapy (DC therapy) was combined with radiation the DC therapy following radiation was more effective than that before radiation. Using TCD 50 assay, the DC therapy enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.2. However, tumor control rates by the combination therapy were more improved at the smaller doses of radiation than at the larger ones. When the single DC therapy (0.6mA, 120min) was applied immediately after the first radiation of fractionated one the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both DC therapy and the radiation therapy were divided in three fractions, and the DC therapy (0.6mA, 40min) was applied after each radiation. Tumor growth retardation by the combination therapy was no different from that by radiation alone. This result suggests that there might be a minimum required dose of coulombs to show the effect of the combination therapy. (author)

  8. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of rehabilitation aimed at improving outdoor mobility for people after stroke: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Pip A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 42% of all stroke patients do not get out of the house as much as they would like. This can impede a person’s quality of life. This study is testing the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a new outdoor mobility rehabilitation intervention by comparing it to usual care. Methods/design This is a multi-centre parallel group individually randomised, controlled trial. At least 506 participants will be recruited through 15 primary and secondary care settings and will be eligible if they are over 18 years of age, have had a stroke and wish to get out of the house more often. Participants are being randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. Intervention group participants receive up to 12 rehabilitation outdoor mobility sessions over up to four months. The main component of the intervention is repeated practice of outdoor mobility with a therapist. Control group participants are receiving the usual intervention for outdoor mobility limitations: verbal advice and provision of leaflets provided over one session. Outcome measures are being collected using postal questionnaires, travel calendars and by independent assessors. The primary outcome measure is the Social Function domain of the SF36v2 quality of life assessment six months after recruitment. The secondary outcome measures include: functional ability, mobility, the number of journeys (monthly travel diaries, satisfaction with outdoor mobility, mood, health-related quality of life, resource use of health and social care. Carer mood information is also being collected. The mean Social Function score of the SF-36v2 will be compared between treatment arms using a multiple membership form of mixed effects multiple regression analysis adjusting for centre (as a fixed effect, age and baseline Social Function score as covariates and therapist as a multiple membership random effect. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence

  9. Outcomes of biomarker feedback on physical activity, eating habits, and emotional health: from the Americans in Motion-Healthy Intervention (AIM-HI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nia S; Manning, Brian K; Staton, Elizabeth W; Emsermann, Caroline D; Dickinson, L Miriam; Pace, Wilson D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to test whether physical activity, healthy eating, and emotional well-being would improve if patients received feedback about biomarkers that have been shown to be responsive to changes in weight and fitness. Patients were randomized to limited feedback (weight, body mass index [BMI], and blood pressure at 4 and 10 months) or enhanced feedback (weight, BMI, blood pressure, homeostatic insulin resistance, and nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein profiles at 2, 4, 7, and 10 months). Repeated measures mixed effects multivariate regression models were used to determine whether BMI, fitness, diet, and quality of life changed over time. Major parameters were similar in both groups at baseline. BMI, measures of fitness, healthy eating, quality of life, and health state improved in both patient groups, but there was no difference between patient groups at 4 or 10 months. Systolic blood pressure improved in the enhanced feedback group, and there was a difference between the enhanced and limited feedback groups at 10 months (95% confidence interval, -6.011 to -0.5113). Providing patients with enhanced feedback did not dramatically change outcomes. However, across groups, many patients maintained or lost weight, suggesting the need for more study of nondiet interventions.

  10. Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Strugnell, Claudia; Allender, Steven

    2015-05-08

    There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia were recruited at random from the bottom two strata of a five level socio-economic scale. In nine schools, students in year 6 primary school transitioned to a different school for year 7 secondary school, while in six schools (combined primary-secondary), students remained in the same school environment from year 6 to year 7. Time 1 (T1) measures were collected from students (N=245) in year 6 (age 11-13). Time 2 (T2) data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original student cohort when in year 7. PA and sedentary behaviour data were collected objectively (via ActiGraph accelerometer) and subjectively (via child self-report recall questionnaire). School environment data were collected via school staff survey. Change of behaviour analyses were conducted longitudinally i) for all students and ii) by change/no change of school. Mixed model regression analysis tested for behavioural interaction effects of changing/not changing school. Sixty-three percent (N=152) changed schools from T1 to T2. Across all students we observed declines in average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (-4 min) and light PA (-23 min), and increases in average daily sedentary behaviour (16 min), weekday leisure screen time (17 min) and weekday homework screen time (25 min), all Penvironment, students who changed school reported a greater reduction in PA intensity at recess and lunch, less likelihood to cycle to/from school, greater increase in weekday (41 mins) and weekend (45 mins) leisure screen time (Pbehaviour, and has further compounding effects on behaviour type by changing school environments.

  11. Model-independent study of light cone current commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.R.; Dicus, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to extract information on the nature of light cone current commutators (L. C. C.) in a model independent manner. Using simple assumptions on the validity of the DGS representation for the structure functions of deep inelastic scattering and using the Bjorken--Johnston--Low theorem it is shown that in principle the L. C. C. may be constructed knowing the experimental electron--proton scattering data. On the other hand the scaling behavior of the structure functions is utilized to study the consistency of a vanishing value for various L. C. C. under mild assumptions on the behavior of the DGS spectral moments. (U.S.)

  12. Current CTR-related tritium handling studies at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Bell, J.T.; Clinton, S.D.; Fisher, P.W.; Redman, J.D.; Smith, F.J.; Talbot, J.B.; Tung, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a comprehensive program concerned with plasma fuel recycle, tritium recovery from blankets, and tritium containment in fusion reactors. Two studies of most current interest are investigations of cryosorption pumping of hydrogen isotopes and measurements of tritium permeation rates through steam generator materials. Cryosorption pumping speeds have been measured for hydrogen, deuterium, and helium at pressures from 10 -8 torr to 3 x 10 -3 torr. Permeation rates through Incoloy 800 have been shown to be drastically reduced when the low pressure side of permeation tubes are exposed to steam. These results will be important considerations in the design of fusion reactor steam generators

  13. Design studies on high current and grid control electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinnan; Lu Kun; Chi Yunlong; Zhou Zusheng

    2011-01-01

    Electron gun, the source of electrons, is a kind of ultrahigh vacuum device and plays an important role in different kind of accelerators. With the irradiation accelerator demands, describes the design studies on beam optics optimization. The simulation result shows that the beam current is above 5 A with cathode voltage of 80 kV and beam emittance, gun electric field and beam waist radius meet the accelerator needs. The electron gun manufactured and installed in the test stand, the conditioning and test will be done in the near future. (authors)

  14. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  15. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  16. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  17. Studies on fast wave current drive in the JAERI tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Fujii, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tamai, H.; Saigusa, M.; Imai, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fukuyama, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fast wave electron heating experiment (FWEH) on JFT-2M and JT-60 and analysis of fast wave current drive (FWCD) ability on JT-60U are presented. In the JFT-2M, absorption of fast waves have been investigated by using a phased four-loop antenna array. The absorption of the fast waves has been studied for various plasma parameters by using combination of other additional heating methods such as electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and ion cyclotron heating. It is shown that the absorption efficiency estimated from various methods well correlates with one calculated theoretically in single pass damping. Interaction of the fast waves with fast electrons in combination with ECH has been examined through the measurement of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The observed ECE during FWEH is well explained by the theoretical model, which indicates generation of the appreciable energetic fast electrons by the fast waves. New four-loop array antennas have been employed to improve the absorption of unidirectionally-propagating waves. Characteristics of antenna loading resistance can be reproduced by a coupling calculation code. In JT-60, FWEH experiment in combination with lower hybrid current drive was performed. Power absorption efficiency of fast wave is substantially improved in combination with LHCD of relatively low power for both phasing modes. Bulk electron heating is observed with high-k // mode and coupling with fast electron is confirmed in hard X-ray emission with low-k // mode. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction based on 1.D full wave code. Synergetic effects between FWEH and LHCD are found. Coupling calculation indicates that eight-loop antenna is favourable for keeping high directivity in the required N // -range. Current drive efficiency is calculated with 1-D full wave code including trapped particle effects and higher harmonic ion cyclotron damping

  18. Plasma health care - Aims, constraints and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Zimmerman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Health Care covers three areas of interest for cold atmospheric pressure plasmas: Cosmetics, Hygiene and Medicine. These areas can be subdivided into personal and professional care. In this review will concentrate on Hygiene and Medicine. In professional hygiene the most important plasma contribution is sterilization, decontamination and disinfection. The main aim is the prevention of diseases or their containment. Progress in the development of efficient bactericidal plasma sources has been rapid, so that it appears realistic to use plasmas to combat nosocomial infections as well as community associated infections in the not too distant future. The advantages of plasma devices – they use air and electricity only, there are no waste products, they are inexpensive to manufacture and operate, easy to transport and install, and bactericidal effects are fast (seconds). Plasmas can efficiently kill resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA) and tests have shown no resistance build-up so far. With an estimated 2 Million hospital induced infections each year in the US alone, and about 100.000 resulting deaths, very efficient, safe and fast hospital plasma hygiene devices would appear to be a very important weapon to help contain the spread of infectious diseases. In Medicine there are a number of ambitious ideas and aims. Plasmas can be “designed” to some extent. They can include different active species that can have an effect at the cellular level. There are ionic atoms and molecules, whose medical use need to be evaluated – the vision is that a new area of “plasma pharmacy” could develop. First steps are currently being taken in biological studies. Also the excited atoms in cold atmospheric plasmas may make cell walls more permeable for such species. (author)

  19. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  20. Objectives and current status of the study Mobi-kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Eastman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. Mobi-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL Barcelona, is underway in 15 countries to assess potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communications technology (RF and extremely low frequency (ELF) fields) on brain tumour risk. The study aims to recruit over 2,000 cases of brain tumours aged 10 to 24 years and their respective controls (300 cases and 600 controls from Spain). The project builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. Hospital based controls are being selected to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates of population-based controls, validation of questionnaire responses with recross from network operators will allow characterization of possible recall errors. Extensive work has gone into characterising and modelling ELF and RF exposure from different types of mobile and cordless phones, from different communication systems, and from other environmental sources of EMF. The study will address a public health problem of increasing importance in Spain and provide information on potential health risks from mobile telephone use as well as from EMF in general. (Author) 21 refs.

  1. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  2. Current measurement studies around the Cesme Peninsula (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taspinar, N.

    1989-04-01

    In order to design coastal structures and marine vehicles safely, it is required to know current climate which shows the variation of the current characteristics with time. There are a wide variety of current meters designed to measure water flow today. Each current meter is capable of recording the influence of mooring arrangement. Here we describe sea water temperatures, salinities and current velocities at offshore of Akburun, Tatlicak Burnu, Kalem Burnu and Kizil Burun areas in Cesme Peninsula 27 August, 1986 to 19 November, 1986. At the end of the investigations, measured significant maximum and average current velocities have been routinely analysed with micro-computers and also the percentages of current velocity have been calculated. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  3. A review study of the current research on energy hub for energy positive neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.W.W.; Labeodan, T.; Maassen, W.H.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Energy positive neighborhoods and cities are emerging concepts aimed at addressing the current energy and environmental sustainability challenges. In this paper, the concept and current research on energy hubs relating to energy positive neighborhoods are presented. In addition to discussing

  4. Rationing critical care medicine: recent studies and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas S

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the rationing of critical care resources. Although much has been written about the concept of rationing, there have been few scientific studies as to its prevalence. A recent meta-analysis reviewed all previously published studies on rationing access to intensive care units but little is known about practices within the intensive care unit. Much literature in the past few years has focused on the growing use of critical care resources and projections for the future. Several authors suggest there may be a crisis in financial or personnel resources if some rationing does not take place. Other papers have argued that the methods of rationing critical care previously proposed, such as limiting the care of dying patients or using cost-effectiveness analysis to determine care, may not be effective or viewed as ethical by some. Finally, several recent papers review how critical care is practiced and allocated in India and Asian countries that already practice open rationing in their health care systems. There is currently no published evidence that overt rationing is taking place in critical care medicine. There is growing evidence that in the future, the need for critical care may outstrip financial resources unless some form of rationing takes place. It is also clear from the literature that choosing how to ration critical care will be a difficult task.

  5. Current Highlights on ESA's Planetary Technology Reference Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, P.

    The concept of Technology Reference Studies has been introduced already at EGU05, where the Venus Entry Probe (VEP), the Jupiter Minisat Explorer (JME), the Deimos Sample Return (DSR) and the Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) have been presented in detail. At the EGU06 the new studies in reaction to the Cosmic Vision exercise have been introduced. The formulation of themes and mapping into potential future missions has been taken as basis in the planning of additional new and adaptation of existing TRS's to cover areas, which have not yet been addressed by any TRS. These new ongoing studies are progressing well and current highlights will be presented in the paper in further detail as well as an overview on supporting technology studies and Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) sessions. The Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) study investigates mission concepts with up to two Magnetospheric Orbiters placed in a highly elliptical Jovian orbit and the possibility to deploy a Jovian Entry Probe. The mission profile is based on a solar powered concept launched on a Soyuz-Fregat launcher. Mission analysis and the application of a new Jovian radiation model are supporting the study activities. The Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return (NEA-SR) concept explores the possibilities of sample return or in-situ mission profiles with visits to up to two NEA targets. Due to the assumed low cost cap a trade between a sample return and remote/in-situ exploration concept has a high attention in the study. The Cross Scale TRS (CS-TRS) is intended to simultaneously investigate magnetospheric and plasma processes in three spatial scales with a formation flight of up to 12 spacecraft, orbiting on deep elliptical orbits around Earth. One of the major challenges is the launch of that number of spacecraft on a single launcher and the collisionless deployment of the formation at the target orbit. The scope if the GeoSail TRS is to demonstrate deployment, attitude control and navigation concepts for a

  6. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-30

    Sep 30, 2010 ... problematic currents in the English-speaking world and that we find ourselves in the context of developing postmodern, post-analytic and post-empiricist approaches. Even so, analytic philosophy of religion is still the most representative current in the discipline within the English-speaking world.

  7. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... and sustainability. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR....

  8. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    We have shown the existence and made a study of the current oscillations produced in high-resistivity gallium arsenide by a strong electric field. The oscillations are associated with the slow travelling of a region of high electrical field across the whole sample. An experimental study of the properties of these instabilities has made it possible for us to distinguish this phenomenon from the Gunn effect, from acoustic-electric effects and from contact effects. In order to account for this type of instability, a differential trapping mechanism involving repulsive impurities is proposed; this mechanism can reduce the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band at strong electrical fields and can lead to the production of a high-field domain. By developing this model qualitatively we have been able to account for all the properties of high-resistance gallium arsenide crystals subjected to a strong electrical field: increase of the Hall constant, existence of a voltage threshold for these oscillations, production of domains of high field, low rate of propagation of these domains, and finally the possibility of inverting the direction of the propagation of the domain without destroying the latter. A quantitative development of the model makes it possible to calculate the various characteristic parameters of these instabilities. Comparison with experiment shows that there is a good agreement, the small deviations coming especially from the lack of knowledge concerning transport properties in gallium arsenide subjected to high fields. From a study of this model, it appears that the instability phenomenon can occur over a wide range of repulsive centre concentrations, and also for a large range of resistivities. This is the reason why it appears systematically in gallium arsenide of medium and high resistivity. (authors) [fr

  9. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  10. Study of non inductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of non-thermal bremsstrahlung during lower hybrid current drive is considered. The proposed method shows the role of the Compton effects at low frequencies and allows us to establish the link between the emitted power and the absorbed power at high frequency. The non-thermal emission is considered as a kinematical mode conversion between the absorbed radio-frequency mode and the emitted X ray photons. The fast electrons diagnostics and the ways to reach the wave structure are shown. Kinetic and electromagnetic problems concerning current generation are described. The plasma properties and diagnostics in the case of a non inductive current generation are discussed [fr

  11. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  12. Theoretical study of a flat eddy current probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.; Dumont-Fillon, J.; Labbe, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the computation of the impedance of an eddy current probe has been determined in the case of flat product testing. Various applications are discussed with particular emphasis on ferromagnetic materials [fr

  13. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  14. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  15. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Bosch

    Full Text Available The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The "model of diffusion in service organisations" was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results.Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but

  16. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J; Brennan, Sue E; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The "model of diffusion in service organisations" was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but relatively low

  17. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change

  18. Crane RF accelerator for high current radiation damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Anamkath, H.; Evans, K.; Lyons, S.; Palmer, D.; Miller, R.; Treas, P.; Zante, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron accelerator was designed and built for the Naval Weapons Support Center for transient radiation effects on electronics experiments and testing. The Crane L Band RF Electron Linac was designed to provide high currents over a wide range of pulse widths and energies. The energy extends to 60 MeV and pulse widths vary from a few ns to 10 μsec. Beam currents range from 20 amps in the short pulse case to 1.5 amps in the long pulse case. This paper describes the linac, its architecture, the e-gun and pulser, waveguides, klystrons and modulator, vacuum system, beam transport, and control systems. fig., tab

  19. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-30

    Sep 30, 2010 ... 4.112 Philosophy aims at the logical clarification of thoughts. Philosophy is not a body of ..... of a range of (religious) experience and action. He has also ..... articulated the hermeneutical process as the fusion of two horizons.

  20. Northeastern FIA Tree Taper Study: Current Status and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; Charles T. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The northeastern unit of the Forest Inventory and Analysis program (NE-FIA) is engaged in an ongoing project to develop regionwide tree taper equations. Sampling intensity is based on NE-FIA plot data and is stratified by species, diameter class, and height class. To date, modeling research has been aimed largely at evaluating existing model forms (and hybrids thereof...

  1. West Virginia Women Business Owners: Current Study and Trends Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Linda L.; FitzGerald, Kathleen M.

    This report profiles current West Virginia women business owners and notes significant trends in the last eight years. It highlights a subgroup of women business owners, specifically low income, single women with children. These survey areas are discussed: industry sector, type of ownership, reasons for going/not going into business, planning…

  2. Resource characterization and variability studies for marine current power

    OpenAIRE

    Carpman, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Producing electricity from marine renewable resources is a research area that develops continuously. The field of tidal energy is on the edge to progress from the prototype stage to the commercial stage. However, tidal resource characterization, and the effect of tidal turbines on the flow, is still an ongoing research area in which this thesis aims to contribute. In this thesis, measurements of flow velocities have been performed at three kinds of sites. Firstly, a tidal site has been invest...

  3. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  4. Automated Studies of Continuing Current in Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Claros, Jose

    Continuing current (CC) is a continuous luminosity in the lightning channel that lasts longer than 10 ms following a lightning return stroke to ground. Lightning flashes following CC are associated with direct damage to power lines and are thought to be responsible for causing lightning-induced forest fires. The development of an algorithm that automates continuing current detection by combining NLDN (National Lightning Detection Network) and LEFA (Langmuir Electric Field Array) datasets for CG flashes will be discussed. The algorithm was applied to thousands of cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 40 km of Langmuir Lab, New Mexico measured during the 2013 monsoon season. It counts the number of flashes in a single minute of data and the number of return strokes of an individual lightning flash; records the time and location of each return stroke; performs peak analysis on E-field data, and uses the slope of interstroke interval (ISI) E-field data fits to recognize whether continuing current (CC) exists within the interval. Following CC detection, duration and magnitude are measured. The longest observed C in 5588 flashes was 631 ms. The performance of the algorithm (vs. human judgement) was checked on 100 flashes. At best, the reported algorithm is "correct" 80% of the time, where correct means that multiple stations agree with each other and with a human on both the presence and duration of CC. Of the 100 flashes that were validated against human judgement, 62% were hybrid. Automated analysis detects the first but misses the second return stroke in many cases where the second return stroke is followed by long CC. This problem is also present in human interpretation of field change records.

  5. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  6. The mental wellbeing of current and retired professional cricketers: an observational prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Nannet; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Gray, Janine; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in professional cricket is non-existent. Consequently, the aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and the 6 months incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD: distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol use) among current and former professional cricketers and to explore the association of potential stressors (significant injury, surgery, adverse life events, career dissatisfaction) and CMD. An observational prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 6 months was conducted among current and former professional cricketers from South Africa. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders as well as several stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by the South African Cricketers Association (SACA). A total of 116 participants enrolled at baseline (overall response rate of 33%) and 76 of those participants completed the 6 month follow-up (follow up rate of 66%). The prevalence of symptoms of CMD in current professional cricketers was 38% for distress, 38% for sleep disturbance, 37% for anxiety/depression and 26% for adverse alcohol use. Among former professional cricketers, baseline prevalence as was 26% for distress, 24% for anxiety/depression, 21% for sleep disturbance and 22% for adverse alcohol use. Career dissatisfaction led to an increased risk of distress, anxiety/depression and sleep disturbance in current professional cricketers. Surgeries and adverse life events led to an increase in reported symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression in current professional cricketers. It was concluded that symptoms of CMD are prevalent in both current and former professional cricketers and the association with surgery, adverse life events and cricket career dissatisfaction may provide some insight into possible mechanisms.

  7. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  8. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  9. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  10. Study of rare earth separation by counter current electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Sergio Machado

    1995-08-01

    The counter current electromigration (CCEM) is an electrophoretic technique where the charged species migrate on an electrical field toward an electrolytic flux. Usually this electrolyte is a complexing agent and is necessary to increase the small differences between the species mobilities. A new column was developed, all made of acrylic, in a cylindrical shape. A set of experiments was carried out with the species Na + /K + , K + /Sm +3 , K + /Eu +3 and K + /Sm +3 /Eu +3 using the α-hydrox i-isobutyric acid o,01 M as the counter current electrolytic flux. From a synthetic mixture of 90% of samarium and 10% of europium was obtained the samarium ion in a purity better than 99,9% where the concentration of Eu was determined by the polarography technique. The potassium ion was used as a leading electrolyte. It was also measured the mobilities of the involved species in the α-HIBA medium. Two models are proposed, a stationary model and a dynamic one. A simulator of a simplified stationary model, prepared in FORTRAN language, was developed and tested toward experimental results. (author)

  11. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.R.; Dodd, C.V.

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs

  12. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, J. R.; Dodd, C. V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs.

  13. Studies of Polar Current Systems Using the IMS Scandinavian Magnetometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiedt, J.; Baumjohann, W.

    1993-09-01

    As a contribution to the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS, 1976 1979) a two-dimensional array of 42 temporary magnetometer stations was run in Scandinavia, supplementary to the permanent observatories and concentrated in the northern part of the region. This effort aimed at the time-dependent (periods above about 100 s) determination of the two-dimensional structure of substorm-related magnetic fields at the Earth's surface with highest reasonable spatial resolution (about 100 km, corresponding to the height of the ionosphere) near the footpoints of field-aligned electric currents that couple the disturbed magnetosphere to the ionosphere at auroral latitudes. It has been of particular advantage for cooperative studies that not only simultaneous data were available from all-sky cameras, riometers, balloons, rockets, and satellites, but also from the STARE radar facility yielding colocated two-dimensional ionospheric electric field distributions. In many cases it therefore was possible to infer the three-dimensional regional structure of substorm-related ionospheric current systems. The first part of this review outlines the basic relationships and methods that have been used or have been developed for such studies. The second short part presents typical equivalent current patterns observed by the magnetometer array in the course of substorms. Finally we review main results of studies that have been based on the magnetometer array observations and on additional data, omitting studies on geomagnetic pulsations. These studies contributed to a clarification of the nature of auroral electrojets including the Harang discontinuity and of ionospheric current systems related to auroral features such as the break-up at midnight, the westward traveling surge, eastward drifting omega bands, and spirals.

  14. Studies of current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR) and current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin

    2005-08-01

    We present two CPP-MR studies of spin-valves based upon ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (F/N/F) trilayers. We measure the spin-diffusion lengths of N = Pd, Pt, and Au at 4.2K, and both the specific resistances (sample area A times resistance R) and spin-memory-loss of N/Cu interfaces. Pd, Pt and Au are of special device interest because they give perpendicular anisotropy when sandwiching very thin Co layers. Comparing our spin-memory-loss data at Pd/Cu and Pt/Cu interfaces with older data for Nb/Cu and W/Cu gives insight into the importance of spin-orbit coupling in producing such loss. We reproduce and extend prior studies by Eid of 'magnetic activity' at the interface of Co and N-metals (or combinations of N-metals), when the other side of the N-metal contacts a superconductor (S). Our data suggest that magnetic activity may require strong spin-flipping at the N/S interface. We present five studies of a new phenomenon, CIMS, in F1/N/F2 trilayers, with F1 a thick 'polarizing' layer and F2 a thin 'switching' layer. In all prior studies of CIMS, positive current caused the magnetization of F2 to switch from parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) to that of F1- 'normal' switching. By judicious addition of impurities to F-metals, we are able to controllably produce both 'normal' and 'inverse' switching- where positive current switches the magnetization of F2 from AP to P to that of F1. In the samples studied, whether the switching is normal or inverse is set by the 'net polarization' produced by F1 and is independent of the properties of F2. As scattering in the bulk of F1 and F2 is essential to producing our results, these results cannot be described by ballistic models, which allow scattering only at interfaces. Most CIMS experiments use Cu as the N-layer due to its low resistivity and long spin-diffusion length. We show that Ag and Au have low enough resistivities and long enough spin-diffusion lengths to be useful alternatives to Cu for some devices. While

  15. Metastatic breast cancer: do current treatments improve quality of life? A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Amado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In metastatic breast cancer cases, the currently available therapeutic approaches provide minimal improvement in survival. As such, quality of life (QOL becomes one of the main objectives of treatment. It is not known whether current treatments derived from trials improve QOL. The aim was to evaluate changes in QOL among metastatic breast cancer patients receiving treatment derived from trials. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational QOL survey in a tertiary cancer center. METHODS: To evaluate the influence of current treatments on patients' QOL, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied on three occasions: before starting treatment and at the 6th and 12th weeks, to consecutive metastatic breast cancer patients over a one-year period. RESULTS: We found an improvement in QOL in the sample evaluated (n = 40, expressed by changes in the overall SF-36 score (p = 0.002 and the BDI (p = 0.004. Taken individually, the SF-36 components Pain, Social Functioning and Mental Health also improved significantly. Patients with worse initial performance status and secondary symptoms displayed greater improvement than those with better initial performance status and asymptomatic disease (p < 0.001. Patients who received more than one type of therapy showed larger gains than those given only one type (p = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: In our environment, current metastatic breast cancer treatments can improve QOL, especially among symptomatic patients and those with low performance status.

  16. A Comparative Study of Voltage, Peak Current and Dual Current Mode Control Methods for Noninverting Buck-Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Č. Bošković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of voltage mode control (VMC and two current mode control (CMC methods of noninverting buck-boost converter. The converter control-to-output transfer function, line-to-output transfer function and the output impedance are obtained for all methods by averaging converter equations over one switching period and applying small-signal linearization. The obtained results are required for the design procedure of feedback compensator to keep a system stable and robust. A comparative study of VMC, peak current mode control (PCMC and dual-current mode control (DCMC is performed. Performance evaluation of the closed-loop system with obtained compensator between these methods is performed via numerical simulations.

  17. Current status of immunologic studies in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.

    1978-06-01

    Several aspects of the immunology of human malignancy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on relevant findings in lung cancer. The existence of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in numerous tumor types. Of more relevance in clinical situations is the association of generalized immunologic depression with malignancy. In the vast majority of cases, progressive declines in both tumor-specific and nonspecific immunologic parameters are observed with advancing disease. The approach to the immunologic evaluation of cancer patients and the potential usefulness of this approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, management, and assessment of therapeutic response are discussed. Evidence aimed at elucidating the mechanism of immunosuppression in malignancy, such as serum-blocking factors, immunoregulatory alpha globulins, and suppressor cells, is presented. Finally, emphasis is placed on the various forms of immunotherapy, including both specific active methods such as tumor cell or tumor antigen vaccines and nonspecific active immunotherapy involving agents like Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and levamisole. Early results from clinical immunotherapeutic trials are discussed.

  18. Current Experimental Studies of Gene Therapy in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-ya Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD was characterized by late-onset, progressive dopamine neuron loss and movement disorders. The progresses of PD affected the neural function and integrity. To date, most researches had largely addressed the dopamine replacement therapies, but the appearance of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia hampered the use of the drug. And the mechanism of PD is so complicated that it's hard to solve the problem by just add drugs. Researchers began to focus on the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's disease, searching for new method that may affect the neurodegeneration processes in it. In this paper, we reviewed current delivery methods used in gene therapies for PD, we also summarized the primary target of the gene therapy in the treatment of PD, such like neurotrophic factor (for regeneration, the synthesis of neurotransmitter (for prolong the duration of L-dopa, and the potential proteins that might be a target to modulate via gene therapy. Finally, we discussed RNA interference therapies used in Parkinson's disease, it might act as a new class of drug. We mainly focus on the efficiency and tooling features of different gene therapies in the treatment of PD.

  19. Current research efforts of EP study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    After the successful demonstration of H mode on KSTAR, the problem of fast-ion driven MHD modes such as Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) and the reverse effects on fast ions of MHD modes is under study in KSTAR. In this paper, I will briefly describe some recent efforts of KSTAR on energetic particle physics study. (J.P.N.)

  20. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p <0.001). Significant differences were found between the ads aimed at adults and those aimed at children. Emotional and irrational persuasive resources such as fantasy (p <0.001), cartoons (p <0.001) or offering gifts with the purchase of the product (p=0.003) were observed more frequently in adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on the Swiss electricity market - the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N. O.

    2007-01-01

    This short article discusses the results of a study made on the opinions of energy suppliers in Switzerland with respect to future power generation in Switzerland. In particular, questions concerning new nuclear power stations and gas-fueled generating facilities are examined. The study was commissioned to tackle questions concerning the liberalisation of the electricity market, a future possible gap in supply, mains regulation and changes in market structure. The article discusses the findings of the study, in which 87 utilities took part, and lists strategic areas for action to be taken by electricity utilities such as efficiency analysis, regulation management, co-operative sourcing and possible mergers and acquisitions

  2. Remote Sensing Studies Of The Current Martian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F. W.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Moroz, V. I.

    A systematic and detailed experimental study of the Martian atmosphere remains to be carried out, despite many decades of intense interest in the nature of the Martian climate system, its interactions, variability and long-term stability. Such a study is planned by the 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, using limb-scanning infrared radiometric techniques similar to those used to study trace species in the terrestrial stratosphere. For Mars, the objectives are temperature, humidity, dust and condensate abundances with high vertical resolution and global coverage in the 0 to 80 km height range. The paper will discuss the experiment and its methodology and expectations for the results.

  3. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  4. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of ...

  5. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  6. Study of efficiency and current use of respiratory protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Kalos, F.

    1984-12-01

    The efficiency of a helmet-type powered air-purifying respirator was studied in the work environment of an underground uranium mine. Workplace protection factors (WPF) were measured, using approximately 30-minute air sampling periods and repeated sampling throughout the work shifts for six miners during three shifts each. The WPF of the modified Racal AH-5 helmet was 17.8 (geometric mean) with new filters in the respirator; the WPF dropped to 5.3 when four-day-old filters were used. The WPF results were lognormally distributed. The test population appeared to be a homogeneous set: there was no significant difference in the mean WPFs of individual test subjects. The study could not resolve any effect of elapsed time within the work shift or of ambient Working Level on the WPF. The actual use levels and the problems associated with respirator use were studied at the same time, principally via a user survey. The respirators have a high level of acceptance among the user population of underground uranium miners and 72.5 percent of the 207 survey respondents stated six or more hours use with the visor in the correct 'down' position per shift

  7. The current status of glass leaching studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, F.

    1983-11-01

    Glass has been selected in France as the material used to confine the activity of fission product solutions, and a continuous vitrification process has been developed at the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM), the first industrial plant. Borosilicate glass was chosen in various compositions for its properties: it is a homogeneous, non-porous material that incorporates appreciable quantities of most of the fission product oxides, and is only alterable at the surface interface layer. Glass thus constitutes the primary radioactivity containment barrier, and it is essential to determine its long-term behavior. Water constitutes the principal hazard during temporary or definitive storage of the glass blocks. Two types of inherent material properties are studied from the standpoint of glass stability under leaching conditions: - chemical durability; - radioactive containability with regard to the various radionuclides, fission products and especially the actinides. Durability tests are carried out in SOXHLET devices and the alteration rates are measured by the weight loss. The containability is measured by the leach rate, i.e. by the rate of activity loss into the water. Leaching tests are conducted for several major objectives: - selection of glass compositions (leach rates); - leaching mechanism studies (hydrolyzed layer characteristics, effects of temperature, pressure, pH, etc.); - long-term behavior studies (glass specimens doped with alpha-emitters); - simulation of geological repository environments [fr

  8. Study of charged current reactions induced by muon antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huss, D.

    1979-07-01

    We present in this work a study of antineutrino reactions on light targets. We have used the Gargamelle cloud chamber with a propane-freon mix. In the 2 first chapters we give a brief description of the experimental setting and we present the selection criteria of the events. In the third chapter we analyse the data for the reaction anti-ν + p → μ + + n that preserves strangeness. We have deduced the values of the axial (M A ) and vector (M V ) form factors: M A = (O.92 ± 0.08) GeV and M V = (0.86 ± 0.04) GeV. In the fourth chapter we study reactions in which strange particles appear (ΔS = 1) and we have determined their production cross-sections. The elastic reaction: anti-ν + p → μ + + Λ is studied in a more accurate manner thanks to a 3-constraint adjustment that enables the selection of events occurring on free protons. We have deduced from our data the longitudinal, orthogonal and transverse polarization of Λ, we have got respectively P l = -0.06 ± 0.44; P p = 0.29 ± 0.41; P t 1.05 ± 0.30. We have also deduced the values of the total cross-section as a function of the incident antineutrino energy E: σ (0.27 ± 0.02)*E*10 -38 cm -2 . E has been assessed from the energy deposited in the cloud chamber and we have adjusted the cross-section with a straight line as it is expected under the assumption of scale invariance. (A.C.)

  9. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  10. Current tritium chemical studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.J.; Redman, J.D.; Strehlow, R.A.; Bell, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures of hydrogen isotopes in the Li-LiH-H 2 , Li-LiD-D 2 and Li-LiT-T 2 systems are being measured. The solubility of hydrogen in lithium was studied and the data are in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The Li-LiD-D 2 system is now being studied. The first experimental measurements of the equilibrium pressures of tritium between 700 and 1000 0 C as a function of the LiT concentration in the Li-LiT-T 2 system have also been completed. The permeation of tritium through clean metals and through metals under simulated steam generator conditions is being investigated. Measurements of tritium permeation through clean nickel at temperatures between 636 and 910 0 K were made using a mixed isotope technique. The tritium permeability, DK/sub s/', as a function of temperature was determined to be ln DK/sub s/' [cc(NTP).mm.min -1 .torr/sup -1/2/.cm -2 ] = -0.906 - 6360/T( 0 K). The measured permeation activation energy was 12.6 +- 0.4 kcal/mole. (MOW)

  11. The study of Zn–Co alloy coatings electrochemically deposited by pulse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milorad V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition by pulse current of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel was examined, with the aim to find out whether pulse plating could produce alloys that could offer a better corrosion protection. The influence of on-time and the average current density on the cathodic current efficiency, coating morphology, surface roughness and corrosion stability in 3% NaCl was examined. At the same Ton/Toff ratio the current efficiency was insignificantly smaller for deposition at higher average current density. It was shown that, depending on the on-time, pulse plating could produce more homogenous alloy coatings with finer morphology, as compared to deposits obtained by direct current. The surface roughness was the greatest for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with direct current, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with pulse current, for both examined average current densities. It was also shown that Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited by pulse current could increase the corrosion stability of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel. Namely, alloy coatings deposited with pulse current showed higher corrosion stability, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with direct current, for almost all examined cathodic times, Ton. Alloy coatings deposited at higher average current density showed greater corrosion stability as compared with coatings deposited by pulse current at smaller average current density. It was shown that deposits obtained with pulse current and cathodic time of 10 ms had the poorest corrosion stability, for both investigated average deposition current density. Among all investigated alloy coatings the highest corrosion stability was obtained for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with pulsed current at higher average current density (jav = 4 A dm-2.

  12. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  13. Molecular structure-adsorption study on current textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örücü, E; Tugcu, G; Saçan, M T

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the adsorption of a diverse set of textile dyes onto granulated activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for 33 anthraquinone and azo dyes. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted more adequately to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model. Added to a qualitative analysis of experimental results, multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) methods were used to develop quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models with the novel adsorption data. The data were divided randomly into training and test sets. The predictive ability of all models was evaluated using the test set. Descriptors were selected with a genetic algorithm (GA) using QSARINS software. Results related to QSPR models on the adsorption capacity of GAC showed that molecular structure of dyes was represented by ionization potential based on two-dimensional topological distances, chromophoric features and a property filter index. Comparison of the performance of the models demonstrated the superiority of the BPNN over GA-MLR and SVR models.

  14. Current Research at the Endeavour Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Ridge 2000 Community, R.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated geophysical, geological, chemical, and biological studies are being conducted on the Endeavour segment with primary support from NSF, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and NSERC (Canada). The research includes a seismic network, physical and chemical sensors, high-precision mapping and time-series sampling. Several research expeditions have taken place at the Endeavour ISS in the past year. In June 2003, an NSF-sponsored cruise with R.V. al T.G.Thompson/ROV al Jason2 installed microbial incubators in drill-holes in the sides of active sulfide chimneys and sampled rocks, fluids, and microbes in the Mothra and Main Endeavour Field (MEF). In July 2003, with al Thompson/Jason2, an NSF-LEXEN project at Baby Bare on Endeavour east flank conducted sampling through seafloor-penetrating probes, plus time-series sampling of fluids, microbes, and rocks at the MEF. In September 2003, with al Thompson/ROV al ROPOS, the Keck Proto-Neptune project installed a seismic network consisting of 1 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers, installation of chemical/physical sensors and time-series samplers for chemistry and microbiology in the MEF and Clam Bed sites, collection of rocks, fluids, animals, and microbes. In May/June 2004, an NSF-sponsored al Atlantis/Alvin cruise recovered sulfide incubators installed in 2003, redeployed a sulfide incubator, mapped MEF and Mothra vent fields with high-resolution Imagenix sonar, sampled fluids from MEF, Mothra, and Clam Bed, recovered year-long time-series fluid and microbial samplers from MEF and Clam Bed, recovered and installed hot vent temperature-resistivity monitors, cleaned up the MEF and deployed new markers at major sulfide structures. In August 2004, there were two MBARI/Keck-sponsored cruises with R.V. al Western Flyer/ROV al Tiburon. The first cruise completed the seismic network with addition of two more broadband seismometers and serviced all 7 short-period seismometers. al Tiburon then performed microbial and chemical

  15. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  16. Study of the neutral current properties in the semileptonic inclusive neutrino and antineutrino nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, B.

    1981-01-01

    In the dechromatic neutron beam of the CERN-SPS results obtained with the CHARM detector from the deep inelastic inclusive neutrino-nucleon scattering were analyzed according to following reactions: #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->μ - (μ + ) + hadrons and #betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ))+N->#betta#sub(μ)(anti #betta#sub(μ)) + hadrons. The aim of these studies was the determination of the coupling of neutral currents in the weak interaction. All data can be well described by the standard model for the unification of the electrogmagnetic and weak interaction in connection with the quarkparton model, if a Weinberg angle of sin 2 deltasub(w)=0.222+-0.016 is assumed. (orig./HSI) [de

  17. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Pain Distress Tolerance: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y; van't Wout, Mascha; Jacobson, Benjamin L; Garnaat, Sarah L; Kirschner, Jason L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2015-08-01

    Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal ("inhibitory") stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli vs anodal stimulation. Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal vs anodal stimulation (P = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (P = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (P = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all P tDCS (P = 0.072). Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.

  19. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: a prot?g? and potential threat towards mans extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah, Ibeh Nnana; Nche, Bikwe Thomas; Nwagu, Ibeh Georgina; Nnanna, Ibeh Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Materi...

  20. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  1. Aims and methods of education: A recapitulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of principal distinction between the aims of the so-called "traditional" and "progressive" education and respective pedagogies associated with each. The term "traditional" education is used to denote the kind of education that prepares people for their role in society as it is, while the term "progressive" is used for education that aspires to equip mankind with capacity to shape the change of society. The paper raises some critical questions about the role of pedagogy in achieving the aims of the progressive model, arguing that the employment of "progressive" methods does not necessarily guarantee the achievement of the commonly professed purposes of progressive education. This is illustrated in the paper by the results of a study in English schools showing how despite the claim of progressive methods, teachers tend to retain traditional attitudes and on the other hand, how even traditional teaching methods can serve the progressive purpose. This is not to advocate for the traditional pedagogy, but to suggest that it might be something other than pedagogy that makes a critical difference in educating liberal-minded citizens of the future. In this sense the paper explores the role of other factors that make a difference towards progressive education, such as democratization of human relations in school ethos and respect for children's freedom.

  2. Current debates on end-of-life sedation: an international expert elicitation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Evangelia Evie; Payne, Sheila; Brearley, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    End-of-life sedation, though increasingly prevalent and widespread internationally, remains one of the most highly debated medical practices in the context of palliative medicine. This qualitative study aims to elicit and record the perspectives of leading international palliative care experts on current debates. Twenty-one professionals from diverse backgrounds, sharing field-specific knowledge/expertise defined by significant scholarly contribution on end-of-life sedation, were recruited. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews, following a topic-oriented structure reflecting on current debates, were conducted. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Three main aspects of sedation were identified and discussed as potentially problematic: (a) continuous deep sedation as an extreme facet of end-of-life sedation, (b) psycho-existential suffering as an ambivalent indication for sedation and (c) withdrawal or withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as potentially life-shortening. On these grounds, concerns were reported over end-of-life sedation being morally equivalent to euthanasia. Considerable emphasis was placed on intentions as the distinguishing factor between end-of-life acts, and protective safeguards were introduced to distance sedation from euthanasia. This study shows that, despite the safeguards introduced, certain aspects of sedation, including the intentions associated with the practice, are still under question, parallels being drawn between end-of-life sedation and euthanasia. This reaffirms the existence of a grey area surrounding the two practices, already evidenced in countries where euthanasia is legalized. More clarity over the issues that generate this grey area, with their causes being uncovered and eliminated, is imperative to resolve current debates and effectively inform research, policy and practice of end-of-life sedation.

  3. Construction of natural radiation exposure study network - overview and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    A new project entitled 'Construction of natural radiation exposure study network' was adopted in the Program of Promotion of International Joint Research under the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology operated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. Eight institutions were involved in this project and the project will continue until March, 2012. The aims of the project are to assess the dose for natural radiation exposures using state-of- the-art measurement techniques in four Asian countries (China, India, Korea and Thailand) and their outcomes will be distributed worldwide. Throughout the project, conventional measurement techniques will be improved and be optimized. More scientific data and results will be obtained as well. In particular, the following advanced technologies for inhalation exposures will be introduced: (1) Discriminative measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) gases, (2) Evaluation of thoron decay products concentration, (3) Simple but effective particle size distribution measurements. In China, we are conducting a case-control study of radon and lung cancer in Gansu, China. This Gansu area was investigated in the past for the case-control study. New data are being accumulated. In India, we focused on Orissa in order to carry out radiation measurements in this project. In parallel, Kerala is currently involved as the comparative study area. In Korea, we are now measuring radon and thoron in radon/thoron prone areas. These results will give us new information for further understanding of exposure due to radon and thoron. In Thailand, we are carrying out comprehensively radiation measurements in NORM industries. Not only these surveys but also quality assurance of radon measurements are being addressed in Japan. We have managed an international intercomparison exercise of passive radon detectors at NIRS. This study presents an overview of the project and current status

  4. Outdoor air pollution, exhaled 8-isoprostane and current asthma in adults: the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Anaïs; Zerimech, Farid; Sanchez, Margaux; Siroux, Valérie; Le Moual, Nicole; Brunekreef, Bert; Stempfelet, Morgane; Künzli, Nino; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Matran, Régis; Nadif, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma in adults are still scarce, and the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to study the associations between 1) long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and current asthma, 2) exhaled 8-isoprostane (8-iso; a biomarker related to oxidative stress) and current asthma, and 3) outdoor air pollution and exhaled 8-iso.Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 608 adults (39% with current asthma) from the first follow-up of the French case-control and family study on asthma (EGEA; the Epidemiological study of the Genetic and Environmental factors of Asthma). Data on nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with a diameter ≤10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), road traffic, and ozone (O 3 ) were from ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and IFEN (French Institute for the Environment) assessments. Models took account of city and familial dependence.The risk of current asthma increased with traffic intensity (adjusted (a)OR 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.18) per 5000 vehicles per day), with O 3 exposure (aOR 2.04 (95% CI 1.27-3.29) per 10 µg·m -3 ) and with exhaled 8-iso concentration (aOR 1.50 (95% CI 1.06-2.12) per 1 pg·mL -1 ). Among participants without asthma, exhaled 8-iso concentration increased with PM 2.5 exposure (adjusted (a)β 0.23 (95% CI 0.005-0.46) per 5 µg·m -3 ), and decreased with O 3 and O 3-summer exposures (aβ -0.20 (95% CI -0.39- -0.01) and aβ -0.52 (95% CI -0.77- -0.26) per 10 µg·m -3 , respectively).Our results add new insights into a potential role of oxidative stress in the associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma in adults. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  5. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  6. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  7. The Current Studies of Education for a Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the current tradition and complementary medicine (T&CM) education in Malaysia. We referred to literature regarding to traditional medicine education in Malaysia, and collected the information via website or interview with faculty of T&CM in universities/colleges and Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. T&CM education in Malaysia has been following China’s T&CM systems for 50 years. Currently, Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health; and Ministry of Higher Education has approved 11 institutions to offer T&CM education. Students may major in Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, or other T&CM subjects. Generally, clinical training programs in China, Taiwan, or Australia include substantial proportion of clinical training. We report on the general information of T&CM education in Malaysia. This result would be the first-stage information for the establishment of a strategy regarding the enhancement of T&CM education in Malaysia. PMID:28853309

  8. The medium-term effects of diadynamic currents in chronic low back pain; TENS versus diadynamic currents: A randomised, follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayilir, Selcuk; Yildizgoren, Mustafa Turgut

    2017-11-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the medium-term effects of diadynamic (DD) currents on relieving symptoms/improving physical functionality in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and to compare the efficacy of DD versus TENS. The patients were divided into two groups as the TENS group (n = 26) and the DD group (n = 29). Additional treatment of hot pack + therapeutic ultrasound was applied to all patients. The therapy programs were administered as a total of 10 sessions over a period of 2 weeks. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), Oswestry Disability Index and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) values were recorded. Both groups showed significant improvements in VAS and RDQ scores after one month of the therapies (all p TENS and DD currents in chronic LBP can lead to reduced pain, and improved physical functions. Hence, DD currents can be used as an adjuvant therapy for rehabilitation of chronic LBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Equity perceptions and marital satisfaction in former and current marriage: A study among the remarried

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, A.P.; Mutsaers, W

    A study among 290 remarried individuals examined equity perceptions in the former and the current marriage. The results showed that equity in the former and the current marriage were not related to each other. In general, respondents perceived much more inequity in the former than in the current

  10. Aims and accomplishments of surface theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feibelman, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of surface science include the understanding of surface structure, transport and chemistry. However, present activities are mainly focussed on the most basic problem, viz., what are the constituents of a given surface and where are they located. Theorists are approaching this surface characterization problem from two sides. To make better use of the data available from the many experimental surface probes, an understanding of the force laws which govern the motion of probe-particles near surfaces is being developed, and the relation between the excitation and ground state spectra of a solid are being studied. In order to develop a predictive capability regarding surface structure, a variety of intrinsic surface properties are being studied, including the nature of bonds at transition metal surfaces, the meaning of bond locality in extended systems, and the electronic factors underlying the forces which govern surface geometry. These studies often raise technical issues such as the validity of using local exchange-correlation potentials and the applicability of cluster calculations to the analysis of extended surface situations, which, however, should not obscure the main thrust of current work - empirical and predictive surface structure determination. These points are illustrated with examples from recent research and ways in which experimental surface work might assist theoretical efforts are indicated

  11. One meson π0 final state study in neutral current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtet, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral pion production by weak neutral currents was observed in the CERN-GARGAMELLE neutrino experiment. The aim of the analysis was the measurement of the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections. The background due to neutron interactions was computed. A lower and an upper limit of the background was obtained. Bounds on the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) are given using these limits: 0.11 [fr

  12. A study of different types of current mirrors using polysilicon TFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, I; Nalpantidis, L; Kalenteridis, V; Siskos, S; Dimitriadis, C A; Hatzopoulos, A A

    2005-01-01

    Polysilicon thin-film technology has become of great interest due to the demand for large area electronic devices. Active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) and active matrix organic light emitting displays (AMOLEDs) are among the fields where polysilicon thin-film transistors (poly-Si TFTs) are most commonly used. Such devices, generally, require analog signal processing. This fact makes the performance of basic analog blocks, such as current mirrors implemented with poly-Si TFTs, crucial. This paper examines the performance of various current mirror designs through simulation. Finally, a novel design of a current mirror is proposed aimed to be used in low voltage applications

  13. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  14. Satisfaction rates with the current Special Type Consultation (STC) reimbursement scheme among General Practitioners – A Mixed Methods Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A

    2017-03-01

    The Special Type Consultation (STC) scheme is a fee-for-service reimbursement scheme for General Practitioners (GPs) in Ireland. Introduced in 1989, the scheme includes specified patient services involving the application of a learned skill, e.g. suturing. This study aims to establish the extent to which GPs believe this scheme is appropriate for current General Practice. This is an embedded mixed-methods study combining quantitative data on GPs working experience of and qualitative data on GPs attitudes towards the scheme. Data were collected by means of an anonymous postal questionnaire. The response rate was 60.4% (n=159.) Twenty-nine percent (n=46) disagreed and 65% (n=104) strongly disagreed that the current list of special items is satisfactory. Two overriding themes were identified: economics and advancement of the STC process. This study demonstrates an overwhelming consensus among GPs that the current STC scheme is outdated and in urgent need of revision to reflect modern General Practice.

  15. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  16. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate r...

  17. Investigation of the current situation of massive blood transfusion in different surgical departments: a large multicenter study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yang; Jin, Zhan-Kui; Xu, Cui-Xiang; Dang, Qian-Li; Zhang, Li-Jie; Chen, Hong-Nan; Song, Yao-Jun; Yang, Jiang-Cun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to learn about the current situation of surgical massive blood transfusion of different surgical departments in China’s Tertiary hospitals, which could provide the basis for the formulation of guidelines on massive blood transfusion. Method: A multicenter retrospective research on the application status of blood constituents during massive blood transfusion was conducted and a comparative analyses of survival and length of hospitalization in patients from different ...

  18. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mansouri; Ensieh Zibafar; Seyed Jamal Hashemi; Mohsen Gerami Shoar; Roshanak Daie Ghazvini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spices (flavorings) are contaminated to microbial agents such as filamentous and yeast fungi during production processing. Almost these are grown and harvested in warm and humid areas of the world where the growth of a wide variety of organisms is readily supported. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contaminations of three current spices including turmeric, black pepper and cinnamon from some supermarkets in Tehran and evaluating of their hygienic quality. Methods:...

  19. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulate sensory perception and pain? A meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2014-09-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy individuals and pain levels (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for a-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was examined using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) increases both STh (Psensory cortex (S1) (P<0.05 with an effect size of 4.34). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of a-tDCS to both the M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The average decrease in visual analogue score was 14.9% and 19.3% after applying a-tDCS on the M1 and DLPFC. Moreover, meta-analysis showed that in all subgroups (except a-tDCS of S1) active a-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences. This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of a-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy group and decreasing PL in patients. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted cautiously. Given the level of blinding did not considered in inclusion criteria, the result of current study should be interpreted with caution. Site of stimulation should have a differential effect over pain relief. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feedback from physical activity monitors is not compatible with current recommendations: A recalibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dylan; Batterham, Alan M; Peacock, Oliver J; Western, Max J; Booso, Rahuman

    2016-10-01

    Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735 minutes per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000 minutes per week, which represents ~15% of waking time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. THE CURRENT STATE OF STUDY OF PLANTS OF HEDYSARUM L. FLORAE OF THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Imachuyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the ecological-botanical research and the current state of knowledge of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.The aim of the study was the review of the information contained in open sources about the basic ecological and Botanical characteristics, geographic specie of habitat and phytocoenotic specie of species of the genus Hedysarum growing in the Caucasus.Materials and methods. The study was conducted using information retrieval (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, RGB, VINITI, SOCIONET, ReseachGate, PubMed, Web of Sciences, SCOPUS, RNMJ.RU, UlrichsWEB, EBSCO, Scientific library of the Botanical Institute of RAS as well as the results of our research.Results: the review study of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.Conclusion: the results of the analysis of regional floras, morphological characteristics, the main ecological and botanical characteristics of these 16 species, the geographic specie of habitat, phytocenotic specie are presented.

  2. Estudios de intervención dirigidos a disminuir el riesgo de padecer diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Intervention studies aimed at lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valenciaga Rodríguez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de intervención en población de riesgo, dirigidos a disminuir la frecuencia de la aparición de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM 2, son considerados orientadores para el enfoque del trabajo con esos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar los resultados de investigaciones dirigidas a disminuir el riesgo de padecer DM 2. Los sujetos estudiados presentaban alguna de las siguientes condiciones: glucosa alterada en ayunas (GAA o tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA, antecedente personal de diabetes gestacional y síndrome metabólico. Se citan, entre otros, DPP (diabetes prevention program, DPS (diabetes prevention study, STOP-NIDDM (study to prevent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hiperglucemia en ayunas, DAISI (dutch acarbose intervention trial, Da Quing (estudio chino, TRIPOD (troglitazone In the prevention of diabetes, intervención, XENDOS (xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects, WOSCOPS (west of scotland coronary prevention study, EDIT (early diabetes intervención trial, NAVIGATOR (nateglinide and valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research, DREAM (diabetes reduction assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone medication. Estos consistían en cambios de estilo de vida (fundamentalmente ejercicios físicos sistemáticos y orientaciones nutricionales y/o intervenciones terapéuticas. Se concluye que en personas con 25 o más años de edad de ambos sexos, con riesgo de padecer DM 2, la adopción de un estilo de vida saludable logra disminuir el riesgo de padecer el síndrome diabético. En sujetos con alto riesgo de DM 2, los fármacos que reportan mejores y más consistentes resultados son el metformin y la acarbosa. Otros como la nateglidina, rosiglitazona, ramipril y valsartan, se están investigando actualmente.Intervention studies on population at risk aimed at lowering the frequency of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2 are considered as guiding lines for the work

  3. On correlations in IMRT planning aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head‐and‐neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de. PMID:27929480

  4. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  5. Neoclassical current studies in high beta plasmas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-September 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    During the 12-month period, October 1, 1982 to September 30, 1983 the Levitated Octupole has been dedicated to a study of neoclassical currents. At beta values of a few percent, both the Pfirsch-Schlueter current and the bootstrap current have been observed and compared with theoretical predictions. The spatial variation of the current both radially and poloidally are found to agree with the prediction over a wide range of collisionality. A four megawatt ICRH capability exists for sustaining the current in steady state

  6. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of Isometric Quadriceps Strength in Soccer Players With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Valentine Z; Baptista, Abrahão F; Pereira, Guilherme O C; Pochini, Alberto C; Ejnisman, Benno; Santos, Marcelo B; João, Silvia M A; Hazime, Fuad A

    2018-05-01

    Vargas, VZ, Baptista, AF, Pereira, GOC, Pochini, AC, Ejnisman, B, Santos, MB, João, SMA, and Hazime, FA. Modulation of isometric quadriceps strength in soccer players with transcranial direct current stimulation: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1336-1341, 2018-The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the maximum isometric muscle contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors in soccer players at the preprofessional level. Twenty female soccer players aged 15-17 years (mean = 16.1; SD = 0.9) with 5.2 ± 2.6 years of training were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive either active or sham tDCS in a single session (2 mA; 0.057 mA·cm). The MVIC of the knee extensors was evaluated in both lower limbs by manual dynamometry in 5 sets of contractions divided into 4 blocks: (a) prestimulation, (b) during tDCS, (c) 30 minutes after tDCS, and (d) 60 minutes after tDCS. After an interval of 7 days, the groups were evaluated again, and the type of initial stimulation was inverted between participants. The MVIC of the knee extensors increased significantly during active tDCS (dominant limb (DL) = 0.4; IC = 0.1-0.8 N·Kg), 30 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 0.9; IC 0.4-1.4 N·Kg), and 60 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 1.0; IC 0.3-1.6 N·Kg) but not for sham tDCS. Our conclusion was that tDCS temporarily increases isometric quadriceps strength in adolescent female soccer players, which may be useful for both strength training and rehabilitation.

  8. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on pain distress tolerance: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y.; Wout, Mascha van’t; Jacobson, Benjamin L.; Garnaat, Sarah L.; Kirschner, Jason L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal (“inhibitory”) stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli versus anodal stimulation. Methods Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal versus anodal stimulation (p = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (p = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (p = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all p Pain intensity ratings increased acutely after cold pressor and pressure algometer tasks (both p pain ratings tended to rise less after cathodal versus anodal tDCS (p = 0.072). Conclusions Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. PMID:26115372

  9. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  10. Statistical study of solar radiation aimed to desalinisation unit project using photovoltaic panels without batteries; Estudo estatistico de radiacao solar visando o projeto de unidades de dessalinizacao acionadas por paineis fotovoltaicos sem baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Pontes, Ricardo Silva The; Oliveira Junior, Demercil de Souza; Riffel, Douglas Bressan; Oliveira, Ricardo Gildo Vieira de; Mesquita, Samuelson Brito [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    Among several treatment processes suitable for the Northeastern semi-arid area of the Brazil, the reverse osmosis presents growing application. A plant of reverse osmosis that uses photovoltaic technology attends to the needs of that area, since it does not demand local electrical grid. The present paper shows a statistical study of radiation making use of data collected in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Federal University of Ceara, in Fortaleza, and it has the aim of be used in the project of a plant of reverse osmosis supplied by photovoltaic panels. The results of the study allow the comparison of different number of panels, radiation levels used to supply the plant and times of operation. The results are exposed in form of graphs such as: solar radiation, histograms of solar radiation, accumulated time and maximum continuous periods with solar radiation above 300 and 500 W/m2. It was observed considerable annual differences in the behaviour of the radiation, as well as a gradual variation along one year, what reflects the annual difference of the radiation behaviour in wet and dry periods, and this will influences directly the strategy of operation of the plant. (author)

  11. AIM: An Integrated Approach to Organizational Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper is based on the new problem-solving model of Blended Leadership called Alloy Improvement Model (AIM. This model consists of an integration of change theory, leadership theory, and democratic principles and practices to form a comprehensive problem-solving strategy for organizational leaders. The utilization of AIM will assist leaders in moving from problems to solutions while engaging stakeholders in a comprehensive, efficient, inclusive, informative, integrated and transparent process.

  12. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows......Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo...... the distribution of particulate matter outwards from the sediment outflow. By calibrating a VoRT it is possible to control sedimentation rate by manipulating water and air flow rates. As an example application, three VoRTs were maintained under different sediment loadings to assess the sediment fraction...

  13. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa-bolic risk factors. Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu-lar diseases.

  14. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  15. Lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED): a study protocol for a quasi-experimental, before-after trial aimed at reducing pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian; Mohr, Nicholas M; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2016-04-11

    In critically ill patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) are associated with increased mortality, survivor morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation. Studies conclusively demonstrate that initial ventilator settings in patients with ARDS, and at risk for it, impact outcome. No studies have been conducted in the emergency department (ED) to determine if lung-protective ventilation in patients at risk for ARDS can reduce its incidence. Since the ED is the entry point to the intensive care unit for hundreds of thousands of mechanically ventilated patients annually in the USA, this represents a knowledge gap in this arena. A lung-protective ventilation strategy was instituted in our ED in 2014. It aims to address the parameters in need of quality improvement, as demonstrated by our previous research: (1) prevention of volutrauma; (2) appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure setting; (3) prevention of hyperoxia; and (4) aspiration precautions. The lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED) trial is a single-centre, quasi-experimental before-after study testing the hypothesis that lung-protective ventilation, initiated in the ED, is associated with reduced pulmonary complications. An intervention cohort of 513 mechanically ventilated adult ED patients will be compared with over 1000 preintervention control patients. The primary outcome is a composite outcome of pulmonary complications after admission (ARDS and VACs). Multivariable logistic regression with propensity score adjustment will test the hypothesis that ED lung-protective ventilation decreases the incidence of pulmonary complications. Approval of the study was obtained prior to data collection on the first patient. As the study is a before-after observational study, examining the effect of treatment changes over time, it is being conducted with waiver of informed consent. This work will be disseminated by

  16. Direct Current Combined With Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation: An Ex Vivo Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Penzkofer, Tobias; Isfort, Peter; Bruners, Philipp; Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Junker, Elmar; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with direct current (DC) is a promising strategy to improve the efficiency of RFA. However, DC-enhanced monopolar RFA is limited by electrolytic injury at the positive-electrode site. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the DC-enhanced bipolar RFA. To obviate the need for the subcutaneous positive electrode, the DC circuit was combined with a commercially available bipolar RFA system, in which both poles of the DC circuit are connected to a single RF probe. DC was applied for 15 min and followed by RFA in bovine livers using the following various DC currents: (1) no DC (control), (2) 3V continued until the end of RFA, (3) 5V continued until the end of RFA, (4) 10V continued until the end of RFA, (5) 5V continued in the circuit with reversed pole, (6) 3V stopped after initiation of RFA, and (7) 5V stopped. Coagulation volume, temperatures at a distance of 5, 10, and 15 mm from the RF probe, mean amperage, ablation duration, applied energy, minimum impedance, and degree of tissue charring were assessed and compared (analysis of variance, Student–Newman–Keuls test). All combined DC and RFA groups did increase coagulation volume. The 10V continued group showed significantly lower applied energy, shortest ablation duration, highest minimum impedance, and highest degree of charring with the lowest coagulation volume (p < 0.05). DC-enhanced bipolar RFA with both poles of the DC circuit on a single probe appears to be ineffective.

  17. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  18. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  19. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: data from the Rijnmond Collective Cardiology Research (CCR) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetgin, T; van der Linden, M M J M; de Vries, A G; Smits, P C; van Mechelen, R; Yap, S C; Boersma, E; Zijlstra, F; van Geuns, R-J M

    2014-01-01

    Medical discharge management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains suboptimal outside randomised trials and constitutes an essential quality benchmark for ACS. We sought to evaluate the rates of key guideline-recommended pharmacological agents after ACS and characteristics associated with optimal treatment at discharge. The Rijnmond Collective Cardiology Research (CCR) registry is an ongoing prospective, observational study in the Netherlands that aims to enrol 4000 patients with ACS. We examined discharge and 1-month follow-up medication use among the first 1000 patients enrolled in the CCR registry. Logistic regression was performed to identify patient and hospital characteristics associated with collective guideline-recommended pharmacotherapy at hospital discharge. At discharge, 94 % of patients received aspirin, 100 % thienopyridines, 80 % angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers, 87 % β-blockers, 96 % statins, and 65 % the combination of all 5 agents. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and enrolment in an interventional centre were positive independent predictors of 5-drug combination therapy at discharge. Negative independent predictors were unstable angina and advanced age. Current data from the CCR registry reflect a high quality of care for ACS discharge management in the Rotterdam-Rijnmond region. However, potential still remains for further optimisation.

  20. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Michele Devido; Gagliardi,Rubens José; Mac-Kay,Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio,Paulo Sergio; Lianza,Roberta; Fregni,Felipe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ...

  1. Study of single pion production in antineutrino induced charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese, Teresa.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the exclusive charged current antineutrino production of one pion using the data of the Gargamelle propane experiment at CERN PS. The isospin structure of the charged weak current is studied as well as the energy dependence of the total cross section for π - antineutrino production, which is compared with the prediction of Adler's model [fr

  2. Study on classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Soheil; Hojjat, Yousef [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Karafi, Mohammad Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In the present paper, classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D are studied and effects of magnetic field frequency, peak of magnetic flux density and diameter of Terfenol-D on the eddy currents losses are investigated. To provide reliable data for the purpose of the paper, an experimental laboratory is fabricated and used to obtain major and minor hysteresis loops of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. In theoretical study, initially an analytical model based on uniform distribution of magnetic flux is developed which yields to calculation of classical eddy currents losses. Then, another eddy currents model based on non-uniform distribution of magnetic flux and nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields is presented. The difference between output values of the two models is identified as excess eddy currents losses. Obtained results show that the values of excess losses are generally larger than classical losses and applying just classical model leads to wrong calculation of actual value of eddy currents losses. For the results obtained from two above models, empirical models with respect to the magnetic field frequency and the peak value of magnetic flux density are achieved which can predict the eddy currents losses precisely. To validate the empirical relations, experiments are repeated at a new frequency and values of power losses calculated from analytical equations are compared with the predicted values of the empirical models. The results point towards possibility to use the obtained empirical relations in order to calculate the classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D at the frequencies below 200 Hz and different values of magnetic flux density. - Highlights: • Classical eddy currents loss of Terfenol-D is studied using Maxwell's laws. • Excess eddy currents loss of Terfenol-D is studied using Mayergoyz nonlinear model. • Effects of Terfenol-D geometry on the eddy currents losses are investigated. • Power

  3. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation, and Their Combination on Brain Oscillations in Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain: A Pilot Crossover Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Aurore; Russo, Cristina; Hurtado-Puerto, Aura Maria; Morales-Quezada, Jorge Leon; Deitos, Alícia; Petrozza, John Christopher; Freedman, Steven; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain (CVP) syndromes are persistently painful disorders with a remarkable lack of effective treatment options. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different neuromodulation techniques in patients with CVP on cortical activity, through electreocephalography (EEG) and on pain perception, through clinical tests. A pilot crossover randomized controlled study. Out-patient. Adults with CVP (>3 months). Participants received four interventions in a randomized order: (1) transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined, (2) tPCS alone, (3) tDCS alone, and (4) sham condition. Resting state quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) and pain assessments were performed before and after each intervention. Results were compared with a cohort of 47 healthy controls. We enrolled six patients with CVP for a total of 21 visits completed. Compared with healthy participants, patients with CVP showed altered cortical activity characterized by increased power in theta, alpha and beta bands, and a significant reduction in the alpha/beta ratio. Regarding tES, the combination of tDCS with tPCS had no effect on power in any of the bandwidths, nor brain regions. Comparing tPCS with tDCS alone, we found that tPCS induced higher increase in power within the theta and alpha bandwidths. This study confirms that patients with CVP present abnormal EEG-indexed cortical activity compared with healthy controls. Moreover, we showed that combining two types of neurostimulation techniques had no effect, whereas the two interventions, when applied individually, have different neural signatures.

  4. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation, and Their Combination on Brain Oscillations in Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain: A Pilot Crossover Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveChronic visceral pain (CVP syndromes are persistently painful disorders with a remarkable lack of effective treatment options. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different neuromodulation techniques in patients with CVP on cortical activity, through electreocephalography (EEG and on pain perception, through clinical tests.DesignA pilot crossover randomized controlled study.SettingsOut-patient.SubjectsAdults with CVP (>3 months.MethodsParticipants received four interventions in a randomized order: (1 transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS and active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS combined, (2 tPCS alone, (3 tDCS alone, and (4 sham condition. Resting state quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and pain assessments were performed before and after each intervention. Results were compared with a cohort of 47 healthy controls.ResultsWe enrolled six patients with CVP for a total of 21 visits completed. Compared with healthy participants, patients with CVP showed altered cortical activity characterized by increased power in theta, alpha and beta bands, and a significant reduction in the alpha/beta ratio. Regarding tES, the combination of tDCS with tPCS had no effect on power in any of the bandwidths, nor brain regions. Comparing tPCS with tDCS alone, we found that tPCS induced higher increase in power within the theta and alpha bandwidths.ConclusionThis study confirms that patients with CVP present abnormal EEG-indexed cortical activity compared with healthy controls. Moreover, we showed that combining two types of neurostimulation techniques had no effect, whereas the two interventions, when applied individually, have different neural signatures.

  5. Effect of current density on the anodic behaviour of zircaloy-4 and niobium: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath Reddy, G.; Lavanya, A.; Ch Anjaneyulu

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of anodic oxidation of zircaloy-4 and niobium have been studied at current densities ranging from 2 to 14 mA.cm -2 at room temperature in order to investigate the dependence of ionic current density on the field across the oxide film. Thickness of the anodic films were estimated from capacitance data. The formation rate, current efficiency and differential field were found to increase with increase in the ionic current density for both zircaloy-4 and niobium. Plots of the logarithm of formation rate vs. logarithm of the current density are fairly linear. From linear plots of logarithm of ionic current density vs. differential field, and applying the Cabrera-Mott theory, the half-jump distance and the height of the energy barrier are deduced and compared. (author)

  6. Current clinical nutrition practices in critically ill patients in Latin America: a multinational observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Karin Papapietro; Martínez, Carolina Méndez; Matos Adames, Alfredo A; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa; Nogales, Guillermo Carlos Contreras; Paz, Roger Enrique Riofrio; Perman, Mario Ignacio; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2017-08-25

    Malnutrition in critically ill adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality. Adequate nutrition therapy is crucial to optimise outcomes. Currently, there is a paucity of such data in Latin America. Our aims were to characterise current clinical nutrition practices in the ICU setting in Latin America and evaluate whether current practices meet caloric and protein requirements in critically ill patients receiving nutrition therapy. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru). Eligible patients were critically ill adults hospitalised in the ICU and receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) on the Screening Day and the previous day (day -1). Caloric and protein balance on day -1, nutritional status, and prescribed nutrition therapy were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of reaching daily caloric and protein targets. The analysis included 1053 patients from 116 hospitals. Evaluation of nutritional status showed that 74.1% of patients had suspected/moderate or severe malnutrition according to the Subjective Global Assessment. Prescribed nutrition therapy included EN alone (79.9%), PN alone (9.4%), and EN + PN (10.7%). Caloric intake met >90% of the daily target in 59.7% of patients on day -1; a caloric deficit was present in 40.3%, with a mean (±SD) daily caloric deficit of -688.8 ± 455.2 kcal. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that combined administration of EN + PN was associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of meeting >90% of daily caloric and protein targets compared with EN alone (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.39; p = 0.038). In the ICU setting in Latin America, malnutrition was highly prevalent and caloric

  7. A statistical study of current-sheet formation above solar active regions based on selforganized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M.; Anastasiadis, A.; Toutountzi, A.

    2013-09-01

    We treat flaring solar active regions as physical systems having reached the self-organized critical state. Their evolving magnetic configurations in the low corona may satisfy an instability criterion, related to the excession of a specific threshold in the curl of the magnetic field. This imposed instability criterion implies an almost zero resistivity everywhere in the solar corona, except in regions where magnetic-field discontinuities and. hence, local currents, reach the critical value. In these areas, current-driven instabilities enhance the resistivity by many orders of magnitude forming structures which efficiently accelerate charged particles. Simulating the formation of such structures (thought of as current sheets) via a refined SOC cellular-automaton model provides interesting information regarding their statistical properties. It is shown that the current density in such unstable regions follows power-law scaling. Furthermore, the size distribution of the produced current sheets is best fitted by power laws, whereas their formation probability is investigated against the photospheric magnetic configuration (e.g. Polarity Inversion Lines, Plage). The average fractal dimension of the produced current sheets is deduced depending on the selected critical threshold. The above-mentioned statistical description of intermittent electric field structures can be used by collisional relativistic test particle simulations, aiming to interpret particle acceleration in flaring active regions and in strongly turbulent media in astrophysical plasmas. The above work is supported by the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) via the THALIS Programme.

  8. Tutorial: Asteroseismic Stellar Modelling with AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Reese, Daniel R.

    The goal of aims (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) is to estimate stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of asteroseismic frequency data and so-called classical constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency, it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm—interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modelling consist of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classical spectroscopic constraints. aims is mostly written in Python with a modular structure to facilitate contributions from the community. Only a few computationally intensive parts have been rewritten in Fortran in order to speed up calculations.

  9. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  10. Aims and methods of nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leven, D.; Schier, H.

    1979-05-01

    Whilst international safeguarding of fissile materials against abuse has been the subject of extensive debate, little public attention has so far been devoted to the internal security of these materials. All countries using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes have laid down appropriate regulations. In the Federal Republic of Germany safeguards are required, for instance, by the Atomic Energy Act, and are therefore a prerequisite for licensing. The aims and methods of national nuclear materials management are contrasted with viewpoints on international safeguards

  11. CURRENT ISSUES ON JOB STRESS IN JAPAN AND WORKSITE MENTAL HEALTH APPLICATION AMONG JAPANESE COMPANY A Case Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S Purnawati

    2013-01-01

    Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstud...

  12. Studies of non-inductive current drive in the CDX-U tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of novel, non-inductive current drive concepts for starting-up and maintaining tokamak discharges, dc-helicity injection and internally-generated pressure-driven currents, have been developed on the CDX-U tokamak. To study the equilibrium and transport of these plasmas, a full set of magnetic diagnostics was installed. By applying a finite element method and a least squares error fitting technique, internal plasma current distributions are reconstructed from the measurements. Electron density distributions were obtained from 2 mm interferometer measurements by a similar least squares error technique utilizing magnetic flux configurations obtained by the magnetic analysis. Neoclassical pressure-driven currents in ECH plasmas are modeled with the reconstructed magnetic structure, using the electron density distribution and the electron temperature profile measured by a Langmuir probe. In the dc-helicity injection scheme, the need to increase injection current and maintain plasma equilibrium restricts possible arrangements. Several injection configurations were investigated, with the best found to be outside injection with a single divertor configuration, where the cathode is placed at the low field side of the x-point. Both pressure-driven and dc-helicity injected tokamaks show the importance of plasma equilibrium in obtaining high plasma current. Programmed vertical field operation has proven to be very important in achieving high plasma current. These non-inductive current drive techniques show great potential as efficient current drive methods for future steady-state and/or long-pulse fusion reactors

  13. Rifkin takes aim at USDA animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey L

    1984-10-19

    Jeremy Rifkin has filed a lawsuit to block U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) experiments involving the transfer of human growth hormone genes into sheep and pigs, which he rejects on environmental, economic, and ethical grounds. His real target is the Department's animal breeding program; his ultimate aim is "to establish the principle that there should be no crossing of species barriers in animals." USDA officials have not yet responded to the lawsuit but they intend to continue the experiments, which they consider crucial to the progress of research, until told to stop.

  14. The aims of transfer prices formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two-thirds of today's world trade comprises of transactions between related legal persons. Prices for the above-mentioned transactions within legal person or group of related legal persons are called transfer pricing. The aim of this paper is to present the transfer prices as well as the main objectives of transfer pricing. Also, this paper explains application of transfer pricing in the Republic of Serbia and the normative rules that cover the issue of transfer pricing, their determination and their application in the calculation. Overall, there has been a great deal of attention paid to the transfer pricing in national and international levels.

  15. Study of leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted surface of ceramic insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Reddy, B.; Nagabhushana, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observed that there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage. The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV. Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flow as the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dray band and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, here also, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages. Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis-the leakage currents are lower in the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutant layer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a direct quantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized

  16. Current status and perceived needs of information technology in Critical Access Hospitals: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demiris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The US Congress established the designation of Critical Access Hospitals in 1997, recognising rural hospitals as vital links to health for rural and underserved populations. The intent of the reimbursement system is to improve financial performance, thereby reducing hospital closures. Informatics applications are thought to be tools that can enable the sustainability of such facilities. The aim of this study is to identify the current use of information and communication technology in Critical Access Hospitals, and to assess their readiness and receptiveness for the use of new software and hardware applications and their perceived information technology (IT needs. A survey was mailed to the administrators of all Critical Access Hospitals in one US state (Missouri and a reminder was mailed a few weeks later. Twenty-seven out of 33 surveys were filled out and returned (response rate 82%. While most respondents (66.7% stated that their employees have been somewhat comfortable in using new technology, almost 15% stated that their employees have been somewhat uncomfortable. Similarly, almost 12% of the respondents stated that they themselves felt somewhat uncomfortable introducing new technology. While all facilities have computers, only half of them have a specific IT plan. Findings indicate that Critical Access Hospitals are often struggling with lack of resources and specific applications that address their needs. However, it is widely recognised that IT plays an essential role in the sustainability of their organisations. The study demonstrates that IT applications have to be customised to address the needs and infrastructure of the rural settings in order to be accepted and properly utilised.

  17. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation of the lumbar and sacral spinal cord: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sofia R.; Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; de Carvalho, Mamede; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Our aim was to perform a computational study of the electric field (E-field) generated by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied over the thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord, in order to assess possible neuromodulatory effects on spinal cord circuitry related with lower limb functions. Approach. A realistic volume conductor model of the human body consisting of 14 tissues was obtained from available databases. Rubber pad electrodes with a metallic connector and a conductive gel layer were modelled. The finite element (FE) method was used to calculate the E-field when a current of 2.5 mA was passed between two electrodes. The main characteristics of the E-field distributions in the spinal grey matter (spinal-GM) and spinal white matter (spinal-WM) were compared for seven montages, with the anode placed either over T10, T8 or L2 spinous processes (s.p.), and the cathode placed over right deltoid (rD), umbilicus (U) and right iliac crest (rIC) areas or T8 s.p. Anisotropic conductivity of spinal-WM and of a group of dorsal muscles near the vertebral column was considered. Main results. The average E-field magnitude was predicted to be above 0.15 V m-1 in spinal cord regions located between the electrodes. L2-T8 and T8-rIC montages resulted in the highest E-field magnitudes in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (>0.30 V m-1). E-field longitudinal component is 3 to 6 times higher than the ventral-dorsal and right-left components in both the spinal-GM and WM. Anatomical features such as CSF narrowing due to vertebrae bony edges or disks intrusions in the spinal canal correlate with local maxima positions. Significance. Computational modelling studies can provide detailed information regarding the electric field in the spinal cord during tsDCS. They are important to guide the design of clinical tsDCS protocols that optimize stimulation of application-specific spinal targets.

  18. Feasibility of the current-duration approach to studying human fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slama, Rémy; Ducot, Béatrice; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    of unprotected intercourse was defined for 69 women (5.7%). An additional 15 women (1.2%) were planning to start trying to become pregnant within the next 6 months. Parametric methods allowed, based on current duration of unprotected intercourse, estimation of fecundity as if the couples had been followed...... up (current-duration design). To illustrate the feasibility of the current-duration design, we contacted a random sample of 1204 French women age 18 to 44 years in 2004 and recruited those who were currently having unprotected sexual intercourse. The current duration since the beginning...... prospectively. The estimated proportion of couples not pregnant after 12 months of unprotected intercourse was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15-54%). The accelerated-failure time model allows study of the influence of environmental factors on fecundity. As an illustration, tobacco smoking by the woman...

  19. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  20. The use of cloud computing services by Portuguese’s Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) : a study which aims to understand to what extent are Portuguese’s SMEs managers using and managing cloud computing services

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Diogo Miguel de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to understand to what extent are the Portuguese SMEs using and managing Cloud Computing services. This work strives to understand if the managers of the Portuguese SMEs are knowledgeable to embrace this technology, and identify which areas of the Portuguese SMEs’ value chain is Cloud Computing being currently applied and which areas are expected to be explored in the future. In order to address the main objective of this dissertation, an on-line questi...

  1. Factors influencing the current practice of self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brata, Cecilia; Fisher, Colleen; Marjadi, Brahmaputra; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2016-05-13

    Research has shown that the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in Indonesia is suboptimal. To improve the performance of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies, the factors that influence current practice need to be understood. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted with pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, pharmacy owners, and counter attendants. Thematic analysis was used to generate findings. The current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations is directly influenced by the professionalism of pharmacy staff and patient responses to the consultations. These factors are in turn affected by the organisational context of the pharmacy and the external pharmacy environment. The organisational context of the pharmacy includes staffing, staff affordability, and the availability of time and facilities in which to provide consultations. The external pharmacy environment includes the number of trained pharmacy staff in the research setting, the relevance of pharmacy education to the needs of pharmacy practice, the support offered by the Indonesian Pharmacists Association, a competitive business environment, and the policy environment. Complex and inter-related factors influence the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies in this research setting. Multiple strategies will be required to improve consultation practices.

  2. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almeida Laires

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging of the population and early retirement translates into productivity losses to society. Persistence of working life is crucial to counteract this sustainability issue faced by western countries. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases (RD may cause work disability and early exit from work, including early retirement. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge about interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to RD. Methods: We searched PubMed and The Cochrane Library for studies either in English or Portuguese between January 2000 and June 2016 that evaluated the impact of interventions targeting early retirement in RD patients still at work. We also searched for grey literature from Portuguese institutional repositories. Results: We identified several published studies testing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic vocational rehabilitation interventions. None was specifically identified for Portugal. The general low quality of the literature and its inconsistency makes it unfeasible to draw definitive conclusions. However, some broad recommendations might be outlined. An effective intervention must: 1 act upon different levels (e.g. RD patient, workplace, involving several stakeholders (e.g. rheumatologists, occupational physicians, employers; 2 prioritize the right patients (e.g. more disabling RD; and 3 consider the patients’ role, for instance by including an element of patient education and support. Despite the lack of good quality evidence on this field, there seems to be a growing interest in the international scientific community with several ongoing studies promoting such interventions. This promising data will be very useful to set up effective policies. Conclusions: This article summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of interventions to avoid or mitigate early retirement in RD patients. It highlights the demand for further research and it also contributes to aware decision

  4. Study of plasma equilibrium during the AC current reversal phase in STOR-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, C.

    2002-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) tokamak operation and equilibrium studies have been performed on the STOR-M tokamak. The recent experiments have achieved consistent smooth current reversal through the implementation of a hybrid digital-analog position controller and by careful density control. In order to study the plasma equilibrium during the current reversal phase with negligible rotational transform, a segmented limiter with four isolated conducting plates has been installed. The plates can be connected outside the vacuum vessel, which allows measurements of currents flowing between limiter plates. When the current reversal is smooth with zero dwell time, the hydrogen line emission level and electron density remain finite, indicating a finite particle confinement. The current from the top to the bottom limiter plate is also finite and its direction is consistent with that of the grad-B drift. The observation suggests that the limiter and other conducting structures surrounding the plasmas plays the role, during the current reversal phase of AC tokamak operation, to short out the charge separation arising from the grad-B drift and to maintain a finite particle confinement. (author)

  5. A Numerical Modeling for Study Marine Current in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parabelem Tinno Dolf Rompas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is investigating about marine currents provided electrical energy through the numerical model. The objective of this study is to know the available power distributions in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Manado Bay was width 2200 m with 79 m of depth. In computation, we are made grids in x and y horizontal were 7 m respectively, also for z vertical of four layers. The results shown that the available power distributions in the Manado Bay at 0.1 Sv were 0.00-20.00 kW/m2 when low tide currents and when high tide currents were 0.00-105 kW/m2. The values will enable for marine currents power plant in the Manado Bay to future.

  6. Stimulating thought: a functional MRI study of transcranial direct current stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; O'Daly, Owen; Tracy, Derek K; Daniju, Yusuf; Hodsoll, John; Valdearenas, Lorena; Rothwell, John; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel neuromodulatory technique with emerging evidence of potential pro-cognitive effects; however, there is limited understanding of its mechanism. This was a double-blind randomized sham controlled pilot study of transcranial direct current stimulation on a working memory (n-back) and executive function (Stroop) task in 28 individuals with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Study participants received 30 min of real or sham transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the left frontal cortex. The 'real' and 'sham' groups did not differ in online working memory task performance, but the transcranial direct current stimulation group demonstrated significant improvement in performance at 24 h post-transcranial direct current stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with increased activation in the medial frontal cortex beneath the anode; showing a positive correlation with consolidated working memory performance 24 h post-stimulation. There was reduced activation in the left cerebellum in the transcranial direct current stimulation group, with no change in the middle frontal gyrus or parietal cortices. Improved performance on the executive function task was associated with reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulated functional activation in local task-related regions, and in more distal nodes in the network. Transcranial direct current stimulation offers a potential novel approach to altering frontal cortical activity and exerting pro-cognitive effects in schizophrenia. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  7. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, Laura [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation for depression in Alzheimer's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Zui; Yokoi, Yuma

    2017-06-19

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease frequently elicit neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as cognitive deficits. Above all, depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease but antidepressant drugs have not shown significant beneficial effects on it. Moreover, electroconvulsive therapy has not ensured its safety for potential severe adverse events although it does show beneficial clinical effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be the safe alternative of neuromodulation, which applies weak direct electrical current to the brain. Although transcranial direct current stimulation has plausible evidence for its effect on depression in young adult patients, no study has explored it in older subjects with depression in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we present a study protocol designed to evaluate the safety and clinical effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on depression in Alzheimer's disease in subjects aged over 65 years. This is a two-arm, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial, in which patients and assessors will be blinded. Subjects will be randomized to either an active or a sham transcranial direct current stimulation group. Participants in both groups will be evaluated at baseline, immediately, and 2 weeks after the intervention. This study investigates the safety and effect of transcranial direct current stimulation that may bring a significant impact on both depression and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and may be useful to enhance their quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02351388 . Registered on 27 January 2015. Last updated on 30 May 2016.

  9. An image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation system: a pilot phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Daejeong; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation (IG-tDCS) system that can deliver an increased stimulation current to a target brain area without the need to adjust the location of an active electrode was implemented. This IG-tDCS system was based on the array-type tDCS concept, which was validated through computer simulations in a previous study. Unlike a previous study, the present IG-tDCS system adopts a single reference electrode and an active electrode array consisting of 16 (4 × 4) sub-electrodes. The proposed IG-tDCS system is capable of shaping current flow inside the human head by controlling the input currents of the arrayed electrodes. Once a target brain area has been selected, the optimal injection current of each arrayed sub-electrode is evaluated automatically using a genetic algorithm in order to deliver the maximum available current to the target area. The operation of our pilot system was confirmed through a simple phantom experiment. (paper)

  10. A case study exploring the current issues faced by diploma-prepared nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droskinis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Nursing is a dynamic and rapidly progressing field. As the profession changes over time, it is vital to study how these transformations influence the workforce. In this study, the aim was to explore how diploma-prepared nurses are functioning in the acute care setting and how modifications in educational requirements and technological advancement have affected their nursing practice.

  11. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA, 01854 (United States); Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman, E-mail: vikas_kaushal@student.uml.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, NY, 14627 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics{sup TM} (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  12. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin; Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics TM (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  13. Experimental study on the evolution of Peregrine breather with uniform-depth adverse currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B.; Ma, Y.; Ma, X.; Dong, G.

    2018-05-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed to study the evolution of Peregrine breather (PB) in a wave flume in finite depth, and wave trains were initially generated in a region of quiescent water and then propagated into an adverse current region for which the current velocity strength gradually increased from zero to an approximately stable value. The PB is often considered as a prototype of oceanic freak waves that can focus wave energy into a single wave packet. In the experiment, the cases were selected with the relative water depths k0h (k0 is the wave number in quiescent water and h is the water depth) varying from 3.11 through 8.17, and the initial wave steepness k0a0 (a0 is the background wave amplitude) ranges between 0.065 and 0.120. The experimental results show the persistence of the breather evolution dynamics even in the presence of strong opposing currents. We have shown that the characteristic spectrum of the PB persists even on strong currents, thus making it a viable characteristic for prediction of freak waves. It was also found that the adverse currents tend to shift the focusing point upstream compared to the cases without currents. Furthermore, it was found that uniform-depth adverse currents can reduce the breather extension in time domain.

  14. A study of direct- and pulse-current chromium electroplating on rotating cylinder electrode (RCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.H.; Hsu, F.Y.; Liao, M.J.; Huang, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct- and pulse-current (DC and PC) chromium electroplating on Cr-Mo steel were performed in a sulfate-catalyzed chromic acid solution at 50 deg. C using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). The electroplating cathodic current densities were at 30, 40, 50 and 60 A dm -2 , respectively. The relationship between electroplating current efficiency and the rotating speed of the RCE was studied. The cross-sectional microstructure of Cr-deposit was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that DC-plating exhibited higher current efficiency than the PC-plating under the same conditions of electroplating current density and the rotating speed. We found the critical rotating speed of RCE used in the chromium electroplating, above this rotating speed the chromium deposition is prohibited. At the same plating current density, the critical rotating speed for DC-plating was higher than that for PC-plating. The higher plating current density is, the larger difference in critical rotating speeds appears between DC- and PC-electroplating. Equiaxed grains, in a nanoscale size with lower dislocation density, nucleate on the cathodic surface in both DC- and PC-electroplating. Adjacent to the equiaxed grains, textured grains were found in other portion of chromium deposit. Fine columnar grains were observed in the DC-electroplated deposit. On the other hand, very long slender grains with high degree of preferred orientation were detected in PC-electroplated deposit

  15. Numerical and experimental studies of stack shunt current for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Cong; Guo, Shaoyun; Fang, Honglin; Liu, Jiayi; Li, Yang; Tang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional model of VRB cell stack is developed. • Shunt current of the stack is studied with the model and experiment. • Increased electrolyte resistance in channel and manifold lowers the shunt current. • Shunt current loss increases with stack cell number nonlinearly. - Abstract: The stack shunt current of VRB (vanadium redox flow battery) was investigated with experiments and 3D (three-dimensional) simulations. In the proposed model, cell voltages and electrolyte conductivities were calculated based on electrochemical reaction distributions and SOC (state of charge) values, respectively, while coulombic loss was estimated according to shunt current and vanadium ionic crossover through membrane. Shunt current distributions and coulombic efficiency are analyzed in terms of electrolyte conductivities and stack cell numbers. The distributions of cell voltages and shunt currents calculated with proposed model are validated with single cell and short stack tests. The model can be used to optimize VRB stack manifold and channel designs to improve VRB system efficiency

  16. Effectiveness of a virtual intervention for primary healthcare professionals aimed at improving attitudes towards the empowerment of patients with chronic diseases: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial (e-MPODERA project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-González, Ana Isabel; Orrego, Carola; Perestelo-Perez, Lilisbeth; Bermejo-Caja, Carlos Jesús; Mora, Nuria; Koatz, Débora; Ballester, Marta; Del Pino, Tasmania; Pérez-Ramos, Jeannet; Toledo-Chavarri, Ana; Robles, Noemí; Pérez-Rivas, Francisco Javier; Ramírez-Puerta, Ana Belén; Canellas-Criado, Yolanda; Del Rey-Granado, Yolanda; Muñoz-Balsa, Marcos José; Becerril-Rojas, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Morales, David; Sánchez-Perruca, Luis; Vázquez, José Ramón; Aguirre, Armando

    2017-10-30

    Communities of practice are based on the idea that learning involves a group of people exchanging experiences and knowledge. The e-MPODERA project aims to assess the effectiveness of a virtual community of practice aimed at improving primary healthcare professional attitudes to the empowerment of patients with chronic diseases. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. We will randomly assign 18 primary-care practices per participating region of Spain (Catalonia, Madrid and Canary Islands) to a virtual community of practice or to usual training. The primary-care practice will be the randomization unit and the primary healthcare professional will be the unit of analysis. We will need a sample of 270 primary healthcare professionals (general practitioners and nurses) and 1382 patients. We will perform randomization after professionals and patients are selected. We will ask the intervention group to participate for 12 months in a virtual community of practice based on a web 2.0 platform. We will measure the primary outcome using the Patient-Provider Orientation Scale questionnaire administered at baseline and after 12 months. Secondary outcomes will be the sociodemographic characteristics of health professionals, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients, the Patient Activation Measure questionnaire for patient activation and outcomes regarding use of the virtual community of practice. We will calculate a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the effect of participating in the virtual community of practice. This cluster randomized controlled trial will show whether a virtual intervention for primary healthcare professionals improves attitudes to the empowerment of patients with chronic diseases. ClicalTrials.gov, NCT02757781 . Registered on 25 April 2016. Protocol Version. PI15.01 22 January 2016.

  17. Study of local currents in low dimension materials using complex injecting potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenglai; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2018-04-01

    A complex potential is constructed to inject electrons into the conduction band, mimicking electron currents in nanoscale systems. The injected electrons are time propagated until a steady state is reached. The local current density can then be calculated to show the path of the conducting electrons on an atomistic level. The method allows for the calculation of the current density vectors within the medium as a function of energy of the conducting electron. Using this method, we investigate the electron pathway of graphene nanoribbons in various structures, molecular junctions, and black phosphorus nanoribbons. By analyzing the current flow through the structures, we find strong dependence on the structural geometry and the energy of the injected electrons. This method may be of general use in the study of nano-electronic materials and interfaces.

  18. Numerical studies on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by radio frequency current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, X.D.; Guenter, S.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical modeling on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by localized radio frequency (rf) current drive has been carried out to study the effects of various wave and plasma parameters on the stabilization and the associated physics. The change of the rf current profile due to the magnetic island has been taken into account by modeling the two-dimensional transport of the fast electrons induced by the rf wave. It is found that, when the rf deposition width is much larger than the island width, the modulated rf current drive to deposit the rf current around the island's o point has a stronger stabilizing effect than a nonmodulated one. The slowing down time of the fast electrons and the initial island width when applying the rf wave are also found to be important in determining the stabilizing effect

  19. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  20. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Michele Devido; Gagliardi, Rubens José; Mac-Kay, Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio, Paulo Sergio; Lianza, Roberta; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034), naming (P = 0.041) and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038). Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  1. SBARMO, its scientific aims and its organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiter, L.D. de.

    1976-01-01

    SBARMO (Scientific Ballooning and Radiations Monitoring Organisation), known as SPARMO (Solar Particles and Radiations Monitoring Organisation) until 1973, was established in 1961, mainly for the purpose of coordinating balloon-borne measurements of solar energetic particles. The study of auroral X-rays has gradually replaced the study of energetic solar particles as the prime interest of the organisation. The change of name, as adopted during the 1972 Meeting in Graz (Austria) is a logical consequence of the more general orientation of the organisation. The international status of SBARMO is emphasized by its membership of the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services (FAGS) of the International Council of Scientific Unions

  2. Multilevel interventions aimed at adult obesity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....

  3. Experimental studies of 2.45 GHz ECR ion sources for the production of high intensity currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coly, A.

    2010-12-01

    This thesis is the result of a collaboration between the Pantechnik company and the LPSC (Laboratory of subatomic physics and cosmology of Grenoble). It consisted in the development of a new test bench dedicated to the characterization of a 2.45 GHz ECR ion sources with the aim of the production of high currents beams for industrial purposes. Two ECR ions sources with different magnetic structures have been tested around the same RF injection system. A new 2.45 GHz ECRIS, named SPEED, featuring a dipolar magnetic field at the extraction has been designed and tested. A study of the beam extraction in the dipolar magnetic field is proposed. First tests have shown a total ionic current density of about 10 mA/cm 2 with a 900 W RF power. Tests with hydrogen plasma have shown a maximum of current on the H 2 + species. Recommendations are given to modify the magnetic structure to improve the H + production yield. The MONO1000 ion source has been tested at high RF power with a wave guide type injection system. Intense total ionic current densities have been measured up to about 95 mA/cm 2 with a diode extraction system. First results using an improved 5 electrode extraction system are presented. (author)

  4. Field aligned current study during the solar declining- extreme minimum of 23 solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepolian, Jeni Victor; Kumar, Anil; C, Panneerselvam

    Field Aligned Current (FAC) density study has been carried out during the solar declining phase from 2004 to 2006 of the 23rd solar cycle and the ambient terrestrial magnetic field of the extended minimum period of 2008 and 2009. We mainly depended on CHAMP satellite data (http://isdc.gfz-potsdam.de/) for computing the FAC density with backup of IGRF-10 model. The study indicates that, the FAC is controlled by quasi-viscous processes occurring at the flank of the earth’s magnetosphere. The dawn-dusk conventional pattern enhanced during disturbed days. The intensity of R1 current system is higher than the R2 current system. Detailed results will be discussed in the conference.

  5. Study of the antineutrino-induced elastic semi-leptonic neutral current reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racca, C.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the elastic neutral current reaction antiνsub(μ)p→antiνsub(μ)p has been done using Gargamelle filled with propane and the antineutrino beam of the CERN P.S. The space-time structure of the weak neutral current is discussed, the predictions of various V-A models for the ratio of neutral to charged current elastic cross-sections Rsup(antiν) are given. The experimental set-up, the scanning criteria and the program of reconstruction are described. The background due to the contamination by the reaction np→np principally is studied. Cuts are defined to resorbe these backgrounds and corrections are made for other backgrounds and losses. The results are compared with those of the reaction antiνsub(μ)p→μ + n and the ratio Rsup(antiν) is calculated. An upper limit of this ratio is given and the results are discussed [fr

  6. Effectiveness of an implementation optimisation intervention aimed at increasing parent engagement in HENRY, a childhood obesity prevention programme - the Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Burton, Wendy; Cundill, Bonnie; Farrin, Amanda J; Nixon, Jane; Stevens, June; Roberts, Kim; Foy, Robbie; Rutter, Harry; Hartley, Suzanne; Tubeuf, Sandy; Collinson, Michelle; Brown, Julia

    2017-01-24

    Family-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity depend upon parents' taking action to improve diet and other lifestyle behaviours in their families. Programmes that attract and retain high numbers of parents provide an enhanced opportunity to improve public health and are also likely to be more cost-effective than those that do not. We have developed a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement within an existing childhood obesity prevention group programme, HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young). Here, we describe a proposal to evaluate the effectiveness of this optimisation intervention in regard to the engagement of parents and cost-effectiveness. The Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial is a cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted across 24 local authorities (approximately 144 children's centres) which currently deliver HENRY programmes. The primary outcome will be parental enrolment and attendance at the HENRY programme, assessed using routinely collected process data. Cost-effectiveness will be presented in terms of primary outcomes using acceptability curves and through eliciting the willingness to pay for the optimisation from HENRY commissioners. Secondary outcomes include the longitudinal impact of the optimisation, parent-reported infant intake of fruits and vegetables (as a proxy to compliance) and other parent-reported family habits and lifestyle. This innovative trial will provide evidence on the implementation of a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement in HENRY, a community-based childhood obesity prevention programme. The findings will be generalisable to other interventions delivered to parents in other community-based environments. This research meets the expressed needs of commissioners, children's centres and parents to optimise the potential impact that HENRY has on obesity prevention. A subsequent cluster randomised controlled pilot

  7. Analysis techniques of charging damage studied on three different high-current ion implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felch, S. B.; Larson, L. A.; Current, M. I.; Lindsey, D. W.

    1989-02-01

    One of the Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group's recent activities has been to sponsor a round-robin on charging damage, where identical wafers were implanted on three different state-of-the-art, high-current ion implanters. The devices studied were thin-dielectric (250 Å SiO2), polysilicon-gate MOS capacitors isolated by thick field oxide. The three implanters involved were the Varian/Extrion 160XP, the Eaton/Nova 10-80, and the Applied Materials PI9000. Each implanter vendor was given 48 wafers to implant with 100 keV As+ ions at a dose of 1 × 1016 cm-2. Parameters that were varied include the beam current, electron flood gun current, and chamber pressure. The charge-to-breakdown, breakdown voltage, and leakage current of several devices before anneal have been measured. The results from these tests were inconclusive as to the physical mechanism of charging and as to the effectiveness of techniques to reduce its impact on devices. However, the methodology of this study is discussed in detail to aid in the planning of future experiments. Authors' industrial affiliations: S.B. Felch, Varian Research Center, 611 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA; L.A. Larson, National Semiconductor Corp., P.O. Box 58090, Santa Clara, CA 95052-8090, USA; M.I. Current, Applied Materials, 3050 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA; D.W. Lindsey, Eaton/NOVA, 931 Benicia Ave, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA.

  8. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  9. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  10. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  11. To What Extent Does Current Scientific Research and Textbook Content Align? A Methodology and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Schwartz, Renee S.; Gill, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in education recommend science curricula to be based on central ideas instead of a larger number of topics and for alignment between current scientific research and curricula. Because alignment is rarely studied, especially for central ideas, we developed a methodology to discover the extent of alignment between primary…

  12. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  13. Correlations and currents in 3He studied with the (e, e'pp) reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groep, David Leo

    2000-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon correlations, especially those of short-range character, can be well studied with electron-induced two-nucleon knockout reactions at intermediate electron energies. However, these reactions are not only driven by one-body currents, i.e., coupling of the virtual photon to one of

  14. Parametric study of lower-hybrid current drive in the FED-A design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, H.; Ehst, D.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-08-01

    In the FED-A concept, a quasi-steady-state operating scenario is conceived in which the plasma current is maintained by the transformer coil during burn at high density and by the lower hybrid wave during transformer recharge at low density. A parametric study is carried out to obtain optimum plasma and wave parameters in the recharging phase

  15. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities over...... and intelligent regimes – is used to propose a way out of the current governance impasse at the universities....

  16. Ocean Science Video Challenge Aims to Improve Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    Given today's enormous management and protection challenges related to the world's oceans, a new competition calls on ocean scientists to effectively communicate their research in videos that last up to 3 minutes. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge, named for the number of seconds in 3 minutes, aims to improve ocean science communication while providing high school and middle school teachers and students with new and interesting educational materials about current science topics.

  17. An experimental study of particle-driven gravity currents on steep slopes with entrainment of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rastello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of laboratory experiments are presented in which a finite suspension of sawdust particles was released instantaneously into a rectangular channel immersed in a water tank. Two kinds of gravity currents were studied: currents with or without entrainment of particles from the bed. Experiments were repeated for two slopes: 30° and 45°. We observed that the velocity of the front was significantly in-creased as particle entrainment occurred. In addition, our experiments showed that the front kept a quasi-constant velocity for both runs. This might suggest that the flow regime corresponded to the "slumping regime" or "adjustment phase" described earlier by Huppert and Simpson (1980.

  18. Study on ICT specification devices compared with needs and current technologies at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fauzi Haris; Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Hafez Mohd Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In line with current development of ICT, Malaysian government has planned and introduced several initiatives based on ICT strategies. In Economic Transformation Programs, these matters were mentioned in Chapter 13 entitled Communication Content and Infrastructure. In order to make these plans successful, sustainability and preparedness of ICT are required. ICT devices were not focused only on computer but also others components that supported and increased the performance of computer itself. This paper discussed on data produced from study of current ICT needs in line with technology and in future hopefully it can support all the planning made by the government. (author)

  19. Comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, S.

    2009-07-01

    During the past two decades, active power filters have increasingly grown their popularity as a viable method for improving electric power quality. The main reasons for this have been the advent of fast self-commutating solid-state devices, the progression of digital technology and the improved sensor technology. Four-wire active power filters provide an efficient solution for improving the quality of supply in grounded three-phase systems or three-phase systems with neutral conductors, which are commonly used for powering residential, office and public buildings. Four-wire active power filters are applicable in compensating current harmonics, reactive power, neutral current and load phase imbalance.This thesis presents a comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters. The study includes two voltage source topologies and a current source topology with two different dc-link energy storage structures, which are compared on the basis of their filtering properties, filtering performance and efficiency. The obtained results are used for determining the suitability of current source technology for four-wire active power filtering and finding the most viable four-wire shunt active power filter topology. One commonly recognized disadvantage of the current source active power filter has always been the bulky dc-link inductor. To reduce the size of the dc-link inductor, an alternative dc-link structure for current source active power filters was introduced in the late 80's. The hybrid energy storage consists of both inductive and capacitive energy storage elements, two diodes and two controllable semiconductor switching devices. Since the capacitive element is used as a main storage unit, the inductance of the dc-link inductor can be considerably reduced. However, the original dc current control method proposed is not able to utilize the full potential of the hybrid energy storage and the inductance

  20. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  1. Modelling the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome or stroke: aims, design, and validation properties of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2010-09-14

    In this paper the methodology and procedures of a case-control study that will be developed for assessing the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome and stroke is presented. Based on statistical power calculations, 1000 participants will be enrolled; of them, 250 will be consecutive patients with a first acute coronary event, 250 consecutive patients with a first ischaemic stroke, and 500 population-based healthy subjects (controls), age and sex matched to the cases. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological, and other lifestyle characteristics will be measured. Dietary habits and eating behaviours will be evaluated with a special questionnaire that has been developed for the study.

  2. AIM analysis, synthetic, kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis (NPA), atoms in molecules (AIM) methods and CHelpG keyword. ... obtained from studies of the effect of solvent, structure of reactions (different alkyl groups within the dialkyl ...... compounds) have provided useful evidence for steps 1.

  3. Outcome of retrospective and prospective multicenter cooperative clinical studies of spinal lipoma aiming for elucidating its natural history and for planning its treatment, and usefulness of neuroendoscope in its diagnosis and surgery assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Michiyasu; Nomura, Sadahiro; Oi, Shizuo; Mori, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Yuichiro; Tamogami, Ryo; Khasawneh, Nidal; Jianxin, Du

    2008-01-01

    The rate of manifestation of spinal lipoma (SL) is essentially unknown and propriety of its treatment is still controversial. Started in 2006 a prospective study by 7 facilities (COE-SB Top 7) to elucidate the natural history by such a mean as seeing the age distribution in SL manifestation, and to find applicable factors for conducting prophylactic surgery by such evaluation as improvable symptoms and surgical complication. Facilities also retrospectively summarized their outcomes of surgery and of conservative follow-up in the past 5 years. Further, evaluated was the usefulness of neuroendoscopic observation and assistance in diagnosis and operation, because diagnosis for predicting the neurological prognosis is often difficult by preoperative MRI alone and is changeable by surgical findings due to complex SL structures. This paper is a report describing tentative results of the prospective study above in the first 1 year, of the retrospective one and of the endoscopic utility. Subjects were 45 patients (21 cases, <1 year after birth; asymptomatic, 29 and symptomatic, 16) in the prospective study and 261 patients (asymptomatic, 159 and symptomatic, 102) in the retrospective. The endoscope used was an Oi-Samii Handy Pro type. Neurological symptom was assessed by Spina Befida Neurological Scale (1992). Patients were classified according to Embryo-pathogenetic and Surgico-anatomical Classification of Spina Bifida (2002). Results were: the prevalence was 15% at birth and increased afterwards; prognosis post surgery was poor in transitional SL; symptomatic improvement by operation was small; operative complication was scarce; and endoscope was conceivably useful for diagnosis and operative assistance. (R.T.)

  4. Assessment and management of adult cancer pain: a systematic review and synthesis of recent qualitative studies aimed at developing insights for managing barriers and optimizing facilitators within a comprehensive framework of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Green, Anna; Boyle, Frances; Stubbs, John; Lovell, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    Cancer pain is a common, burdensome problem, which is not well managed despite evidence-based guidelines. To develop insights for managing barriers and optimizing facilitators to adult cancer pain assessment and management within a comprehensive framework of patient care. We undertook a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies. Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts were searched from May 20 to 26, 2011. To be included, the articles had to be published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000; written in English; and report original qualitative studies on the perspectives of patients, their significant others, or health care providers. Article quality was rated using the checklist of Kitto et al. Thematic synthesis followed a three-stage approach using Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre-Reviewer 4 software: 1) free line-by-line coding of "Results," 2) organization into "descriptive" themes, and 3) development of "analytical" themes informative to our objective. At Stage 3, a conceptual framework was selected from the peer-reviewed literature according to prima facie "fit" for descriptive themes. Of 659 articles screened, 70 met the criteria, reporting 65 studies with 48 patient, 19 caregiver, and 21 health care provider samples. Authors rarely reported reflexivity or negative cases. Mead and Bower's model of patient-centered care accommodated 85% of the descriptive themes; 12% more related to the caregiver and service/system factors. Three themes could not be accommodated. Findings highlight the need to integrate patient/family education within improved communication, individualize care, use more nonpharmacological strategies, empower patients/families to self-manage pain, and reorganize multidisciplinary roles around patient-centered care and outcomes. These conclusions require validation via consensus and intervention trials. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published

  5. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  6. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility; Estudo termohidraulico de um elemento combustivel tipo MTR visando a construcao de um dispositivo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-07-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  7. Conditions promoting and restraining agronomic effectiveness of water-insoluble phosphate sources, in particular phosphate rock (PR): III. 32P-aided soil-PR interaction studies aimed at enhancing P bioavailability from PR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlan, Z.; Soare, M.; Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A.; Stefanescu, D.

    2002-01-01

    Mobilization of PR and bioavailability of PR-P for plants takes place through complex chemical and biochemical processes that occurs during prolonged soil interaction with PR. There is a high probability that certain processes of a biochemical nature are also involved through proteinaceous ion carriers whose concentration and physiological activity in plant roots may be influenced by means of specially formulated foliar fertilizer compositions. 32 P-aided studies have contributed to identify possibilities of enhancing PR-P bioavailability through foliar fertilizer application. (author)

  8. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility; Estudo termohidraulico de um elemento combustivel tipo MTR visando a construcao de um dispositivo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-07-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  9. Aiming for cure in HBV and HDV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jörg; Thompson, Alexander J; Levrero, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a major health burden worldwide. Currently available antiviral treatment options for chronic hepatitis B include pegylated interferon alpha2a (PegIFN) or nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). The major advantages of NAs are good tolerance and potent antiviral activity associated with high rates of sustained on-treatment response to therapy. The advantages of PegIFN include a finite course of treatment, the absence of drug resistance, and an opportunity to obtain a durable post-treatment response to therapy. Furthermore, PegIFN is the only approved agent known to be active against hepatitis D virus (HDV). The use of these two antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action in combination against hepatitis B is theoretically an attractive approach for treatment. Although several studies have confirmed certain virological advantages of combination therapies, data supporting a long-term clinical benefit for patients are lacking and monotherapy with PegIFN or NAs remains the therapy of choice. Moreover, with the current treatment approaches, only a limited number of patients achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss. HBsAg loss is considered a "functional cure", but does not mean viral eradication. There is a need for novel therapeutic approaches that enable not only suppression of viral replication, but resolution of HBV infection. A key challenge is to target covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes. The recent development and availability of innovative in vitro and in vivo systems and sensitive molecular techniques has opened new possibilities to study the complex network of interactions that HBV establishes with the host in the course of infection and to define new targets for antiviral strategies. Several new antiviral or immunomodulatory compounds have reached preclinical or clinical testing with the aim of silencing or eradicating cccDNA to achieve functional cure

  10. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements; Estudo do processo de lixiviacao controlada da escoria de aciaria em extrator Soxhlet visando emprego em pavimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves, E-mail: kissyla.avila@gmail.com.br, E-mail: cap-guimaraes@hotmail.com, E-mail: marceloreis@ime.eb.br, E-mail: cl_deny@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  11. Studies of Current Induced Magnetization reversal and generation of GHz radiation in magnetic nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajdarwish, Mustafa Yousef

    This thesis describes studies of two phenomena: Current-Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS), and Current-Induced Generation of GHz Radiation. The CIMS part contains results of measurements of current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) and CIMS behavior on Ferromagnetic/Nonmetal/Ferromagnetic (F1/N/F2) nanopillars. Judicious combinations of F1 and F2 metals with different bulk scattering asymmetries, and with F1/N and N/F2 interfaces having different interfacial scattering asymmetries, are shown to be able to controllably, and independently, 'invert' both the CPP-MR and the CIMS. In 'normal' CPP-MR, R(AP) > R(P), where R(AP) and R(P) are the nanopillar resistances for the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) orientations of the Fi and F2 magnetic moments. In 'inverse' CPP-MR, R(P) > R(AP). In 'normal' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from the P to the AP state. In 'inverse' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from AP to P. All four possible combinations of CPP-MR and CIMS---(a) 'normal'-'normal', (b) 'normal'- 'inverse', 'inverse'-'normal', and (d) 'inverse'-'inverse' are shown and explained. These results rule out the self-Oersted field as the switching source, since the direction of that field is independent of the bulk or interfacial scattering asymmetries. Successful use of impurities to reverse the bulk scattering asymmetry shows the importance of scattering off of impurities within the bulk F1 and F2 metals---i.e. that the transport must be treated as 'diffusive' rather than 'ballistic'. The GHz studies consist of five parts: (1) designing a sample geometry that allows reliable measurements; (2) making nanopillar samples with this geometry; (3) constructing a system for measuring frequencies up to 12 GHz and measuring current-driven GHz radiation data with it; (4) showing 'scaling' behavior of GHz data with the critical fields and currents for nominally identical (but actually slightly different) samples, and

  12. Study of the process for accelerating ammonia generation from poultry residues aiming its hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), elementary analysis (CHN), thermogravimetry and GC/MS - gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  13. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; de Tejada, Sandra Sáenz; Donner, Allan

    2013-03-21

    Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster

  14. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  15. A Study on the Current Oil and Gas Price Formula and Its Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Won; Lee, Young Koo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest some improvements on current price formulas on oil and gas which have been pivotal roles in the process of Korean economic growth. This study first examines basic frames and transition of oil and gas pricing in Korea and then finds some suggestions on them by scrutinizing their theoretical backgrounds. This study finds several problems on oil and gas pricing formulas. (a) In a model that is now studied to evaluate the current domestic oil price, the costs associated with oil security such as oil stockpile are fully penetrated into oil price without their fair evaluations. There is no evaluation principle on the costs occurred in oil supply security. (b) The Rate Of Equity(ROE), a crucial factor in town-gas pricing which is strictly controlled, is directly connected to the average interest rate on saving accounts of domestic commercial banks. Some arguments may have rise about inclusion a risk factor on ROE in order to compensate the uncertainty of town-gas business. (c) New demand for natural gas which is generated by new technologies or machinery and tools can help reduce the costs occurred from seasonal imbalance between power sector and gas sector. So it is also important to decide how to include the beneficiary of cost reduction in town-gas pricing. In order to evaluate the proper price levels, this study tests energy supply security by adopting methodologies such as Herfindahl Index and Portfolio Variance Risk. They can help develop the method to effectively improve the energy security and include the proper energy security costs into energy prices. This study also provides some suggestions for betterment of current ROE decision rule in town-gas business and for improvement of current town-gas policy that government subsidizes newly developed demand for strengthening price competitiveness in the early stage. (author). 145 refs., 16 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  17. Comparative study of hydro soluble polymers solutions and surfactants aiming the polymer-rock interactions in consolidated sandstone; Estudo comparativo de solucoes de polimeros hidrossoluveis e tensoativos visando as interacoes polimero-rocha em arenito consolidado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, Adriano Cesar M.; Marcelino, Cleuton Pereira; Medeiros, Ana Catarina R.; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

    2004-07-01

    The polyacrylamide is one of the main polymers used in the petroleum industry. Among its properties, stands out the capacity to alter the permeability of the rock to water. However, the polyacrylamide presents some limitations, such as low tolerance to the presence of salts, what can promote its precipitation resulting in low oil recovery efficiency. The application of the polymer in emulsion can promote a larger stability, due to the presence of a surfactant, which has the capacity to modify the interfacial tension and to form a film between the phases of the emulsion. Thereby, the injection of a polymer emulsion can promote an increase of oil recovery. In this work, a preliminary study of the effect of a anionic surfactant (SDS) and polyacrylamides (anionic and neutral) on the surface tension and rheology is presented in aqueous solutions contend salt (NaCl). The results showed surface tension of the mixtures had been remained constant and low (around 32 mN/m), independent of the polymer concentration. A viscosity reduction was observed at polymeric solutions as much in presence of salt, as in presence of the surfactant. Both the samples showed a pseudo plastic behavior. (author)

  18. A study of three-dimensional gravity currents on a uniform slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew N.; Linden, P. F.; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2002-02-01

    In many geophysical, environmental and industrial situations, a finite volume of fluid with a density different to the ambient is released on a sloping boundary. This leads to the formation of a gravity current travelling up, down and across the slope. We present novel laboratory experiments in which the dense fluid spreads both down-slope (and initially up-slope) and laterally across the slope. The position, shape and dilution of the current are determined through video and conductivity measurements for moderate slopes (5° to 20°). The entrainment coefficient for different slopes is calculated from the experimental results and is found to depend very little on the slope. The value agrees well with previously published values for entrainment into gravity currents on a horizontal surface. The experimental measurements are compared with previous shallow-water models and with a new wedge integral model developed and presented here. It is concluded that these simplified models do not capture all the significant features of the flow. In the models, the current takes the form of a wedge which travels down the slope, but the experiments show the formation of a more complicated current. It is found that the wedge integral model over-predicts the length and width of the gravity current but gives fair agreement with the measured densities in the head. The initial stages of the flow, during which time the wedge shape develops, are studied. It is found that although the influence of the slope is seen relatively quickly for moderate slopes, the time taken for the wedge to develop is much longer. The implications of these findings for safety analysis are briefly discussed.

  19. Theoretical study of electronic transfer current rate at dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; AlMaadhede, Taif Saad; Hassooni, Mohsin A.; Sadoon, Abbas K.; Ashweik, Ahmed M.; Mahdi, Hind Abdlmajeed; Ghadhban, Rawnaq Qays

    2018-05-01

    In this research, we present a theoretical study of electronic transfer kinetics rate in N719/TiO2 and N719/ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) systems using a simple model depending on the postulate of quantum mechanics theory. The evaluation of the electronic transition current rate in DSSC systems are function of many parameters such that; the reorientation transition energies ΛSe m D y e , the transition coupling parameter ℂT(0), potential exponential effect e-(E/C-EF ) kBT , unit cell volume VSem, and temperature T. Furthermore, the analysis of electronic transfer current rate in N719/TiO2 and N719/ZnO systems show that the rate upon dye-sensitization solar cell increases with increases of transition coupling parameter, decreasing potential that building at interface a results of different material in this devices and increasing with reorientation transition energy. On the other hand, we can find the electronic transfer behavior is dependent of the dye absorption spectrum and mainly depending on the reorientation of transition energy. The replacement of the solvents in both DSSC system caused increasing of current rates dramatically depending on polarity of solvent in subset devices. This change in current rate of electron transfer were attributed to much more available of recombination sites introduced by the solvents medium. The electronic transfer current dynamics are shown to occurs in N719/TiO2 system faster many time compare to ocuures at N719/ZnO system, this indicate that TiO2 a is a good and active material compare with ZnO to using in dye sensitized solar cell devices. In contrast, the large current rate in N719/TiO2 comparing to ZnO of N719/ZnO systems indicate that using TiO2 with N719 dye lead to increasing the efficiency of DSSC.

  20. Heteropolyhedral silver compounds containing the polydentate ligand N,N,O-E-[6-(hydroxyimino)ethyl]-1,3,7-trimethyllumazine. Preparation, spectral and XRD structural study and AIM calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pulido, Sonia B; Hueso-Ureña, Francisco; Fernández-Liencres, M Paz; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel; Moreno-Carretero, Miguel N

    2013-01-14

    The oxime derived from 6-acetyl-1,3,7-trimethyllumazine (1) ((E-6-(hydroxyimino)ethyl)-1,3,7-trimethylpteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, DLMAceMox) has been prepared and its molecular and crystal structure determined from spectral and XRD data. The oxime ligand was reacted with silver nitrate, perchlorate, thiocyanate, trifluoromethylsulfonate and tetrafluoroborate to give complexes with formulas [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(NO(3))(2)](n) (2), [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(ClO(4))(2)](n) (3), [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(SCN)(2)] (4), [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(CF(3)SO(3))(2)(CH(3)CH(2)OH)]·CH(3)CH(2)OH (5) and [Ag(DLMAceMox)(2)]BF(4) (6). Single-crystal XRD studies show that the asymmetrical residual unit of complexes 2, 3 and 5 contains two quite different but connected silver centers (Ag1-Ag2, 2.9-3.2 Å). In addition to this, the Ag1 ion displays coordination with the N5 and O4 atoms from both lumazine moieties and a ligand (nitrato, perchlorato or ethanol) bridging to another disilver unit. The Ag2 ion is coordinated to the N61 oxime nitrogens, a monodentate and a (O,O)-bridging nitrato/perchlorato or two monodentate O-trifluoromethylsulfonato anions. The coordination polyhedra can be best described as a strongly distorted octahedron (around Ag1) and a square-based pyramid (around Ag2). The Ag-N and Ag-O bond lengths range between 2.22-2.41 and 2.40-2.67 Å, respectively. Although the structure of 4 cannot be resolved by XRD, it is likely to be similar to those described for 2, 3 and 5, containing Ag-Ag units with S-thiocyanato terminal ligands. Finally, the structure of the tetrafluoroborate compound 6 is mononuclear with a strongly distorted tetrahedral AgN(4) core (Ag-N, 2.27-2.43 Å). Always, the different Ag-N distances found clearly point to the more basic character of the oxime N61 nitrogen atom when compared with the pyrazine N5 one. A topological analysis of the electron density within the framework provided by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) using DFT(M06L) levels of

  1. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔEAB. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔEAB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A-B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [EMP2/CBS] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔECC-MP, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔEAB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational

  2. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔE AB . Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔE AB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A−B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E MP2/CBS ] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔE CC-MP , a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔE AB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the

  3. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranzana, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Giordana, Anna, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Indarto, Antonius, E-mail: antonius.indarto@che.itb.ac.id; Tonachini, Glauco, E-mail: glauco.tonachini@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Corso Massimo D’Azeglio 48, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Causà, Mauro, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Pavone, Michele, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔE{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔE{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A−B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔE{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔE{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting

  4. Acute care patient portals: a qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives on current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Rozenblum, Ronen; Leung, Wai Yin; Morrison, Constance Rc; Stade, Diana L; McNally, Kelly; Bourie, Patricia Q; Massaro, Anthony; Bokser, Seth; Dwyer, Cindy; Greysen, Ryan S; Agarwal, Priyanka; Thornton, Kevin; Dalal, Anuj K

    2017-04-01

    To describe current practices and stakeholder perspectives of patient portals in the acute care setting. We aimed to: (1) identify key features, (2) recognize challenges, (3) understand current practices for design, configuration, and use, and (4) propose new directions for investigation and innovation. Mixed methods including surveys, interviews, focus groups, and site visits with stakeholders at leading academic medical centers. Thematic analyses to inform development of an explanatory model and recommendations. Site surveys were administered to 5 institutions. Thirty interviews/focus groups were conducted at 4 site visits that included a total of 84 participants. Ten themes regarding content and functionality, engagement and culture, and access and security were identified, from which an explanatory model of current practices was developed. Key features included clinical data, messaging, glossary, patient education, patient personalization and family engagement tools, and tiered displays. Four actionable recommendations were identified by group consensus. Design, development, and implementation of acute care patient portals should consider: (1) providing a single integrated experience across care settings, (2) humanizing the patient-clinician relationship via personalization tools, (3) providing equitable access, and (4) creating a clear organizational mission and strategy to achieve outcomes of interest. Portals should provide a single integrated experience across the inpatient and ambulatory settings. Core functionality includes tools that facilitate communication, personalize the patient, and deliver education to advance safe, coordinated, and dignified patient-centered care. Our findings can be used to inform a "road map" for future work related to acute care patient portals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Current status of regional hydrogeological studies and numerical simulations on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Ishido, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    Current status of regional hydrogeological studies on geological disposal including hydrogeological modeling using numerical simulators is reviewed in this report. A regional scale and boundary conditions of numerical models are summarized mainly from the results of the RHS (regional hydrogeological study) project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in the Tono area. We also refer to the current conceptual modes of hydrology and numerical models of unsaturated zone flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Understanding behavior of a freshwater-saltwater transition zone seems to play a key role in the hydrogeological modeling in a coastal region. Technical features of a numerical simulator as a tool for geothermal reservoir modeling is also briefly described. (author)

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  7. Current-mode detector for neutron time-of-flight studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Szymanski, J.J.; Yuan, V.W.; Bowman, C.D.; Silverman, A.; Zhu, X.

    1990-01-01

    A system for the detection of high-intensity neutron bursts with instantaneous rates as high as 10 11 Hz is presented. This system uses a transient digitizer to sample the output voltage of a high-current photomultiplier tube as a function of time. The coutput voltage is proportional to the number of neutrons striking the detector. This detector is used at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center to study fundamental symmetries. Design considerations, construction details and performance benchmarks are presented. (orig.)

  8. Simulation studies of current transport in metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky barrier diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, Subhash; Bala, Saroj

    2007-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes with an interfacial insulator layer are analysed by numerical simulation. The current-voltage data of the metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky diode are simulated using thermionic emission diffusion (TED) equation taking into account an interfacial layer parameter. The calculated current-voltage data are fitted into ideal TED equation to see the apparent effect of interfacial layer parameters on current transport. Results obtained from the simulation studies shows that with mere presence of an interfacial layer at the metal-semiconductor interface the Schottky contact behave as an ideal diode of apparently high barrier height (BH), but with same ideality factor and series resistance as considered for a pure Schottky contact without an interfacial layer. This apparent BH decreases linearly with decreasing temperature. The effects giving rise to high ideality factor in metal-insulator-semiconductor diode are analysed. Reasons for observed temperature dependence of ideality factor in experimentally fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes are analysed and possible mechanisms are discussed

  9. Study of the nonequilibrium state of superconductors by large quasiparticle injection from an external current source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, I.

    1977-01-01

    We have studied the nonequilibrium state of superconductors by injecting large numbers of quasiparticles from an external current source into a superconducting film of a tunnel junction with low tunnel resistance (typically 0.1--1 Ω for junction area approx. = 10 -4 cm 2 ). It was observed that there was a critical tunnel current density at which a voltage appeared locally in the part of a superconducting film confined to the junction area. Its values ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 A/cm 2 for bath temperatures well below T/sub c/. Followed by this voltage onset, a transition region corresponding to the nonequilibrium intermediate resistive state was also observed. For further increase of the tunnel current, the local film resistance developed beyond the value of its normal resistance, suggesting that the nonequilibrium state extends far beyond the voltage onset point. A theory based on the modified Rothwarf-Taylor equations and Parker's T* model is presented to compare with the experimental results. The calculated critical current density yielded almost the same order of magnitude as those found experimentally. The detailed behavior, however, deviates from the theoretical predictions although the film makes a second-order transition in the broad range of temperatures. It is also shown using four-terminal analysis that our observations and those by Wong, Yeh, and Langenberg are essentially the same

  10. Endoscopic and histological pitfalls in the diagnosis of celiac disease: a multicentre study assessing the current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostami-Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: the diagnosis of celiac disease requires small bowel biopsies to identify the characteristic mucosal changes. The current biopsy practice among endoscopists for celiac disease is in most part unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic policies in various centers in their current practice. Method: information from a total of 931 confirmed celiac disease patients was retrospectively obtained retrospectively from nine centers in European and Middle Eastern countries. The number of small-bowel biopsies obtained from the duodenal bulb and the second part of the duodenum was compared among different centers. Results: the most frequent stage of mucosal changes amongst Iranian subjects was Marsh IIIa whereas in the rest of the study population was Marsh IIIc. Marsh I and Marsh II were more prevalent in adults (P < 0.05 and Marsh IIIc was significantly higher in pediatric ages between 1 and 15 (P < 0.05. The most common number of biopsy specimens obtained from Romanian subjects was 1 (52% of cases, followed by 2 for Iranian (56%, 3 for Lithuanian (66.7% and British patients (65% and 4 for Italian patients (48.3%. For majority of cases, anemia was the most prevalent symptom (18.7% followed by malabsorption (10.5%, diarrhea (9.3% and dyspepsia (8.2%, respectively. Conclusions: despite the evidence-based recommendations, this study revealed a poor compliance with major guidelines on diagnosis of celiac disease. We emphasize that taking adequate number of duodenal biopsies should be implemented for an accurate diagnosis and also for the exclusion of celiac disease.

  11. Conceptual study on the containment design aiming at 'no evacuation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Kouji; Takii, Taichi; Kikuyama, Tomohiko; Taminami, Tatsuya

    2003-01-01

    The next generation reactors represented in ABWR-II should enhance not only economics but also safety. Especially, the ideal target of 'No Evacuation', that is, no FP (Fission Product) release in severe accidents should be required. This paper provides the conceptual design achieving 'No Evacuation' by using only the passive systems, that are, the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the large amount of water inside containment, outside pool by utilizing gap between containment and surrounding building, and the natural heat removal from the containment surface to atmosphere. Furthermore, it is also easy to adopt the countermeasure for airplane crash by using a dome shelter and the dispersed layout as an option. At the same time, the amount of the construction material of this concept is competitive comparing with that of the conventional BWR because it is easy to use the steel structure or the steel plate reinforced concrete structure over a wide area. (author)

  12. Association of Adolescent Dimensional Borderline Personality Pathology with Past and Current Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Lifetime Suicidal Behavior: A Clinical Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Edanackaparampil, Manju; Schmidt, Johannes; Kirisgil, Melek; Fischer, Gloria; Wewetzer, Christoph; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Resch, Franz

    Descriptive diagnoses of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) may detract from underlying dimensional borderline personality pathology (D-BPP). This study aimed to investigate D-BPP in adolescent inpatients with NSSI and SAs. A consecutive sample of 359 adolescent inpatients was assessed for current and past NSSI and life-time SAs. D-BPP and current mental health problems were measured using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. D-BPP was significantly associated with both current (p BPP or current mental health problems. A multivariate model did not show any additional influence of current mental health problems over and above D-BPP in predicting NSSI and SAs. It can be hypothesized that D-BPP underlies adolescent self-harm and may persist even after its termination, promoting a higher burden of mental health problems. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A Snapshot Study of Current Practices among Sellers of Translation Services between Japanese and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stephen Crabbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-part study was launched in light of the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement in its guide, 翻訳で失敗しないために翻訳発注の手引き [lit. For not getting it wrong with translation: a guide to ordering translation], that “外国語の文書を母国語に翻訳するのがプロの原則です” [lit. It is a fundamental principle that professional translators work into their native languages] (Japan Translation Federation, 2012, p. 15. The key goal is to gauge the extent to which this 2012 statement is reflected in current practices among the sellers and buyers of translation services between Japanese and English. In this paper, which describes the first part of the study, the focus is on the practices of sellers of translation services between Japanese and English: specifically, professional freelance translators. Twenty-four professional freelance translators completed an online questionnaire. The results of this questionnaire, first, suggest that current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English are consistent with the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement and, second, broadly support secondary literature on L1 translation (translation into the first language and L2 translation (translation into the second language. Whilst this is only a snapshot of current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English, the overall results are informative. In the second, follow-up part of the study the focus will be on the current practices of buyers of translation services between Japanese and English.

  14. Current pain education within undergraduate medical studies across Europe: Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emma V; Battelli, Daniele; Gordon, David; Kopf, Andreas; Ribeiro, Sofia; Puig, Margarita M; Kress, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved pain is a substantial public health concern necessitating improvements in medical education. The Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study aimed to determine current levels and methods of undergraduate pain medicine education in Europe. Design and methods Using a cross-sectional design, publicly available curriculum information was sought from all medical schools in 15 representative European countries in 2012–2013. Descriptive analyses were performed on: the provision of pain teaching in dedicated pain modules, other modules or within the broader curriculum; whether pain teaching was compulsory or elective; the number of hours/credits spent teaching pain; pain topics; and teaching and assessment methods. Results Curriculum elements were publicly available from 242 of 249 identified schools (97%). In 55% (133/242) of schools, pain was taught only within compulsory non-pain-specific modules. The next most common approaches were for pain teaching to be provided wholly or in part via a dedicated pain module (74/242; 31%) or via a vertical or integrated approach to teaching through the broader curriculum, rather than within any specific module (17/242; 7%). The curricula of 17/242 schools (7%) showed no evidence of any pain teaching. Dedicated pain modules were most common in France (27/31 schools; 87%). Excluding France, only 22% (47/211 schools) provided a dedicated pain module and in only 9% (18/211) was this compulsory. Overall, the median number of hours spent teaching pain was 12.0 (range 4–56.0 h; IQR: 12.0) for compulsory dedicated pain modules and 9.0 (range 1.0–60.0 h; IQR: 10.5) for other compulsory (non-pain specific) modules. Pain medicine was principally taught in classrooms and assessed by conventional examinations. There was substantial international variation throughout. Conclusions Documented pain teaching in many European medical schools falls far short of what might be expected given the

  15. [A review of current studies on leisure activities performed by community-dwelling elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2010-02-01

    This article reviewed and summarized the findings of previously published studies on the leisure activities of community elders over 55 years of age. A total of 17 related articles, published before 2008, were identified in the search of electronic databases, which included the Chinese Periodical Table of Contents Index Image System, CEPS, Medline and Ageline. Leisure activities measurements used in this study consisted of recoding activities either categorically or by frequency. The majority of research indicated that elderly engage in primarily static activities and that participation in leisure activities had positive effects on cognitive and psychological health. However, inconsistencies in results were found due to differences in measurement tools and sample populations used among studies, making it difficult to conduct a valid comparison of specific features of elderly leisure activities. Most current leisure activity studies utilize cross-sectional research methodologies with restricted topics, which result in limited applicability of research results. In conclusion, we suggest that future studies should develop instruments to assess leisure activities that correspond to local conditions identified through qualitative research. With such, researchers can study different age groups by applying relevant ageing theories to construct empirical data related to current elderly leisure activities.

  16. The study of dynamics of electrons in the presence of large current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.

    2007-11-01

    The runaway electron effect is considered in different fields: nuclear fusion, or the heating of the solar corona. In this thesis, we are interested in runaway electrons in the ionosphere. We consider the issue of electrons moving through an ionospheric gas of positive ions and neutrals under the influence of a parallel electric field. We develop a kinetic model of collisions including electrons/electrons, electrons/ions and electrons/neutrals collisions. We use a Fokker-Planck approach to describe binary collisions between charged particles with a long-range interaction. A computational example is given illustrating the approach to equilibrium and the impact of the different terms. Then, a static electric field is applied in a new sample run. In this run, the electrons move in the z direction, parallel to the electric field. The first results show that all the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian. Furthermore, runaway electrons can carry a significant part of the total current density up to 20% of the total current density. Nevertheless, we note that the divergence free of the current density is not conserved. We introduce major changes in order to take into account the variation of the different moments of the ion distribution functions. We observe that the electron distribution functions are still non-Maxwellian. Runaway electrons are created and carry the current density. The core distribution stay at rest. As these electrons undergo less collisions, they increase the plasma conductivity. We make a parametric study. We fit the electron distribution function by two Maxwellian. We show that the time to reach the maximal current density is a key point. Thus, when we increase this time, we modify the temperatures. The current density plays a primary role. When the current density increases, all the moments of the distributions increase: electron density and mean velocity of the suprathermal distribution and the electron temperature of the core and

  17. A Study of Frequency Mixing Approaches for Eddy Current Testing of Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hee Jun; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Dae Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The multifrequency eddy current testing(ECT) have been proposed various frequency mixing algorithms. In this study, we compare these approaches to frequency mixing of ECT signals from steam generator tubes; time-domain optimization, discrete cosine transform-domain optimization. Specifically, in this study, two different frequency mixing algorithms, a time-domain optimization method and a discrete cosine transform(DCT) optimization method, are investigated using the experimental signals captured from the ASME standard tube. The DCT domain optimization method is computationally fast but produces larger amount of residue.

  18. The current status of studies on mitochondrial DNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Sang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial plays a very important role in sustaining the normal physiological function, because it is the center of energy making and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the only genetic material outside the nuclear. The result of studies showed that many diseases have a close relationship with mtDNA mutation and deletion. This article reviewed the current status of research on mtDNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging, in order to initiate the application study of mtDNA in the circle of radiation medicine

  19. Study on practical of eddy current testing of core and core support graphite components in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Ooka, Norikazu; Shindo, Yoshihisa; Kawae, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Motomitsu; Kambe, Mamoru; Takahashi, Masaaki; Ide, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Core and core support graphite components in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) are mainly made of nuclear-grade IG-110 and PGX graphites. Nondestructive inspection with Eddy Current Testing (ECT) is planned to be applied to these components. The method of ECT has been already established for metallic components, however, cannot be applied directly to the graphite ones, because the characteristics of graphite are quite different in micro-structure from those of metals. Therefore, ECT method and condition were studied for the application of the ECT to the graphite components. This paper describes the study on practical method and conditions of ECT for above mentioned graphite structures. (author)

  20. Studies of currents and electric fields in the auroral zone ionosphere using radar auroral backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the 1970s several advances have been made in the understanding of radar aurora. Recent VHF studies have shown that Doppler data obtained from radar auroral backscatter can be used to measure the E-region electron drift velocity, the F-region plasma velocity, and the ionospheric electric field. This type of measurement is particularly valuable when it is made with dual auroral radar systems similar to STARE (Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment). Over the past two years STARE has been used to study electric field patterns associated with electrojet and field-aligned currents, magnetospheric convection, the Harang discontinuity, Pc5 micropulsations, and the substorm expansion phase. (Auth.)

  1. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oded; Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Bennet-Back, Odeya; David, Jonathan; Gebodh, Nigel; Adair, Devin; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy. HD-tDCS was administered over 10 intervention days spanning two weeks including pre- and post-intervention video-EEG monitoring. There were no serious adverse events or side effects related to the HD-tDCS intervention. Frequency of clinical seizures was not significantly reduced. However, interictal sharp wave amplitudes were significantly lower during the post-intervention period versus baseline. Vital signs and blood biochemistry remained stable throughout the entire study. These exploratory findings support the safety and feasibility of 4 × 1 HD-tDCS in early onset epileptic encephalopathy and provide the first evidence of HD-tDCS effects on paroxysmal EEG features in electroclinical cases under the age of 36 months. Extending HD-tDCS treatment may enhance electrographic findings and clinical effects.

  2. Current therapeutic interventions in the glycation pathway: evidence from clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, L; Stehouwer, C D A; Schalkwijk, C G

    2013-08-01

    The increased formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) constitutes a potential mechanism of hyperglycaemia-induced micro- and macrovascular disease in diabetes. In vitro and animal experiments have shown that various interventions can inhibit formation and/or actions of AGEs, in particular the specific AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine and the AGEs crosslink breaker alagebrium, and the B vitamins pyridoxamine and thiamine, and the latter's synthetic derivative, benfotiamine. The potential clinical value of these interventions, however, remains to be established. The present review provides, from the clinical point of view, an overview of current evidence on interventions in the glycation pathway relating to (i) the clinical benefits of specific AGE inhibitors and AGE breakers and (ii) the potential AGE-inhibiting effects of therapies developed for purposes unrelated to the glycation pathway. We found that safety and/or efficacy in clinical studies with the specific AGE inhibitor, aminoguanidine and the AGE breaker, alagebrium, appeared to be a concern. The clinical evidence on the potential AGE-inhibiting effects of B vitamins is still limited. Finally, current evidence for AGE inhibition by therapies developed for purposes unrelated to glycation is limited due to a large heterogeneity in study designs and/or measurement techniques, which have often been sub-optimal. We conclude that, clinical evidence on interventions to inhibit formation and/or action of AGEs is currently weak and unconvincing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Variable influx of West Greenland Current water into the Labrador Current through the last 8000 years, based on a multiproxy study from Trinity Bay, NE Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Frandsen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This multi-proxy study of marine sediment gravity core AI07-06G from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, recorded changes in the strength of the Labrador Current (LC) during the Holocene. From ca. 8-5 cal kyr BP, Trinity Bay's seafloor was influenced by cooled Atlantic water derived from the West Greenland...

  4. Swimming Behavior and Flow Geometry: A Fluid Mechanical Study of the Feeding Currents in Calanoid Copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Meneveau, Charles; Osborn, Thomas R.

    2003-11-01

    Copepods are small crustaceans living in oceans and fresh waters and play an important role in the marine and freshwater food webs. As they are the biggest biomass in the oceans some call them "the insects of the sea". Previous laboratory observations have shown that the fluid mechanical phenomena occurring at copepod body scale are crucial for the survival of copepods. One of the interesting phenomena is that many calanoid copepods display various behaviors to create the feeding currents for the purpose of capturing food particles. We have developed a fluid mechanical model to study the feeding currents. The model is a self-propelled body model in that the Navier-Stokes equations are properly coupled with the dynamic equations for the copepod's body. The model has been solved both analytically using the Stokes approximation with a spherical body shape and numerically using CFD with a realistic body shape.

  5. Numerical studies of the flux-to-current ratio method in the KIPT neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical assembly has to be monitored continuously in order to assure its safe operation. In this paper, the flux-to-current ratio method has been studied as an approach to provide the on-line reactivity measurement of the subcritical system. Monte Carlo numerical simulations have been performed using the KIPT neutron source facility model. It is found that the reactivity obtained from the flux-to-current ratio method is sensitive to the detector position in the subcritical assembly. However, if multiple detectors are located about 12 cm above the graphite reflector and 54 cm radially, the technique is shown to be very accurate in determining the k eff this facility in the range of 0.75 to 0.975. (authors)

  6. Transport properties of triarylamine based dendrimers studied by space charge limited current transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Marek Z.; Kulszewicz-Bajer, Irena; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Djurado, David

    2012-08-01

    We have studied hole transport in triarylamine based dendrimer using space-charge-limited current transient technique. A mobility of 8 × 10-6 cm2/(V s) and a characteristic detrapping time of about 100 ms have been obtained. We found that quasi-ohmic contact is formed with gold. The obtained mobility differs from the apparent one given by the analysis of stationary current-voltage characteristics because of a limited contact efficiency. The comparison between transients obtained from fresh and aged samples reveals no change in mobility with aging. The deterioration of electrical properties is exclusively caused by trap formation and accumulation of ionic conducting impurities. Finally, repeated transient measurements have been applied to analyze the dynamics of charge trapping process.

  7. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  8. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  9. Gate-controlled current and inelastic electron tunneling spectrum of benzene: a self-consistent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y Y; Chen, H; Mizuseki, H; Kawazoe, Y

    2011-04-14

    We use density functional theory based nonequilibrium Green's function to self-consistently study the current through the 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). The elastic and inelastic tunneling properties through this Au-BDT-Au molecular junction are simulated, respectively. For the elastic tunneling case, it is found that the current through the tilted molecule can be modulated effectively by the external gate field, which is perpendicular to the phenyl ring. The gate voltage amplification comes from the modulation of the interaction between the electrodes and the molecules in the junctions. For the inelastic case, the electron tunneling scattered by the molecular vibrational modes is considered within the self-consistent Born approximation scheme, and the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum is calculated.

  10. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  11. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: A protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeh Nnana Isaiah; Bikwe Thomas Nche; Ibeh Georgina Nwagu; Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Materi...

  12. A study on characteristic of glass dosimeter according to grade change of tube current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin Hyun; Kim, Seong Ho; Mun, Hyun Jun; Kim, Lyun Kyun; Son, In Hwa; Kim, Young Jun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study was evaluated the linearity and reproducibility according to dose, and reproducibility according to delay time by changing tube current amount (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively, which are low energy radiations) using Glass Dosimeter (GD) and piranha semiconductor dosimeter which are used for measuring exposure dose. Measurements of radiation dose were performed using external detector of piranha 657 which is multi-function QA device (RTI Electronic, Sweden). Conditions of measurement were 80 kVp, SSD 100 and exposure region is 10 cm x 10 cm. Glass dosimeter was exposed to radiation. Twenty-four glass dosimeters were divided into six groups (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively), then measured. This study was resulted by measuring the linearity and reproducibility according to change of tube current in low energy field. In dose characteristic of GD, this study could be useful as previous study with regard to dose characteristic according to change of tube voltage in low energy field.

  13. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  14. Comparison of the current state of non-forest woody vegetation in two contrasted case study areas in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demková Katarína

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV, as a part of green infrastructure, has gained a great deal of attention in recent years. Despite its importance in many productive and non-productive functions, an inventory (collection of quantitative and qualitative data on a national or even on a local level is not available in many European countries. The main aim of this study is to carry out a comparison of two study areas (lowland and upland from the perspective of the current state of NFWV. We investigate qualitative attributes of NFWV, its relation to environmental conditions and its spatial pattern. After manual vectorization of orthophotos, qualitative data were collected in the field. Using statistical and landscape-ecological methods, the relation between NFWV and environmental conditions, as well as its spatial pattern were assessed. Substantial differences in character and in the spatial pattern of NFWV were identified between the study areas. NFWV in the upland area has a higher proportion (2.6% than in lowland study area (1.5%, and it also has a more heterogeneous spatial structure. Statistical analysis points to a significant relation between the NFWV and land cover types in both study areas. A significant relation between NFWV and soil types was identified only in the upland area, however, while an association with potential natural vegetation was found in the lowland study area.

  15. Large-eddy simulation study of oil/gas plumes in stratified fluid with cross current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Xiao, Shuolin; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Dynamics of the oil/gas plume from a subsea blowout are strongly affected by the seawater stratification and cross current. The buoyant plume entrains ambient seawater and lifts it up to higher elevations. During the rising process, the continuously increasing density difference between the entrained and ambient seawater caused by the stable stratification eventually results in a detrainment of the entrained seawater and small oil droplets at a height of maximum rise (peel height), forming a downward plume outside the rising inner plume. The presence of a cross current breaks the plume's axisymmetry and causes the outer plume to fall along the downstream side of the inner plume. The detrained seawater and oil eventually fall to a neutral buoyancy level (trap height), and disperse horizontally to form an intrusion layer. In this study, the complex plume dynamics is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). Various laboratory and field scale cases are simulated to explore the effect of cross current and stratification on the plume dynamics. Based on the LES data, various turbulence statistics of the plume are systematically quantified, leading to some useful insights for modeling the mean plume dynamics using integral plume models. This research is made possible by a RFP-V Grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  16. Temperature sensitivity study of eddy current and digital gauge probes for nuclear fuel rod oxide measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Faith R.; Lind, R. Paul; Smith, James A.

    2018-04-01

    Novel fuels are part of the nationwide effort to reduce the enrichment of Uranium for energy production. Performance of such fuels is determined by irradiating their surfaces. To test irradiated samples, the instrumentation must operate remotely. The plate checker used in this experiment at Idaho National Lab (INL) performs non-destructive testing on fuel rod and plate geometries with two different types of sensors: eddy current and digital thickness gauges. The sensors measure oxide growth and total sample thickness on research fuels, respectively. Sensor measurement accuracy is crucial because even 10 microns of error is significant when determining the viability of an experimental fuel. One parameter known to affect the eddy current and thickness gauge sensors is temperature. Since both sensor accuracies depend on the ambient temperature of the system, the plate checker has been characterized for these sensitivities. The manufacturer of the digital gauge probes has noted a rather large coefficient of thermal expansion for their linear scale. It should also be noted that the accuracy of the digital gauge probes are specified at 20°C, which is approximately 7°C cooler than the average hot-cell temperature. In this work, the effect of temperature on the eddy current and digital gauge probes is studied, and thickness measurements are given as empirical functions of temperature.

  17. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ∼ few mm), high current density (J ∼ several tens of mA/cm 2 ) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield ( ) at different operating conditions are presented for K + and Cs + contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K + beam of ∼90 mA/cm 2 were observed in 2.3 (micro)s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (∼ 1 (micro)s), high current densities (∼ 100 mA/cm 2 ) and low operating pressures ( e psilon) n (le) 0.006 π mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ∼ 5mA) by about a factor of 10

  18. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Golcher, Edwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ~ few mm), high current density (J ~ several tens of mA/cm2) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K+ and Cs+ contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K+ beam of ~90 mA/cm2 were observed in 2.3 μs pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (~ 1 μs), high current densities (~ 100 mA/cm+) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured (εn ≤ 0.006 π· mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ~ 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  19. Confinement studies of a high current density RFP in the Extrap T1 Upgrade device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.; Brzozowski, J.H.; Brunsell, P.; Hellblom, G.; Karlsson, P.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.; Welander, A.; Zastrow, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Confinement studies have been carried out on the Extrap T1 device operated in the reversed field pinch (RFP) mode. Extrap T1 is a small device with a major radius of R=0.5 m and a high aspect ratio, R/a=8.9. For these experiments, the device has been operated with a resistive shell with measured, toroidally-averaged flux penetration times of τ sv = 500μs (vertical) and τ sR =300μs (radial). The pulse lengths are about 600 μs, which is slightly longer than the shell penetration time. The purpose of these experiments is to study energy confinement in a high aspect-ratio, high current-density RFP device with a resistive shell. The device can be operated with high current densities which exceed 20 MAm -2 on axis. For these discharges, the average electron density is relatively high, ≅ 1x10 20 m -3 . Therefore, although the average current density exceeds 5 MAm -2 , the important parameter / ≅ I/N is maintained less than 1x10 -13 Am, where N is the line density. The plasma diagnostics for the device include a single chord CO 2 laser interferometer ( ), single point Thomson scattering (T e , n o ), VUV and visible spectroscopy (T e , Z eff ) surface barrier diodes for soft X-ray measurements (T e ), bolometry (P rad ), surface probes (Γ p ,T i ) and comprehensive magnetic diagnostics for both equilibrium and magnetic fluctuation studies. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC, premotor cortex (PMC, supplementary motor area (SMA, and secondary somatosensory area (S2, as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI, and with reference to voluntary (VOL wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb and deoxygenated (HHb hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2. However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions.

  1. 3D Numerical Study of Multiphase Counter-Current Flow within a Packed Bed for Post Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics within counter-current flow packed beds is of vital importance to provide insight into the design and operational parameters that may impact reactor and reaction efficiencies in processes used for post combustion CO2 capture. However, the multiphase counter-current flows in random packing used in these processes are complicated to visualize. Hence, this work aimed at developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model to study more precisely the complex details of flow inside a packed bed. The simulation results clearly demonstrated the development of, and changes in, liquid distributions, wetted areas, and film thickness under various gas and liquid flow rates. An increase in values of the We number led to a more uniform liquid distribution, and the flow patterns changed from droplet flow to film flow and trickle flow as the We number was increased. In contrast, an increase in gas flow rate had no significant effect on the wetted areas and liquid holdup. It was also determined that the number of liquid inlets affected flow behavior, and the liquid surface tension had an insignificant influence on pressure drop or liquid holdup; however, lower surface tension provided a larger wetted area and a thinner film. An experimental study, performed to enable comparisons between experimentally measured pressure drops and simulation-determined pressure drops, showed close correspondence and similar trends between the experimental data and the simulation data; hence, it was concluded that the simulation model was validated and could reasonably predict flow dynamics within a counter-current flow packed bed.

  2. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Perrey, Stephane; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Kerr, Graham; Quaresima, Valentina; Ferrari, Marco; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and secondary somatosensory area (S2), as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI), and with reference to voluntary (VOL) wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM) analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb) in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2). However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC) activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions.

  3. Study on ac losses of HTS coil carrying ac transport current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Taozhen; Tang Yuejin; Li Jingdong; Zhou Yusheng; Cheng Shijie; Pan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ac loss has an important influence on the thermal performances of HTS coil. It is necessary to quantify ac loss to ascertain its impact on coil stability and for sizing the coil refrigeration system. In this paper, we analyzed in detail the ac loss components, hysteresis loss, eddy loss and flux flow loss in the pancake HTS coil carrying ac transport current by finite element method. We also investigated the distribution of the ac losses in the coil to study the effects of magnetic field distribution on ac losses

  4. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. (author)

  5. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  6. The use of thermally stimulated depolarization currents to study grain growth in ceramic thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Campos, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    Depolarization Current Spectra resulting from the destruction of the thermoelectret state in polycrystalline ThO 2 samples have been detected in the temperature range 100K-350K. The induced polarization is found to be due to migration of charge carriers over microscopic distances in the bulk of the specimens with trapping at grain boundaries. Moreover the density of charge carriers released from trapping sites, upon heating the cooled previously dc biased specimen decreases for increasing sintering temperature, suggesting the use of the technique to the study of grain growth in the bulk of ceramic oxides. (Author) [pt

  7. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, Gratien; Jeppesen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls...... of thymus is compatible with increased thymic activity and emission of T lymphocytes....

  8. Atlas of physical oceanographic data for current surge studies on the Grand Bark of Newfoundland, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, H; Elliott, J A [Physical and Chemical Sciences Branch, Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    1989-04-01

    This is the fourth in a series of atlases prepared to study the incidence of tidally generated large amplitude internal waves and associated current surges along east coast continental shelves. This atlas covers CSS DAWSON cruise 85-024 to the edge of the Grand Banks in the vicinity and to the east of the Hibernia exploration area. The field data were collected near the shelf edge and extending into Flemish Pass centered on 47 N latitude from August 13-28, 1985. Two moorings were deployed and recovered. CTD, BATFISH, Ametek Straza Acoustc Doppler Current Profiler, and 12 kHz Raytheon Sounder equipment were operated from the ship. SLAR (Side Looking Aperture Radar) flights during the summer of 1984 had indicated the presence of groups of high amplitude internal waves near the shelf edge, similar to those on the Scotian Shelf studied during earlier cruises. This cruise studied the nature of the internal tide and the short waves and compared the process to that in the Scotian Gulf and near the Gully, being cognizant of the contrasting density profiles and bathymetry. 5 refs, 451 figs.

  9. Study of a new direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielniak, B. [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fiedler, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this study a new DC-APGD operated in He was developed and characterized. The discharge is operated at 0.9 kV and about 25-35 mA and at a gas flow of 100 ml/min. The source was spectroscopically studied and parameters such as the rotational temperature (T{sub rot}), the excitation temperature (T{sub exc}), the ionization temperature (T{sub ion}) and the electron number density (n{sub e}) were determined. The current-voltage characteristic of the source was studied as well. At optimized conditions the discharge operates in the normal region of the current-voltage characteristic. Rotational and excitation temperatures determined with the use of OH band and Fe I lines as thermometric species were of the order of about 900-1200 and 4500-5500 K, respectively. This indicates that despite of the atmospheric pressure, the discharge is not in LTE. Spatially resolved temperature measurements were performed with axial as well as radial resolution and showed relatively flat profiles. Axially resolved emission intensity profiles for several species such as H, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, OH, He and Hg were determined. It also was found that H{sub 2} introduced into the He by electrolysis of acid solutions such as in ECHG considerably increases the spectroscopically measured gas temperatures but decreases the analyte line intensities, as shown for Hg.

  10. Study of a new direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielniak, B.; Fiedler, T.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study a new DC-APGD operated in He was developed and characterized. The discharge is operated at 0.9 kV and about 25-35 mA and at a gas flow of 100 ml/min. The source was spectroscopically studied and parameters such as the rotational temperature (T rot ), the excitation temperature (T exc ), the ionization temperature (T ion ) and the electron number density (n e ) were determined. The current-voltage characteristic of the source was studied as well. At optimized conditions the discharge operates in the normal region of the current-voltage characteristic. Rotational and excitation temperatures determined with the use of OH band and Fe I lines as thermometric species were of the order of about 900-1200 and 4500-5500 K, respectively. This indicates that despite of the atmospheric pressure, the discharge is not in LTE. Spatially resolved temperature measurements were performed with axial as well as radial resolution and showed relatively flat profiles. Axially resolved emission intensity profiles for several species such as H, N 2 , N 2 + , OH, He and Hg were determined. It also was found that H 2 introduced into the He by electrolysis of acid solutions such as in ECHG considerably increases the spectroscopically measured gas temperatures but decreases the analyte line intensities, as shown for Hg.

  11. Impact of wood burning on outdoor air quality: existing French data and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Mandin, C.; Collet, S.; Besombes, J.L.; Pissot, N.; Allemand, N.; Riberon, J.; Jaffrezo, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    French source apportionment studies of air quality including the wood combustion source become widespread. Quantify a single source contribution to air quality requires to be provided with a specific measurable data to this source. For that reason, numerous studies have focused on the determination, in the atmospheric samples, of the source-specific compounds, usually called molecular tracers. Since 2000, trend works focused on the 'wood combustion' contribution to air quality have been based on the use of some tracers such as levoglucosan and metoxyphenols. Obtained results have been compared to atmospheric particles global characteristics: organic carbon (OC), elementary carbon (EC), PM 10 , PM 2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results presented in this article show not only the interest but also the limits of such an approach, as well as the need to develop and complete the current studies in order to quantify the different sources contribution to air quality. (author)

  12. Current status and future of non-invasive studies of human brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Currently available non-invasive studies are divided into two groups: electrophysiological studies and functional neuroimaging based on the hemodynamic principle. The former includes electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation, and the latter includes functional MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and near-infrared spectroscopy. The hemodynamic response has been shown to be correlated with neuronal electrical activity, especially with synaptic activity rather than spiking activity, within a certain range. Since each technique has advantage and disadvantage, it is important to apply the most appropriate technique to solve each specific question. The combined use of more than one techniques of different principles, if possible, provides data of higher spatial and temporal resolution. Functional connectivity among different brain areas can be studied by using some of these techniques either alone or in combination. (author)

  13. Current study on ionizing radiation-induced mitochondial DNA damage and mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Wang Zhenhua; Zhang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Current advance in ionizing radiation-induced mitochondrial DNA damage and mutations is reviewed, in addition with the essential differences between mtDNA and nDNA damage and mutations. To extent the knowledge about radiation induced mitochondrial alterations, the researchers in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences developed some technics such as real-time PCR, long-PCR for accurate quantification of radiation induced damage and mutations, and in-depth investigation about the functional changes of mitochondria based on mtDNA damage and mutations were also carried out. In conclusion, the important role of mitochondrial study in radiation biology is underlined, and further study on mitochondrial study associated with late effect and metabolism changes in radiation biology is pointed out. (authors)

  14. The study of human bodies' impedance networks in testing leakage currents of electrical equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Xiaofei

    2006-11-01

    In the testing of electrical equipments' leakage currents, impedance networks of human bodies are used to simulate the current's effect on human bodies, and they are key to the preciseness of the testing result. This paper analyses and calculates three human bodies' impedance networks of measuring electric burn current, perception or reaction current, let-go current in IEC60990, by using Matlab, compares the research result of current effect thresholds' change with sine wave's frequency published in IEC479-2, and amends parameters of measuring networks. It also analyses the change of perception or reaction current with waveform by Multisim.

  15. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  16. A study of current world telecommunications and a projection of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Costas

    1992-09-01

    Telecommunications today are important factors in economic and social progress. The last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st have been characterized as the Information Age. Telecommunications, the movement of information through distances, is absolutely critical to the economic and military survival of nations. This thesis is an attempt to predict the future of telecommunications, by studying and analyzing the past and present. First it examines the meaning of telecommunications today and some basics of information transmission. The current status of telecommunications is then presented, by examining the regional profiles as they are divided by the International Telecommunications Union. A number of statistical studies are given, which present a thorough picture of current world telecommunications. In an effort to predict future industry trends, the competition among the three largest telecommunications markets, U.S.A., Japan and the European Community, is also considered by looking at their present telecommunications industry, the efforts they make to improve their technology, and their plans for future investment. Finally, some major technological trends including BISDN, the use of fiber technology in the communications loop, and the use of solitons are examined. The new Metropolitan Area Network Protocol, FDDI-2 is also reviewed.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS.

  18. Studies on the current state of water quality in the Segamat River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razelan, Faridah Mohd; Tahir, Wardah; E. M Yahaya, Nasehir Khan

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, pollution has become a major concern in developed and developing countries. In a study on the current state of Segamat River water quality; on-site data collection and observation and also laboratory data analysis have been implemented. Studies showed that the downstream of the Segamat River has recorded a significant reduction in quality of water during the dry season compared to the wet season. The deterioration of water quality is caused by the activities along the river such as palm oil plantation, municipal waste and waste from settlements. It was also recorded that the point sources were dominating the pollution at Segamat River during the dry season. However, during the wet season, the water quality was impaired by the non-point sources which originated from the upstream of the river.

  19. Counter-current extraction studies for the recovery of neptunium by the Purex process. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, N.; Nadkarni, M. N.; Kumar, S. V.; Kartha, P. K.S.; Sonavane, R. R.; Ramaniah, M. V.; Patil, S. K.

    1974-07-01

    It is proposed to recover neptunium-237, along with uranium and plutonium, during the fuel reprocessing in the PREFRE plant at Tarapur. Counter-current extraction studies, relevant to the code contamination (HA) and partitioning (IA) cycles of the purex process, were carried out to arrive at suitable chemical flowsheet conditions which would enable the co-extraction of neptunium along with uranium and plutonium. The results of the studies carried out using a laboratory mixer-settler unit and synthetic mixtures of neptunium and uranium are reported here. Based on these results, the chemical flowsheet conditions are proposed for the co-extraction of neptunium even if it exists as Np(V) in the aqueous feed solution. (auth)

  20. Study of the 'non-Abelian' current algebra of a non-linear σ-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2006-01-01

    A particular form of non-linear σ-model, having a global gauge invariance, is studied. The detailed discussion on current algebra structures reveals the non-Abelian nature of the invariance, with field dependent structure functions. Reduction of the field theory to a point particle framework yields a non-linear harmonic oscillator, which is a special case of similar models studied before in [J.F. Carinena et al., Nonlinearity 17 (2004) 1941, math-ph/0406002; J.F. Carinena et al., in: Proceedings of 10th International Conference in Modern Group Analysis, Larnaca, Cyprus, 2004, p. 39, math-ph/0505028; J.F. Carinena et al., Rep. Math. Phys. 54 (2004) 285, hep-th/0501106]. The connection with non-commutative geometry is also established

  1. Radioligands for PET studies of central benzodiazepine receptors and PK (peripheral benzodiazepine) binding sites -current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.; Osman, S.; Shah, F.; Turton, D.R.; Waters, S.L.; Crouzel, C.; Nutt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The status of the radiochemical development and biological evaluation of radioligands for PET studies of central benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors and the so-called peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, here discriminated and referred to as PK binding sites, is reviewed against current pharmacological knowledge, indicating those agents with present value and those with future potential. Practical recommendations are given for the preparation of two useful radioligands for PET studies, [N-methyl- 11 C]flumazenil for central BZ receptors, and [N-methyl- 11 C]PK 11195 for PK binding sites. Quality assurance and plasma metabolite analysis are also reviewed for these radioligands and practical recommendations are given on methodology for their performance. (Author)

  2. Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Schneider, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (E-C)1 coupling is a process composed of multiple sequential stages, by which an action potential triggers sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)2 Ca2+ release and subsequent contractile activation. The various steps in the E-C coupling process in skeletal muscle can be studied using different techniques. The simultaneous recordings of sarcolemmal electrical signals and the accompanying elevation in myoplasmic Ca2+, due to depolarization-initiated SR Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle fibres, have been useful to obtain a better understanding of muscle function. In studying the origin and mechanism of voltage dependency of E-C coupling a variety of different techniques have been used to control the voltage in adult skeletal fibres. Pioneering work in muscles isolated from amphibians or crustaceans used microelectrodes or ‘high resistance gap’ techniques to manipulate the voltage in the muscle fibres. The development of the patch clamp technique and its variant, the whole-cell clamp configuration that facilitates the manipulation of the intracellular environment, allowed the use of the voltage clamp techniques in different cell types, including skeletal muscle fibres. The aim of this article is to present an historical perspective of the voltage clamp methods used to study skeletal muscle E-C coupling as well as to describe the current status of using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in studies in which the electrical and Ca2+ signalling properties of mouse skeletal muscle membranes are being investigated. PMID:22306655

  3. Current studies related to the use of burnup credit in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, Jerome; Lavarenne, Caroline; Barreau, Anne; Riffard, Cecile; Roque, Benedicte; Bioux, Philippe; Doucet, Michel; Guillou, Eric; Leka, Georges; Toubon, Herve

    2003-01-01

    In order to avoid criticality risks, a large number of facilities using spent fuels have been designed considering the fuel as fresh. This choice has obviously led to considerable safety margins. In the early 80's, a method was accepted by the French Safety Authorities allowing to consider the changes in the fuel composition during the depletion with some very pessimistic hypothesis: only actinides were considered and the amount of burnup used in the studies was equal to the mean burnup in the 50-least-irradiated centimeters. As many facilities still want to optimize their processes (e.g. transportation, storage, fuel reprocessing), the main companies involved in the French nuclear industry, researchers and IRSN set up a Working Group in order to study the way burnup could be taken into account in the criticality calculations, considering some fission products and a more realistic axial profile of burnup. The first of this article introduces the current French method used to take burnup into account in the criticality studies. The second part is devoted to the studies achieved by the Working Group to improve this method, especially concerning the consideration of the neutron absorption of some fission products and of an axial profile of burnup: for that purpose, some results are presented related to the steps of the process like the depletion calculations, the definition of an axial profile and the criticality calculation. In the third part, some results (keff) obtained with fission products and an axial profile are compared to those obtained with the current one. The conclusions presented are related to the present state of knowledge and may differ from the final conclusions of the Working Group. (author)

  4. The KGB (Russian Secret Police): Its composition, aims and methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 2 (1984) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about Electric Potential, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of electric potential and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…

  6. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: An Empirical Study of Current Management Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apte, Aruna U; Apte, Uday M; Rendon, Rene G

    2008-01-01

    .... Specifically, we studied the current management practices in such areas as life cycle approach, project management, organization/ management structure, and training provided to services acquisition personnel...

  7. Uncertainty in aiming movements and its association to hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Priscila de Paiva Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the uncertainty of target location on the planning and execution of aiming movements performed towards the ipsilateral and contralateral directions by the right and left upper limbs. In addition, the association between the performance of aiming movements and the performance of functional manual tasks was investigated. Two tasks were proposed: with prior knowledge of the movement direction (simple reaction time or not (choice reaction time. The grip strength and manual dexterity were measured. The choice option in response (i.e. uncertainty influenced planning of the aiming movements, but not its execution, while movements performed towards the contralateral direction were worse in execution as compared to the ipsilateral direction. Manual dexterity was significantly correlated with reaction times, while the performance during movement execution was significantly correlated with handgrip/pinch strength.

  8. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, Sunao

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 μP is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 μsec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10 -6 Pam 3 /sm 2 at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm -2 (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10 -5 Pam 3 /sm 2 which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  9. Current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical atherosclerosis: results of the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, S; Backé, E; Liebers, F; Schulz, A; Hegewald, J; Garthus-Niegel, S; Nübling, M; Blankenberg, S; Pfeiffer, N; Lackner, K J; Beutel, M; Blettner, M; Münzel, T; Wild, P S; Seidler, A; Letzel, S; Latza, U

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the association between exposure to current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis. Participants of a population-based cohort study (the Gutenberg Health Study, N = 15,010) aged 35-64 years were examined at baseline (2007-2012). Investigations included measurements of arterial stiffness, vascular function [reactive hyperaemia (RH) index], and intima media thickness (IMT). Also, a complete job history (including up to 15 periods), occupational exposures, a variety of lifestyle, and dispositional variables were enquired. Night shift work was performed by 1071 out of 8065 currently employed individuals. The strongest association after adjustment for age, sex, job complexity level, being a manager, overtime work, and noise appeared for more than 660 night shifts within the last 10 years and a significantly increased arterial stiffness of 0.33 m/s. This reflects a 4 % flow velocity increase for individuals with more than 660 night shifts compared to non-night workers. Regarding the entire professional life, night shift workers showed a significantly decreased vascular function by -0.054 RH index points by using the same adjustment. IMT values did not differ statistically from non-night workers. Lifestyle and dispositional factors showed an influence on all used subclinical atherosclerosis parameters. The cross-sectional results demonstrate an association between night work and detrimental changes in the atherosclerotic process. The association is more pronounced with more years in night shift and is partly explained by lifestyle and dispositional factors. Longitudinal analyses are necessary to confirm the results.

  10. An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Yusaku

    The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.

  11. An electron beam induced current study of gallium nitride and diamond materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, A.D.; Moore, D.J.; Scott, C.S.; Green, R.

    1995-01-01

    The continual need for microelectronic devices that operate under severe electronic and environmental conditions (high temperature, high frequency, high power, and radiation tolerance) has sustained research in wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The properties suggest these wide-bandgap semiconductor materials have tremendous potential for military and commercial applications. High frequency bipolar transistors and field effect transistors, diodes, and short wavelength optical devices have been proposed using these materials. Although research efforts involving the study of transport properties in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Diamond have made significant advances, much work is still needed to improve the material quality so that the electrophysical behavior of device structures can be further understood and exploited. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements can provide a method of understanding the transport properties in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Diamond. This technique basically consists of measuring the current or voltage transient response to the drift and diffusion of carriers created by a short-duration pulse of radiation. This method differs from other experimental techniques because it is based on a fast transient electron beam probe created from a high speed, laser pulsed photoemission system

  12. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V. [Fermilab; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. A. [Fermilab; Sukhanov, A. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  13. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  14. Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Klinthäll, Martin; Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Previous research has demonstrated mortality differences between immigrants and natives living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early life conditions in the country of birth and current socio-economic conditions in adult life in Sweden on cardiovascular, cancer, all other cause and total mortality among immigrants and natives in Sweden. Design. The cohort data concerning individual demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions stems fro...

  15. Endoscopic and histological pitfalls in the diagnosis of celiac disease: A multicentre study assessing the current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Hogg-Kollars, Sabine; Volta, Umberto; Manenti, Stefania; Reza-Zali, Mohammad; Caio, Giacomo; Giovenali, Paolo; Barakauskiene, Ausrine; Kazenaite, Edita; Becheanu, Gabriel; Diculescu, Mircea; Pellegrino, Salvatore; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Casella, Giovanni; Di-Bella, Camillo; Decarli, Nicola; Biancalani, Mauro; Bassotti, Gabrio; Rostami, Kamran

    2013-07-01

    the diagnosis of celiac disease requires small bowel biopsies to identify the characteristic mucosal changes. The current biopsy practice among endoscopists for celiac disease is in most part unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic policies in various centers in their current practice. information from a total of 931 confirmed celiac disease patients was retrospectively obtained retrospectively from nine centers in European and Middle Eastern countries. The number of small-bowel biopsies obtained from the duodenal bulb and the second part of the duodenum was compared among different centers. the most frequent stage of mucosal changes amongst Iranian subjects was Marsh IIIa whereas in the rest of the study population was Marsh IIIc. Marsh I and Marsh II were more prevalent in adults (P < 0.05) and Marsh IIIc was significantly higher in pediatric ages between 1 and 15 (P < 0.05). The most common number of biopsy specimens obtained from Romanian subjects was 1 (52% of cases), followed by 2 for Iranian (56%), 3 for Lithuanian (66.7%) and British patients (65%) and 4 for Italian patients (48.3%). For majority of cases, anemia was the most prevalent symptom (18.7%) followed by malabsorption (10.5%), diarrhea (9.3%) and dyspepsia (8.2%), respectively. despite the evidence-based recommendations, this study revealed a poor compliance with major guidelines on diagnosis of celiac disease. We emphasize that taking adequate number of duodenal biopsies should be implemented for an accurate diagnosis and also for the exclusion of celiac disease.

  16. Utilization study of antidiabetic agents in a teaching hospital of Sikkim and adherence to current standard treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Sushrut Varun; Datta, Supratim; Upreti, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has gradually emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in our country. This underlines the need for timely disease detection and decisive therapeutic intervention. This prospective cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a remote North-East Indian tertiary care teaching hospital in the perspective of current standard treatment guidelines. Diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic medication, both as outpatients and inpatients in our hospital over a period of 12 months (May 2013-May 2014), were included in this study. The data obtained were sorted and analyzed on the basis of gender, type of therapy, and hospital setting. A total of 310 patients were included in the study. Metformin was the single most frequently prescribed antidiabetic agent (66.8%) followed by the sulfonylureas group (37.4%). Insulin was prescribed in 23.2% of the patients. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy (65.1%) was used more frequently than monotherapy (34.8%). The use of biguanides (P standard treatment guidelines. Increased use of generic drugs is an area with scope for improvement.

  17. Nutrigenomics in human intervention studies: current status, lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jonas; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Hoeft, Birgit; Bendik, Igor; Weber, Peter; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-03-01

    Nutrigenomics applications comprise transcript-, proteome- and metabolome-profiling techniques in which responses to diets or individual ingredients are assessed in biological samples. They may also include the characterization of heterogeneity in relevant genes that affect the biological processes. This review explores various areas of nutrition and food sciences in which transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-analyses have been applied in human intervention studies, including nutrigenetics aspects and discusses the advantages and limitations of the methodologies. Despite the power of the profiling techniques to generate huge data sets, a critical assessment of the study outcomes emphasizes the current constraints in data interpretation, including huge knowledge gaps, the need for improved study designs and more comprehensive phenotyping of volunteers before selection for study participation. In this respect, nutrigenomics faces the same problems as all other areas of the life sciences, employing the same tools. However, there is a growing trend toward systemic approaches in which different technologies are combined and applied to the same sample, allowing physiological changes to be assessed more robustly throughout all molecular layers of mRNA, protein and metabolite changes. Nutrigenomics is thereby maturing as a branch of the life sciences and is gaining significant recognition in the scientific community. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Focal Hand Dystonia in Musicians: A Two-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marceglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Focal hand dystonia (FHD in musicians is a movement disorder causing abnormal movements and irregularities in playing. Since weak electrical currents applied to the brain induce persistent excitability changes in humans, cathodal tDCS was proposed as a possible non-invasive approach for modulating cortical excitability in patients with FHD. However, the optimal targets and modalities have still to be determined. In this pilot study, we delivered cathodal (2 mA, anodal (2 mA and sham tDCS over the motor areas bilaterally for 20 min daily for five consecutive days in two musicians with FHD. After cathodal tDCS, both patients reported a sensation of general wellness and improved symptoms of FHD. In conclusion, our pilot results suggest that cathodal tDCS delivered bilaterally over motor-premotor (M-PM cortex for 5 consecutive days may be effective in improving symptoms in FHD.

  19. Electron-beam-induced current study of small-angle grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Sekiguchi, T.; Xie, R.; Ahmet, P.; Chikyo, T.; Yang, D.; Ito, S.; Yin, F.

    2005-01-01

    Recombination activity of small-angle grain boundaries (SA GBs) in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) was studied by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. In the as-grown mc-Si, the EBIC contrasts of special Σ and random GBs were weak at both 300 and 100 K, whereas those of SA GBs were weak (<3%) at 300 K and strong (30-40%) at 100 K. In the contaminated mc-Si, SA GBs showed stronger EBIC contrast than Σ and R GBs at 300 K. It is indicated that SA GBs possess high density of shallow levels and are easily contaminated with Fe compared to other GBs

  20. Experimental study on flaw detectability of remote field eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, T.; Fukui, S.; Iwahashi, Y.; Yamada, H.

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of comprehending the effect in practical use of the remote field eddy current (RFEC) testing that becomes noticeable for the ISI technique of steel tubes, its flaw detectability was clarified through a model test. This study used straight and bending tubes of 3.8 mm in wall thickness and 31.8 mm in outside diameter. These tubes were inspected from their inside. After relations among the pickup coil output, coil distance, testing frequency, etc. were measured, a probe of the practical use type was manufactured to investigate its flaw detectability by means of simulated flaws. The authors discuss how it has been found that light local wall thinning on the outside surfaces can be detected by this technique and its effect in practical use can be expected with small influences due to magnetic permeability variations of tube materials, bending of tubes, etc

  1. Development techniques and electron optical studies of high voltage, high current electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, L.M.; Mahadevan, S.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The progress of the electron gun design, limiting to axially symmetric geometries is discussed here with a view to utilise such guns for electron accelerators. The mechanical design features leading to the physical configuration of the gun with stringent tolerances are outlined. Vacuum processing is done at pressures of 1.3x10 -5 Pa. The gun employs W-filament emitter or a cathode pellet with bombarder service. A water cooled compact faraday cup is used to measure the electron current. Electron gun geometries have been studied using the computer programme. The preveance of the gun is 0.7x10 -7 A/Vsup(1.5) at 80 kV. Developmental techniques of such pulsed electron guns are described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Current recommendations for the study of carotid stenosis by doppler ultrasound and other imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Matamoros, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has been one of the most frequent causes of death from chronic disease, as well as cause of long-term disabilities, in both the United States, and in Latin American countries during recent years. It is therefore, important to know about it. An updated review of international recommendations to the Costa Rican health system is performed for carotid imaging study in patients at risk of accidents and ischemic cerebrovascular disease; with special emphasis on carotid Doppler ultrasonography, due to its wide availability in the medical field Costa Rican. Furthermore, certain relevant concepts of other imaging techniques currently available are listed to determine the appropriate choice of each method according to the individual patient's condition, such as conventional angiography and tomographic angiography [es

  3. Study of Chromium Multilayers Properties Obtained by Pulsed Current Density: Residual Stress and Microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta TORRES-GONZÁLEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium multilayers deposits were obtained from three different bath solutions, they were prepared by switching current density between 10 and 70 Adm-2. Two temperatures were studied, 35°C and 55°C. At 35°C two different microstructures are alternated: columnar obtained at 10 Adm-2 and equiaxial obtained at 70 Adm-2. At 55°C only the columnar type microstructure is present, at 10 and 70 Adm-2, the only difference among the layers is a slight disorientation of grains. The properties of these chromium multilayers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. In general the deposits are microcracked with a high microhardness, high residual stress and a small grain size.

  4. A study of the variability in the Benguela Current volume transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sudip; Schmid, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    The Benguela Current forms the eastern limb of the subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic and transports a blend of relatively fresh and cool Atlantic water and relatively warm and salty Indian Ocean water northwestward. Therefore, it plays an important role not only for the local freshwater and heat budgets but for the overall meridional heat and freshwater transport in the South Atlantic. Historically, the Benguela Current region is relatively data sparse, especially with respect to long-term velocity observations. A new three-dimensional data set of the horizontal velocity in the upper 2000 m that covers the years 1993 to 2015 is used to analyze the variability in the Benguela Current. This data set was derived using observations from Argo floats, satellite sea surface height, and wind fields. Since Argo floats do not cover regions shallower than 1000 m, the data set has gaps inshore. The main features of the horizontal circulation observed in this data set are in good agreement with those from earlier studies based on limited observations. Therefore, it can be used for a more detailed study of the flow pattern as well as the variability in the circulation in this region. It is found that the mean meridional transport in the upper 800 m between the continental shelf of Africa and 3° E, decreases from 23 ± 3 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) at 31° S to 11 ± 3 Sv at 28° S. In terms of variability, the 23-year long time series at 30 and 35° S reveals phases with large energy densities at periods of 3 to 7 months, which can be attributed to the occurrence of Agulhas rings in this region. The prevalence of Agulhas rings is also behind the fact that the energy density at 35° S at the annual period is smaller than at 30° S because the former latitude is closer to Agulhas Retroflection and therefore more likely to be impacted by the Agulhas rings. In agreement with this, the energy density associated with mesoscale variability at 30° S is weaker than at 35° S. With

  5. Study of current and planned high occupancy vehicle lane use: performance and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.; Westbrook, F.

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of a nationwide study of HOV lanes: their characteristics and performance as traffic congestion mitigating and rideshare enhancing facilities. The study took the form of telephone interviews with a variety of planning agencies in each of the 48 contiguous states and Hawaii over the period April through June 1985, with subsequent receipt of the most current documentation on regional HOV lane operations. The most up-to-date evidence on each lane's performance is presented: its hourly and peak period person throughput vis-a-vis the highway's adjacent, conventional mixed traffic lane(s), its vehicle throughput and occupancy, travel speed and travel time savings for HOVs, lane rule violation rates, lane construction and maintenance costs and accident data. Estimates are provided of the growth in ridesharing over the life of the HOV-only lanes, of the number of vehicles removed from the highway through ridesharing, and of the subsequent fuel savings attributable to HOV lane projects. The relationship between bus patronage and carpool/vanpool mode adoption is looked at, and it is concluded that both forms of HOV can do well on properly planned lanes. The authors also point out the very partial nature of the existing evidence upon which to base HOV lane project evaluation, and the subsequent difficulty associated with ''selling'' the HOV lane concept to many planners and members of the public. They identify those characteristics associated with clearly successful HOV lane projects. Finally, the current state of planning for new HOV lanes in cities around the nation is described, and the major reasons given for rejection or abandonment of HOV lane projects are discussed.

  6. Safety Improvements on Wood Chippers Currently in Use: A Study on Feasibility in the Italian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Bagagiolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following formal opposition by France, the harmonized safety standards regarding manually-loaded wood chippers (EN 13525:2005+A2:2009 which presumed compliance with the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR required by the Machine Directive (Directive 2006/42/EC, have recently been withdrawn, and a new draft of the standard is currently under revision. In order to assess the potential impact of the expected future harmonized standards within the Italian context, this study has examined the main issues in implementing EHSRs on wood chippers already being used. Safety issues regarding wood chippers already in use were identified in an analysis of the draft standard, through the observation of a number of case studies, and qualitative analysis of the essential technical interventions. A number of agricultural and forestry operators and companies participated in the study, pointing out the technical and economic obstacle facing the safety features requested by the pending new standard. It emerged that the main safety issues concerned the implementation of the reverse function, the stop bar, and the protective devices, the infeed chute dimension, the emergency stop function, and the designated feeding area. The possibility of adopting such solutions mainly depends on technical feasibility and costs, but an important role is also played by the attitude towards safety and a lack of adequate information regarding safety obligations and procedures among users.

  7. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression : An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Müller, V.N.L.S.; Arntz, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent

  8. The Danish national return-to-work program - aims, content, and design of the process and effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aust, Birgit; Helverskov, Trine; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Rugulies, Reiner; Nielsen, Karina; Sorensen, Ole H.; Grundtvig, Gry; Andersen, Malene F.; Hansen, Jorgen V.; Buchardt, Helle L.; Nielsen, Lisbeth; Lund, Trine L.; Andersen, Irene; Andersen, Mogens H.; Clausen, Aksel S.; Heinesen, Eskil; Mortensen, Ole S.; Ektor-Andersen, John; Orbaek, Palle; Winzor, Glen; Bultmann, Ute; Poulsen, Otto M.

    The Danish national return-to-work (RTW) program aims to improve the management of municipal sickness benefit in Denmark. A study is currently ongoing to evaluate the RTW program. The purpose of this article is to describe the study protocol. The program includes 21 municipalities encompassing

  9. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  10. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: zychen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Chen, Z.P., E-mail: zpchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2012-05-14

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2} due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H{sub 2}.

  11. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.Y.; Chen, Z.P.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W.G.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z.J.; Ding, Y.H.; Zhuang, G.

    2012-01-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT. -- Highlights: ► The regime of runaway generation in disruptions in J-TEXT has been established. ► The magnetic field threshold for runaway current generation in disruptions is 2.2 T. ► The conversion efficiency of runaway current is in the ranges of 30% to 60%. ► The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H 2 .

  12. Study of non-inductive current drive using high energy neutral beam injection on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) current drive was experimentally studied. The N-NB driven current density was determined over a wide range of electron temperatures by using the motional Stark effect spectroscopy. Theoretical prediction of the NB current drive increasing with beam energy and electron temperature was validated. A record value of NB current drive efficiency 1.55 x 10 19 Am -2 W -1 was achieved simultaneously with high confinement and high beta at at a plasma current of 1.5 MA under a fully non-inductively current driven condition. The experimental validation of NB current drive theory for MHD quiescent plasmas gives greater confidence in predicting the NB current drive in future reactors. However, it was also found that MHD instabilities caused a degradation of NB current drive. A beam-driven instability expelled N-NB fast ions carrying non-inductive current from the central region. The lost N-NB driven current was estimated to be 7% of the total N-NB driven current. For the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), comparisons of the measured neutron yield and fast ion pressure profile with transport code calculations revealed that the loss of fast ions increases with the NTM activity and that fast ions at higher energies suffer larger transport than at lower energies. (author)

  13. Exploring current and potential roles of Australian community pharmacists in gout management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Allyce B; Nguyen, Amy D; Baysari, Melissa T; Kannangara, Diluk R W; McLachlan, Andrew J; Day, Richard O

    2018-05-09

    Gout is an increasingly prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis. Although effective treatments for gout exist, current management is suboptimal due to low medication adherence rates and treatments that are non-concordant with guidelines. Medications are the mainstay and most effective form of gout management. Thus, there is potential for community pharmacists to play an important primary health care role in gout management, however their current role and their potential to improve management of gout treatment is currently unclear. The purpose of the study is to explore the views of Australian pharmacists on their roles in gout management and to identify factors influencing their involvement in gout management. A convenience sample of community pharmacists were invited to participate using a snowballing recruitment strategy. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 pharmacists of varying age, gender and pharmacy experience. Interviews focused on pharmacists' experiences of managing gout, interactions with people living with gout and their perceived roles and responsibilities in gout management. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and independently analysed by two reviewers to identify themes. The main role of pharmacists reported in gout management was providing patient education. The greatest facilitator to pharmacists involvement in gout management was identified to be pharmacists' good understanding of gout and its management. Barriers to pharmacists involvement were identified to be difficulties in monitoring adherence to gout medications, low priority given to gout in the pharmacy compared to other chronic health conditions, and lack of specific training and/or continuing education in gout prevention and management. Pharmacists can expand their primary health care role in gout management, particularly in the area of ongoing provision of education to people living with gout and in monitoring medication adherence in patients. However, a

  14. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  15. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  16. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  17. Efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in women with provoked vestibulodynia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Annie; Léonard, Guillaume; Gougeon, Véronique; Waddell, Guy; Bureau, Yves-André; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2016-05-14

    Provoked vestibulodynia is the most common form of vulvodynia. Despite its high prevalence and deleterious sexual, conjugal, and psychological repercussions, effective evidence-based interventions for provoked vestibulodynia remain limited. For a high proportion of women, significant pain persists despite the currently available treatments. Growing evidence suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) could play a key role in provoked vestibulodynia; thus, treatment targeting the CNS, rather than localized dysfunctions, may be beneficial for women suffering from provoked vestibulodynia. In this study, we aim to build on the promising results of a previous case report and evaluate whether transcranial direct-current stimulation, a non-invasive brain stimulation technique targeting the CNS, could be an effective treatment option for women with provoked vestibulodynia. This single-center, triple-blind, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial aims to compare the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation with sham transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Forty women diagnosed with provoked vestibulodynia by a gynecologist, following a standardized treatment protocol, are randomized to either active transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment for ten sessions of 20 minutes at an intensity of 2 mA or sham transcranial direct-current stimulation over a 2-week period. Outcome measures are collected at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome is pain during intercourse, assessed with a numerical rating scale. Secondary measurements focus on the sexual function, vestibular pain sensitivity, psychological distress, treatment satisfaction, and the patient's global impression of change. To our knowledge, this study is the first randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Findings from this

  18. The 11-year solar cycle in current reanalyses: a (non)linear attribution study of the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2015-06-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11-year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (support vector regression, neural networks) besides the multiple linear regression approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis data sets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how these types of data resolve especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the tropical stratosphere were found to be in qualitative agreement with previous attribution studies, although the agreement with observational results was incomplete, especially for JRA-55. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone data sets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. The results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all data sets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. The seasonal evolution of the solar response was also discussed in terms of dynamical causalities in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer-Dobson circulation at solar maxima was reviewed together with a discussion of polar vortex behaviour.

  19. Analysis of The Corporate Effective Tax Rate in Brazil: A study focusing on ETR and Current ETR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Otávio Monteiro Guimarães

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effective tax rate of public companies operating in stock market in Brazil over a period between 2003 and 2013, both to the total effective tax rate (ETRt as the curren (ETRc, seeking to verify evidence of the presence of tax management. This analysis consists of (i to assess whether average tax burden is upper, equal or less than the statutory rate of 34%; (ii verify that the ETR suffered influence of RTT adjustments arising from the introduction of IFRS; (iii identify proxies (size; profitability; inventory; properties, plants and equipment; debt; and deferred tax expenses which may explain the variation in ETR. The results showed that: (i companies have a significantly lower ETR than the statutory tax rate; (ii companies reported a lower ETR on the full adoption of IFRS period; (iii the ETR has relation to size (negative, debt (positive and components of assets (positive; and (iv there are deferral strategies considering the negative sign of deferred taxes in relation to the current ETR. The results confirm the practice of tax management and also demonstrate that the resulting RTT adjustments resulted in a lower tax burden, confirming previous studies that estimated less conservative earnings after the beginning of the convergence process. Finally, we observed that larger companies have a lower tax burden and that in general companies adopt choices that allow the deferral of taxes on income.

  20. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  1. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  2. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 {mu}P is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 {mu}sec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm{sup -2} (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10{sup -5} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  3. Pyroclastic density currents at Etna volcano, Italy: The 11 February 2014 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Di Roberto, Alessio; De Beni, Emanuela; Behncke, Boris; Bertagnini, Antonella; Del Carlo, Paola; Pompilio, Massimo

    2018-05-01

    On 11 February 2014, a considerable volume (0.82 to 1.29 × 106 m3) of unstable and hot rocks detached from the lower-eastern flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) at Mt. Etna, producing a pyroclastic density current (PDC). This event was by far the most extensive ever recorded at Mt. Etna since 1999 and has attracted the attention of the scientific community and civil protection to this type of volcanic phenomena, usually occurring without any clear volcanological precursor and especially toward the mechanisms which led to the crater collapse, the PDC flow dynamics and the related volcanic hazard. We present here the results of the investigation carried out on the 11 February 2014 collapse and PDC events; data were obtained through a multidisciplinary approach which includes the analysis of photograph, images from visible and thermal surveillance cameras, and the detailed stratigraphic, textural and petrographic investigations of the PDC deposits. Results suggest that the collapse and consequent PDC was the result of a progressive thermal and mechanical weakening of the cone by repeated surges of magma passing through it during the eruptive activity prior to the 11 February 2014 events, as well as pervasive heating and corrosion by volcanic gas. The collapse of the lower portion of the NSEC was followed by the formation of a relatively hot (up to 750 °C) dense flow which travelled about 2.3 km from the source, stopping shortly after the break of the slope and emplacing the main body of the deposit which ranges between 0.39 and 0.92 × 106 m3. This flow was accompanied a relatively hot cloud of fine ash that dispersed over a wider area. The results presented may contribute to the understanding of this very complex type of volcanic phenomena at Mt. Etna and in similar volcanic settings of the world. In addition, results will lay the basis for the modeling of crater collapse and relative PDC events and consequently for the planning of hazard assessment strategies

  4. Current studies and future perspectives of synchrotron radiation imaging trials in human patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Renata, E-mail: renata.longo@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, via Valerio 2 3410 Trieste (Italy); INFN- sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2 3410 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    The coherent and monochromatic x-ray beams available at the synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories are ideal tools for the development and the initial application of new imaging techniques. In the present paper the history of the clinical studies in k-edge subtraction imaging with SR is summarized, including coronary angiography and bronchography. The results of the recent trial in phase-contrast mammography at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) are discussed, in order to assess the clinical impact of the new imaging modality and the potential interest in its translation to clinical practice. The direct measurement of linear attenuation coefficient obtained during the SR mammography trial is also discussed. The new program of phase-contrast breast CT under development at Elettra is presented. Recently, 3D breast imaging (tomosynthesis and cone beam breast CT) has been introduced in clinical practice with significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this research is to study the contribution of the phase-contrast to the image quality of breast CT. Increasing the image quality of the x-ray medical images at the level of the results obtained at the SR laboratories is highly desirable, hence the promising techniques for the translation of the phase-contrast imaging to the hospitals are briefly discussed.

  5. Current studies and future perspectives of synchrotron radiation imaging trials in human patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The coherent and monochromatic x-ray beams available at the synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories are ideal tools for the development and the initial application of new imaging techniques. In the present paper the history of the clinical studies in k-edge subtraction imaging with SR is summarized, including coronary angiography and bronchography. The results of the recent trial in phase-contrast mammography at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) are discussed, in order to assess the clinical impact of the new imaging modality and the potential interest in its translation to clinical practice. The direct measurement of linear attenuation coefficient obtained during the SR mammography trial is also discussed. The new program of phase-contrast breast CT under development at Elettra is presented. Recently, 3D breast imaging (tomosynthesis and cone beam breast CT) has been introduced in clinical practice with significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this research is to study the contribution of the phase-contrast to the image quality of breast CT. Increasing the image quality of the x-ray medical images at the level of the results obtained at the SR laboratories is highly desirable, hence the promising techniques for the translation of the phase-contrast imaging to the hospitals are briefly discussed.

  6. Study of the inhomogeneity of critical current under in-situ tensile stress for YBCO tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. P.; Chen, W.; Zhang, H. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Pan, X. F.; Yang, X. S.; Zhao, Y.

    2018-07-01

    A Hall sensor system was used to measure the local critical current of YBCO tape with high spatial resolution under in-situ tensile stress. The hot spot generation and minimum quench energy of YBCO tape, which depended on the local critical current, was calculated through the thermoelectric coupling model. With the increase in tensile stress, the cracks which have different dimensions and critical current degradation arose more frequently and lowered the thermal stability of the YBCO tape.

  7. Numerical Study of the Cascading Energy Conversion of the Reconnecting Current Sheet in Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J.; Lin, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Shen, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a resistive magnetohydrodynamical study (2D) of the CME eruption based on the Lin & Forbes model (2000) regarding the cascading reconnection by a high-order Godunov scheme code, to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the internal structure of the current sheet (CS) and the high reconnection rate. The main improvements of this work include: 1) large enough spatial scale consistent with the stereo LASCO data that yields an observable current sheet 2) A realistic plasma environment (S&G, 1999) adopted rather than an isothermal atmosphere and higher resolution inside CS 3) The upper boundary condition set to be open. The simulation shows a typical acceleration below 2 R⊙, then its speed slightly fluctuated, and the flux rope velocity is estimated to be 100 km/s-250 km/s for a slow CME. The reconnection rates are around 0.02 estimated from inflow and outflow velocities. The dynamic features show a great consistence with the LASCO observations. Looking into the fine structure of CS, magnetic reconnection initializes with a Sweet-Parker stage, and undergoes the time-dependent Petschek/fractural patterns. While the CME continues climbing up, the outflow region becomes turbulent which enhances the reconnection rates furthermore. The local reconnection rates present a simple linear dependence with the length-width ratio of multiple small-scale CSs. The principal X-point is close to the Sun's surface during the entire eruption, causing the energy partition to be unequal. Energy conversion in the vicinity of the principal X-point has also been addressed by simply employing energy equations. And we demonstrate that the dominant energy transfer consists of a conversion of the incoming Poynting flux to enthalpy flux in the sunward direction and bulk kinetic energy in the CME direction. The spectrum of magnetic energy doesn't follow a simple power law after secondary islands appear, and the spectrum index varies from 1.5 to 2

  8. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  9. Pathology analysis for mesothelioma study in the United Kingdom: Current practice and historical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, B W

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the largest case-control study of malignant mesothelioma yet performed, investigators at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine assessed 1732 male and 670 female cases as of May 2013. Epidemiological findings of a subset of these were published previously, excluding patients who died or who refused to be interviewed. Pathology reports were collected for subjects, including those both eligible and ineligible for epidemiology study based on vital status. The current investigation examined 860 cases having pathology reports available. Sixty-one cases were diagnosed using cytology only, often with equivocal diagnoses, while 799 reported at least a biopsy of the tumor. Of these, 748 had pathology sufficiently detailed for evaluation. These reports were examined for basis of diagnosis, differences between study cases and ineligible cases, pathology characteristics, and immunohistochemical and other tests used. The most prominent subtype was epithelioid (64% of study cases but only 49% of ineligible cases). Biphasic subtype was present in 10% of study cases and 16% of those ineligible. Sarcomatoid subtype was present in 7% of study cases and 19% of ineligible cases, most of whom died. Twelve percent of study cases displayed no specified subtype, versus 7% of ineligible cases. Of recorded immunohistochemical stains specific for mesothelial cell origin, calretinin (95%) and CK 5/6 or CK5 alone (84%) were by far the most common. Calretinin and CK 5/6 or CK 5 alone were also most sensitive and positive in 92% of cases presenting with surgical pathology report. Ninety percent of cases had at least one immunohistochemical marker for possible lung carcinoma applied, with BER-Ep4 and TTF-1 the most frequent at 68% and CEA at 58%. TTF-1 and CEA were positive in 1% or less of cases. Patterns of use and positive and negative results for each of these as well as other immunohistochemical stains are presented and discussed, along with a brief historical

  10. Correlations and currents in 3He studied with the (e, e'pp) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groep, David Leo

    2000-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon correlations, especially those of short-range character, can be well studied with electron-induced two-nucleon knockout reactions at intermediate electron energies. However, these reactions are not only driven by one-body currents, i.e., coupling of the virtual photon to one of the nucleons of a correlated pair, a process that directly probes NN-correlations. Also two-body currents, resulting from intermediate Delta-excitation and coupling to exchanged mesons, as well as final state interactions, influence the experimental cross section. Exclusive measurements of the three-body breakup of 3He offer the opportunity to compare data to microscopic calculations. The relative importance of competing two-proton knockout mechanisms can be investigated by varying the energy and momentum of the virtual photon. The experiment was performed with the electron beam extracted from the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) at NIKHEF; the incident electron energy was 564 MeV. A cryogenic, high-pressure 3He gas target was used with a thickness of 270 mg/cm^2. Scattered electrons were detected in the QDQ magnetic spectrometer and both emitted protons in the HADRON plastic scintillator arrays. Cross sections were determined for three values of the three-momentum transfer of the virtual photon (q=305, 375, and 445 MeV/c) at an energy transfer value omega of 220 MeV. At q=375 MeV/c, measurements were performed over a continuous range in energy transfer from 170 to 290 MeV. The data are compared to results of continuum-Faddeev calculations performed by Golak et al., that account for rescattering among the emitted nucleons. Various potential models were used in the calculations: Bonn-B, CD-Bonn, Nijmegen-93 and Argonne v18 . Presentation of the data as a function of the missing or neutron momentum, pm, shows that the cross section decreases exponentially as a function of pm. Calculations performed with only a one-body hadronic current operator show fair agreement with data

  11. Studies of low current back-discharge in point-plane geometry with dielectric layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworek, A.; Rajch, E.; Czech, T.; Lackowski, M

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results of spectroscopic investigations of back-discharge generated in the point-plane electrode geometry in air at atmospheric pressure, with the plane covered with fly ash layer. Four forms of the discharges were studied: onset streamers, glow, breakdown streamers and low-current back-arc discharge. Both polarities of the active discharge electrode, positive and negative, were tested. The back discharge is a type of DC electrical discharge, which take place when the passive plane electrode is covered with a dielectric layer. The layer can be made of solid material or a packed bed of dust or powder of low conductivity. The charge produced due to ionisation processes in the vicinity of the active point electrode is accumulated on the dielectric surface, and generates high electric field through this layer. When critical electric field through the layer is attained an electrical breakdown of the layer take place. The point of breakdown becomes a new source of ions of polarity opposite to those generated by the active electrode. The dielectric layer on the passive electrode causes that gaseous discharges such as breakdown streamers or arc start at lower voltages than they could in the case of normal corona discharge. The visual forms of the discharge were recorded and correlated with the current-voltage characteristics and optical emission spectra. Emission spectra of the discharge were measured in the light wavelength range of 200 to 600 nm to get information about excitation and ionisation processes. The light spectra were analysed by monochromator SPM-2 Karl-Zeiss-Jena with diffraction grating of 1302 grooves/mm and photomultiplier R375 (Hamamatsu) and signal preamplifier unit C7319 (Hamamatsu). The spectral analysis showed that the nitrogen molecular bands were dominant, but the emission of negative ions from the dielectric layer material were also detected. The most noticeable light emission in the range from 280 to 490 nm due to second

  12. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  13. A numerical study of the South China Sea Warm Current during winter monsoon relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Ding, Yang; Bao, Xianwen; Bi, Congcong; Li, Ruixiang; Zhang, Cunjie; Shen, Biao; Wan, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Using a Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model, we investigated the dynamic mechanism of the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) during winter monsoon relaxation. The model reproduces the mean surface circulation of the NSCS during winter, while model-simulated subtidal currents generally capture its current pattern. The model shows that the current over the continental shelf is generally southwestward, under a strong winter monsoon condition, but a northeastward counter-wind current usually develops between 50-and 100-m isobaths, when the monsoon relaxes. Model experiments, focusing on the wind relaxation process, show that sea level is elevated in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS), related to the persistent northeasterly monsoon. Following wind relaxation, a high sea level band builds up along the mid-shelf, and a northeastward current develops, having an obvious vertical barotropic structure. Momentum balance analysis indicates that an along-shelf pressure gradient provides the initial driving force for the SCSWC during the first few days following wind relaxation. The SCSWC subsequently reaches a steady quasi-geostrophic balance in the cross-shelf direction, mainly linked to sea level adjustment over the shelf. Lagrangian particle tracking experiments show that both the southwestward coastal current and slope current contribute to the northeastward movement of the SCSWC during winter monsoon relaxation.

  14. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  15. Theoretical and experimental studies on ionic currents in nanopore-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Chu; Ma, Jian; Wu, Yingdong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2014-12-01

    Novel generation of analytical technology based on nanopores has provided possibilities to fabricate nanofluidic devices for low-cost DNA sequencing or rapid biosensing. In this paper, a simplified model was suggested to describe DNA molecule's translocation through a nanopore, and the internal potential, ion concentration, ionic flowing speed and ionic current in nanopores with different sizes were theoretically calculated and discussed on the basis of Poisson-Boltzmann equation, Navier-Stokes equation and Nernst-Planck equation by considering several important parameters, such as the applied voltage, the thickness and the electric potential distributions in nanopores. In this way, the basic ionic currents, the modulated ionic currents and the current drops induced by translocation were obtained, and the size effects of the nanopores were carefully compared and discussed based on the calculated results and experimental data, which indicated that nanopores with a size of 10 nm or so are more advantageous to achieve high quality ionic current signals in DNA sensing.

  16. Study on paralleled inverters with current-sharing coupled inductors on J-TEXT Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, J.; Rao, B., E-mail: borao@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, M.; Ma, S.X.; Liang, X.; Yu, K.X.; Pan, Y.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A modification scheme of heating field power supply system for plasma current modulation. • High-power fast control power supply with multilevel cascade circuit. • Restraining circulating current with coupled inductors in cyclic symmetric structure. • Analysis on the topology with current-sharing coupled inductors. - Abstract: The coupled inductors in paralleled inverters are applied to restrain the high frequency circulating current on J-TEXT Tokamak. Compared with individual inductor, this method has the benefit of high voltage utilization, less volume and weight of the inductor. In this paper, circuit topology of coupled inductors in cyclic symmetry structure for steady-state operation is analyzed and then the design of the inductor is introduced. The maximum circulating current is related to number of parallel branch, DC side voltage, self-inductance of the inductor and the frequency of carrier wave. The simulation and prototype experiment results verify the design.

  17. Study on possibility of plasma current profile determination using an analytical model of tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Hiraki, Naoji

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of determining the current profile of tokamak plasma from the external magnetic measurements alone is investigated using an analytical model of tokamak equilibrium. The model, which is based on an approximate solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation, can set a plasma current profile expressed with four free parameters of the total plasma current, the poloidal beta, the plasma internal inductance and the axial safety factor. The analysis done with this model indicates that, for a D-shaped plasma, the boundary poloidal magnetic field prescribing the external magnetic field distribution is dependent on the axial safety factor in spite of keeping the boundary safety factor and the plasma internal inductance constant. This suggests that the plasma current profile is reversely determined from the external magnetic analysis. The possibility and the limitation of current profile determination are discussed through this analytical result. (author)

  18. Study of Co-Current and Counter-Current Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through Packed Bed in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Shripad T.

    2002-11-01

    The main goal of the project is to obtain new experimental data and development of models on the co-current and counter-current gas-liquid two-phase flow through a packed bed in microgravity and characterize the flow regime transition, pressure drop, void and interfacial area distribution, and liquid hold up. Experimental data will be obtained for earth gravity and microgravity conditions. Models will be developed for the prediction of flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration, which are key parameters to characterize the packed bed performance. Thus the specific objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) Develop experiments for the study of the gas liquid two-phase flow through the packed bed with three different flow combinations: co-current down flow, co-current upflow and counter current flow. (2) Develop pore scale and bed scale two-phase instrumentation for measurement of flow regime transition, void distribution and gas-liquid interfacial area concentration in the packed bed. (3) Obtain database on flow regime transition, pressure drop, void distribution, interfacial area concentration and liquid hold up as a function of bed characteristics such as bed particle size, porosity, and liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension. (4) Develop mathematical model for flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration for co-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions.(4) Develop mathematical model for the flooding phenomena in counter-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions. The present proposal addresses the most important topic of HEDS-specific microgravity fluid physics research identified by NASA 's one of the strategic enterprises, OBPR Enterprise. The proposed project is well defined and makes efficient use of the ground-based parabolic flight research aircraft facility. The

  19. Spintronics with metals: Current perpendicular-to-the-plane magneto-transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    In this thesis, we present studies to produce new information about three topics: current perpendicular to the plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR), spin transfer torque (STT), and antiferromagnetic spintronics. Large values of CPP-MR interface parameters---specific interface resistance (Area times resistance), 2AR*, and scattering asymmetry, gamma---are desirable for the use of CPP-MR in devices. Stimulated by a nanopillar study by the Cornell Group, we first discovered that Py/Al had an unusually large 2AR*, but a small gamma. In the hope of finding metal pairs with large values of both the interface parameters, the Py/Al studies led us to study the following interfaces: (a) F/Al with F: Py (= Ni84Fe16). Co, Fe, Co91Fe9, and (b) F/N: Py/Pd, Fe/V, Fe/Nb and Co/Pt. None of the metal pairs looks better for CPP-MR devices. The Cornell group also found that bracketing Al with thin Cu in Py/Al/Py nanopillars, gave an MR similar to Py/Al/Py rather than to Py/Cu/Py. To try to understand this result, we studied the effect of Cu/Al/Cu spacers on ADeltaR = AR(AP) - AR(P) of Py exchange biased spin valves (EBSVs). Here AR(AP) and AR(P) are the specific resistances in the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) configurations of the F layers. Intriguingly, fixing the Al thickness tAl = 10 nm and varying tCu has no effect on ADeltaR, but fixing tCu = 10 nm and varying t Al significantly affected ADeltaR. These unusual behaviors are probably due to strong Al and Cu intermixing, with probable formation of some fraction of ordered alloys. Recent calculations predicted that 2AR of Al/Ag interfaces would vary substantially with orientation and with alloying. The latter is a special potential problem, because Al and Ag interdiffuse at room temperature. To compare with the calculations, we determined 2AR of sputtered Al/Ag interfaces with (111) orientation. Our estimate agrees with calculations that assume 4 monolayers of interfacial disorder, consistent with modest intermixing. To aid in

  20. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eUlm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

  2. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John Fp; Gallego, Gisselle; Blauvelt, Barri M

    2011-07-28

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary), de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1) Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2) Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3) Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  3. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Gunnison Basin: A Geographical Study of Current Versus Historical Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.; Townsend, A.; Alexander, K.

    2005-05-01

    We compared the stonefly diversity sampled from 11 selected sites in the Gunnison River Basin over the last three years to the stonefly diversity recorded by Knight (1965) from the same or nearby sites. The 11 sites in this study were chosen from the 22 sites reported by Knight (1965) because they represented mainstem Gunnison River sites that would be predicted to experience the most alteration due to anthropogenic changes such as the construction of impoundments, differences in land use patterns, and effects from the increase in human population of the region. We have been unable to locate ten of the stonefly species that were historically found and we presume that they have gone locally extinct or have become increasingly rare. We have also found six species present today that were not historically reported from Knight (1965). Maps showing current and historical stonefly diversity and distribution have been produced using ArcGIS and analyzed with relevant geographical data to form hypotheses to account for specific changes in the stonefly fauna of the basin.

  4. Private Finance Initiative (PFI for Road Projects in UK: Current Practice with a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Akbiyikli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainable provision of new and high quality maintained road stock is vitally important, especially in times of economic constraint such as Europe is currently experiencing. The Private Finance Initiative (PFI is one method of financing such large-scale, capital intensive projects. An important aspect of this form of financing projects is that the risks are borne not only by the sponsors but are shared by different types of investors such as equity holders, debt providers, and quasi-equity investors. Consequently, a comprehensive and heuristic risk management process is essential for the success of the project. The proposition made within this paper is that the PFI mechanism provides a Value-for-Money and effective mechanism to achieve this. The structure of this PFI finance and investment on a particular road project therefore enables all project stakeholders to take a long-term perspective. This long-term perspective is reflected in the mechanism of a case study of UK – Class A trunk roads which are examined in detail. This paper presents a novel solution to a modern dilemma.

  5. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  6. A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, K.; Fell, C. J.; Zhou, X.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects

  7. A characterization of the current communication patterns in Danish community pharmacies - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Mygind, Anna; Saleem, Sahdia

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacies have been trying to expand their core function by counseling customers at the counter. This has been challenging given that customers' interest in receiving counseling may be limited. To characterize the current pharmacist-customer communication patterns to inform future studies and models of communication. Non-participant structured observations based on the works of Stevenson et al. were conducted. A random selection of one hundred encounters in five pharmacies in Denmark was obtained. Type of encounter, type of medicine purchased and the age and gender of the customer were observed, and associations between the parameters identified. Customers initiated 13% of the dialogs, whereas 60% were initiated by the staff (with 38% of the customers declining the offer). 26% of the encounters saw no communication about the medicine. The customers' level of interest in counseling varied signif