WorldWideScience

Sample records for current status quo

  1. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    to be superior, i.e. a status quo effect. However, in the stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In the Choice Experiment literature, status quo bias...

  2. Media Challenging Status Quo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    structures and thus – along with a variety of both historical and socio-political conditions (Zizek 2011) – both enabling and shaping the protests against the financial powers of the world and their role in the global financial crisis. References: Christakis, N. & J. Fowler (2010): Connected. The amazing...... and dystopian trends in contemporary culture (Turner 2006). On that note, this paper examines the Occupy Wall Street-movement as an example on how social media may rock the status quo of today’s global power structures putting to use its democratic potential and its modes of communication through network......, New York: Perseus Books Group Rheingold, H. (2004). Smart Mobs. The Next Social Revolution. Cambridge MA: Basic Books Turner, F. (2006): From counterculture to cyberculture, University of Chicago Press. Zizek, S. (2011): “Dagen efter oprøret [The day after the riot]”, Dagbladet Information 26.10.12...

  3. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    In stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In Choice Experiments, status quo bias is found to be strongly correlated with protest attitudes...

  4. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    In stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In Choice Experiments, status quo bias is found to be strongly correlated with protest attitudes...... toward the cost attribute. If economic values are to be elicited, this problem is difficult to remedy. In a split sample framework we test a novel ex-ante entreaty aimed specifically at the cost attribute and find that it effectively reduces status quo bias and improves the internal validity...

  5. Media Challenging Status Quo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Digital media and especially so-called ‘social media’ have on the one hand been ascribed the power to change societies and empower democratic movements following the thoughts of e.g. Rheingold (2004), recently fueled by the democratic uprising in Arabic countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, Iran...... and Libya creating headlines like “the Facebook revolution”. On the other hand, several scholars argue that it is naive to believe that social media in themselves create change: they may at the best facilitate already existing social and political movements (Downing 2008, Christakis & Fowler 2010...... and communication research is currently engaging in a longer and deeper process of examining and assessing the cultural consequences of networked communication. One present challenge is to understand digital media and networked communication at the intersection of established and countercultural, utopian...

  6. Framing and conflict: aspiration level contingency, the status quo, and current theories of risky choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S L

    1992-09-01

    The effect of positive versus negative frames on risky choice was examined for a variety of scenarios and risks. Preferences in the positive domain were strong and mainly risk averse, with notable exceptions. Preferences in the negative domain, however, were marked by their inconsistency, shown both by an overwhelming lack of significant majority preferences and a surprisingly strong tendency of individual subjects to vacillate in their negatively framed choices across presentations. This finding is accounted for by a proposed aspiration level contingency in which aspiration levels are systematically set to be more difficult to achieve in the face of a perceived loss than a gain. The implications of the results, and the aspiration level contingency, are explored with respect to current theories of risky choice, including Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) prospect theory and Lopes's (1987, 1990) security-potential/aspiration theory.

  7. Turkey in Cyprus: Changing the Status Quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With few prospects for the resolution of the Cyprus dispute, the costs of the status quo are rising for Turkey. This article argues that Turkey could regain initiative without sacrificing its national interests by withdrawing its military forces stationed on the island and organizing a referendum on the future of the TRNC. The removal of the military would terminate Turkey's status as an occupying power, while a referendum could add legitimacy to the TRNC and put pressure on Cyprus.

  8. Investment alternative: the status quo or PACS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.; Cywinski, Jozef K.

    1990-08-01

    While the cost of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) can be substantial, the cost of continuing with present manual methods may become prohibitive in growing departments as the need for additional space and personnel (both technical and professional) to meet the increasing requirements for all image management activities continues to grow. This will occur simultaneously with increasing pressures on problems of the present system, i.e., lost films, lost revenues, delayed reporting and longer diagnostic cycle times. Present methods of image archiving communication and management i.e. the relationship of procedure volume to VFE requirements for professional and technical personnel, costs of film, film storage space, and other performance factors are analyzed based on the database created by the Technology Marketing Group (TMG) computerized cost analysis model applied to over 50 US hospitals. Also, the model is used to provide the projected cost of present methods of film management for an average US 400 +bed hospital based on ten year growth rate assumptions. TMG PACS Tracking data provides confirmation of staffmg pattern correlation to procedure volume. The data presented in the paper provides a basis for comparing the investment in maintaining the status quo to an investment in PACS.

  9. Image Theory's Compatibility Test and Evaluations of the Status Quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond; Bissell; Beach

    1998-01-01

    The research on image theory's concept of progress decisions about either (1) the acceptability of the status quo vis a desired state or (2) the acceptability of movement toward a desired state has been limited to the laboratory. To demonstrate the feasibility of research on nonlaboratory, job-related progress decisions and to develop methods for doing it with minimal intrusion on participant work time, two experiments examined evaluations of the status quo vis a desired state in the context of three organizations: a controller's office, a pretrial services office, and a chain of fast food restaurants. Experiment 1 used fairly elaborate, time consuming methods in the controller's office and pretrial services office to measure the compatibility between participants' images of desirable supervision and their images of current supervision as well as their satisfaction with both supervision and with the organization. In both cases, as compatibility decreased, satisfaction decreased, but satisfaction with the organization appeared to derive from satisfaction with supervision rather than directly from compatibility. Experiment 2 measured the same concepts in the fast food chain using simple, single-item methods, obtaining roughly the same results as Experiment 1, except that it also demonstrated that hope for change can mitigate the effects of incompatibility on satisfaction. These results provide evidence for the role of compatibility in decision making and for the feasibility of using simple methods of measuring compatibility, acceptability, and hope in nonlaboratory research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. [Status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yisheng

    2015-10-01

    The development of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria and realistic working status in recent years is in- troduced. From five aspects, including general condition of acupuncture in Algeria, clinical application and analysis, of acupuncture, promotion and publicity of acupuncture, existing problem and deficiency, and awards and honor, the status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria are discussed in detail.

  11. 5 CFR 316.703 - Effect on tenure of position change of status quo employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... status quo employees. 316.703 Section 316.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Into the Competitive Service § 316.703 Effect on tenure of position change of status quo employees. (a) A status quo employee who is promoted, demoted, or reassigned becomes: (1) An indefinite...

  12. Calcidiol deficiency in end-stage organ failure and after solid organ transplantation: status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Ursula; Olbramski, Bartosz; Borchhardt, Kyra

    2013-07-01

    Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant recipients. Interventional studies evaluating different treatment strategies, as well as current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations on the management of low vitamin D status in these patients are also discussed.

  13. Calcidiol Deficiency in End-Stage Organ Failure and after Solid Organ Transplantation: Status quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Olbramski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Among patients with organ failure, vitamin D deficiency is extremely common and frequently does not resolve after transplantation. This review crystallizes and summarizes existing data on the status quo of vitamin D deficiency in patients with organ failure and in solid organ transplant recipients. Interventional studies evaluating different treatment strategies, as well as current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations on the management of low vitamin D status in these patients are also discussed.

  14. Certification programs for eHealth--status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbauer, Philipp; Herzog, Juliane; Pohn, Birgit; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The skills of the workforce are a core factor for the quality of healthcare systems. On top of the basic education, postgraduate training is an important factor for continuously maintaining as well as improving the workforce qualification level. Advanced training often provides certification of the acquired skills. This paper analyses the status quo of international certification programs in the sector of eHealth (EU, US, Global). It uses available literature and observations from international educational expert's workgroups. It identifies gaps regarding certifications in eHealth and suggests steps for solutions. Despite little attention to legal and financial eHealth related content in certification programs in the EU as well as a low degree of harmonization of international certifications in general, there are strong activities especially in the international scope towards personal certification programs in eHealth. Major changes are to be expected within the coming years.

  15. Public management in Serbia: From imitation to status quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public management in Serbia has been experiencing reform changes since 2000. In this paper we attempt to analyze reforms in public management in Serbia during the period 2000-2010 from two theoretical frameworks: the institutional changes perspective and the downsizing perspective. We believe that the selected time frame is suitable for our research, since the period of ten years is long enough for radical changes to take place. The analysis from the institutional changes perspective suggests that the success in creating the new state administration institutional model in Serbia will greatly depend on the amount of pressure put by the European Union and IMF on the Serbian Government, but also on raising the level of knowledge and competence for conducting necessary changes in the Serbian state administration. The analysis from the downsizing perspective reveals that efforts aimed at downsizing of public administration in Serbia, initiated by the need to achieve results quickly, have almost been blocked by strong forces towards maintaining the status quo.

  16. Insect juvenile hormone: from "status quo" to high society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hartfelder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH exerts pleiotropic functions during insect life cycles. The regulation of JH biosynthesis by neuropeptides and biogenic amines, as well as the transport of JH by specific binding proteins is now well understood. In contrast, comprehending its mode of action on target organs is still hampered by the difficulties in isolating specific receptors. In concert with ecdysteroids, JH orchestrates molting and metamorphosis, and its modulatory function in molting processes has gained it the attribute "status quo" hormone. Whereas the metamorphic role of JH appears to have been widely conserved, its role in reproduction has been subject to many modifications. In many species, JH stimulates vitellogenin synthesis and uptake. In mosquitoes, however, this function has been transferred to ecdysteroids, and JH primes the ecdysteroid response of developing follicles. As reproduction includes a variety of specific behaviors, including migration and diapause, JH has come to function as a master regulator in insect reproduction. The peak of pleiotropy was definitely reached in insects exhibiting facultative polymorphisms. In wing-dimorphic crickets, differential activation of JH esterase determines wing length. The evolution of sociality in Isoptera and Hymenoptera has also extensively relied on JH. In primitively social wasps and bumble bees, JH integrates dominance position with reproductive status. In highly social insects, such as the honey bee, JH has lost its gonadotropic role and now regulates division of labor in the worker caste. Its metamorphic role has been extensively explored in the morphological differentiation of queens and workers, and in the generation of worker polymorphism, such as observed in ants.

  17. The Investigation of Status Quo Bias Existance in Listed Investment Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yahyazadehfar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is investigating the Status Quo Bias (SQB from suggested biases in behavioral finance. People who are subject to a SQB tend to choose an alternative that was chosen previously (i.e., their status quo even if it is not the optimal choice any more. Status quo bias existence was investigated in this study using Ruenzi and Kempf (2005 model among investment companies listed in Tehran's Stock Exchange during 2003-2010. The data is collected quarterly from investment companies. Also, Stata10.0 software package is used for statistical analysis. The result shows the existence of a SQB is not found in Tehran Stock Exchange

  18. Status quo of English Teaching and Learning in a Local County Senior High School in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋东兵

    2007-01-01

    Despite theoretical advances in the realm of TEFL and rounds of nationwide education reform in China in the past two decades,the status quo of TEFL (teaching English as a foreign language) in some senior high schools remains helpless.This article,by examining how utilitarianism in education shapes (spoils,to be more exact) English teaching and learning in a county senior high school in Anhui,an eastern province in China,and how it hinders implementation of quality education,appeals to teachers as individuals for personal efforts to help change the status quo in such schools,or at least to prevent it from worsening.

  19. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  20. The structure and management of conflict: Fighting or defending the status quo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; E.S. Kluwer; A. Nauta

    2008-01-01

    Although conflict and negotiation studies have examined symmetrical structures in which both parties want change, or asymmetrical structures in which one party wants change and the other to maintain the status quo, no research provided a direct comparison of both structures. Two experiments were con

  1. Separating Rhetoric from Reality: Supporting Teachers in Negotiating Beyond the Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susi

    2004-01-01

    Across the country, new and experienced teachers find themselves losing the confidence and energy it takes to challenge an unacceptable status quo. Too often, dynamic educators disappear within systems that are antithetical to what they envisioned when they entered the profession or they leave the profession altogether. This article describes the…

  2. Analysis of the Status Quo of the Sericultural Standard System in China and Its Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping; WU; Tao; CHENG; Long; LI; Xingjia; SHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes and analyses the status quo of the sericultural standards system in China,and points out the characteristics and existed problems of sericultural standards in China. In addition,the future of the sericultural standards system is discussed.

  3. Status in quo and future of geothermal energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiuhua; Zhao Jun; Du Limeng

    2011-01-01

    Energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction are critical tasks currently, and great effort has been made by Chinese government. Renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions and reduction plan in China are introduced in this paper. Analysis is also made on present status and prospect of geothermal power generation and direct use in China respectively. Now, there is a new understanding of geothermal resources, and hot dry rock, considered as the future of geothermal resources, is likely used to generate electricity.

  4. Can decision biases improve insurance outcomes? An experiment on status quo bias in health insurance choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Miriam; Felder, Stefan

    2013-06-19

    Rather than conforming to the assumption of perfect rationality in neoclassical economic theory, decision behavior has been shown to display a host of systematic biases. Properly understood, these patterns can be instrumentalized to improve outcomes in the public realm. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study whether decisions over health insurance policies are subject to status quo bias and, if so, whether experience mitigates this framing effect. Choices in two treatment groups with status quo defaults are compared to choices in a neutrally framed control group. A two-step design features sorting of subjects into the groups, allowing us to control for selection effects due to risk preferences. The results confirm the presence of a status quo bias in consumer choices over health insurance policies. However, this effect of the default framing does not persist as subjects repeat this decision in later periods of the experiment. Our results have implications for health care policy, for example suggesting that the use of non-binding defaults in health insurance can facilitate the spread of co-insurance policies and thereby help contain health care expenditure.

  5. Status quo of management of the human tissue banks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ching-Pang; Chou, Szu-Cheng; Chen, Ying-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Ming-Shin

    2017-03-01

    As the technologies associated with transplantation and biological tissue engineering continue to advance, human cells and tissues form an integral part to the practice of regenerative medicine. The patient's use of tissues entails the risk of introducing, transmitting and spreading communicable diseases. To prevent such risk and to ensure that the human organs, tissues and cells remain intact and functional after being handled and processed, the transplanted tissues must be subject to good management standards through all stages of collection, screening, processing, storage and distribution as the safety of the users is of the utmost importance. On February 2009, the government of Taiwan promulgated the Regulations for Administration on Human Organ Bank that requires all human tissues banks to adhere to the Good Tissue Practice for Human Organ, Tissue and Cell in terms of establishment and operation in order to cope with the international management trend and the development and management need of the domestic industry. Six years have passed since the law became effective. This article seeks to introduce the current management mechanism and status quo of management of human tissue banks in Taiwan. We also conducted statistical analysis of the data relating to the tissue banks to identify potential risks and the room for improvement. The study concludes that human tissue banks in Taiwan are on the right track with their management practice, leading to a state of steady development and progress.

  6. The Status Quo and Developing Trend Analysis of Global Carbon Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian; Wang Yao

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic view of the new trends of global carbon finance innovation under the challenge of global climate change and in the process of transition to achieve economic growth from "high carbon" to 'low carbon', covering the following aspects: the structure, status quo and developing trend of global carbon market. The paper discusses the innovation in financial organization and service systems and governments' overall guidance and policy support, and draws the conclusion that the world is undergoing massive changes with governments actively responding to carbon finance to embrace the tremendous opportunities for clean energy and climate change in financial industry. To seize the opportunity, a complete and overall carbon finance system of China should be put in the top of the agenda. Given the current tasks of energy conservation and pollution reduction and the growing demand for capital input, China needs to construct an clear of policy guidance, a diversified financia service system, and a multi-approach carbon finance system to intensify and widen the participation of financial industry, to expand financing channels for sustainable economy and spread risks, and finally, work out an inexpensive solution to the realization of China's low carbon target.

  7. [Health care networks in Germany: status quo and key success factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, Veit; Lindenthal, J

    2015-04-01

    One third of all practicing physicians are currently working in one of the 400 German health care networks. These physicians' networks bring together GPs and specialists and cooperate with different partners, for example, nursing homes, hospitals, and self-help groups. To increase the quality and the efficiency of care and patient satisfaction by improving the collaboration and communication between physicians and other health care providers.The example of the accountable care organization "Gesundheitsnetz Qualität und Effizienz" (QuE; Health Quality and Efficiency Network) in Nuremberg is used to show that it is possible to achieve an increase in efficiency while providing above-average quality of care and achieving high patient satisfaction. Additionally, the article deals with the status quo, the core objectives, and the key activities of previous generations of health care networks. Quality indicators, satisfaction surveys, and economic parameters are the basis for measuring and representing the above-average performance of physicians' networks. Regional health care networks offer an entire range of patient care, from outpatients and inpatients to the complementary sector, and thereby have excellent prospects for playing an even more important role in the German health care system. The key success factors are: the consideration of specific regional characteristics, their proximity to the patient, and consistent patient orientation.

  8. The Status Quo and Countermeasures of Planting and Industrial Development of Poria cocos in Luotian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a field survey of the status quo of planting and industrial development of Poria cocos in Luotian County.The results show that at present,Luotian County develops a set of standardized Poria cocos cultivation technique,and some areas use the guideline of "four changes" to plants Poria cocos.The main problems faced by planting of Poria cocos currently are as follows:insufficient popularization of standardized Poria cocos cultivation technique;low processing level of Poria cocos;chaotic source of germplasm;lack of science and technology input;single industrial development pattern;shortage of well-known brands of products.In accordance with the above findings,we put forward the following recommendations:extensively promoting the guideline of " four changes";focusing on development and utilization of Poria cocos byproducts;implement listing-for-sales to clarify the source of Poria cocos strain;tightening the bonds with research institutes and large enterprises to promote science and technology input into Poria cocos;encouraging the coexistence of diverse industrial development pattern.

  9. Science Education in Arab States: Bright Future or Status Quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of science education in Arab states and anticipates some of the challenges faced by those states as they reform their science education. After discussing problems of illiteracy, access and quality we provide contextual information about the structure of the educational systems and describe recent efforts to…

  10. Status quo of p53 in the treatment of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing; Zou, Qing

    2016-10-01

    The p53 gene is pivotal for oncogenesis in a combination of mutations in oncogenes and antioncogenes. The ubiquitous loss of the p53 pathway in human cancers has generated considerable interest in developing p53-targeted cancer therapies, but current ideas and approaches targeting p53 are conflicting. Current researches focus on cancer-selective drugs with therapeutic strategies that both activate and inhibit p53. As p53 is ubiquitously lost in human cancers, the strategy of exogenous p53 addition is reasonable. However, p53 acts not equally in all cell types; thus, individualized p53 therapy is the direction of future research. To clarify the controversies on p53 for improvement of future antitumor studies, the review focuses on the available technological protocols, including their advantages and limitations in terms of future therapeutic use of p53 in the management of tumors.

  11. Digitale Bibliothek Österreich : Status quo und Perspektiven

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    Globally digital libraries are being set up. The Austrian academic libraries are also continuously developing modules for the digital library (catalogues, databases, electronic full-text journals) and present them on their websites. The structure and integration of the individual modules as essential criteria for digital libraries until now have been neglected. Moreover, a concept for a common “Digital Library of Austria” is still missing. Following a description of the current websites of...

  12. Cost benefit analysis of two policy options for cannabis: status quo and legalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

    2014-01-01

    To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised-regulated option was conducted. A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised-regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised-regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case.

  13. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids: Status Quo and Future Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-04-12

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  14. Status quo and development trend of breast biopsy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Wei, Lichun; Li, Jie; Zheng, Yi-Qiong; Li, Xi-Ru

    2013-02-01

    Triple assessment is a standard method for assessment of breast diseases, which includes clinical evaluation, radiographic assessment and pathological assessment. Biopsy for breast disease is the gold standard for pathological assessment, including incisional biopsy, excisional biopsy, core needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted biopsy and bite biopsy. With the continuous advancement of diagnostic and treatment technology for breast cancer, collection of diseased tissue has also undergone a gradual transition from traditional open surgery to biopsy. This review summarizes the current situation and development of breast biopsy technology to provide an insight into the latest details such as the safety and reliability as the basis for selection of the most appropriate techniques for specific settings.

  15. Status quo and prospects of fishing technology of ocean fishery of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN De-fang; GUAN Chang-tao; HUANG Wen-qiang

    2004-01-01

    报道了我国大洋渔业技术现状,评述了技术水平、发展趋势,分析渔业技术存在的问题,提出了大洋渔业可持续发展应当进行的研究课题及建议.%This paper reports the status quo of fishing technologies of ocean fishery of China, comments on technique level and development trend and the problems existed in fishing techniques. Furthermore the paper also puts forward some suggestions and research projects to make sustainable development of ocean fishery.

  16. Physical punishment of children: can we continue to accept the status quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Kim

    2011-08-01

    All children require discipline, although physical punishment is just one form of discipline. Parental use of physical punishment is inter-generational. There is now evidence that physical punishment of children is not only less effective than other forms of discipline but can also lead to aggressive behaviour in childhood and adult life. Twenty-nine countries, including New Zealand, have laws against physical punishment in the home. Australian attitudes are slowly changing in favour of less use of physical punishment, but there is a long way to go. As advocates for children, paediatricians should not be content to accept the status quo.

  17. The status quo and prospect of biomass power generation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Huiyong; Zhang Yanru

    2009-01-01

    Facing the pressure of fossil energy exhaustion and environment pollution, people begin to search for clean and renewable energy to partly substitute fossil energy and realize sustainable development. As the fourth type of ener-gy, biomass energy has many advantages: wide distribution, large quantity, being renewable, clean, storable and trans-portable and so on. By adopting thermo-chemical and biochemical technologies, biomass energy can be converted to high quality solid, liquid and gaseous energy products, and provide convenient heat and power energy for human being's production and daily life. This paper presented the status quo of biomass power generation industry in China and also introduced briefly the future development models.

  18. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Durand, Pierre Marcel; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction. PMID:22287973

  19. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests.

  20. Buildex environmental symposium : the status quo is not an option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkin, P.; Lovins, A.; Hunter Lovins, L.

    2001-02-01

    Little has changed during the last decade in the commercial real estate industry in Canada, from the office building product perspective. The tenants pay the operating expenses, but do not make capital cost decisions affecting the inclusion of energy efficient technologies and systems. The decision to retrofit or proceed with a new project rests mainly on current rental market conditions. Energy conservation and productivity have not yet been linked from the managers' perspective. The tendency was to view innovation as being too costly and risky, and the long term vision was sometimes lacking in new developments, explaining why the commercial industry is at this crossroads. The way in which buildings are constructed and occupied in the future might now be dictated by long term supply and demand issues related to energy costs. Energy conservation methods, productivity enhancements and environmental impacts issues must be brought to the attention of owners. Comprehensive energy optimization strategies must be adopted, especially for the aging inventory of office properties. Adaptation to more costly energy efficient information systems technologies is slower from a tenant's standpoint, since they do not always recognize the benefits to be derived from them. It can be disruptive to implement energy reducing retrofits in existing buildings. The author concluded by stating that everyone must advocate energy efficiency and energy conservation within their own organization. Trends for the future were identified: super windows, photovoltaic power generation.

  1. Past, Status Quo and Future of China's Territorial Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwei; Wu Chuguo; Zhang Qiuming; Zhang Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Since 1949, China has witnessed four development stages of territorial planning. (1) In the 1950s the territorial planning got its start. (2) From the 1960s to 1970s territorial planning declined. (3) From, the 1980s to 1990s the first major tide of territorial planning began. (4) From the end of the 1990s to recent times the new round of territorial planning is under deliberation. Since 1998, the Ministry of Land and Resources has carried out some related work, especially in organizing pilot projects, and early research on the new round of national territorial planning. According to the need for economic and social development and the current conditions in China, it is the appropriate for China to carry out the new round of territorial planning. However, the government should correctly consider the correlations between territorial planning and other plannings, and take appropriate development action, e.g. stressingmain points for the basis of overall planning, building a territorial planning system that coordinate with national conditions, strengthening research on various supportive measures of territorial planning, summarizing and upgrading experiences obtained in pilot projects, strengthening international exchange and training talented personnel.

  2. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives; Dosismonitoring in der Radiologie. Status quo und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Meineke, A. [Cerner Healthcare Services, Idstein (Germany); Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2016-05-15

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  3. A Review of Realizing the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Goals by 2030: Part 1- Status quo, Requirements, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a review of how to realize the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) goals by 2030. The objective of this review is to investigate the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, focusing on four aspects: 1) identifying the importance of UHC and highlighting how UHC is influenced by health systems and eHealth, 2) investigating the current status of UHC worldwide and indicating the current challenges facing the realization of UHC, 3) reviewing the current research activities in the UHC domain and emphasizing the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, and 4) discussing the results of the review to identify the current gaps in UHC implantation and the corresponding research lines for future investigation.This part covers the first two aspects through: providing the required background on UHC, highlighting the potential benefits of eHealth utilization in UHC, addressing the current status quo of UHC implementation worldwide, and finally concluding the lessons learned in terms of the UHC challenges and requirements.This part also described the used search methodology and selection criteria to synthesize this review. It also indicates the limitations of conducting a systematic review in this early stage of deploying UHC-oriented eHealth solutions.

  4. AUTO FIB Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  5. Channeling Consumers to Preferred Providers and the Impact of Status Quo Bias: Does Type of Provider Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.H.M. Boonen (Lieke); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas); F.T. Schut (Erik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractContext. To effectively bargain about the price and quality of health services, health insurers need to successfully channel their enrollees. Little is known about consumer sensitivity to different channeling incentives. In particular, the impact of status quo bias, which is expected to

  6. WP 2 Report: Integrated Status Quo and Trends Assessment in Wuxi. Overview of WP 2 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienst, Carmen; Hoeller, Samuel; Saurat, Mathieu; Schneider, Clemens; Xia-Bauer, Chun (Wuppertal Institute (Germany)); Oberheitmann, Andreas (China Environmental Research (China)); Fischer, Tom; Gemmer, Marco; Jiang Tong (China Meteorological Administration, National Climate Centre (China)); Wang Can; Wang Haoping (Tsinghua University, Research Centre for International Environmental Policy (China)); Ren Hongyan; Sui Xinying (Wuxi Low Carbon Development Research Centre (China))

    2013-04-01

    The overall project will scientifically explore the Low Carbon Future City (LCFC) concept in two case studies: the German region of Dusseldorf and the Chinese city of Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The Wuppertal Institute together with a consortium of Chinese scientific institutes is developing integrated low carbon city strategies for the two pilot regions. The project is funded by the German Stiftung Mercator. Provided in this report, as part of the scientific analysis of the Chinese pilot region, is a comprehensive status quo and trends assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, climate change and resource use in Wuxi. It includes a GHG inventory, a business-as-usual scenario for GHG emissions, scenarios for future climate change and its impacts as well as an analysis of future resource use in the energy and buildings sector of Wuxi. Based on this assessment, the authors have selected key sectors for which low carbon scenarios as well as policy strategies will be finalised.

  7. The Status Quo of Industrial Development of Cold Water Fishes in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article first analyzes the status quo of industrial development of cold water fishes in Henan Province. And then it points out the main problems in the process of cold water fish industrialization as follows: the parent fish rearing of cold water fishes and the supply of roe and fry are inadequate; the demand for feed nutrition,research and development of disease prevention and control technology lag behind. In order to provide scientific basis for promoting the industrial independent innovation and international competitiveness,finally the following ideas and recommendations for industrial development of cold water fishes are put forward: strengthening policy support for the enterprises,and striving to create the leading enterprises,to achieve dramatic development; implementing the strategy of developing fishery by relying on science and technology,promoting the industrial independent innovation and competitiveness; creating specialized cooperative organizations,actively improving the supporting system,and expanding the space for development of the industry.

  8. [Instruments of management accounting in german hospitals - potentials for competitive advantage and status quo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, W; Lachmann, M; Wömpener, A

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of the status quo for the usage of instruments of management accounting in German hospitals. 600 managing directors of German hospitals were asked to answer a questionnaire about the usage of management accounting instruments in their hospitals. We obtained 121 usable datasets, which are evaluated in this study. A significant increase in the usage of management accounting instruments can be observed over time. The respondents have an overall positive perception of the usage of these instruments. Cost accounting and information systems are among the most widely used instruments, while widely discussed concepts like the balanced scorecard or clinical pathways show surprisingly low usage rates. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Committed activists and the reshaping of status-quo social consensus

    CERN Document Server

    Mistry, Dina; Perra, Nicola; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The role of committed minorities in shaping public opinion has been recently addressed with the help of multi-agent models. However, previous studies focused on homogeneous populations where zealots stand out only for their stubbornness. Here, we consider the more general case in which individuals are characterized by different propensities to communicate. In particular, we correlate commitment with a higher tendency to push an opinion, acknowledging the fact that individuals with unwavering dedication to a cause are also more active in their attempts to promote their message. We show that these \\textit{activists} are not only more efficient in spreading their message but that their efforts require an order of magnitude fewer individuals than a randomly selected committed minority to bring the population over to a new consensus. Finally, we address the role of communities, showing that partisan divisions in the society can make it harder for committed individuals to flip the status-quo social consensus.

  10. Committed activists and the reshaping of status-quo social consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Dina; Zhang, Qian; Perra, Nicola; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The role of committed minorities in shaping public opinion has been recently addressed with the help of multiagent models. However, previous studies focused on homogeneous populations where zealots stand out only for their stubbornness. Here we consider the more general case in which individuals are characterized by different propensities to communicate. In particular, we correlate commitment with a higher tendency to push an opinion, acknowledging the fact that individuals with unwavering dedication to a cause are also more active in their attempts to promote their message. We show that these activists are not only more efficient in spreading their message but that their efforts require an order of magnitude fewer individuals than a randomly selected committed minority to bring the population over to a new consensus. Finally, we address the role of communities, showing that partisan divisions in the society can make it harder for committed individuals to flip the status-quo social consensus.

  11. [Full-scale simulation in German medical schools and anesthesia residency programs : Status quo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschnegger, H; Meyer, O; Zech, A; Urban, B; Rall, M; Breuer, G; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    Simulation has been increasingly used in medicine. In 2003 German university departments of anesthesiology were provided with a full-scale patient simulator, designated for use with medical students. Meanwhile simulation courses are also offered to physicians and nurses. Currently, the national model curriculum for residency programs in anesthesiology is being revised, possibly to include mandatory simulation training. To assess the status quo of full-scale simulation training for medical school, residency and continuing medical education in German anesthesiology. All 38 German university chairs for anesthesiology as well as five arbitrarily chosen non-university facilities were invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding their centers' infrastructure and courses held between 2010 and 2012. The overall return rate was 86 %. In university simulation centers seven non-student staff members, mainly physicians, were involved, adding up to a full-time equivalent of 1.2. All hours of work were paid by 61 % of the centers. The median center size was 100 m(2) (range 20-500 m(2)), equipped with three patient simulators (1-32). Simulators of high or very high fidelity are available at 80 % of the centers. Scripted scenarios were used by 91 %, video debriefing by 69 %. Of the participating university centers, 97 % offered courses for medical students, 81 % for the department's employees, 43 % for other departments of their hospital, and 61 % for external participants. In 2012 the median center reached 46 % of eligible students (0-100), 39 % of the department's physicians (8-96) and 16 % of its nurses (0-56) once. For physicians and nurses from these departments that equals one simulation-based training every 2.6 and 6 years, respectively. 31 % made simulation training mandatory for their residents, 29 % for their nurses and 24 % for their attending physicians. The overall rates of staff ever exposed to simulation were 45 % of

  12. 人民币的现状及其未来预测%The status quo of RMB and the forecast of its future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A. The status quo of RMB A sensible currency policy is one of the most importantways a country controls its economy. Economic development and international balanceshould both play a part in determining exchange rates.

  13. The Status Quo of Chinese Agro-products Logistics and the Establishment of the Third-Party Logistics Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of Chinese agro-products logistics is analyzed from the following five aspects: the circulation mode, exchange mode, storage and transportation situation, food security. The following problems in Chinese agro-products logistics are pointed out, including excessive circulation sections, bad time efficiency, single payment, slow circulation, backward information processing, obvious bullwhip effect, low logistics efficiency, low logistics technology, inadequate professional equipm...

  14. Evaluation of Animal and Plant Resources Status Quo after the Reservoir Construction in Turks River and Protection Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess the status quo of animal and plant resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir.[Method] Through field investigation,document check and sample identification,the distribution of animal and plants resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir was studied and corresponding protection measures were proposed.[Result] Under the influence of reservoir,there were fifteen types of rare animals,one species of national primary protected animals,...

  15. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Korea’s "Year of Friendship." Harvard International Review , 2015. 28 Nielsen, Suzanne C. "American Civil-Military Relations The Soldier and the State...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT’S STATUS QUO NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH AND REASONS FOR...Colonel Spencer holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics, Masters of Education, and a Doctorate degree in Business Administration. She

  16. 德国天然气输配现状%Status quo of natural gas transmission and distribution In Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 张宇

    2012-01-01

    Germany, as a large consumer of natural gas in the world and the most important transit country for natural gas transmission in Europe, its natural gas transmission/distribution system has entered a mature stage after years of development. The structure of the natural gas supply chain in Germany is described, main gas suppliers and pipeline operators in the current market are combed and the market structure and operation mode of natural gas networks in Germany are shown. Natural gas storage and transmission systems in Germany are introduced systematically, important long-distance pipelines in its territory and European gas transmission trunks in transit are paid focal descriptions and underground gas storage's development status quo and future plan are outlined. Development status quo and future trends of natural gas transmission and distribution in developed countries are displayed, which can provide references to future development of China's natural gas industry.%德国作为世界天然气消费大国和欧洲大陆重要的天然气运输中转国,其天然气输配系统经过多年发展已经进入相对成熟的阶段.阐述了德国天然气供给链条的结构组成,梳理了当前市场上的主要供气商和管道运营商,呈现了德国天然气的市场结构和运行方式.系统介绍了德国的天然气储运系统,着重描述了其境内重要的长输管道和过境的欧洲输气干线,概述了地下储气库的发展现状和未来规划.展示了发达国家天然气输配领域的发展现状和未来趋势,可为中国天然气工业领域未来的发展提供借鉴.

  17. Zero Emission Buildings in Korea—History, Status Quo, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the history, status quo, and future prospects of Zero Emission Buildings (ZEBs in the Republic of Korea. The advantages of, and requirements for ZEBs are described, concerning the factors of energy, water, nutrients, and biomass. ZEBs are characterized by net zero energy consumption through the minimization of the energy demand, as well as the onsite production and use of renewable energy. The direct water footprint is reduced by up to 100% through on-site water supply and wastewater management according to the principles of Sustainable Sanitation. The fresh water demand is reduced by using water saving technologies and by recycling of wastewater. Rainwater harvesting, utilization, and infiltration facilitates for onsite drinking water production. Nutrients and biomass from sanitation systems are recycled for local soil application. While traditional Korean buildings can be generally regarded as ZEBs, traditional know-how has been overlooked in the process of modernization and implementation of centralized infrastructure systems in the 20th century. However, the growing interest in sustainability issues in Korea since the beginning of the 21st century is reflected in a growing number of research and development activities, including the design, construction, and operation of ZEBs. The widespread implementation of ZEBs would significantly contribute to sustainable development in the Republic of Korea.

  18. Researches on Countermeasures and the Status Quo of Agricultural Industrialized Cluster in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the introduction of the connotation of agricultural industrialized cluster,the thesis introduces the competitive advantages of agricultural industrialized cluster as follows:firstly,it makes the agricultural production factors cluster and curtails the agricultural production costs;secondly it enhances the innovation abilities of industries;thirdly it improves the urbanization level of rural areas and increases farmers’ income.The thesis also analyzes the status quo of agricultural industrialized cluster in Henan Province,points out the advantages of resources,cost,location and so on,and discuses the existing problems of the agricultural industrialized cluster in Henan Province as follows:firstly,the scale of agricultural industrialized cluster is small and the industrialized chain is short;secondly,there is a shortage of leading enterprises,and the radiating effect within industrialized cluster is not prominent;thirdly,the organization degree of agricultural industrialized cluster is weak,lacking scientific innovation ability.In order to solve the existing problems,the corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows:firstly,take the market as the orientation,strengthen the policies formulation and accelerate the development of agricultural industrialized cluster in Henan by leaps and bounds;secondly,choose suitable developing models of agricultural industrialized cluster.

  19. The effects of implicit gender role theories on gender system justification: Fixed beliefs strengthen masculinity to preserve the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Laura J; Howland, Laura; Russell, Alexandra G; Jackman, Lauren M

    2017-01-01

    Four studies (n = 1199) tested support for the idea that implicit theories about the fixedness versus malleability of gender roles (entity vs. incremental theories) predict differences in the degree of gender system justification, that is, support for the status quo in relations between women and men in society. Relative to an incremental theory, the holding of an entity theory correlated with more system-justifying attitudes and self-perceptions (Study 1) for men and women alike. We also found that strength of identification with one's gender in-group was a stronger predictor of system justification for men than it was for women, suggesting men's defense of the status quo may be motivated by their membership in a high status group in the social hierarchy. In 3 experiments, we then tested whether exposure to a fixed gender role theory would lead men to identify more with masculine characteristics and their male gender group, thus increasing their defense of the gender system as fair and just. We did not expect a fixed gender role theory to trigger these identity-motivated responses in women. Overall, we found that, by increasing the degree of psychological investment in their masculine identity, adopting a fixed gender role theory increased men's rationalization of the gender status quo compared with when gender roles were perceived to be changeable. This suggests that, when men are motivated to align with their masculine identity, they are more likely to endorse the persistence of gender inequality as a way of affirming their status as "real men." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Fiber optical sensor system for shape and haptics for flexible instruments in minimally invasive surgery: overview and status quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Christoph; Pauer, Hendrikje; Woern, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    In minimally invasive surgery, exible mechatronic instruments promise to improve the overall performance of surgical interventions. However, those instruments require highly developed sensors in order to provide haptic feedback to the surgeon or to enable (semi-)autonomous tasks. Precisely, haptic sensors and a shape sensor are required. In this paper, we present our ber optical sensor system of Fiber Bragg Gratings, which consists of a shape sensor, a kinesthetic sensor and a tactile sensor. The status quo of each of the three sensors is described, as well as the concept to integrate them into one ber optical sensor system.

  1. Current Status and Future of Sports Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hailong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    According to the need of the popularization of sports nutrition knowledge and promoting of our country sports nutrition needs, the study expounds the new concept of sports nutrition food, the development of sports nutrition food abroad, the prospect of the domestic market and the status quo of cultivate. Sports nutrition food system which has been basically in more than a decade in domestic is made a detailed elaboration and an introduction of product research and development has been made. T...

  2. 国内外护理岗位设置现状分析%Analysis on status quo of nursing post setting at home and in abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 叶文琴; 田东惠

    2013-01-01

    主要介绍国内外护理岗位设置、护士岗位管理现状,提出我国护士岗位管理还处于探索阶段,应建立适合我国国情的护士岗位管理体系.%It introduced nursing post setting at home and in abroad and status quo of nurses post management; and it put forward that status quo of nurses post management is still in exploration phase in China. Nurse post management system that suited to China's national conditions should be established.

  3. Current status of DUMAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, P.K.F.

    We give a brief description of the scientific aims of the DUMAND project, of the system lay-out and its capabilities, together with some technical details of the detector modules. Subsequently we present the anticipated project schedule and construction strategy, followed by an account of the present project status.

  4. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  5. Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat...

  6. Current status of natural fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available , automotive, aerospace, marine, electronic, leisure and household uses. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of research and development. It will also deal with future drivers for the growth and competitiveness of natural fibres...

  7. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  8. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  9. 吸音材料的发展现状与趋势%Development Status-quo of Absorbing Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 刘亚

    2013-01-01

      本文综述了吸音材料的原理及其分类,主要分析了多孔吸音材料的发展与现状,并重点介绍了非织造吸音材料的的吸音优势、影响因素以及研究进展。%The mechanism and classification of sound-absorbing materials were introduced in this paper. Based on presentation of the advantages, influencing factors and development status-quo of sound-absorbing materials, especially nonwoven sound-absorbing material, the authors gave some suggestions on developing high-performance sound-absorbing materials.

  10. Development Status-quo of Centrifugal Spinning Technology%离心纺丝技术的发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬徽; 陈廷; 吴丽莉

    2014-01-01

    离心纺丝是一种利用离心力进行纺丝的新型微纳米纤维制备技术。本文介绍了离心纺丝的基本原理,综述了离心纺丝设备的发展现状,阐述了纺丝过程中工艺参数对纤维的形貌、直径及结晶度的影响。%Centrifugal spinning is a new micro-nano fiber manufacturing technology by the use of centrifugal force. The fundamental principle of centrifugal spinning and development status-quo of the centrifugal spinning equipments were introduced in this paper. Besides, the effects of the process parameters on the morphology, diameter and crystallinity of fibers were stated.

  11. The Current Status of CLASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: I give a brief overview of the current status of some aspects of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS): description of the survey, current list of lens systems, cosmological parameters from lensing statistics, H_0 from time delays, dark lenses, wide-separation lenses.

  12. 浅析我国食品标签法规及标准现状与对策%Analyses on Status Quo of Food Labeling Regulations and Standards in China and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华丽; 郭丽丽

    2014-01-01

    本文系统阐述了我国食品标签法规及标准现状、存在的问题;针对目前现状,提出了进一步规范我国食品标签管理工作的对策建议。%This paper systematically illustrates the status quo of regulations and standards, as well as the existing questions of food labeling in China. In view of the current situation, this paper proposes the countermeasures and suggestions to further standardizing the food labeling management.

  13. Public participation in environmental management in China: status quo and mode innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Longjiang

    2015-03-01

    Public participation in environmental management is critically important in the development of a healthy environmental governance system. However, public participation has not been well institutionalized in China and the public's role in environmental management is limited. Chinese policy-makers and researchers currently face a dilemma wherein they must determine how to fully and effectively involve the public. This paper aims to contribute an innovative approach that can effectively engage the general public, allowing them to participate more in China's environmental management. In this paper, we first review the current status of environmental management and public participation in China. Based on China's political and socio-cultural-legal dynamics, an Environmental Community Consultative Group (ECCG) was developed to be an innovative means to engage community members. A pilot study of the ECCG was carried out in Yapu village of Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The evaluation of the process and outcome of the ECCG showed that the group's effectiveness and influence were significant; the ECCG model was a powerful means by which to promote public environmental awareness, improve public environmental behavior and facilitate public engagement in environmental management. But the ECCG is a small local group that may not function well regarding more complex issues covering a much larger area and has limited impact on environmental policy making. The ECCG experience offers the prospect of grassroots involvement in environmental protection for China's rural areas, while also laying the foundation for further research on community participation in environmental management.

  14. Vienna VLBI Software VieVS - status quo and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sigrid; Böhm, Johannes; Krásná, Hana; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software VieVS has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008. VieVS is designed for the analysis of geodetic VLBI observation data as well as for scheduling and simulation of different VLBI sessions. The software incorporates the latest IERS Conventions and uses the concept of continuous piecewise linear offsets at integer hours for the parameter setup, consistent with the terms of reference of the GGOS. The current version, 2.0, which was released in 2012, aggregates all modules (i.e. data setup, least squares adjustment, global solution, scheduling, simulation, etc.) within one common graphical user interface. The new interface also offers additional tools to plot estimated parameters and residuals. We present the current status of the software focusing on the capabilities of release 2.0. Furthermore we give an overview of future plans and latest developments, such as the restructuring of the least squares adjustment into a scan wise update of the normal equation system which enables the analysis of sessions with a very large data volume, e.g. VLBI2010 sessions.

  15. Public Participation in Environmental Management in China: Status Quo and Mode Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Longjiang

    2015-03-01

    Public participation in environmental management is critically important in the development of a healthy environmental governance system. However, public participation has not been well institutionalized in China and the public's role in environmental management is limited. Chinese policy-makers and researchers currently face a dilemma wherein they must determine how to fully and effectively involve the public. This paper aims to contribute an innovative approach that can effectively engage the general public, allowing them to participate more in China's environmental management. In this paper, we first review the current status of environmental management and public participation in China. Based on China's political and socio-cultural-legal dynamics, an Environmental Community Consultative Group (ECCG) was developed to be an innovative means to engage community members. A pilot study of the ECCG was carried out in Yapu village of Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The evaluation of the process and outcome of the ECCG showed that the group's effectiveness and influence were significant; the ECCG model was a powerful means by which to promote public environmental awareness, improve public environmental behavior and facilitate public engagement in environmental management. But the ECCG is a small local group that may not function well regarding more complex issues covering a much larger area and has limited impact on environmental policy making. The ECCG experience offers the prospect of grassroots involvement in environmental protection for China's rural areas, while also laying the foundation for further research on community participation in environmental management.

  16. Integration geschlechtersensibler Aspekte in die medizinische Lehre - Status Quo und Zukunftsperspektiven [Integration of gender-specific aspects into medical curricula - status quo und future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] The consideration of gender aspects in clinical routine is of high importance towards an individualized patient care and a starting point of diversity medicine. Gender-specific awareness is an indispensable basis for an optimized medical treatment. A current study at the medical faculties of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen University (Germany revealed an insufficient knowledge among students and lecturers in this area. An interdisciplinary, international workshop took place in Muenster (Germany in May 2012 on the topic how to integrate gender aspects into medical curricula in the future aiming at a better health care for both sexes in long term. This position paper summarizes the conclusions. It was suggested to teach gender-specific contents from the first semester comprehensively – using standardized definitions and a gender-neutral language, since it is crucial not to increase the students’ workload any further. The key to success is to implement gender aspects by using meaningful examples on a regular basis – ideally in a longitudinal manner. The content of teaching should be selected by the lecturers and full professors and be considered within students´ exams. To reach these goals, an absolute support of the respective medical faculties as well as the integration of these gender-specific learning objectives into the national competence-based learning catalogue for medical education (NKLM is obligatory.[german] Die Berücksichtigung von Geschlechteraspekten im klinischen Alltag ist ein wichtiger Schritt auf dem Weg zu passgenauer Medizin und der Beginn einer.Kenntnisse über geschlechtersensible Aspekte in der Medizin sind eine essentielle Grundlage für eine optimale PatientInnenversorgung. Diese Kompetenz ist sowohl unter Studierenden als auch Lehrenden unzureichend vorhanden - wie eine aktuelle Studie der Universitäten Münster und Duisburg-Essen belegt. Am 30./31. Mai 2012 fand in Münster ein internationaler

  17. Job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany. Status quo; Berufszufriedenheit von Radiologen in Deutschland. Aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitzel, K.I.; Grosse, C.; Reiser, M.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen LMU, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Kliniksche Radiologie; Ertl, L. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen LMU, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the work-related satisfaction of radiologists and its influencing factors in Germany. Materials and Methods: For this purpose an invitational letter for an online opinion survey was sent to all member physicians of the Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft in 2008. 1200 questionnaires were completed (response rate 21 %) and evaluated statistically. Results: 81.7 % of radiologists declared themselves as being 'very' or 'rather satisfied'. The level of satisfaction was largely independent of age, gender, status, salary or family status. It increased over the last 5 years for 37.5 % of participants and decreased for 24.8 %. Nevertheless, 72 % of respondents indicated that they would not choose to specialize in radiology again. The main reason given was the workload. 65.6 % deemed it to be 'considerably' or 'rather too high'. Concomitantly, more than 70 % of respondents indicated that the workload had increased 'a lot' or 'rather'. Further reasons for not wanting to select the radiological profession again were 'unfavorable working hours' and 'unsatisfactory career perspectives'. Conclusion: The job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany is generally very high in spite of the perception of an extensive and frequently increasing workload. The high workload was the dominant factor against a renewed selection of the field of radiology. These data have to be interpreted in light of the current lack of residents and trained radiologists in Germany to counteract the trend toward emigration. (orig.)

  18. 我国微生物肥料产业现状及发展方向%Status Quo and Development of Microbial Fertilizer Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈德龙; 李俊; 姜昕

    2013-01-01

    This paper was a topic report of "Seminar Forum for Microbiology and Modern Agriculture",to elaborate and deep analyze the status quo and the development of microbial fertilizer industry in China from four aspects,the status quo,the existing main problems,the development opportunity,and the industrialization direction of microbial fertilizer industry in China.%文章为辽宁省微生物学会主办的“微生物与现代农业专题论坛”主题报告,从我国微生物肥料产业的现状、存在的主要问题、发展机遇及微生物肥料的产业化方向4个方面对我国微生物肥料产业现状及发展进行了详细阐述和深入分析.

  19. Motor performance and bodyweight of children and adolescents in Saarland -- status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Markus; Fröhlich, Michael; Emrich, Eike

    2013-01-01

    The motor performance of children and adolescents has been a subject of controversial discussion. As part of a pilot project, 839 schoolchildren from 14 different schools in Saarland were studied and their height, weight and sport motor performance were measured using the German motor performance test DMT 6-18. The results show a slight increase in the number of overweight children compared to reference samples. However, these discrepancies are minor and cannot be judged to be practically relevant because of the weakness of the effects. The average motor test performances of the Saarland schoolchildren were above the average performance of the reference samples in almost all individual performances. There are also hardly any weaker performances in comparison to older studies. The current results for motor performance of Saarland children and adolescents do not, therefore, give any great reason for concern. Further evaluation steps will be needed to clarify the influences that might be associated with adverse characteristics for motor performance (socio-economic status, living situation, leisure behaviour, school performance, etc.).

  20. [Status Quo, Uncertainties and Trends Analysis of Environmental Risk Assessment for PFASs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xue-wen; Li, Li; Wang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Liu, Jian-guo

    2015-08-01

    This study systematically combed the definition and change of terms, category and application of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in international academic, focusing on the environmental risk and exposure assessment of PFASs, to comprehensively analyze the current status, uncertainties and trends of PFASs' environmental risk assessment. Overall, the risk assessment of PFASs is facing a complicated situation involving complex substance pedigrees, various types, complex derivative relations, confidential business information and risk uncertainties. Although the environmental risk of long-chain PFASs has been widely recognized, the short-chain PFASs and short-chain fluorotelomers as their alternatives still have many research gaps and uncertainties in environmental hazards, environmental fate and exposure risk. The scope of risk control of PFASs in the international community is still worth discussing. Due to trade secrets and market competition, the chemical structure and risk information of PFASs' alternatives are generally lack of openness and transparency. The environmental risk of most fluorinated and non-fluorinated alternatives is not clear. In total, the international research on PFASs risk assessment gradually transfer from long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) represented by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to short-chain PFAAs, and then extends to other PFASs. The main problems to be solved urgently and researched continuously are: the environmental hazardous assessment indexes, such as bioaccumulation and environmental migration, optimization method, the environmental release and multimedia environmental fate of short-chain PFASs; the environmental fate of neutral PFASs and the transformation and contribution as precursors of short-chain PFASs; the risk identification and assessment of fluorinated and non-fluorinated alternatives of PFASs.

  1. 有机农业发展现状与对策%On the Status Quo and Countermeasures of Organic A-griculture Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌婧

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, food safety problems occur frequently, so traditional agriculture can hardly meet people's consumption demand of food. Therefore, organic agriculture and green agricul-ture prospers with the continuous improvement of planting tech-niques. But due to various reasons, there are many problems in the current organic agriculture development. Based on an analy-sis of the status quo and problems of organic agriculture, this pa-per explores the countermeasures of organic agriculture develop-ment.%近年来,食品安全问题层出不穷,传统农业越来越难以满足人们对食品的消费需求;随着种植技术的不断提高,有机农业、绿色农业蓬勃发展。但由于种种原因,现阶段绿色有机农业发展存在诸多问题。本文在分析绿色有机农业现状、分析其存在问题的基础上,探究绿色有机农业发展的对策。

  2. 闽产蔓荆子研究现状与展望%Status Quo and Prospects of Studies on Fructus Viticis in Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小芬; 杨成梓; 黄泽豪

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析福建产蔓荆子的研究现状.方法:对现有福建产蔓荆子的质量研究、生态效应、规范化种植等综合分析.结果和结论:蔓荆子是福建省的地产药材与主药材之一,应对不同部位入药进行研究,综合利用资源.%Objective: To analyze the researching of Fructus Viticis which grows on the loastal sandy lands in Fujian. Fructus Viticis is the dried fruits of Vitex trdolia L. var. simplifolia Cham. grows on the coastal sandy lands in Fujian. Methods: In this paper, a summary was made of the status quo of studies on quality standard of fructus viticis from Fujian, studies on the ecological effect of Vitex trifolia var. simplffolia on coastal sandy land in Fujian, and the GAP plantting of the Vitex trifolia var. Results and conclusion: Simplifolia in Fujian. An analysis was also made of some current issues in studies and of the prospective development of Fructus Viticis in Fujian in this aspect.

  3. 食用菌加工产业研究现状与前景%Status Quo and Prospects of Edible Fungi Processing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 徐冲

    2013-01-01

    Edible fungi processing is a production of edible fungal products using physical,chemical,and biological methods to manage the sporocarp or mycelia of the edible fungi.The process could solve time problems of edible fungi from the production to the sale of the commodity to raise their commodity value.Drying process,salt-soaking process,and canning process technology of the edible fungi were introduced in this paper,summarizing the current development status quo and research progress of the deep processing industry of the edible fungi,and forecast prospect of edible fungi processing.%食用菌加工是利用物理、化学和生物方法处理食用菌子实体或菌丝体,生产食用菌制品.它可以解决食用菌从生产到商品出售所存在的时间矛盾,提高食用菌的商品价值.详细介绍了食用菌的干制加工、盐渍加工及罐藏加工技术,概括了食用菌深加工产业的发展现状及研究进展,提出了对食用菌加工的展望.

  4. On Track to Become a Low Carbon Future City? First Findings of the Integrated Status Quo and Trends Assessment of the Pilot City of Wuxi in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vallentin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Low Carbon Future Cities (LCFC project aims at facing a three dimensional challenge by developing an integrated city roadmap balancing: low carbon development, gains in resource efficiency and adaptation to climate change. The paper gives an overview of the first outcomes of the analysis of the status quo and assessment of the most likely developments regarding GHG emissions, climate impacts and resource use in Wuxi—the Chinese pilot city for the LCFC project. As a first step, a detailed emission inventory following the IPCC guidelines for Wuxi has been carried out. In a second step, the future development of energy demand and related CO2 emissions in 2050 were simulated in a current policy scenario (CPS. In parallel, selected aspects of material and water flows for the energy and the building sector were analyzed and modeled. In addition, recent and future climate impacts and vulnerability were investigated. Based on these findings, nine key sectors with high relevance to the three dimensions could be identified. Although Wuxi’s government has started a path to implement a low carbon plan, the first results show that, for the shift towards a sustainable low carbon development, more ambitious steps need to be taken in order to overcome the challenges faced.

  5. U.S. Elementary and Secondary Schools: Equalizing Opportunity or Replicating the Status Quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Cecilia Elena; Barrow, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Although education pays off handsomely in the United States, children from low-income families attain less education than children from more advantaged families. In this article, Cecilia Elena Rouse and Lisa Barrow investigate why family background is so strongly linked to education. The authors show that family socioeconomic status affects such…

  6. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  7. The Status Quo of Chinese Agro-products Logistics and the Establishment of the Third-Party Logistics Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of Chinese agro-products logistics is analyzed from the following five aspects:the circulation mode,exchange mode,storage and transportation situation,food security.The following problems in Chinese agro-products logistics are pointed out,including excessive circulation sections,bad time efficiency,single payment,slow circulation,backward information processing,obvious bullwhip effect,low logistics efficiency,low logistics technology,inadequate professional equipments,low standardization degree,organized operation mode and low degree of scale.The third-party logistics mode of agro-products is analyzed and the advantages of the mode are analyzed as well.Firstly,establishing information network through integrating circulation section to accelerate the circulation of agro-products;secondly,making the operation norms by providing professional equipments to secure the quality of agricultural products;thirdly,improving the core competitiveness of the whole logistics chain by intensifying specialized work division in each section of the supply chain;fourthly,through forming scale economy to reduce logistics costs and increase the diversity of products;fifthly,through signing contracts to clarify duties and responsibilities and materialize the profit integration of the supply chain.The measures for establishing the third-party logistics of agro-products are put forward,including establish the awareness and concept of socialized logistics services;intensify the support on the third-party logistics enterprises of agro-products;lay stress on the cultivation of logistics talents of agro-products;and vigorously apply the modern marketing means.

  8. An Analysis On Semitrailers'Status Quo And Trend In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    ⅠThe semitrailer segment in current China China's semitrailer segment started in the 1950's and over the past 40 years it has formed a fixed market to some extent,becoming an important part of the auto industry. China underwent a critical change during 2000 to 2003 when the national economy gained a faster growth pace and the semi-

  9. Current status of Japanese detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

    2007-01-01

    Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

  10. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  11. p53 gene in treatment of hepatic carcinoma:Status quo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Song Guan; Zi La; Lin Yang; Qing He; Ping Li

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)is one of the 10 most common cancers worldwide.There is no ideal treatment for HCC yet and many researchers are trying to improve the effects of treatment by changing therapeutic strategies.As the majority of human cancers seem to exhibit either abnormal p53 gene or disrupted p53 gene activation pathways,intervention to restore wild-type p53 (wt-p53)activities is an attractive anti-cancer therapy including HCC.Abnormalities of p53 are also considered a predisposition factor for hepatocarcinogenesis.p53 is frequently mutated in HCC.Most HCCs have defects in the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway although they carry wt-p53.High expression of p53 in vivo may exert therapeutic effects on HCC in two aspects:(1)High expression of exogenous p53 protein induces apoptosis of tumor cells by inhibiting proliferation of cells through several biologic pathways and(2)Exogenous p53 renders HCC more sensitive to some chemotherapeutic agents.Several approaches have been designed for the treatment of HCC via the p53 pathway by restoring the tumor suppression function from inactivation,rescuing the mutated p53 gene from instability,or delivering therapeutic exogenous p53.Products with p53 status as the target have been studied extensively in vitro and in vivo.This review elaborates some therapeutic mechanisms and advances in using recombinant human adenovirus p53 and oncolytic virus products for the treatment of HCC.

  12. Use of lecture recordings in dental education: assessment of status quo and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Zsuzsa; O'Donnell, Jean A; Johnson, Lynn A; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Shuler, Charles F; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-11-01

    This research project was part of a planned initiative at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine to incorporate lecture recordings as standard educational support technologies. The goal of an institutional survey was 1) to gather current data about how dental educators across the United States and Canada use lecture recordings; 2) determine dental educators' perceived value and outcomes of using lecture recordings; and 3) develop recommendations based on #1 and #2 for the dental education community. Of the sixty-six North American dental schools at the time of the study, forty-five schools responded to the survey, for a 68 percent response rate. Of the respondents, twenty-eight schools were found to currently conduct lecture recording; these comprised the study sample. This study focused on the dental schools' past experiences with lecture recording; thus, those not currently engaged in lecture recording were excluded from further analysis. The survey questions covered a wide range of topics, such as the scope of the lecture recording, logistics, instructional design considerations, outcomes related to student learning, evaluation and reception, barriers to lecture recording, and issues related to copyright and intellectual property. The literature review and results from the survey showed that no common guidelines for best practice were available regarding lecture recordings in dental education. The article concludes with some preliminary recommendations based on this study.

  13. The Status Quo and the Development of Mechatronics Technology%机电一体化技术的现状与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张葆青; 闫石; 陈爽

    2011-01-01

    介绍了我国机电一体化技术的发展现状和未来的发展趋势,并简单介绍了机电一体化技术主要应用的几个方面,对机电一体化的核心技术进行了简要的介绍.%The development status quo and the trend of development of meehatronics technology in our country were introduced. Some main application aspects and the core technology of mechatronics were briefly introduced.

  14. Research on the Status Quo of Digital Divide in Our Country%浅析我国数字鸿沟现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏硕; 王聪

    2012-01-01

    This paperanalyses the latest database of CNNIC, and consequently, it points out the status quo of digital divide in our country. At last, it puts forward the countermeasure to overcome digital divide on order to realize barrier-free information acquisition.%本文对中国互联网络信息中心最新数据进行分析,指出中国数字鸿沟的现状,提出了克服数字鸿沟的对策。

  15. 加氢处理技术的现状与发展趋势%Status Quo and Development Trends of Hydrotreating Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立军; 卜岩; 侯娜; 马艳秋

    2011-01-01

    Hydrotreating is one of important processing technologies in modern refining industry. In this paper, driving forces of hydrotreating technologies development were discussed, status quo and development trend of hydrotreating technologies were summarized from the aspect of hydrotreating catalyst and process.%加氢处理是现代石油炼制工业的重要加工过程之一.讨论了加氢处理技术发展的推动因素,并从工艺和催化剂两方面对加氧处理技术的现状和发展趋势做了简要评述.

  16. 二甲醚在燃料电池中的应用现状%Application status quo of dimethyl ether(DME)in fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨滔; 尹鸽平; 蔡克迪

    2009-01-01

    分别从直接二甲醚(DME)燃料电池(DDFC)、以DME为燃料的固体氧化物燃料电池(SOFC)和DME重整制氢用于燃料电池等研究方向,介绍了DME在燃料电池中的应用现状.%Application status quo of dimethyl ether (DME) in fuel cell was introduced from the research directions of direct dimethyl ether fuel cell(DDFC) ,solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC)fueled with DME and hydrogen generation from reforming DME for fuel cell.

  17. 音乐疗法的研究现状和趋势%Research status quo and tendency of music therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友根; 彭小芳; 韶红

    2012-01-01

    介绍了国内外音乐疗法研究现状,阐述了音乐疗法对人心理的治疗作用及在各临床科室的应用情况,并提出了音乐疗法的发展趋势.%It introduced the research status quo of music therapy at home and in abroad, and expounded the psychological treatment effect of music therapy and application in clinical departments and put forward the tendency of music therapy as well.

  18. Nursing in the information age: status quo and future of ICT use in German hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Ursula; Sellemann, Björn

    2004-01-01

    Hospital information systems (HIS) should give support to nurses in their clinical and managerial duties. Though there are statistical data on the current use of HIS systems we know only little about the numbers of nursing modules implemented. We therefore conducted a nationwide survey in Germany (n = 2182) on the current state and future plans of HIS modules including nursing applications (response rate of 27.6 %). The findings show that management applications (84 % accounting) are still more frequent than clinical applications, in particular clinical patient record systems (19 %). What applied for HIS modules in general held also true for nursing on a lower level. Whereas 51 % of the hospitals had rostering systems in place only 6 % used care planning software. Priorities and plans for the future reveal no change in the rank order of systems. We argue that in order for clinical documentation and planning systems to catch up they must be immediately rewarding for the clinicians in their daily need for information

  19. Status Quo, Analysis and Suggestions for Public Awareness on Wetland Conservation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyun; XU Jiliang; YUAN Jun

    2011-01-01

    To understand the status of public awareness on wetland conservation in China, 1 237 people from 8 provinces or municipality were interviewed by questionnaire. After analysis of the results, 88.5% of the interviewees know the word ‘wetland'. TV and radio is the main tool for them to get information. More than two thirds of the respondents mainly learn the information on wetland conservation through TV and radio. There are still big gaps among different people in understanding wetland. Only 13.3% of the respondents give a completely right answer on question ‘ which areas are wetlands'. Most of the respondents cited lakes, marshes and rivers as wetlands, but more than half of them do not regard beaches, reservoirs, paddy fields and fish ponds as wetlands. Most of the people cited wetlands can provide such functions as water conservation, climate regulation, protecting wildlife, removing pollution, but know little about other functions such as flood control, provisioning of aquatic products, and soil retention, and much less about the cultural functions such as recreation, and inherited folk culture. Except for wastewater discharge, nearly half of the general public knows little about other threats of the wetland, while most of the people do not believe that artificial aquaculture will cause threats to the wetland areas. Public awareness on wetland conservation in China needs to be improved. Most of the respondents cited that TV, radio and internet are the most effective ways to publicize information on wetland conservation. More than two thirds of the respondents mainly learn the information on wetland conservation through TV and radio, while 38.0% of the respondents mainly through internet.Specifically, for farmers/fishermen, posters/picture albums can benefit them more than the internet; the undergraduates also expect to learn wetland mainly through posters/picture albums; while for the primary and middle school students, the school education is another

  20. Simulation-based Validation of Smart Grids - Status Quo and Future Research Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbrink, C.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rohjans, S.

    2017-01-01

    such cyber-physical energy systems with a high(er) penetration of fluctuating renewable generation and controllable loads. As a result of these developments the validation on the system level becomes much more important during the whole engineering and deployment process, today. In earlier development stages......Smart grid systems are characterized by high complexity due to interactions between a traditional passive network and active power electronic components, coupled using communication links. Additionally, automation and information technology plays an important role in order to operate and optimize...... and for larger system configurations laboratory-based testing is not always an option. Due to recent developments, simulation-based approaches are now an appropriate tool to support the development, implementation, and rollout of smart grid solutions. This paper discusses the current state of simulation...

  1. Current Status of JRR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Masami; Arai, Masaji; Maruo, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    JRR-3 at the Tokai-Shirakata site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake took place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with the solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage, and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery works, check and test to confirm the integrity of all components and structures, and seismic assessment necessary for proving that the seismic loads which worked on a structure or component by the earthquake accommodated within its allowable stress have been carried out. After our recovery works and verification of the integrity of JRR-3, we confirmed that the integrity is ensured, and then reported the fact to the regulatory body. As another topic, the regulatory body will introduce new regulatory requirements for research reactors. Now, JRR-3 considers applying the new requirements for restart. This paper presents the current status of JRR-3 including the recovery works, seismic assessment and new regulatory requirements.

  2. [Memorandum 'Development of health services research in Bavaria from the perspective of the Bavarian State Working Group 'Health Services Research (LAGeV)': status quo - potential - strategies'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Braun, G E; Dahlhoff, G; Drexler, H; Engel, J; Gräßel, E; Häusler, E; Heide, H; Heuschmann, P U; Hörl, G; Imhof, H; Kaplan, M; Kasperbauer, R; Klemperer, D; Kolominsky-Rabas, P; Kuhn, J; Lang, M; Langejürgen, R; Lankes, A; Leidl, R; Liebl, B; Loss, J; Ludewig, K; Mansmann, U; Melcop, N; Nagels, K; Nowak, D; Pfundner, H; Reuschenbach, B; Schneider, A; Schneider, W; Schöffski, O; Schreiber, W; Voigtländer, S; Wildner, M; Zapf, A; Zellner, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the memorandum on the development of health services research (HSR) in Bavaria is to operationalise the global objectives of the State Working Group "Health Services Research" (LAGeV) and to collectively define future topics, specific implementation steps, methods as well as ways of working for the future course of the LAGeV. The LAGeV is an expert committee that integrates and links the competencies of different actors from science, politics and health care regarding HSR and facilitates their cooperation. The memorandum is based on an explorative survey among the LAGeV members, which identified the status quo of health services research in Bavaria, potential for development, important constraints, promoting factors, specific recommendations as well as future topics for the further development of HSR in Bavaria. From the perspective of the LAGeV members, the 12 most important future topics are: 1) Interface and networking research, 2) Innovative health care concepts, 3) Health care for multimorbid patients, 4)Health care for chronically ill patients, 5) Evaluation of innovations, processes and technologies, 6) Patient orientation and user focus, 7) Social and regional inequalities in health care, 8) Health care for mentally ill patients, 9) Indicators of health care quality, 10) Regional needs planning, 11) Practical effectiveness of HSR and 12) Scientific use of routine data. Potential for development of HSR in Bavaria lies a) in the promotion of networking and sustainable structures, b) the establishment of an HSR information platform that bundles information and results in regard to current topics and aims to facilitate cooperation as well as c) in the initiation of measures and projects. The latter ought to pinpoint health care challenges and make recommendations regarding the improvement of health care and its quality. The cooperation and networking structures that were established with the LAGeV should be continuously expanded and be used to work

  3. 临床免疫学检验的现状与思考%Status quo and reflection of clinical immunology in laboratory medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰兰; 欧启水

    2014-01-01

    免疫学和分子生物学的发展日新月异,为临床免疫学检验带来许多新的启示和思路,在以临床路径管理和个体化医学为主要特点的时代背景下,如何准确把握这些变化,构建完善的临床免疫学检验质量体系、理清免疫学检验的路径并将其融入到临床路径管理中、扎实推进个体化诊断技术的推广和应用、准确评估临床免疫学检验新技术新项目的诊断价值,是值得每一个临床免疫学检验工作者深思的问题,本文对这些领域的现状和思考作一评述.%With the rapid advancement of immunology and molecular biology,many new revelations and ideas were drew for clinical immunology in laboratory medicine.In the current circumstances of application of clinical pathway management and individual medical care,how to accurately grasp these changes to build perfect quality system for clinical immunology laboratory,clarify the immunology laboratory pathway and integrate that into clinical pathway management,make solid progress for the promotion and application of individual diagnosis and evaluate the diagnostic value of new technique and item for clinical immunology laboratory accurately might be worth pondering for every people working in clinical immunology laboratory.In this paper,the status quo and reflection of clinical immunology is reviewed.

  4. Proteomics in nutrition: status quo and outlook for biomarkers and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, Martin; Panchaud, Alexandre; Affolter, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Food and beverages are the only physical matter we take into our body, if we disregard the air we inhale and the drugs we may have to apply. While traditional nutrition research has aimed at providing nutrients to nourish populations and preventing specific nutrient deficiencies, it more recently explores health-related aspects of individual bioactive components as well as entire diets and this at group rather than population level. The new era of nutrition research translates empirical knowledge to evidence-based molecular science. Modern nutrition research focuses on promoting health, preventing or delaying the onset of disease, optimizing performance, and assessing risk. Personalized nutrition is a conceptual analogue to personalized medicine and means adapting food to individual needs. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics build the science foundation for understanding human variability in preferences, requirements, and responses to diet and may become the future tools for consumer assessment motivated by personalized nutritional counseling for health maintenance and disease prevention. The scope of this paper is to review the current and future aspects of nutritional proteomics, focusing on the two main outputs: identification of health biomarkers and analysis of food bioactives.

  5. The status quo and technical development direction of underground gas storages in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Ding

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available UGS (underground gas storage construction in China has stepped into a new development stage after years of exploration. The eleven UGSs that have been put into production play an important role in domestic natural gas peak shaving safety and supply guarantee, with designed working gas volume of 180 × 108 m3, but there are still various difficulties in UGS construction in China. Firstly, the increasing speed of working gas volume is slower than that of peak shaving demand volume. Secondly, the UGS building engineering is difficult in technologies and high in investment costs. Thirdly, safe operation is under high pressure and it is hard to identify and control risks. Fourthly, there are fewer candidate UGS sites in China and UGS building conditions are complicated. And fifthly, it is difficult for those UGSs to realize economic benefits only based on their own operation under the existing natural gas price systems. To sum up, the currently available UGS operation modes and building technologies in China are not sufficient to cope with the challenges resulted from markets and complex geologic conditions. Facing all these challenges, it is necessary not only to explore market driven operation modes, but also to strengthen technology tackling and carry out core technological research and development, including geologic evaluation, gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, UGS injection and gas recovery engineering, surface auxiliary technologies and UGS integrity evaluation, so that UGS building efficiency can be increased greatly.

  6. Status quo and future plans for the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Choliy, Vasyl; Hellerschmied, Andreas; Hofmeister, Armin; Karbon, Maria; Krasna, Hana; McCallum, Jamie; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Shabala, Stas; Soja, Benedikt; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2014-05-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008, and in recent years important contributions have been made by other groups all over the world. The software is written in Matlab which makes it easy for students to get an insight in VLBI processing and which allows short and concise source code. The current version 2.1 of VieVS has improved capabilities in terms of the global solution and the graphical user interface compared to earlier releases. Furthermore, more sophisticated approaches are now available in terms of scheduling VLBI sessions. Presently, we are working on the new version 2.2 which will be released this summer and which will be presented at the 5th VieVS User-Workshop in September 2014. For example, it will be equipped with a source structure simulator, as well as more refined possibilities for scheduling and the global solution. In a test version, we will also provide a graphical user interface built with Qt instead of Matlab.

  7. [Transcutaneous osseointegrated prosthesis (TOP) after limb amputation : Status quo and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Krettek, Christian

    2017-04-10

    The majority of transfemoral and transtibial amputees can be functionally fitted with conventional suspension sockets; however, due to socket problems using conventional stump care, 60% of the patients have limited function and even in younger patients approximately one sixth are unable to wear the prosthesis daily. After the introduction of transcutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (TOP) the inherent problems of socket-stump care can be avoided for these patients. Against this background this article reviews the recent clinical development of TOP in Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Australia and USA currently in nine centers. Unanimously, all groups show that TOP enables physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, as well as osseoperceptive sensory feedback and better control of the artificial limb. Likewise, there is agreement that as a rule that there is a clinically less relevant superficial contamination of the stoma. Furthermore, TOP is nowadays also used for transhumeral amputees and after thumb amputation and the development of the indications for this technique are increasing. Future aspects include novel treatment options using implanted intramedullary electrodes allowing permanent and unlimited bidirectional communication with the human body (osseointegrated human-machine gateway). This could possibly realize an innovative form of prosthesis control as well as the combination of TOP and targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgery to create more advanced prosthesis systems for upper and lower extremity amputees.

  8. Status quo of chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazag, Amarsanaa; Puntsagdulam, Natsagnyam; Chinburen, Jigjidsuren

    2012-06-01

    Because Mongolia has much higher liver disease burden than any other regions of the world, it is necessary to provide information on real-time situation of chronic liver disease in Mongolia. In this article, we reviewed studies performed in Mongolia from 2000 to 2011 on seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among healthy individuals and patients with chronic liver diseases, and on the practice patterns for the management of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). According to previous reports, the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in general population in Mongolia is very high (11.8% and 15% for HBV and HCV, respectively). Liver cirrhosis is also highly prevalent, and mortality from liver cirrhosis remained high for the past decade (about 30 deaths per 100,000 populations per year). Among patients with cirrhosis, 40% and 39% are positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively, and 20% are positive for both. The seroprevalence is similar for HCC and more than 90% of HCC patients are positive for either HBV or HCV. The incidence of HCC in Mongolia is currently among the highest in the world. The mortality from HCC is also very high (52.2 deaths per 100,000 persons per year in 2010). Partly due to the lack of established surveillance systems, most cases of HCC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The mortality from liver cirrhosis and HCC in Mongolia may be reduced by implementation of antiviral therapy program and control of alcohol consumption.

  9. An Investigation and Analysis of the Status Quo of the Old People's Physical Exercise in Haikou City%海口市老年人体育锻炼的现状调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈猛醒; 金德阳

    2012-01-01

    In this study, literature review and mathematical statistics are used to investigate and analyze the status quo of the old people participating in physical exercise in Haikou city. The results show that the status quo of old people' s physical exercise is influenced by such factors as politics, economic and cultural levels in the local areas. This paper also puts forward some suggestions according to the status quo and characteristics of their physical exercise.%对海口市老年人参与体育锻炼的现状进行了调查分析.研究结果表明,老年人体育开展状况受其所在地区政治、经济和文化发展水平等多方面因素的影响,本研究同时针对其体育锻炼的现状和特点,提出建议.

  10. The international spine registry SPINE TANGO: status quo and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloh, Markus; Staub, Lukas; Aghayev, Emin; Zweig, Thomas; Barz, Thomas; Theis, Jean-Claude; Chavanne, Albert; Grob, Dieter; Aebi, Max; Roeder, Christoph

    2008-09-01

    With an official life time of over 5 years, Spine Tango can meanwhile be considered the first international spine registry. In this paper we present an overview of frequency statistics of Spine Tango for demonstrating the genesis of questionnaire development and the constantly increasing activity in the registry. Results from two exemplar studies serve for showing concepts of data analysis applied to a spine registry. Between 2002 and 2006, about 6,000 datasets were submitted by 25 centres. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, surgical and follow-up data of three generations of the Spine Tango surgery and follow-up forms. The two exemplar studies used multiple linear regression models to identify potential predictor variables for the occurrence of dura lesions in posterior spinal fusion, and to evaluate which covariates influenced the length of hospital stay. Over the study period there was a rise in median patient age from 52.3 to 58.6 years in the Spine Tango data pool and an increasing percentage of degenerative diseases as main pathology from 59.9 to 71.4%. Posterior decompression was the most frequent surgical measure. About one-third of all patients had documented follow-ups. The complication rate remained below 10%. The exemplar studies identified "centre of intervention" and "number of segments of fusion" as predictors of the occurrence of dura lesions in posterior spinal fusion surgery. Length of hospital stay among patients with posterior fusion was significantly influenced by "centre of intervention", "surgeon credentials", "number of segments of fusion", "age group" and "sex". Data analysis from Spine Tango is possible but complicated by the incompatibility of questionnaire generations 1 and 2 with the more recent generation 3. Although descriptive and also analytic studies at evidence level 2++ can be performed, findings cannot yet be generalised to any specific country or patient population. Current limitations of Spine Tango include

  11. 痛风诊治现状调查%A study on status quo of gout treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章璐; 赵孟君; 周惠琼; 吴东海

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解我国痛风诊治现状,提高医师诊治水平.方法 对210 名医师进行关于痛风诊治情况的现场问卷调查,并对结果进行统计分析.结果 一共回收201 份答卷.有35 名医师(17.4%)认为急性痛风发作时血尿酸水平一定升高;有108 名医师(53.7%)认为在痛风急性发作时应立即停用正在应用的降血尿酸药物;有98 名医师(48.7%)认为开始降血尿酸治疗时不需要同时给予秋水仙碱或非甾体类抗炎药(NSAIDs)预防痛风发作.结论 部分医师对痛风诊治中已成共识的知识了解不够全面,有待进一步提高.对目前尚有争论的问题应开展深入临床研究.%Objective To investigate the status quo of the treatment decisions for gout in China . Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 210 physicians. Statistical analyses of data were performed by SPSS version 11.5 Results 201 questionnaires were collected. 35 physicians ( 17. 4% ) consider that the level of blood uric acid will be certainly increased during acute attacks of gout. 53. 7% of the responders think that the urate -lowering drugs being taken by patients should be stopped when gout attacks. 98 of them ( 48. 7% ) think prophylaxis against gout flare using colchicine or NSAIDS is not necessary during the first months of urate-lowering therapy. Conclusions Medical consensus about gout treatment should be further emphasized among us , and some controversial issues should be addressed through large sample long term prospective clinical trial .

  12. Status Quo of Twice Supplying Water for High Building and Antisepsis Effect of MF-2 Disinfector%高层建筑二次供水的现状及MF-2消毒剂的消毒效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆增; 王金兰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss status quo of twice supplying water for high building and validateantisepsis effect of MF - 2 disinfector. Methods By field test and searching reference, discussing thequestions of above - describe. According to state prescriptive method for disinfecting drinking water, vali-dating the antisepsis effect of disinfecting twice supplying water. Results Currently, establishment fortwice supplying water and the quality of the supplying water has some questions. According to the qualityof twice supplying water, acceding to some MF - 2 disinfector to disinfect, it will achieve the standard ofdrinking water. Conclusion Circumstance management department and sanitation supervise departmentshould smeliorate and manage the quality of twice supplying water, and insure the safety of using drinkingwater. So MF - 2 disinfector may replace contain chlorin disinfector to disinfect twice supplying water.

  13. On the status quo and developing trend of credit card fraud cases%论信用卡诈骗案件的现状与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹洪华

    2012-01-01

    本文通过对信用卡诈骗案的收集和整理,系统分析了目前我国信用卡诈骗案的现状、特点和发展趋势,并且针对信用卡诈骗手段的不断更新,向公安人员提出了应该具有的侦查能力和技术手段。%Through the collection and collation of credit card fraud cases,the paper systematically analyzed the current status quo,characteristics and developing trend of China's credit card fraud cases,and suggested investigative capacity and technical means the public security personnel should have in view of constantly update means for credit card fraud.

  14. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  15. The Analysis of Status Quo and Requirement of the Construction of Ocean Reserve Based on GIS%基于GIS的海洋保护区建设现状与需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洪军; 李晋

    2012-01-01

    保护海洋生物资源和海洋自然环境的有效途径之一是建立海洋保护区。规划海洋保护区时尽量做到与海洋功能区划协调一致。本文首先分析了我国海洋保护区的建设现状,通过收集整理沿海各省海洋功能区划中划定的海洋保护区信息,对比分析海洋保护区建设现状与海洋功能区划中划定的保护区之间的空间关系。文章利用GIS技术分析省级海洋功能区划中划定的保护区与海洋保护区现状的空间一致性,得出海洋功能区划有利于协调全国海洋保护区总体布局,现行的省级海洋功能区划中海洋保护区的选划可满足海洋保护区建设需求。%One of the effective ways of protecting ocean biological and natural environment is to set up ocean natural reserve. The planning of ocean reserve should be consistent with ocean function area to the greatest extent. This paper firstly analyses the status quo of the construction of ocean reserve in our country. Through the collection of ocean reserve information delimited in the ocean function area planning in coastal provinces, it analyses the spatial relationship between ocean reserve construction status quo and the ocean re- serve delimited in ocean function planning. This paper analyses the consistency between ocean reserve status quo and ocean reserve delimited in ocean function area planning, and reaches the conclusion that ocean function area planning can facilitate the rational dis- tribution of ocean reserve, and the current ocean reserve planning in ocean function planning can meet the requirement of ocean re- serve construction.

  16. 我国体育彩票发展现状及对策%Status Quo of the Sports Lottery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾雯彬; 孙杨; 孙东辉

    2012-01-01

    主要采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法、专家访谈法,从管理体制、玩法现状、销售渠道等方面阐述了我国体育彩票发展的现状,分析当前存在的主要问题,提出我国体育彩票的发展对策,并对未来的发展趋势进行展望。%By the ways of literature study,logic analysis and expert interview,the paper discusses the status quo of the sports development in China from the aspects of management system,play status and sales channel.It analyzes the major existing problems,suggests the ways for the development of the sports lottery in China and predicts the future development trend.

  17. Research status quo of sleep disorders in patients with maintenance hemodialysis%维持性血液透析病人睡眠障碍研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 黄金

    2011-01-01

    从维持性血液透析睡眠障碍发生状况、影响因素、睡眠障碍对病人及照顾者的不良影响、改善睡眠状况的方法等方面对维持性血液透析病人睡眠障碍研究现状进行了综述.%It reviewed the research status quo of sleep disorders in patients with maintenance hemodialysis from aspects of occurrence of maintenance hemodialysis,influencing factors of sleep disorders,adverse effects of sleep disorders,methods of improving the sleep status of hemodialysis patients.

  18. STATUS QUO OF ONLINE HOSPITAL AND ITS PROSPECT%网上医院现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于京杰; 马锡坤; 纪宁; 宋文广; 冯仰鑫

    2013-01-01

    .In this paper we provide an overview on the online hospital in regard to its development at home and abroad , the research status quo and system structure, as well as the technical and legal problems encountering .Moreover, we put forward some opinions and suggestions on it as well .

  19. The TEMPIS Project: Current Status,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-19

    GRA&I 9 [ Valiente 19871 jC A 10 [Aba 1986AJ tnannounced ŕ [Ahn~ 1986B] oation- Table 1: Status of Subtasks Distribut on/ ____ Avail and/or 3 WkM On...W ~~ -tt-,u Rr ~~ n~ m1 Nn VJs -W r a -VW uS ru-p-urp-Vf U, 8 39. [ Valiente 19871 Valiente , J. Implementing TQuel Aggregates (in progress). Master’s

  20. Top Quark Current Experimental Status

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron.

  1. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed.

  2. Analysis on Status Quo of China' s Offshore Wind Power Development%我国海上风电发展现状及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林; 葛旭波; 张义斌; 尹明; 李利

    2012-01-01

    风电是我国新能源发展的重点,海上风电是风电产业发展的新趋势。我国海上风能资源丰富,具备大规模发展海上风电的资源条件。与陆上风电相比,海上风电的发展面临着一些新的问题和挑战。系统梳理了我国海上风电装机的发展现状和规划,结合海上风电的资源条件和项目建设进展情况,对目前海上风电项目开发中存在的困难和问题进行了研究。重点分析了我国海上风电开发的现状和相关政策以及规划、建设、维护过程中出现的问题,并给出我国加快海上风电发展的建议。%Wind power development is one of the keys of China' s new energy development, and the offshore wind power is the new trend of wind power industry. Enormously rich in offshore wind resources, China has suitable conditions for large scale offshore wind power development. Compared with the land-based wind power development, the offshore wind power development is being faced with some new challenges. This paper reviews the status quo and the planning of China's offshore wind power installed capacity, and studies the difficulties encountered in offshore wind power projects with a focus on the current policies and the problems existing in the planning, construction and maintenance of the offshore wind projects. The paper also proposes suggestions on accelerating China' s offshore wind power development.

  3. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Status Quo and Countermeasures of Community Martial Arts Development%社区武术发展现状及对策探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世景; 朱波涌

    2013-01-01

    Firstly, the paper defines the community and community Martial Arts, then expounds the significance of development on martial arts in communities. The Status Quo and existing problems of Development on Martial Arts in Communities is analyzed and countermeasures for the existing problem are proposed, to provide reference for the better development on community Martial Arts.%首先对社区和社区武术进行界定,阐述社区武术发展的意义,分析社区武术的发展现状和存在问题,并针对存在问题提出合理化建议,为社区武术更好发展提供借鉴。

  5. 商丘市跆拳道教练员现状调查分析%Analysis of Status Quo of Taekwondo Coaches in Shangqiu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亚丽

    2016-01-01

    The status quo of the coaches of Shangqiu Taekwondo Halls is analyzed in various aspects, and the shortcomings of the coaches in the development of Shangqiu city are obtained, and some suggestions are put forward, in order to promote the development of the sports of Shangqiu, improve the enthusiasm of all the people, and enhance the purpose of all the people’s health.%对商丘市跆拳道馆教练员现状进行各方面的调查分析,得出教练员在商丘市跆拳道发展中存在的不足,针对不足提出一些意见和建议。以达到促进商丘市跆拳道运动的发展,提高全民的运动热情,增强全民体质的目的。

  6. Status quo of and methods for pre-school sex education%学龄前儿童性教育现状及方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯明

    2012-01-01

    通过对学龄前儿童性教育现状的分析,认为学龄前儿童性教育未能得到应有的重视,现状不容乐观,并就产生原因、学龄前儿童性教育的原则与方法等问题进行了探讨,以期对幼儿家长及幼儿教师有所帮助。%On the basis of analyzing the status quo of pre-school sex education,this paper points out that sex education of pre-school children is not attached proper importance to.It discusses the causes of,and the principles and methods for pre-school sex education in the hope of giving help to parents and teachers.

  7. Research on status quo of community rehabilitation of persons with disabilities%残疾人社区康复现状研究1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹丽; 罗英妹; 韩冬; 雷楠; 彭歆

    2014-01-01

    It compared the status quo of development of the disabled commu-nity rehabilitation in abroad.It expounded the development mode,resource al-location,social awareness and case study of community rehabilitation in Chi-na.The experiences were summarized,so as to meet the needs of community rehabilitation of people with disabilities and then to promote the development of community rehabilitation in China.%比较国外残疾人社区康复发展现状,对我国社区康复的发展模式、资源配置、社会认知度、研究情况进行阐述,总结经验,以期满足残疾人社区康复的需求,从而促进我国社区康复事业的发展。

  8. 国内外造口专科护理发展现状%Development status quo of ostomy specific nursing at home and in abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱花; 严梅; 秦亚辉

    2016-01-01

    It analyzed the development status quo of specialist care of permanent colostomy patients and ostomy specialist nurses training at home and in aboard.It learned from the characteristics and features of its develop-ment at abroad and probed into the problems existing in ostomy care in China at the present stage,so as to pro-mote the sustainable development of ostomy specialist care in China.%就国内外永久性结肠造口病人专科护理、造口专科护士的培养现状进行分析,借鉴国外发展的特点与特色,探讨我国现阶段造口护理存在的问题,以促使我国造口专科护理事业的持续发展。

  9. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  10. Current status of transarterial radioembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas H Mahnken

    2016-01-01

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization(TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: 90Y-resin and 90Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease.

  11. Analysis on status quo of fal ls of the elderly in pension institutions%养老机构老人跌倒现状分析1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亚媛; 何贵蓉; 陈洋; 汪楠; 尹延钰; 奚蒙蒙

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective:To know about status quo of falls of the elderly in pen-sion institutions and analyze the related factors of falls.Methods:A total of 74 elderly people in three pension institutions in Nanjing city who were will-ing to cooperate with were investigated on status quo of falls of the elderly in pension institutions.Results:The incidence of falls in older people in pension institutions was 39.2%,and the influencing factors included sleep, chronic disease history and medication history.Conclusion:The incidence of falls in older people is higher in pension institutions,and effective preventive interventions need to be adopted to reduce the occurrence of falls in older people.%[目的]了解养老机构老人跌倒现状,分析跌倒相关因素。[方法]选取南京市3所养老机构内愿意合作的74名老人进行养老机构老人跌倒现状的问卷调查。[结果]养老机构老年人跌倒发生率为39.2%,影响因素包括睡眠状况、慢性病史和服药史。[结论]养老机构老年人跌倒发生率较高,需要采用有效的预防干预措施来减少老年人跌倒的发生。

  12. Status quo of initial nursing service at emergency rescue%突发事件救援初期护理工作现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 李雅平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status quo of primary nursing at emergency rescue. Methods The literature review over domestic and international initial emergency rescue was done to analyze the status quo of initial nursing, find out the issues at initial rescue and come up with coping strategy. Results The nurses in the initial emergency rescue was in short, the rescue required better capability. The rescue in the emergency spot tended to be concentrative. Chinese rescue professionals were in short and they needed unified management and a standardized training. Conclusions The strategy to rational distribution of medical rescuer, standardize ihe rescue system and promote the process of global medical rescue integration, is significant for improving the rescue ability of nursing staff.%目的 了解突发事件救援初期护理工作的现状.方法 查阅文献对国内外突发事件救援初期护理工作现状进行分析和总结,以了解中国救援工作存在问题并提出展望.结果 现场救援护理操作呈应急操作的集中趋势,突发事件救援初期中国护理人员配备不足,中国救援专业队伍较少,缺乏统一管理和规范化培训.结论 合理配置医学救援人员,使救援体系更加制度化、程序化、规范化,加快与全球医学救援”一体化”的进程,对提高中国护理人员救援能力具有积极意义.

  13. The Current Status of Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Russell

    A study of the current status of Japanese Americans is divided into three sections. Following a brief introduction, a background section provides an overview of Japanese American history, population size and socioeconomic measures, and selected social characteristics. A second section looks in greater depth at socioeconomic status as reported in…

  14. Current status of cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To prove clinical benefits of cancer vaccine is currently difficult, except for one phase III trial has documented improved overall survival with the vaccine, Sipuleucel‑T, although induction of anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccine is theoretically promising and would be straightforward. In contrast, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4 mAb and anti-PD‑1 mAb has demonstrated clear evidence of objective responses including improved overall survival and tumor shrinkage, driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy in multi­ple cancer types. In addition, there is a promising novel cancer immunotherapy, CAR therapy—a personalized treatment that involves genetically modifying a patient’s T- cells to make them target tumor cells. We are now facing new era of cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    ... status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME...

  16. The Current Status of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

  17. Preparation of nano-compounded polyolefin materials through in situ polymerization technique: status quo and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN YaWei; DONG JinYong

    2009-01-01

    Nano-compounding of polyolefins,an economical yet very effective route to high-performance poly-olefin materials,has considerable attention in recent years.Unlike most of the other polymers,polyolefins are chemically inert,which dictates that nano-compounding of polyolefins has to be con-ducted via in situ polymerization.In this review,a technological progress of the nano-compounding of polyolefins via in situ polymerization technique was summarized thoroughly,with emphasis laid on the current research status of polyolefin/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites.A clear perspective for future researches on this specific family of materials was envisaged.

  18. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  19. Focus Issue: Organic light-emitting diodes-status quo and current developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Emil J W; Koch, Norbert

    2011-11-01

    The guest editors introduce the Optics Express Energy Express supplement Focus Issue, "Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," which includes six invited articles addressing the challenges of light outcoupling and light management in OLEDs.

  20. Study on Kindergarten Safety Education Status quo and Solutions%幼儿园安全教育现状及对策探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海燕

    2012-01-01

    Kindergarten to do security work well,not only to improve the management measures and related hardware facilities,should also strengthen safety education,safety education work effectively enable children to self-protection ability and safety awareness is enhanced.This paper analyzes the nursery safety education status and countermeasures improved of kindergarten security education status quo,including the form of safety education activities to diversify,consolidation and development of young children to protect their own ability.%幼儿园要做好安全工作,则不仅要完善管理措施以及相关硬件设施,还应强化安全教育,安全教育工作的有效进行能够使幼儿自我防范能力与安全意识得到增强。本文分析了幼儿园安全教育现状以及改进幼儿园安全教育现状的对策,包括使安全教育活动的形式变得多样化,对幼儿保护自身的能力进行巩固以及发展等。

  1. Comments on"applied linguistics--the category and the status quo"%《应用语言学--范畴与现状》述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程实

    2013-01-01

    With the development of information technology, social progress, application of some sub-disciplines of linguistics has received more and more attention. It is necessary to carry out systematic comb of the past achievements."Applied linguistics--the category and the status quo"is to take applied linguistics history as the longitudinal axis, the present status of branches as the abscissa axis to comb the reference book of applied linguistics and development of branches. Has strong scientific and practical application etc..%随着信息技术的发展,社会的进步,对语言学的一些分支学科的应用越来越受到学者的重视。因此有必要对以往的研究成果进行系统的梳理。《应用语言学--范畴与现状》就是以应用语言学历史发展为纵轴,以学科分支现状为横轴来梳理应用语言学及分支学科发展的一本类工具书。具有较强的科学性和应用实践性等特点。

  2. Adventure Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene

    1995-01-01

    Overviews articles in this issue that focus on the current status of adventure therapy and describe efforts aimed at defining a framework for conceptualizing adventure therapy. Notes changes in the field, including introduction of state laws requiring licensure of programs, the drive for program accreditation, and growing training opportunities in…

  3. 基层门诊部医疗设备使用管理的现状及改进措施%Status quo of use and management of medical devices in low-class clinics and its countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓武

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the author analyzed the status quo of use and management of medical devices in low-class clinics and put forward some countermeasures.%分析门诊部医疗设备的使用现状及管理存在的问题,结合实际情况和发展要求,提出改进措施,提高医院医疗设备的管理工作.

  4. Assets Management Status Quo and Relevant Problems of Rural Grid%农电资产管理现状及问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江玲

    2012-01-01

    资本集中运作是国家电网公司财务集约化的重要内容。以湖南为例分析了农电资产管理的现状及存在的问题,如管理体系有待健全、资产信息更新不及时、资产经费收支不配比等,并针对性地提出优化资产结构、提高资本运营效率、促进财务集约化发展等建议,以利于维护农网建设的成果。%Concentrated capital operation is an important part of intensive finance of the State Grid Corporation of China. Taking Hunan Province as an example, this paper analyzes the assets management status quo and existing problems, such as the management system that is imperfect, the assets information that is not updated in time and the assets expenditure that are not balanced, and proposes some suggestions in optimizing the assets strucan'e, improving the capital operation efficiency and promoting intensive finances.

  5. 中国茶叶出口贸易现状及对策研究%Status quo and Countermeasures of Tea Export Trade of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂燕玲

    2015-01-01

    分析了中国茶叶出口的总体状况,包括出口规模、出口地区和国家、产品结构等,探讨了影响茶叶出口的综合原因,深入分析了未来我国茶叶国际贸易发展趋势。针对世界政治与经济形势发生深刻转变的形势,以及“一带一路”国家战略的实施,提出了中国茶叶国际贸易新的思路与对策。%The research analyzed status quo of Chinese tea export, including export scale, exporting countries and regions, product structure, explored factors affecting tea export, and detailed international trade development of Chinese teas. On basis of global politics and economic situations, the research proposed new thoughts and countermeasures of global trades of Chinese teas with application of the Belt and Road lnitiative strategy.

  6. Research on Status Quo of Middle school P.E.Teachers'Job Burnout%中学体育教师职业倦怠现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes status quo of middle school P.E.teachers’job burnout with methods of literature and interview.It mainly concludes that the phenomenon of P.E.teachers’job burnout is mainly caused by aspects of society,school,profession and individual reasons.The paper suggests reducing middle school P.E. teachers’job burnout by adopting following measures:improving social awareness;improving teachers'treatment;changing management mode;creating a harmonious environment;perfecting assessment mechanism;providing training opportunities;setting up correct targets and enhancing comprehensive quality.%采用文献资料法、访谈法等对中学体育教师职业倦怠现状进行分析。主要结论:体育教师职业倦怠现象的产生来自于社会、学校、职业和个人等方面。建议:可以通过提高社会认识,改善教师待遇、转变管理模式,创造和谐环境、完善评价机制,提供培训机会、树立正确目标,提高综合素质等方法减少中学体育教师倦怠情绪的产生。

  7. 中学体育教师职业倦怠现状研究%Research on Status Quo of Middle School P.E.Teachers'Job Burnout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes status quo of middle school P.E.teachers’job burnout with methods of literature and interview.It mainly concludes that the phenomenon of P.E.teachers’job burnout is mainly caused by aspects of society,school,profession and individual reasons.The paper suggests reducing middle school P.E. teachers’job burnout by adopting following measures:improving social awareness;improving teachers'treatment;changing management mode;creating a harmonious environment;perfecting assessment mechanism;providing training opportunities;setting up correct targets and enhancing comprehensive quality.%采用文献资料法、访谈法等对中学体育教师职业倦怠现状进行分析。主要结论:体育教师职业倦怠现象的产生来自于社会、学校、职业和个人等方面。建议:可以通过提高社会认识,改善教师待遇、转变管理模式,创造和谐环境、完善评价机制,提供培训机会、树立正确目标,提高综合素质等方法减少中学体育教师倦怠情绪的产生。

  8. El acuerdo de comercio preferencial entre la Unión Europea, Colombia y Perú. Contenido y cambios al Status quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Wolfram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El acuerdo de comercio preferencial negociado y suscrito entre la Unión Europea, Colombia y Perú en mayo de 2010 aspira a profundizar y vivificar las relaciones comerciales entre las partes sin causar conflictos con convenciones internacionales multilaterales como el GATT, el GATS, el ADPIC, y la Convención sobre la Biodiversidad. . Un análisis de los cambios jurídicos impulsados por el acuerdo muestra pocas modificaciones o cambios sustanciales del status quo. Para los comerciantes andinos, el Acuerdo brinda pocas oportunidades comerciales nuevas, sino que pone las preferencias comerciales existentes sobre una base más estable. En cuanto al acceso de productos europeos a los mercados de Colombia y Perú, los aranceles se reducirán de forma bastante gradual, protegiendo a varios sectores considerados “sensibles”. Aunque el Acuerdo mejore las condiciones para el intercambio de servicios y la participación en licitaciones públicas, puede ser difícil superar preferencias tradicionales a favor de prestadores domésticos. El Acuerdo contempla una intensiva cooperación administrativa con el fin de reducir barreras al comercio e instigar a los operadores económicos a aprovechar las opciones comerciales que se les ofrecen. El potencial de aprendizaje que ello implica quizá la ventaja más relevante del Acuerdo.

  9. Status Quo of Sailing Sport Tourism in Qingdao%青岛市帆船体育旅游的现状及改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of stating the general conditions of market supply,tourist market and marketing communication of the sailing sport tourism in Qingdao,the paper discusses the status quo of the three major sailing sport tours in Qingdao,i.e.,the active sailing tour,the sailing event tour and the nostalgic tour.It analyzes the existing problems of Qingdao sailing sport tourism at the present stage and puts forward some suggestions for improvement.%在阐述了青岛帆船体育旅游市场供给、客源市场、市场传播的总体状况的基础上,探讨了青岛市主动帆船旅游、帆船赛事旅游、怀旧帆船旅游3种主要类别帆船体育旅游的现状,同时针对现阶段青岛市帆船体育旅游业存在的问题进行分析,并提出了相应的改进措施。

  10. 中国城市养老护理模式现状%The status quo of old-age care mode in cities of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 张先庚; 王红艳; 彭德忠(综述)

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarized the status quo of old-age care mode in cities of China, which includes home-based old-age care, medical integration old-age care, combined traditional Chinese and western medicine endow-ment and institution endowment. The advantages and disadvantages of these modes were summed up and the importance of the development of old-age care mode was highlighted, in order to provide references for the development of the old-age care in China.%对中国城市养老护理模式,即居家养老、医养融合养老、中西医结合养老和机构养老护理模式的发展现状进行了综述,总结了各自的优势与不足,突出了养老护理模式发展的重要性,旨在为中国的养老事业发展提供借鉴与参考。

  11. 烧伤的分子机制研究现状与进展%The Status Quo and Progress of Study on Burn Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾鸿孟; 王宇; 唐乾利

    2016-01-01

    By reviewing the relevant literature and clinical experience, this paper summarizes the status quo and progress of study on the molecular mechanism of burns from the perspectives of high metabolic reaction, shock, inflamma-tion, organ injury and wound healing, etc. , which can provide new targets and insights for the development of new drugs and theoretical guidance and study directions for the clinical treatment and future research of burns.%笔者通过总结临床经验及查阅相关文献,从高代谢反应、休克、炎症反应、器官损伤和创面愈合等方面概述了烧伤分子机制的研究现状与进展,为新药的研制提供了新的靶点与思路,为烧伤的临床治疗和后续研究提供了理论指导和研究方向。

  12. 入侵检测系统研究现状及发展趋势%The Status Quo and Trend of Intrusion Detection System Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华平; 陈海涛; 黄辰林; 唐勇

    2001-01-01

    入侵检测系统(IDS)可以对系统或 网络资源进行实时检测,及时发现闯入系统或网络的入侵者,也可预防合法用户对资源的误 操作;它是PDR(Protection Detection Response)安全模型的一个重要组成 部分。本文主要从攻击检测方法、国内外研究状况等方面总结了入侵检测技术的研究现状, 并结合自己的研究成果,提出了发展趋势及主要研究方向。%An intrusion detection system (IDS) can detect system or network sources in a real-time way,find the intruder in time,and prevent legal users' misoperation.It is the main part of the Pro tec tion Detection Response(PDR) security model.In this paper,the status quo of the intrusion detection technology is summarized first.Then,based on our research,its development trend and directions are put foward.

  13. Research status quo of relationship between psychological capital and interpersonal factors%心理资本与人际因素关系的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付佳丽; 娄凤兰

    2015-01-01

    The psychological capital is the important content of positive psychology.It summarized the presen-ting,concept,structure,antecedent variables and outcome variables of psychological capital.And it introduced the research status quo of the relationship between psychological capital and interpersonal factors on that basis. These interpersonal factors included the attachment,family function,relationship between teachers and students.Its relationship with the psychological capital was showed mainly through the fractal dimension of psychological capital.%心理资本是积极心理学的重要内容,对心理资本的提出、概念、结构、前因变量、结果变量进行综述,并在此基础上,介绍了心理资本与人际因素关系的研究现状,这些人际因素包括依恋、家庭功能、师生关系,其与心理资本的关系则主要是通过心理资本的分维度显示。

  14. 高校艺术公选课现状透视下的课程创新建构思路%Ideas on Innovative Curriculum Construction in the Perspective of the Status Quo of Art Electives at Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓维明

    2014-01-01

    公共艺术课程是我国高等教育课程体系的重要组成部分,以当下高校公共艺术教育课程设置、教学和管理的现状为背景,结合公选课选"与学"的问题,探讨课程体系建构思路,研究学科建设和地方资源在艺术课程开发利用等方面的对策。%Public art course is an important part of the curriculum system of higher-learning institutions in China . This paper analyzes the current public art curriculum on the basis of the status quo of management problems at universities , probes the thought of constructing curriculum system in consideration of the problems related to selecting " and learning " the courses and studies countermeasures to incorporate discipline construction and local resources in the development and implementation of art courses .

  15. 基于PubMed数据库国外慢性病管理研究的现状分析%Analysis of the status quo of foreign chronic disease management research based on PubMed database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 崔文香

    2014-01-01

    This article selects chronic disease management research of academic literatures published in the national library in PubMed database from January 2000 to December 2013.Literature Bicomb co-occurrence analysis system was used for data extraction,analysis on the current international research achievements of chronic disease management,development situation and existing problems,reveal the research trend of chronic disease management and the status quo,which provided reference for the similar domestic research.%本文选取美国国立图书馆PubMed数据库中2000年1月至2013年12月公开发表的慢性病管理研究的学术文献,运用文献共现分析系统Bicomb进行数据提取,分析目前国际上慢性病管理的研究成果、发展状况及现存问题,揭示慢性病管理的研究趋势和现状,旨在为国内的同类研究提供参考.

  16. Development of databases for three-dimensional status-quo scenes in massive cities%特大型城市三维现状场景数据库构建及三维审批应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张唯; 郭容寰; 冯琰; 顾星晔

    2015-01-01

    Increased management of large urban centers has created a higher demand for city planning. Using Shanghai as an example, this paper studies database construction for three-dimensional (3D) status quo scenes in massive cities. The contents and production methods for 3D status quo scenes are described, and 3D scene classiifcation standards are systematicaly proposed. In order to manage and apply 3D scene data, database technology was used to incorporate 3D status quo scenes into a basic geographic database. Taking Shanghai 3D planning approval requirements into account, the application can produce design conditions, program advice and trials, and 3D acceptance surveys. Further, the 3D acceptance survey method can update the 3D status quo scene dynamicaly. Research in this paper has been used in a Shanghai 3D planning trial that began on March 1, 2013, and thus can provide useful insight into building 3D status quo scenes in other large cities.%城市精细化管理对城市规划审批工作提出了更高要求,本文以上海为例研究特大型城市三维现状场景数据库构建方法和要素内容,根据特大型城市区域发展不均衡和管理需求多样化特点,提出三维现状场景精细分级标准,并将三维现状场景数据纳入基础地理数据库,实现对三维场景的生产、更新和应用的高效管理。结合上海三维审批管理应用需求,从设计条件、方案咨询、方案审理和三维竣工等四个环节明确了三维现状场景的具体应用方法,其中三维竣工成果实现了城市三维现状场景的动态更新。研究成果可为大型城市三维现状场景构建和三维审批工作的开展,以及其他相关领域的应用提供有益借鉴。

  17. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  18. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamihara, Yoichi, E-mail: kamihara_yoichi@appi.keio.ac.jp [Keio University, Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO{sub 1 - x}F{sub x}. The very large H{sub c2} of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  19. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Yoichi

    2012-03-01

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO1 - xFx. The very large H c2 of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  20. Brucellosis in Mexico: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Martínez, J Eduardo; Mejía-Terán, Claudia

    2002-12-20

    Traditionally, Mexico has been recognized as endemic with brucellosis. The improvements in diagnostics techniques and vaccination strategies and the enforcement of a national eradication policy have contributed significantly to making progress in the control of brucellosis. The current status of brucellosis and its risk factors, in the different production species as well as in human population is reviewed. Also the trends in control and eventual eradication strategies and perspectives for the near future of Mexico are presented.

  1. Lung xenotransplantation: recent progress and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many preclinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation--including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ-and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury.

  2. Current status of domino heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudo, Yasuhiro; Ma, Michael; Boyd, Jack H; Woo, Yiping Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Domino heart transplant, wherein the explanted heart from the recipient of an en-bloc heart-lung is utilized for a second recipient, represents a unique surgical strategy for patients with end-stage heart failure. With a better understanding of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this procedure, its selective use in the current era can improve and maximize organ allocation in the United States. In this report, we reviewed the current status of domino heart transplantation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Estudo comparativo do viés do Status Quo e perfil de risco em tomadas de decisões por estudantes de cursos de pós-graduação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Saurin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da gestão financeira de uma organização, existem padrões comportamentais que podem enviesar o processo de tomada de decisões, fazendo com que o gestor financeiro não consiga atingir seu objetivo de maximização de valor em atividades ligadas às decisões financeiras, principalmente àquelas relacionadas a investimentos. Um destes vieses é denominado de status quo. De acordo com Samuelson e Zeckhauser (1988, este viés indica que os indivíduos tendem a manter o estado atual de seu portfólio e têm dificuldades em mudar de posição patrimonial. Esta pesquisa procura verificar se existe relação entre o viés do status quo, o perfil de risco e habilidade quantitativa, em estudantes de pós-graduação em economia, contabilidade e gestão. Para esta finalidade, realizou-se uma pesquisa com 330 estudantes de pós-graduação da Universidade do Porto (Portugal e da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brasil. Para o cálculo e apresentação dos indicadores que apontam para a presença do status quo a metodologia utilizada foi baseada em Samuelson e Zeckhauser (1988. Além disso, foram realizadas análises de regressão para buscar uma relação entre o perfil de risco dos participantes e o status quo, incluindo variáveis de controle. Os resultados mostraram que os respondentes propensos ao risco parecem não terem sido afetados pelo viés do status quo em suas decisões, diferentemente dos demais. Quanto aos participantes que estudaram finanças comportamentais previamente nos cursos de licenciatura e/ou graduação (uma proxy para o conhecimento prévio do viés estudado, verificou-se, em média, um aumento de respostas nas opções alternativas ao status quo. No entanto, a presença do viés ainda foi predominante no total de respostas obtidas. Isto mostra que os respondentes que haviam estudado finanças comportamentais optaram mais por opções alternativas do que os outros, porém, mesmo estes indiv

  4. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, Xingjiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zhang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2016-01-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravit...

  5. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki M. Velonas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

  6. Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, C; Pearson, D; Pikalo, O; Schlafer, J; Yeh, H; Elliott, Chip; Colvin, Alexander; Pearson, David; Pikalo, Oleksiy; Schlafer, John; Yeh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the current status of the DARPA Quantum Network, which became fully operational in BBN's laboratory in October 2003, and has been continuously running in 6 nodes operating through telecommunications fiber between Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN since June 2004. The DARPA Quantum Network is the world's first quantum cryptography network, and perhaps also the first QKD systems providing continuous operation across a metropolitan area. Four more nodes are now being added to bring the total to 10 QKD nodes. This network supports a variety of QKD technologies, including phase-modulated lasers through fiber, entanglement through fiber, and freespace QKD. We provide a basic introduction and rational for this network, discuss the February 2005 status of the various QKD hardware suites and software systems in the network, and describe our operational experience with the DARPA Quantum Network to date. We conclude with a discussion of our ongoing work.

  7. Water resources in Central Asia - status quo and future conflicts in transboundary river catchments - the example of the Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Michael; Opp, Christian; Kulmatov, Rashid; Normatov, Inom; Stulina, Galina; Shermatov, Nurmakhmad

    2014-05-01

    Water is the most valuable resource in Central Asia and due to its uneven distribution and usage among the countries of the region it is also the main source of tension between upstream and downstream water users. Due to the rapidly shrinking glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alai mountains, the available water resources will, by 2030, be 30% lower than today while the water demand of the growing economies will increase by 30%. This will further aggravate the pressure on the water resources and increase the water deficit caused by an unsustainable water use and political agendas. These challenges can only be overcome by an integrated water resource management for the important transboundary river catchments. The basis for such an IWRM approach however needs to be a solid data base about the status quo of the water resources. To that end the research presented here provides a detailed overview of the transboundary Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan), the lifeline for more than 6 mln people. The Zarafshan River is well suited for this as it is not only one of the most important rivers in Central Asia but because the public availability of hydrological and ecological data is very limited, Furthermore the catchment is characterized by the same imbalances in the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus as most river systems in that region, which makes the Zarafshan a perfect model river for Central Asia as a whole. The findings presented here are based on field measurements, existing data from the national hydrometeorological services and an extensive literature analysis and cover the status quo of the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Zarafshan as well as the most important water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, arsenic, chromate, copper, zinc, fluoride, petroleum products, phenols and the aquatic invertebrate fauna). The hydrology of the Zarafshan is characterized by a high natural discharge dynamic in the mountainous upper parts of

  8. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  9. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jeremiah P Ostriker; Tarun Souradeep

    2004-10-01

    Observational cosmology has indeed made very rapid progress in recent years. The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spearheaded by measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the past decade. Observations of the large scale structure in the distribution of galaxies, high red-shift supernova, have provided the required complementary information. We review the current status of cosmological parameter estimates from joint analysis of CMB anisotropy and large scale structure (LSS) data. We also sound a note of caution on overstating the successes achieved thus far.

  10. The status quo of job performance and its related factors among clinical nurses%护士工作绩效现状及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣欣; WipadaKunaviktiku; PetsuneeThungjaroenkul; 郑爽; 王合

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the status quo of job performance and its related factors among clinical nurses. Method: 375 nurses from a general hospital completed a questionnaire which included Job Performance Measure (JPM) and the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS). Result: Job performance perceived by nurses in the general hospital was at moderate level while job stress was at high level. There was a significant negative correlation between job performance and job stress among nurses. Lack of support was considered as a related factor via multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: The level of job stress among clinical nurses was relatively high. It could relate to their job performance. The results of this study suggest the management team to improve job performance and give more support to decrease job stress so that nurses could work more effectively.%目的:探讨护士工作绩效的现状及其影响因素.方法:采用护理工作绩效量表(JPM)和工作压力量表(NSS),对某三级甲等综合医院的375位护士进行调查.结果:护士的工作绩效处于中等水平,工作压力处于高水平,工作绩效和工作压力呈负相关,经多元回归分析,进入回归方程的变量为缺乏支持.结论:护士承受的工作压力较高,过高的工作压力对工作绩效产生负面影响.减轻护士的工作压力,给予其更多的支持和帮助,可以提高护士的工作绩效,促进其更有效地工作.

  11. Status quo of patient safety culture in foreign healthcare organizations%国外医疗机构患者安全文化现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓晓; 崔颖; 席修明

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To learn the status quo of patient safety culture in foreign healthcare organizations and to provide references for assessment and improvement of patient safety culture in China. Methods: Literature on patient safety culture assessment from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed and analyzed. Results: There were differences among dimensional positive response rate of patient safety culture which could be divided into areas of strength and areas with potential for improvement. There were also differences among patients on safety culture. But the statistical significance of differences needed to be tested. Conclusions: There were differences among safety culture dimensions and participants. Corresponding measures can be taken according to differences can help patient safety culture sustainable development.%目的:了解国外医疗机构患者安全文化现状,为国内患者安全文化测评与改进提供借鉴。方法:检索2005年-2014年国外关于患者安全文化测评的文献,对研究结果进行统计分析。结果:患者安全文化各维度积极反应率不同,有优势区域与待改进区域之分;患者安全文化水平在调查对象间存在不同程度差异,差异统计学意义有待验证。结论:患者安全文化水平在不同维度及调查对象之间存在不同程度差异,针对差异采取针对性改进措施有助于患者安全文化水平的不断提升。

  12. 国内足球博彩业现状与发展前景之探讨%Explore the Domestic Football Gambling Status quo and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎智; 陈吉鄂

    2014-01-01

    Since the 90s of last century, the betting is increasingly profoundly changing the football industry as well as foot-ball itself. More and more economists agree that football betting is an economy. This article is in football gaming for the study, the main use of literature, the status quo of China's soccer lottery analyzed, trying to discover the shortcomings of soccer gam-bling and analyzes trends in the world of football gambling, from which to learn and absorb the experience of others, for the development of football gaming industry to provide reference and recommendations.%上个世纪90年代以来,博彩正越来越深刻地改变着足球产业以及足球运动本身。越来越多的经济学家认同足球博彩是一种经济。本文正是以足球博彩业为研究对象,主要采用文献资料法,对我国足球彩票的现状进行分析,力图发现我国足球博彩业的存在不足,并分析世界足球博彩业的发展趋势,从中借鉴和吸收别人的经验,为我国足球博彩业的发展,提供参考和建议。

  13. 同性恋成因及其现状:两例案例分析%The cause and status quo of homosexuality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈四维

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the status quo and loving affairs of homosexuality in China and to discuss the causes of homosexuality.Method:Deep interviews of the two cases were conducted.Results:The causes and the love affairs of the two cases were different,reflecting to some extent some phenomenon in homosexuality circle in China.Conclusion:Although the CCMD-3 and the diagnostic system in the United States today does not categorize homosexuality as abnormal psychology,homosexual people are still a special group.They are more likely to have psychological problems.As a vulnerable group,they deserve more care from the society.%目的:调查当下同性恋的现状,探讨同性恋的成因,同性恋的感情生活的现象.方法:采用个体访谈的方法,对两例案例进行深入访谈和分析.结果:两例案例的同性恋成因、感情生活各不相同,从侧面反映出当下同性恋圈子里的现象.结论:现今CCMD-3以及美国的诊断体系已经不把同性恋作为变态心理学的范畴.但由于同性恋所处的特殊的社会地位,比正常人更有可能产生心理问题.作为社会的弱势群体,我们应该给他们更多的关怀.

  14. Development Status Quo and Trend of IPv6 in the US Military%美军IPv6发展现状及趋势综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明珠; 吴勇; 黄朝辉

    2014-01-01

    IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6), the core of the next-generation internet technology, enjoys an absolute advantage as compared with IPv4 technology, and is the most important component of the GIG in the US military. This paper describes first the development history of IPv6 in the US military,then focu-ses on the status quo of IPv6 in terms of background purpose, policy planning, functional organization, standard specification and actual process,and then analyzes the major challenges faced by IPv6 in the de-velopment process. Finally, it gives forecasts and prospects for the development trend of IPv6 in the US military, in accordance with the development situation of global and US network information technology.%IPv6( Internet Protocol Version 6)是下一代互联网的核心支撑技术,具有IPv4技术无法相比的绝对优势,是美军全球信息栅格( GIG)网络的重要组成部分。文中首先介绍了美军IPv6的发展历程;然后重点阐述了美军发展IPv6的背景目的、政策计划、职能机构、标准规范及实际进展等现状;接着分析了美军发展IPv6中面临的主要问题;最后结合全球及美国信息网络技术的发展形势,对美军IPv6的发展趋势进行了预测和展望。

  15. 福安水牛研究利用的现状与展望%Status Quo and Prospect of Fu'an Buffalo Research and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞光

    2012-01-01

    Fu'an buffalo is one of the fine breeds of China's excellent buffaloes, and the only local fine breed in Fujian Province. This paper analyzed the status quo of the researches in the following aspects as variety resources investigation, working performance, meat performance, milk performance, blood physiological and biochemical, blood protein polymorphism, mitochondrial DNA D-loop genetic diversity analysis, DGAT gene polymorphism, molecular genetic diversity and put forward the idea that variety conservation and development and utilization should be conducted and Fu'an buffalo should be used firstly as milk provider and secondly as meat and labour provider instead of firstly labour provider and secondly milk and meat provider in the past.%福安水牛是我国优良的水牛品种之一,是福建省唯一的水牛地方良种.论文分析了福安水牛在品种资源调查、役用性能、肉用性能、乳用性能、血液生理生化、血液蛋白多态性、线粒体DNA D-loop区遗传多样性分析、DGAT基因多态性分析、分子遗传多样性研究等领域的研究现状,提出要开展品种资源保护和开发利用,认为福安水牛应该由以前“役用为主,乳肉为辅”向“乳用为主,肉役为辅”方向转变.

  16. 浙江省碳汇林业现状与前景分析%On Status Quo and Prospect of Forestry Carbon Sequestration in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙孟军; 王同新; 孙茂者

    2011-01-01

    Researches on forestry carbon sequestration play an special role in energy-saving and emission-reduction in the fight against climate change A precise estimation of forestry carbon and regional potential of forestry carbon sinks as well as an effective exploration of measures for CO2 reduction and carbon sinks have direct bearing to the success of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Project. Based on a series of forest development outlines and an analysis of fossil fuel consumption and carbon emission, this paper aims to have a comprehensive analysis of the status quo, potential and development trend of forestry carbon sequestration in Zhejiang Province. Meanwhile, suggestions will be made for forestry carbon sequestration development.%研究碳汇林业在节能减排、应对气候变化中具有特殊地位,对森林碳汇大小的估算以及对区域森林碳吸存潜力的正确评价,寻求CO2减排与增汇的对策技术直接关系到我国节能减排目标能否实现。以《浙江省森林功能价值评估报告》为基础,结合《“森林浙江”建设纲要》等发展规划,在分析化石能源消费与碳排放状况的基础上,对浙江省碳汇林业现状与固碳潜力及发展趋势进行综合分析与评价,并提出发展碳汇林业的建议。

  17. Social-Ecological Resilience and Sustainable Commons Management Paradigms in State Comprehensive Water Planning Legislation: Are We Adapting or Maintaining the Status Quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyckman, C.

    2016-12-01

    Water shortage has been increasing throughout the country, as record drought grips the western states and several southeastern states have sued adjoining states over shared water resources. State water planning can avert or lessen conflicts by balancing sectoral needs and legal priority within their own states. The state comprehensive water planning laws dictate the state water plan's process, coverage, and content, and the extent to which they codify the allocation status quo. The plans can contain the latest resource management paradigms that respond to climate change uncertainty; namely, sustainable commons management (SCM) and social-ecological resilience (SER). Building on the work of Pahl-Wostl (2009), Ostrom and Cox (2010), Agrawal (2003), and Walker and Salt (2012), who have advocated for and empirically researched the presence of sustainable SCM and SER processes in water management, I surveyed all 50 states to determine which states had comprehensive water planning legislation. Of those 26, I evaluated their legislative content using an augmented coercive versus cooperative analysis metric (May, 1993; Berke and French, 1994) that includes codifiable SCM and SER measures. I found that the majority of the states' legislation did not contain the SER and SCM measures; they also lack integral comprehensive water planning measures (i.e., conjoined surface and groundwater planning, instream flow protection, critical area planning, and water conservation practices) (Dyckman, forthcoming). There is a statistically significant and inverse relationship between the indices within the metric, affirming that the greater the legislation's coerciveness, the lower its adaptive capacity and its water planning comprehensiveness (Ostrom, 2010; Pendall, 2001). Planners in states with more SER and SCM measures in their state water planning statutes are more likely to have autonomy and ability to respond to localized water needs, with more comprehensive water planning tools.

  18. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Questioning the Status Quo: Can Stakeholder Participation Improve Implementation of Small-Scale Mining Laws in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Osei-Kojo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ghana’s small-scale mining sector faces complex challenges, including environmental degradation and pollution, loss of life and increased health risks, despite several years of implementation of small-scale mining laws. These challenges, generally, are known to have escalated because of illegal small-scale mining, locally known as “galamsey”. Despite the illegal status of this category of miners, this paper examines the extent to which stakeholder participation can improve implementation of mining regulations and also address the marginalization of these miners. This paper about stakeholder participation is timely because news reports in mid-2016 mentioned that the Government of Ghana, despite many years of disengagement, is now planning to engage with galamsey operators, in terms of registration, as part of measures to effectively regulate the activities of small-scale miners. Findings from fieldwork indicate that (1 chiefs are seldom consulted in the granting of mining licenses; (2 illegal miners do not participate in the implementation of small-scale mining laws; and (3 stakeholders, such as officers in district mining offices, feel distant from the implementation process. Against the backdrop of these findings, it remains useful to explore the extent to which effective stakeholder participation could help overcome the status quo—particularly its ramifications for both the implementation of ASM laws and the eradication of other underlying challenges the sector faces.

  20. Status quo of applications of new control theories for hydraulic control systems; Shinseigyo riron no yuatsu eno oyo no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-15

    This paper describes application of a new control theory to hydraulics. The modern control theory has become applied to hydraulics since about the 1940's, and optimal polarity arrangement by using the status feedback and adaptive control represented by MRAC have emerged. Thereafter, the robust control comes on stage as a fusion of the status space method and the frequency zone theory. For the application thereof, much discussions were given on adaptive control represented by MRAC in order to cover large variation in system parameters in hydraulic control. Since variable parameters are included, there are problems of identification of safety limit, and time delay. Fuzzy control allowing the mathematical model of the subject system to be unclear and neural net control are expanding their applications because of their easiness of handling. The robust control has also begun being applied partly, which is regarded useful for servos. Design freedom is high because target followability and stability are designed separately. However, reliable introduction of two-freedom degree control system such as H{sub {infinity}} control is indispensable. The paper also describes the single adaptive control (SAC) and the sliding mode control (SMC). (NEDO)

  1. Bio methane in the cogeneration market and heating market. Status quo, potentials and recommendations for an accelerated market penetration; Biomethan im KWK- und Waermemarkt. Status Quo, Potenziale und Handlungsempfehlungen fuer eine beschleunigte Marktdurchdringung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Michael; Rostek, Sandra (comps.)

    2010-07-15

    The current contribution of the German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the present sale situation of bio methane on the coupled and uncoupled heating market. The contribution clarifies, why the existing support measures do not stimulate the demand for bio methane in the necessary order of magnitude. Without adjustment of the legal framework neither the considerable sales potentials can be established, nor the targets for the development of the biogas feeding can be achieved approximately. The low demand on bio methane led to a planning stop on the producer side. Direct need for action is required.

  2. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  3. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  4. Environmental impact of concrete use in the Dutch construction industry. Status quo and assessment of improvement options; Milieu-impact van betongebruik in de Nederlandse bouw. Status quo en toetsing van verbeteropties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijleveld, M.; Bergsma, G.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2013-04-15

    At the end of 2012 the Dutch government concluded a 'Green Deal' to improve the sustainability of the concrete supply chain with the organisation MVO Netwerk Beton, made up of 21 companies and 6 trade associations involved in the chain. The aim is to achieve a 100% sustainable concrete chain in 2050, with initial tangible steps being taken in the short term. In the context of this Green Deal CE Delft was asked to analyse the environmental footprint of concrete use by the Dutch construction industry, including an analysis of a number of improvement options. In 2010 14 million m{sup 3} of concrete was used in Dutch construction and around 550 kt of reinforcement steel. From cradle to grave this concrete use had a climate impact of 3.5 Mt CO2 (1.7% of Dutch national emissions). The analysis also encompassed the carbon emissions of energy consumption during the use phase of homes and offices in 2010. Restricting ourselves to the energy used for space heating in homes built in 2010, under the current EPC standard (0.8) the climate impact of concrete use in homes is estimated to be approximately the same as that of heating a home for five years. Over a lifespan of 50 years, then, it takes roughly ten times as much energy to heat a home built in 2010 as it does to produce the reinforced concrete used to build it. The following improvement options are discussed: (1) use of concrete grade CEM III rather than CEM I; (2) various options to reduce the environmental footprint of cement production (biomass use, carbon capture and storage, etc.); (3) use of Concrete Core Activation in homes and offices to save on space heating energy consumption. While conducting the analysis a number of issues were noted that can lead to improvements in this analysis and in LCA assessments by other researchers: (a) There is scope for improving familiarity with and general availability of environmental data on various concrete and cement grades, specifically for the Dutch situation. For

  5. Environmental impact of concrete use in the Dutch construction industry. Status quo and assessment of improvement options; Milieu-impact van betongebruik in de Nederlandse bouw. Status quo en toetsing van verbeteropties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijleveld, M.; Bergsma, G.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2013-04-15

    At the end of 2012 the Dutch government concluded a 'Green Deal' to improve the sustainability of the concrete supply chain with the organisation MVO Netwerk Beton, made up of 21 companies and 6 trade associations involved in the chain. The aim is to achieve a 100% sustainable concrete chain in 2050, with initial tangible steps being taken in the short term. In the context of this Green Deal CE Delft was asked to analyse the environmental footprint of concrete use by the Dutch construction industry, including an analysis of a number of improvement options. In 2010 14 million m{sup 3} of concrete was used in Dutch construction and around 550 kt of reinforcement steel. From cradle to grave this concrete use had a climate impact of 3.5 Mt CO2 (1.7% of Dutch national emissions). The analysis also encompassed the carbon emissions of energy consumption during the use phase of homes and offices in 2010. Restricting ourselves to the energy used for space heating in homes built in 2010, under the current EPC standard (0.8) the climate impact of concrete use in homes is estimated to be approximately the same as that of heating a home for five years. Over a lifespan of 50 years, then, it takes roughly ten times as much energy to heat a home built in 2010 as it does to produce the reinforced concrete used to build it. The following improvement options are discussed: (1) use of concrete grade CEM III rather than CEM I; (2) various options to reduce the environmental footprint of cement production (biomass use, carbon capture and storage, etc.); (3) use of Concrete Core Activation in homes and offices to save on space heating energy consumption. While conducting the analysis a number of issues were noted that can lead to improvements in this analysis and in LCA assessments by other researchers: (a) There is scope for improving familiarity with and general availability of environmental data on various concrete and cement grades, specifically for the Dutch situation. For

  6. 肠造口病人生活质量影响因素研究现况%Research status quo of influencing factors of qual ity of l ife of patients with colostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 陈湘玉

    2014-01-01

    It summarized the definition and status quo of quality of life of patients with colostomy.It expounded the influence of demographic,physi-cal,psychological,social factors and self care ability on the quality of life of patients with colostomy.%简述了生活质量定义及肠造口病人的现状,综述了人口学因素、生理因素、心理因素、社会因素及自护能力对肠造口病人生活质量的影响。

  7. 长江流域水电工程运行期管理体制的现状%Management System Status Quo during Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering Operation Period in Yangtze River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金影

    2011-01-01

    目前,长江水利电力的发展正处在我国水利电力体制改革和水利电力事业高速前进的机遇期,本文论述了长江流域水电工程1运行期管理体制的现状.%At present, the development of Yangtze river water power is encountering the period of high-speed advance of water conservancy and power system reform, the paper discusses the operation status quo of Yangtze river basin hydropower project management system.

  8. 中国体育旅游博览会的发展历程、现状与展望%History,Status Quo and Outlook of China Sport Tourism Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆雷

    2011-01-01

    By the methods of literature study and logical analysis,the article summarizes the founding background,development history and status quo of China Sport Tourism Expo.It also depicts the development trend of China Sport Tourism Expo.%主要采用文献资料、逻辑分析等研究方法,总结回顾中国体育旅游博览会的诞生背景、发展历程与现状,并对我国体育旅游博览会的未来发展趋势进行了展望。

  9. Status quo and development countermeasures of agricultural machinery in Chengxiang Town of Anxi County%安溪县城厢镇农机拥有现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹永乐; 李剑峰

    2015-01-01

    Status quo of agricultural machinery in Chengxiang Town,Anxi County was investigated,existing problems and causes for structure of agricultural machinery was analyzed,and the countermeasures to promote the popularization and appli-cation of agricultural machinery were put forward.%调查安溪县城厢镇的农机拥有现状,分析农机存量结构中存在的问题及产生的原因,并提出促进农机推广应用的对策。

  10. 国内外智能家电标准化现状综述%Summarization of Status Quo of Standards About Intelligent Household Electrical Appliance at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文秀

    2015-01-01

    本文对国内外包括美国、澳大利亚、欧盟、国际电工委员会以及我国的智能家电定义以及标准化现状进行了综述,并对典型的智能家电标准进行了介绍.%This paper introduces the international electrotechnical commission, including America, Australia, Euro-pean Union, the definition of intelligent household electrical appliance in our country, and the status quo of relevant standards. At last, it introduces the typical standards for intelligent household electrical appliance.

  11. Study on the status quo of psychological health education of nursing professional undergraduate students%护理专业大学生心理健康教育现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晗; 黄卫东

    2011-01-01

    It analyzed the status quo and existing problems of psychological health education of nursing professional undergraduate students both at home and in abroad.And it prospected the psychological health education for nursing professional undergraduate students in the future.%对国内外护理专业大学生心理健康教育现状及存在的问题进行剖析,进而对护理专业大学生心理健康教育作一展望.

  12. 老年抑郁症病人认知功能障碍研究现状及护理干预进展%Research status quo of cognitive dysfunction of elderly depression patients and its nursing intervention progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕; 曾慧

    2012-01-01

    介绍了国内外老年抑郁症病人认知功能的研究现状,总结了关于老年人抑郁症认知功能评估的常用工具,并提出了相应对策以促进病人心理社会功能康复.%It introduced the research status quo of cognitive function in senile depression people at home and in abroad. It summarized common measurement tools for the cognitive function of older depression patients. And it put forward some corresponding countermeasures to promote recovery of their psychosocial function.

  13. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  14. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  15. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  16. Current Status of the KSTAR Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. S. Bak; K. Kim; C. H. Choi; Y. K. Oh; B. C. Kim; N. I. Her; H. L. Yang; G. S. Lee; the KSTAR Team

    2004-01-01

    As there is substantial progress in the KSTAR tokamak engineering, all the major structures and sub-systems are under fabrication and in procurement phase. The vacuum vessel,port, cryostat cylinder, lid, and bellows are being rigorously fabricated in the factory. The lower part of the KSTAR such as cryostat base and gravity support has been almost finished in its fabrication. There are also great progresses and significant results in manufacturing of the superconducting magnet, including four Toroidal Field (TF) coils, lower and upper PF7 coils which are the largest Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The TF00 coil, which has been made for test and back-up of the TF magnet system, was successfully tested in the cool-down and current charging. As the fabrications and procurements of major structures have been actively proceeded, assembly works were also launched from Aug. 2003. More detailed description on these status, results, and plans will be described in this paper.

  17. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  18. 小学高年级学业质量评价现状、问题及原因研究%On the Status Quo,Problems and Causes of Academic Quality Evaluation of Senior Grades of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓彬

    2015-01-01

    With the further development of the comprehensive reform of education in our country,aca-demic quality and the all-around development has been the core of comprehensive evaluation of education quality.Academic quality evaluation is an important part of education quality evaluation,which is both a familiar field for educational staff and a difficult problem in the comprehensive evaluation reform of educa-tion quality.Based on the investigation and interview of the status quo of academic quality evaluation of high grade students in primary schools,researchers clarify the current situation of academic quality evalua-tion of high grade students in primary schools,expose the problems and conduct attribution analysis.%近年来,随着我国教育综合改革的深入发展,重视学业质量,强调学生的全面发展已成为教育质量综合评价的核心。学业质量评价是教育质量评价的重要组成部分,它是教育工作者比较熟悉的领域,也是进行教育质量综合评价改革的难点所在。本研究在对小学高年级学生学业质量评价现状进行调查和访谈的基础上,梳理出目前小学高年级学业质量评价现状,揭示其存在的问题,并进行归因分析。

  19. 唐山城市旅游形象的现状调研与分析%Research and Analysis of the Status Quo of Tangshan City Tourism Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 邢峰

    2013-01-01

    The current urban tourism in China is highly competitive. Urban tourism image has become a key element of urban competitiveness. The implementation of urban tourism image strategy is the inevitable choice for the development of the tourism industry. In recent years, Tangshan tourism industry has a rapid development, but lags behind in the construction of urban tourism image. This thesis investigates and analyzes the status quo of the Tangshan city tourism image from the aspects of overall image of the city, the construction of tourism infrastructure, tourism resources and features, appearance and environmental image. It also puts forward some recommendations to strengthen the building of Tangshan city tourism image.%  当前我国城市旅游业的竞争非常激烈,城市旅游形象已经成为城市竞争力的关键要素,实施城市旅游形象战略是发展旅游业的必然选择。近年来唐山旅游产业迅速发展,但在城市旅游形象建设方面比较滞后。本文从城市总体形象、旅游基础设施建设、旅游资源与特色、市容环境形象等方面调查和分析了唐山城市旅游形象的现状,并提出了加强唐山城市旅游形象建设的建议。

  20. Publication of Business English Textbooks:Status Quo and a Comparative Analysis%当前商务英语教材的出版现状分析和比较综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴

    2015-01-01

    本文调查了目前市场上的商务英语教材概况.选取主流出版社的六本商务英语教材,对其立体化程度、编写原则、单元主题和内容、练习设计等方面进行比较和分析.通过上述调查和分析,笔者发现首先国外引进版教材有主题设计连续性和故事性强、输入类型丰富、输出练习设计层次性分明等优点;其次针对非商务英语专业的商务英语教材编写尚不完善.因此今后的商务英语教材编写须要综合考虑语言能力、商务知识应用、沟通策略三大教学目标,丰富输入材料的形式和内容.%This paper surveys the business English textbooks on the current market and depicts the status quo. Through the com-parisons and analysis it's discovered that imported textbooks do better in terms of continuity of the story, variety of input as well as the step-up activities. It's also discovered the business English textbooks oriented to non-English majors lag far behind. When compiling BE textbooks language skills, communicative strategies and business know-how are three pillars.

  1. Detection and analysis of nanoparticles in patients: A critical review of the status quo of clinical nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitounis, Dimitrios; Pourchez, Jérémie; Forest, Valérie; Boudard, Delphine; Cottier, Michèle; Klein, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    On the cusp of massive commercialization of nanotechnology-enhanced products and services, the physical and chemical analysis of nanoparticles in human specimens merits immediate attention from the research community as a prerequisite for a confident clinical interpretation of their occurrence in the human organism. In this review, we describe the caveats in current practices of extracting and isolating nanoparticles from clinical samples and show that they do not help truly define the clinical significance of detected exogenous nano-sized objects. Finally, we suggest a systematic way of tackling these demanding scientific tasks. More specifically, a precise and true qualitative evaluation of nanoparticles in human biological samples is still hindered by various technical reasons. Such a procedure is more refined when the nature of the pollutants is known, like in the case of nano-sized wear debris originating from biomedical prostheses. Nevertheless, nearly all available analytical methods provide unknown quantitative accuracy and qualitative precision due to the challenging physical and chemical nature of nanoparticles. Without trustworthy information to describe the nanoparticulate load of clinical samples, it is impossible to accurately assess its pathological impact on isolated cases or allow for relevant epidemiological surveys on large populations. Therefore, we suggest that the many and various specimens stored in hospitals be used for the refinement of methods of exhaustive quantitative and qualitative characterization of prominent nanoparticles in complex human milieu.

  2. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  3. Status Quo and Future Development of Photonics in EU%欧盟光子学技术的发展现状与研发趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勤

    2014-01-01

    欧盟是现代工业制造业的发源地,长期保持着工业技术的世界领先水平。光子学技术,作为欧盟优先确定的六大关键势能技术(KETs)之一,欧盟己制定具体的优惠政策和行动举措给予重点扶持,旨在提升欧盟先进制造业的世界竞争力,促进经济增长和扩大就业。欧盟光子学技术在可持续发展经济、医疗保健、知识型社会建设、公共安全和环境保护以及先进工业制造等领域发挥了重要作用。通过综合研究欧盟光子学技术及其产业的发展现状、研发创新面临的挑战和未来发展趋势,旨在为我国战略性新兴技术产业的可持续发展,提供有益的路径和经验。%The European Union (EU) is the cradle of the modern industrial manufacturing technologies, and maintains the leading position in the world. Based on the world trend on high technology development and comparable advantages of European countries, EU identiifed six key enabling technologies (KETs) to promote the sustainability of industrial development. As one of the key KETs, photonics has been taken as a priority and therefore fully supported by the EU through developing a series of favorable policies and measures, aiming at promoting EU’s leading role in advanced manufacturing industry in the world, enhancing its economic growth and creating more job opportunities. This article overviews the status quo, research and development, challenges and future trend of photonics industry in EU, so as to provide valuable experiences and clues for the development of emerging technology industries with strategic importance in China.

  4. 事业单位财政补助现状与改革的思考%Pondering on Public Institution Financial Subsidy Status Quo and Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青

    2015-01-01

    事业单位作为我国政府部门的组成部分,行使着为公众服务的重要使命,在社会服务和管理等方面都起着非常重要的作用。自改革开发以来,我国政府相继出台了一些政策刺激事业单位的改革并取得了较大成绩。即便如此,事业单位经费供给模式并未改变。事政不分、事企不分、资金利用效益低、工作效率差、本位主义严重与地区发展不平衡等问题依然存在。针对事业单位财政补助现状及存在的问题,提出相应的建议:进行事业单位人事制度改革,重新核定事业单位编制;多方筹措资金,保障分流职工权益;完善社会保障体系;优化事业单位的资源配置并建立预算与编制相适应的管理制度。%The public institution is a part of government sector in the country. It performs important mission of serve the public, plays very important role on aspects of social services and management. Since the reform and opening to the outside world, our government have induced a number of policies successively to stimulate the reform of public institutions and made great achievements. Even so, fund apply mode for public institutions have not been changed. Thus leading issues to confound institution with government, institution with enterprise, low efficiency of capital utilization, low work efficiency, serious departmentalism and imbalanced regional development are still existed. In allusion to public institution financial subsidy status quo, corresponding advises have been put forward:carrying out institution reform of personnel system, recheck and ratify organization;many-sided financing, ensuring diversion staff rights and inter⁃ests;improving social security system;optimizing public institution resources allocation, establishing managerial system corresponding to budget and organization.

  5. 聘用护士离职现状分析及对策%Status quo analysis and strategy of resignation of contracted nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 李加宁; 宋雁宾; 原艳丽; 亢君; 周体

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析聘用护士的离职现状,探讨建立健全聘用护士有效的管理机制.方法 收集2005-2007年我院离职聘用护士在院期间个人技术档案,对离职原因等进行统计学分析.结果 2005-2007年聘用护士离职共123人,离职率为10.2%~11.2%.其中62.6%聘用护士在25岁以前离职;主动离职情况所占比率呈下降趋势(P<0.05);86.2%的聘用护士在工作满5年前离职;离职原因依次为"跳槽"占40%,家庭原因占29%,不能胜任工作占13%;聘用年限与违约离职人数呈反比.结论 在新劳动法框架内制定适合氏院特点的护士聘用规范、减少或避免聘用护士的主动离职是必要的.%Objective To analyze the resignation status quo of contracted nurses, so as to establish an effective management mechanism and system for them. Methods 123 contracted nurses who resigned from our hospital from 2005 to 2007 were selected, collecting their individual skill files and undertaking the statistics analysis for the reasons. Results The rate of resignation was from 10.2% to 11.2%. Among the resigned contracted nurses, 62.5% of them resigned before 25 years old;The rate of initiative resignation decreased gradually the three late years (P<0.05);86.2% of the contracted nurses resigned in the first 5 years and 48% of them were nurses of 1~2 years;The flint three reasons of resignation were changing employment (40%), individual reasons to hometown (29%), and incompetence for occupation (13%);It was an inverse ratio between the working lifetime and the number of resigned contracted nurses who broke the promises.Conclusions It is necessary to formulate the employment specification that suits the hospital feature under the new laber contract law so as to deplete or to avoid the initiative resignation of the contracted nurses.

  6. 腹壁造口病人出院后造口管理模式的研究现状%Research status quo of post discharge stoma management model for patients with abdominal wall stoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周花仙; 瞿春华; 瞿海红

    2016-01-01

    It expounded the survival status quo of patients with abdominal wall stoma after discharge,intro-duced stoma management model from the four aspects of status quo stoma care,continuity of care,team cooper-ation and information application.It put forward that hospital community family integration management model could provide continuous,systematic and standardized nursing services for stoma patients and make them back to society as soon as possible.%阐述了腹壁造口病人出院后的生存现状,从造口护理现状、延续护理、团队合作、信息化应用4方面介绍了造口的管理模式,提出医院—社区—家庭一体化管理模式可为造口病人提供连续、系统、规范的护理服务,使造口病人尽早回归社会。

  7. 公安院校徒手格斗课程的现状与发展对策%Analysis of the Status Quo and Countermeasure of the Unarmed - Combat Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安学涛; 王鹏

    2011-01-01

    This paper, by applying approaches of document review, interview and survey, was meant to analyze the status quo and the countermeasures of the Unarmed -Combat Courses in police colleges. The researchers investigated the status quo of the Unarmed - Combat Courses in police colleges, considered its feasibility and coun- termeasure. By doing so, it connected policing closely and worked for policing better.%运用文献资料法、访谈法和问卷调查法,研究徒手格斗课程在公安类院校的发展现状与对策。通过调查徒手格斗课程在公安院校的开展现状,研究并探讨其在公安院校的可行性及发展对策,以期紧密结合公安实践,并更好地服务公安工作。

  8. Monument protection and energy conservation. Status quo five years after the EnEV 2007; Denkmalschutz und Energieeinsparung. Stand der Dinge fuenf Jahre nach der EnEV 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The meeting ''Monument conservation and energy conservation'' at 9th February 2012 in Wiesbaden (Federal Republic of Germany) focuses on the status quo five years after the revised version of the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) in the year 2007. Within this meeting the following lectures were held: (1) Monument conservation and energy conservation - Status Quo five years after the EnEV 2007 (Roswitha Kaiser); (2) Interior insulation with exterior hydrophic treatment - material appropriate and monument appropriate? (Anatol Worch, Michael Auras); (3) Hints regarding to planning, execution and quality assurance of a subsequent core insulation (Heinrich Wigger, Kerstin Stoelken, Britta Schreiber); (4) Comparison of different interior insulation materials (Rudolf Platte); (5) Urban structural energy study Winterthur (Reto Bieli); (6) Remodelling of an industrial plant protected as a historical monument - Historical window systems, exposed masonry and modern installations (Andr Kramm, Marcel Kremer); (7) Model project - Facade insulation with VIP panels at a Ernst-May building protected as a historical building in Frankfurt (Main) (Juergen Werner); (8) The former tax office Wiesbaden - Energetic strengthening (Klaus Daniels); (9) House of the Evangelical Church in Wiesbaden - Energetic strengthening of the facades (Dominik Loh); (10) Conservation versus comfort and energy demand - Potentials of optimization by means of a targeting controlled operation of plant-technical systems in a historical monument (Harald Garrecht); (11) Energy efficient construction - Compound insulation materials as a disposal problem for dismantling and renovation (Ulrich Langer, Thomas Egloffstein).

  9. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  10. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K.; Kumar, Parveen; Carr, William RJ; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Mini-gastric bypass (MGP) is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile) reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English. PMID:27251826

  11. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  12. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  13. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Mahawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mini-gastric bypass (MGP is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English.

  16. Codependency: Innovation or Status Quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jonathan J.; Minton, Henry L.

    Codependency is a relatively new idea, emerging in the late 1970s within the chemical dependency treatment industry. However, the belief that the wife of the alcoholic is, by definition, disturbed, has been influential in varying degrees since the 1930s. The perennial influence of the codependency hypothesis suggests that it is a social…

  17. Status quo of supply technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Shigeo

    1987-09-01

    Problems for gas supply function, activity of the Gas Association, and technological development mainly of the presented subjects are reported. According to the materials released by the Gas Associattion, demands for city gas by the 21st Century is expected to be rather high with 3.6% annual growth rate. It is premissed on an assumption that the superior quality of the city gas satisfying customer requirements would be further upgraded. The problems confronted by the supply function for this purpose are the pursuit for less cost, improvement in security, and stable gas supply. The Gas Association carried out research, investigation, preparation of standards, etc., and published instructive materials such as guide for main and branch piping, guide for supply piping, technical standards for gas related works, etc. It also has been endeavoring to popularize the use of polyethylene pipies, and studying the evaluation method for the renewal and repair of gas conduits and house regulator supply system, etc. The supply function has been working on the cutting dowm of costs, inprovement in security, and developing technologies such as underground probing radar, inteligent pipe locator, identifier for gas and water supply tubes, estimation of ground subsidence, inspection of inside of pipes by a television camera, etc. (1 tab)

  18. 蚌埠市人工流产现状及影响因素∗%The status quo and influencing factors of artificial abortion in Bengbu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑真; 李金芝; 王少娜; 王春梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the status quo and influencing factors of artificial abortion. Methods:self - made questionnaires were used to investigate 254 patients with artificial abortion. Results:132 cases(52%) of artificial abortion were repeated ones;the interval of 56 cases (42. 4%) of repeated abortion was less than a year. The causes of pregnancy were that 183cases (72%) did not use contraceptive measures and 71 ca-ses (28 %) failed in contraception. The difference between patients with different frequency of abortion in terms of age, marital status, reproduc-tive history, education level, the emergency contraception and artificial abortion was statistically significant( P <0. 05);people with advanced age and high school degree or below didn't know about emergency contraception, regarding artificial abortion as a contraceptive measure, which was the risk factors of repeated abortion( P <0. 05). Conclusion:Education on the knowledge about the contraceptive measures and abortion among women of childbearing age and adolescent women should be strengthened;unwanted pregnancy should be reduced;post-abortion services should be improved; the incidence of artificial abortion should be reduced to protect the female reproductive health.%目的::探讨蚌埠市人工流产发生现状及影响因素。方法:采用自编问卷对蚌埠市便利抽样的254名人工流产者进行问卷调查。结果:人工流产者中132例(52.0%)为重复流产,56例(42.4%)的重复流产者流产间隔时间≤1年;妊娠原因未使用避孕措施183例(72.0%),避孕失败71例(28.0%);流产次数不同的患者,在年龄、婚姻状况、生育史、文化程度、对紧急避孕及人工流产术的认知方面比较差异有统计学意义( P <0.05),高龄、高中及以下学历、不了解紧急避孕措施、认同人工流产可以作为一种避孕措施是重复流产的危险因素( P <0.05)。结论:应加强对育龄妇女、青春期女性避孕措施及人工

  19. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Frerrick, J.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.; Rebhan, H.; Mecklenburg, S.; Goryl, P.; Féménias, P.

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to Copernicus services. Products include ocean, ice and land surface altimetry, complemented by thermal and visible wavelength multi-spectral image data. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. In terms of ocean applications, the Sentinel-3 payload is designed to monitor open-ocean, coastal and inland waters using a suite of contemporaneous measurements. The spacecraft accommodates a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). In addition, two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) have been developed as part of the mission. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Together, the optical and topography instruments of Sentinel-3 will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Four Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with Sentinel-3A planned for launch in late 2015 and the Sentinel-3B satellite launch expected in 2017. Procurement of the C and D satellites is ongoing. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. This paper reports the current status of the Sentinel-3 Mission and presets some first results from the instrument payload.

  20. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core-shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier.

  1. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  2. Combined PET/MRI: from Status Quo to Status Go. Summary Report of the Fifth International Workshop on PET/MR Imaging; February 15-19, 2016; Tübingen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B; Barthel, H; Beer, A J; Botnar, R; Gillies, R; Goh, V; Gotthardt, M; Hicks, R J; Lanzenberger, R; la Fougere, C; Lentschig, M; Nekolla, S G; Niederdraenk, T; Nikolaou, K; Nuyts, J; Olego, D; Riklund, K Åhlström; Signore, A; Schäfers, M; Sossi, V; Suminski, M; Veit-Haibach, P; Umutlu, L; Wissmeyer, M; Beyer, T

    2016-10-01

    This article provides a collaborative perspective of the discussions and conclusions from the fifth international workshop of combined positron emission tomorgraphy (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from February 15 to 19, 2016. Specifically, we summarise the second part of the workshop made up of invited presentations from active researchers in the field of PET/MRI and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. This year, this included practical advice as to possible approaches to moving PET/MRI into clinical routine, the use of PET/MRI in brain receptor imaging, in assessing cardiovascular diseases, cancer, infection, and inflammatory diseases. To address perceived challenges still remaining to innovatively integrate PET and MRI system technologies, a dedicated round table session brought together key representatives from industry and academia who were engaged with either the conceptualisation or early adoption of hybrid PET/MRI systems. Discussions during the workshop highlighted that emerging unique applications of PET/MRI such as the ability to provide multi-parametric quantitative and visual information which will enable not only overall disease detection but also disease characterisation would eventually be regarded as compelling arguments for the adoption of PET/MR. However, as indicated by previous workshops, evidence in favour of this observation is only growing slowly, mainly due to the ongoing inability to pool data cohorts from independent trials as well as different systems and sites. The participants emphasised that moving from status quo to status go entails the need to adopt standardised imaging procedures and the readiness to act together prospectively across multiple PET/MRI sites and vendors.

  3. The research status quo and prospects of refractory status epilepticus%难治性癫痫持续状态的研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓平; 孙红斌

    2013-01-01

    难治性癫痫持续状态(refractory status epilepticus,RSE)是一种严重的神经科危急重症,有着较高的发病率和死亡率.目前还没有统一的诊治指南.本文就近年来有关RSE的流行病学、病因、诊断、发病机制、药物和非药物处理、预后相关因子分析的研究进展做一简要阐述.

  4. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  5. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  6. 高职大学生社会支持现状的调查研究%Survey on Social Support Status Quo of Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙克波

    2014-01-01

    采用肖水源的社会支持量表,以618名高职大学生为研究对象,调查分析了高职大学生社会支持现状,结果表明:是独生子的高职大学生客观支持得分显著高于非独生子的高职大学生;生源地是城市的高职大学生主观支持得分显著高于生源地是农村的高职大学生,非独生子的高职大学生主观支持得分显著高于独生子,是班干部的高职大学生主观支持得分显著高于非班干部的高职大学生;是班干部的高职大学生支持利用度得分显著高于非班干部的高职大学生;生源地是城市的高职大学生支持总分显著高于生源地是农村的高职大学生;是班干部的高职大学生支持总分显著高于非班干部的高职大学生。结论:高职大学生的社会支持呈现一定的特点,受其生源地、是否为独生子女、是否为班干部等因素的影响。对高职大学生开展心理健康教育时,要充分考虑其社会支持程度的差异性,鼓励其积极主动获取社会支持。%This survey employs Xiao Shuiyuan’s social support scaling method and uses 618 higher vocational col-lege students as research objects to survey and analyze social support status quo of college students. The result shows that the objective support score of higher vocational college students who are only child is higher than non -only child significantly;the subjective support score of higher vocational college students whose origins are cities is much higher than those from rural areas;the subjective support score of the non - only child is far higher than the only - child;the subjective support score of class leaders is even higher than those who are not class leaders;the support availability score of class leaders is significantly higher than those who are not class leaders;the total sup-port score of those from cities is higher than those from rural areas;the total support score of class leaders is

  7. The analysis of the Status Quo of Civic Education in Primary and Secondary Schools%中小学公民教育现状研究评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高贵忠

    2012-01-01

    公民教育已成为世界各国教育中基础和核心的组成部分,中小学生的公民素质是公民教育的摇篮,学校中的公民教育是培养合格公民的主要渠道,它贯穿于公民教育、教学活动的始终,是促进公民素质提高、培育公民意识的重要根源。文章运用比较研究视角,对中小学公民教育现状存在的问题:公民教育观念转型不完善、公民教育研究薄弱、缺乏"本土化"研究视域,实证研究匮乏、研究视角比较单一,没有形成正确的归因模式等进行细致的梳理与探析,进而提出全面解决问题的对策:顺应时势,增强公民教育意识观念、切实提升元公民教育理论研究、重视中小学公民教育"本土化"问题研究、深刻把握全球化、终身教育层面的研究视角。%The civic education has become a vital component of the nucleus and foundation of world education. The citizenship of students in primary and secondary schools is a cradle of civic education. The civic education in schools is the main channel of cultivating qualified citizens, which penetrates deep into civic education and teaching activities and is an important source to promote the citizenship and to groom civic consciousness. The thesis probes and analyses the status quo of civic education in primary and secondary schools from the comparative study aspect. The problems includes the inadequate transformation of civic education concept, the weak research of meta-civic education , the lack of "localization" perspective and empirical research in studies, the simple research perspectives, the shortage of correct attribution modes and so on. The thesis elaborates these problems and proposes a comprehensive solution, which is enhancing an awareness of the concept of civic education, promoting the theory study in meta-civic education, emphasizing on "localization" studies of the civic education in primary and secondary schools and grasping

  8. 我国网上药店发展现状及对策%Status Quo of Development and Strategy of Online Drugstores in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦

    2013-01-01

    目的:促进我国网上药店良性发展.方法:运用系统论分析我国网上药店的管理状况和发展现状,剖析发展缓慢的成因并提出对策.结果与结论:截至2012年10月,我国网上药店获得《互联网药品交易服务资格证书》的共116家,只有67家企业的服务范围是“向个人消费者提供药品”,且分布不均匀、发展缓慢.从审批时间上看,审批数量处于上升趋势,由2007年前共5家,到2011年的18家.发展缓慢的成因主要是行政审批门槛高,管理机制滞后;消费者对网上药店的资质及药品质量存在担忧;消费者年龄和购药需求有差异,购药不便利;网上药店运营成本高,物流配送与发展速度不匹配.管理部门要完善网上药店交易的规章制度并加强监督,企业要提高服务质量并加强企业间联盟,行业协会要加强行业自律和信用规范化管理,共同推动网上药店的发展.%OBJECTIVE: To promote the positive development of online drugstores in China. METHODS: The system theory was adopted to analyze the status quo and management of online drugstores in China, and the reasons for the slow development of online drugstores were analyzed to put forward countermeasures. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: By Oct. 2012, 116 online drugstores have acquired Qualification Certificate for Online Drug Trading Service in China; only 67 online drugstores provide drugs for individual consumers, and they have not been evenly distributed and developed slowly. In view of approval process time, the number of approval is increasing, from 5 enterprises before 2007 to 18 enterprises in 2011. Main reasons for the slow development are high threshold of administrative approval and hysteretic management system; consumers worrying about the qualifications of online drugstores and drug quality; difference in age and demands of consumers, and inconvenient drug purchase; the operation cost of online drugstores, and logistics and

  9. Lancing: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz; Boecker, Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Today, lancing fingertips or alternative sites for obtaining a blood sample for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a standard procedure for most patients with diabetes. The need for frequent lancing and associated discomfort and pain can be seen as a key hurdle for patients to comply with SMBG regimens. This article provides an overview of the status quo and future of lancing, focusing on key areas for future developments driven by customer and market needs. We also review technical issues and provide a background for possible improvements. The act of puncturing the skin with a lancet to obtain a blood sample seems to remain the standard procedure for the foreseeable future, because alternate ways of providing a blood sample have not demonstrated overall superiority (e.g., with laser technology). Other methods, which avoid lancing entirely, have also not gained broad market acceptance (e.g., minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring) or not shown technical viability (e.g., noninvasive glucose monitoring). In relation to blood glucose (BG) meters and test strips, lancing has been a "stepchild" with regards to commercial attention and development efforts. Nevertheless, significant technological improvements have been made in this field to address key customer needs, including better performance (regarding pain, wound healing, and long-term sensitivity), reduced cost, and higher integration with other components of BG monitoring (e.g., integration of the lancing device with the glucose monitor). From a technical perspective, it is apparent that highly comfortable lancing can be accomplished; however, this still requires fairly advanced and complex devices. New developments are necessary to achieve this level of sophistication and performance with less intricate and costly system designs. Manufacturers' motivation to pursue these developments is compromised by the fact that they might not recoup their development cost on commercial advanced lancing

  10. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  11. Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Dilek Yelda

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

  12. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  13. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  14. 国内航运企业燃油成本管控现状及对策分析%The Managing Status Quo and Countermeasures of Fuel Oil Cost about Domestic Shipping Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁帅

    2012-01-01

    The essay starts with the basic theories of logistic project management. By means of evidence-based research and analysis combined with the trend of domestic and foreign marine fuel oil market situation and the properties of shipping and logistics industries, research and investigation are made on the status quo of marine fuel oil management of one large-scale container liner so as to decide on the appropriate marine filel oil cost management strategy for domestic shipping companies.%从物流工程管理的基本理论出发,结合国内外燃油市场的形势和航运业的特点,时国内某大型集装箱航运公司燃油成本管控现状进行分析,并提出了适合国内航运企业的燃油成本管控策略。

  15. Analysis of Status Quo of Public Service Standardization and Its Development Route%公共服务标准化现状与发展路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康俊生

    2015-01-01

    本文研究了公共服务标准化的概念、特征,总结了国外公共服务标准化建设经验,分析了我国公共服务标准化管理机制及推进实施现状,提出了进一步推进公共服务标准化的发展路径.%This paper studies the concept and characteristics of public service standardization, summarizes the construction experience in overseas public service standardization, analyzes the status quo of the management mechanism and implementation in China, and proposes the development route of public service standardization.

  16. Status quo of cheating in examinations and the countermeasures%论新时期大学生考试作弊行为的特点、成因及纠治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2012-01-01

    Cheating in college examinations is a focus of all circles.In this paper,the status quo of cheating in college examinations as well as causes and countermeasures is discussed on the basis of the author's working experiences.%大学生考试作弊现象是社会各界的普遍关注的问题。结合多年从事教务、考务工作的经验,指出了现阶段大学生考试作弊行为的新特点,分析了造成这种现象的原因及其危害,提出了解决问题的思路和办法。

  17. 建筑施工企业项目管理现状及对策%The Status Quo of Program Management of the Construction Enterprise and its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦国进

    2009-01-01

    通过对工程项目管理理论进行研究,分析了我国目前建筑工程施工项目管理的现状及存在的主要问题,并根据工作经验提出相应的对策和具体的工程项目管理方法,为提高我国建筑企业的工程管理水平提供参考.%According to the analysis of the management theory of engineering projects, the article analyzes the status quo of construction engineering projects in China and the main problems in them. Based on the experiences, it also proposes some related countermeasures and the specific engineering management methods for the reference of improving engineering man-agement among China's construction enterprises.

  18. Research status quo of self management ability and quality of life of patients with community hypertension%社区高血压病人自我管理能力及生活质量的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原露露; 李小寒; 高玉琴

    2016-01-01

    对国内外高血压病人自我管理能力和生活质量研究现状进行综述,认为社区高血压病人自我管理能力的远期效果及其对生活质量的影响应予以重视。%It reviewed the research status quo of self management ability and quality of life of patients with hy-pertension at home and abroad ,and thought that the long term effect of the self management ability of the community hypertension patients and its influence on their quality of life should be paid more attention .

  19. The status quo of nursing safety management and research progress on its strategies%护理安全管理现状与对策研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素斋; 曹雯雯; 陈慧霞; 董荣乔; 赵滨; 张玉乾; 张丽华

    2011-01-01

    It introduced the status quo of nursing safety management and research progress on its strategies both at home and in abroad from aspects of nursing safety management institutions,nursing safety adverse events repotting system, nursing errors analysis system, quality evaluation system in nursing safety management, and safety management barriers and so on.%从护理安全管理机构、护理安全(不良)事件报告系统、护理差错的分析系统、护理安全管理质量评价体系、安全管理屏障等方面介绍了国内外的护理安全管理及对策研究进展.

  20. 临床护理人员用药安全管理的现状与策略%The status quo of medication safety management of clinical nursing staff and its strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛洁

    2011-01-01

    It analyzed the status quo and its influencing factors of medication safety management of clinical nursing staff. It pointed out some strategies for medication safety management including implementing all rules and regulations, improving the work flow, rationally allocating nursing human resources and carrying out job training on medication safety.%分析临床护理人员用药安全管理现状及其影响因素,提出护理用药安全管理策略在于落实各项制度、完善工作流程、合理配置护理人力、开展用药安全在职培训.

  1. Energy Security Expectations,Status Quo Preferences and the Energy Diplomacy Decision-Making of Great Powers%能源安全预期、现状偏好与大国的能源外交决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓慧; 肖斌

    2011-01-01

    This article takes a state's expectations with respect to energy security and its status quo preferences as independent variables to interpret energy foreign policy behavior of great powers,and distinguishes between three types of energy diplomacy based on level of risk:offensive energy diplomacy(high risk),offense-defense energy diplomacy(medium risk),and defensive energy diplomacy(low risk).This article argues that:(1) If policymakers have low expectations for energy security,they will have a preference for avoiding further damage to national interests by selecting offensive energy diplomacy;(2) If policymakers have high expectations for energy security,a state's preference will be for accruing benefits from the status quo,which policymakers will maintain by selecting defensive energy diplomacy;(3) When policymakers see their expectations for energy security downgraded from high to low,their preferences for the status quo will begin to shift,and in order to maintain the status quo and avoid losses,policymakers are more likely to select offensive-defensive energy diplomacy.%关于能源外交的现有研究成果大多建立在理性主义之上,缺乏对不确定条件下能源外交决策行为的分析。鉴此,本文选择了国家的能源安全预期和现状偏好两个变量来解释大国的能源外交决策行为,同时根据风险强度把能源外交决策划分为进攻型(强风险)、进攻-防御型(中等风险)和防御型(弱风险),由此尝试动态地解释大国能源外交决策的生成机制及其强弱变化的原因。文章认为:(1)如果决策者对能源安全的预期低,则其对国家现状偏好更倾向于损失,为了避免更多的损失,决策者更有可能选择进攻型能源外交;(2)如果决策者对能源安全的预期高,则其对国家现状偏好更倾向于收益,为了维持现状,决策者更有可能选择防御型能源外交;(3)当决策者对能源

  2. 中国与东盟能源合作的现状与前景%The Status Quo and Prospect in the Cooperation of Energy Between China and ASEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李计成

    2004-01-01

    With the ongoing growth of China' s economy in recent years, China' s import of oil has increased year by year. Oil security has become a hot issue that people around the world are concerned about. Therefore, it is necessary for China to adopt a policy of importing oil from multi - sources and intensifying the international cooperation to guarantee the supply of oil.Meanwhile, the economic and trade relations between China and ASEAN has developed into some new stages and the cooperation in energy resources has become an important part of their comprehensive relations of cooperation. In such background, the paper tries to review the status quo of such cooperation in petroleum gas and to analyze the reasons for their fast growth and the prospect for such cooperation.

  3. 电子图书的现状与发展趋势对读者服务的影响%Status quo of E-books and its Development Trend on the Services for Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杏文

    2012-01-01

      The paper analyzes and introduces the market development of domestic and international e-books, its pricing, content resources and the status quo of reading, and expounds the influence of future e-books on the services for readers, in the aspects of hardware, price, sales modes and the strategies of publishers.%  文章对国内外电子图书的市场发展、价格因素、内容资源、阅读现状进行了分析和介绍,从硬件、价格、销售模式、出版商的应对等方面阐述了今后电子图书的发展趋势对读者服务的影响。

  4. 广东省体育舞蹈俱乐部现状与发展模式研究%The Sports Dancing Clubs in Guangdong:Status Quo and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭武; 黄超群

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports first a survey of the status quo regarding the sports dancing clubs in Guangdong Province and has a discussion of the dependent relationship between sport dancing clubs and their participants. Then it gives some good advice about rationalizing the developmental mode of the sports dancing clubs in Guangdong.%运用实地考察法和访谈法等,对广东省体育舞蹈俱乐部的现状进行调查研究;讨论体育舞蹈消费者与体育舞蹈俱乐部的依存关系,并对广东省体育舞蹈俱乐部的发展模式提出更趋合理化和科学化的建议。

  5. Appl ication status quo of family centered care model in pediatric department%以家庭为中心护理模式在儿科的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩倩; 刘晓丹; 任静; 徐林燕; 李琳

    2014-01-01

    It reviewed the concept,principles,application status quo in ped-iatric department and existed problems of family centered care.It expects that can provide some mirrors for carrying out family centered pediatric care in China,so as to improve the quality of pediatric nursing.%对以家庭为中心护理的概念及原则、在儿科的应用现状、存在的问题进行综述,希望为我国实施以家庭为中心的儿科护理提供借鉴,提高儿科护理质量。

  6. Status Quo of Sports Activities of Handicapped College Students and Physical Exercise Participation Values%我国残疾大学生体育现状及其参与锻炼的价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 刘利江; 唐军

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is conducted to study the status quo of handicapped college student about their participation in sports,obstacles against participation and values of participating in physical exercises on their part,to emphasize the importance of developing sport activities of handicapped college students in times of constructing socialist harmonious society.%对我国残疾大学生体育现状、制约残疾大学生参加体育锻炼的因素和残疾大学生参与体育运动的价值进行分析,提出在构建社会主义和谐社会中发展残疾大学生体育的重要性.

  7. Status Quo of Medical Students' Moral Personality and Exploration of Cultivating Approach%医学生道德人格的现状及培养途径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玲艳

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzed the status quo of medical students'moral personality in modern times. Effective cultivating approaches to enhance medical students' moral personality are proposed, including pursuit for moral ideal and enhancing recognition of medical ethics, valuing the influence of moral role -models and sticking to the medical ethics belief, creating moral situations to cultivate medical ethics accomplishment, stressing self - restraining in private to train medical ethics trait.%对新时期医学生道德人格的现状进行了分析,并进一步探讨了医学生道德人格培养的有效途径:追求道德理想,提高医德认知;重视人格榜样,坚定医德信念;创设道德情境,培养医德情操;强调慎独自律,锤炼医德品质.

  8. Status Quo and Development Measures of Chinese Proprietary Car Brands%我国乘用车自主品牌现状及发展对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春霞

    2011-01-01

    How should we understand the crisis? How should we understand the future development of our proprietary automobile industry? By reliable data and the analysis of the proprietary brands' history and reality, this article tries to talk a-bout the status quo and development measures of Chinese proprietary saloon car brands.%通过对乘用车自主品牌发展历史和现状的梳理,依托可靠的统计数据,比较借鉴国内外学者对此领域的研究成果,从中期度过经济危机和长期谋求主导市场的两个目标层面,讨论我国乘用车自主品牌的发展对策和路径选择问题.

  9. Study on the Status Quo of and the Countermeasures for the Information Literacy Education of the Higher Vocational Medical Students%高职医学生信息素养教育现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学钢

    2015-01-01

    阐述了信息素养的内涵及信息素养教育的重要性,基于对高职医学大学生信息素养教育现状及存在问题进行分析的基础上,提出了改进高职医学生信息素养的措施。%This paper discusses the meaning of information literacy and the importance of information literacy education, and base on the analysis of the status quo of and existing problems in the information literacy education of the higher vocational medical students, puts forward some measures for improving the information literacy of the higher vocational medical students.

  10. 上海崇明国家地质公园的建设与旅游管理现状%Study on Shanghai Chongming National Geological Park Construction and Status quo of Tourism Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思元

    2009-01-01

    The related concept and construction background of national geological park was briefly discussed. Taking Shanghai Chongming National Geological Park as an example, by describing its tourism resources, potential of development, declaration process and management style, China national geological park's management status quo was summarized. Then some comments and suggestions on management style were put forward.%对国家地质公园的相关概念以及建设背景进行了简要说明.以上海崇明国家地质公园为例,通过描述其旅游资源、开发潜力、申报过程以及管理模式,总结中国国家地质公园的管理现状,并对其管理模式提出一些自己的意见和建议.

  11. CSR与公司财务绩效相关性研究与展望%Relationship Between CSR and Corporate Financial Performance: Overview,Status Quo and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易冰娜; 韩庆兰

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes all the main literatures about the relationship between corporate social responsibility(CSR) and corporate financial performance,analyses the status quo and brings forward the research prospects,so as to enrich China's CSR research from a new angle and put forward some effective suggestions.%对国外CSR与公司财务绩效的相关研究进行了梳理、评述,对研究现状进行了总结,提出了未来的研究展望,从而为我国的CSR研究理清脉络,丰富现有的研究文献,为促进我国公司治理水平的提高提供新的研究角度和有效的建议。

  12. 老龄化社会背景下的老年护理教育现状与伦理学思考%Status quo of geriatric nursing education and ethical thinking under background of aging society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋梅

    2016-01-01

    介绍了国内外老年护理教育的现状,分析了我国老年护理教育存在的问题,从老年护理、社区护理、生命伦理学角度出发,阐述了老年护理的目标。%It introduced the status quo of the geriatric nursing education at home and in abroad,and analyzed the problems existing in the geriatric nursing education in China.It expounded the objectives of the geriatric nursing from the perspective of elderly care,community care and life ethics.

  13. Research status quo of oral cavity cold therapy to prevent oral cavity mucositis caused by chemotherapy%口腔冷疗预防放化疗所致口腔黏膜炎研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆茵; 徐桂华; 金胜姬

    2011-01-01

    综述了口腔冷疗预防放化疗所致口腔黏膜炎研究现状,指出应对口腔冷疗方法、时间及应用范围进行进一步深入分析,以更好地发挥口腔冷疗对放化疗所致口腔黏膜炎的预防作用.%It summarized the research status quo of oral cavity cold therapy to prevent oral cavity mucositis of patients caused by chemotherapy.And it pointed out that method, time and application of oral cavity cold therapy should be further analyzed so as to play a preventive role better in oral cavity mucositis caused by chemotherapy.

  14. Analysis of the status quo of contact space in college dormitory of southern of Fujian coastal region%福建南部沿海高校宿舍交往空间现状浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小玲

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the status quo of contact space in college dormitory of southern Fujian coastal region,discussing the practical experience of different types of college dormitory contact space inside and outside the bedroom,dormitory outdoor contact space and design of contact Space overseas,proposing the future development in contact space design of the college dormitory.%通过分析福建南部沿海高校宿舍的交往空间现状,探讨不同类型高校宿舍的卧室内、外交往空间、宿舍区的户外交往空间及国外交往空间等方面的实践经验,提出未来高校宿舍交往空间设计的发展建议。

  15. Status Quo, Problems and Countermeasures of Bird Monitoring in China%我国鸟类监测的现状、问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔鹏; 徐海根; 丁晖; 吴军; 曹铭昌; 陈炼

    2013-01-01

    strategies and survey methods.What is more,China mainly focuses on rare and endangered species,which are not representative of the overall status of wild birds,and pays less attention to common wild birds.In most of the surveys,China used the fixed distance line transect method and seldom the variable distance line transect method,which is more precise compared with the former.Based on analysis of the status quo and problems of wild bird monitoring in China,it is suggested that China to build a government-led,multi-stakeholder wild bird monitoring network.The multi-stakeholders should include research institutes,universities,nature reserves,bird-watching associations and volunteers,etc..Standard technical rules for wild bird monitoring should be worked out and published as soon as possible,so that,data collection and analysis can be conducted in a unified way.In terms of sampling strategies and survey methods,it is suggested that stratified random sampling is more proper,because experienced field workers are very limited and not enough for even distribution overall the country.Variable distance line transect method should be used in common landbird monitoring,for example,in habitats like farmland,shrub-steppe and moorland.The method can also be used in monitoring of offshore seabirds and water fowls.The total number counting method can be used in counting colonial water fowls.Under the framework of the national bird monitoring network,some special monitoring programs can be established,such as the bird ringing program and the wild bird avian influenza epidemics monitoring program.China's bird monitoring should combine with cutting-edge scientific issues,such as impacts of global climate change on bird distribution and breeding.New technologies and equipment should be used to improve accuracy of the field survey.The public awareness should be improved and volunteer training should be provided to encourage more and more people to join in the bird monitoring network.

  16. 护理人员评判性思维能力的现状及其影响因素%Status quo of nurses' critical thinking ability and the influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关云娇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解护理人员评判性思维能力的现状及其影响因素.方法 对相关文献资料进行整理和总结,分析护理人员评判性思维能力的现状及其影响因素.结果 护理人员评判性思维能力欠缺,其主要影响因素与护理人员的年龄、工作经验、性格特征、生活习惯和教学方法及手段单一有关.结论 在临床实践中,可根据护理人员的不同情况,采用多种形式的教学方法,制订系统完善的评判性思维能力的学习计划,以提高护理人员评判性思维能力.%Objective To investigate the status quo of nurses' critical thinking ability and analyze the influencing factors. Method The author reviewed the relevant literature to summarize status quo of nurses' critical thinking ability and analyze the influencing factors. Result Nurses were not good at critical thinking, which was related with age, work experience, personal traits, individual living habits and teaching methodology. Conclusion We can adopt kinds of teaching methods according to individual conditions of the nursing staff and regulate learning programs for improving critical thinking.

  17. Status Quo and Countermeasures of Essential Drug Bidding Policy in China%我国基本药物招投标政策的实施现状和完善对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 伍林生

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status quo and countermeasure of essential drug bidding policy. METHODS: Through understanding national essential drug bidding policy, based on the status quo of essential drug bidding policy, the problems about essential drug bidding were analyzed. RESULTS: Cost and price are not in balance during the implementation of national essential drug bidding policy, so that some enterprises had to withdraw from competitive bidding and the public were prevent from benefit. CONCLUSION: In the process of essential drugs bidding, the medical problems of "Difficulty and High Cost of Getting Medical Service" can really be resolved by balancing the relationship of quality and price, providing good quality and reasonable price drugs.%目的:探讨基本药物招投标政策的实施现状和完善对策.方法:通过解读国家基本药物招投标政策,着眼于基本药物招投标的实施现状,分析当前基本药物招投标实际操作中存在的问题.结果:国家基本药物招投标政策在推行过程中成本与价格倒挂的尴尬局面,使得一部分企业不得不退出竞标,百姓无法得到真正的实惠.结论:在基本药物招投标实施的过程中,平衡质量与价格的关系,为百姓提供质量优先、价格合理的药物,才有可能真正缓解百姓“看病难,看病贵”的问题.

  18. Dengue — Quo tu et quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Vasilakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are by far the most important arboviral pathogens in the tropics around the world, putting at risk of infection nearly a third of the global human population. DENV are members of the genus Flavivirus in the Family Flaviviridae and comprise four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV-1-4. Although they share almost identical epidemiological features, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed valuable insights into the origins, epidemiology and the forces that shape DENV evolution in nature. In this review, we examine the current status of DENV evolution, including but not limited to rates of evolution, selection pressures, population sizes and evolutionary constraints, and we discuss how these factors influence transmission, pathogenesis and emergence.

  19. CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 80% of the current Nigerian primary energy consumption is met by petroleum. ... energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. ... The data presented in this paper is a crucial eye-opener for relevant ...

  20. Stock exchange trading of natural gas in Germany. Measures to promote natural gas trade; Status quo des boerslichen Erdgashandels in Deutschland. Massnahmen zur Erdgashandelsentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulun, Tobias; Beidatsch, Sirko [European Energy Exchange AG, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Business Development

    2010-07-01

    2010 brought about significant changes in the boundary conditions of natural gas trading in Germany. The amended GasNZV (Ordinance on Access to the Public Gas Grids) changed the conditions of access to transport capacities. At the same time, the global price trends in the natural gas sector provided a strong impetus for new acquisition strategies that may significantly enhance the trading interest of the marketeers. The contribution takes a look at the current status of the natural gas trade in Germany and especially the stock exchange for natural gas, which may soon have a decisive role in the new acquisition strategies. (orig.)

  1. The Current Status of the WARP Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelc, A. M.; Benetti, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calaprice, F.; Cambiaghi, M.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Cocco, A. G.; Dipompeo, F.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Mangano, G.; Montanari, C.; Palamara, O.; Pandola, L.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Roncadelli, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Santorelli, R.; Vignoli, C.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The WARP detector is a new idea in Dark Matter detection using liquid noble gases, specifically argon. We believe that argon is the medium best suited to detect nuclear recoils coming from interactions with the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detection technique, using two different discrimination methods, is capable of an identification power as high as one event in 108. During the second half of the year 2006 the next, 100 liter, detector will be constructed with an active veto shield to further suppress the background, while currently a 2.3 liter prototype, installed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy), has been taking data since May 2004. The small version of the detector is able to not only provide insight on the operation of a two-phase liquid argon chamber but is also able to provide physics results competitive with the current leading edge experiments.

  2. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  3. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2017-10-06

    Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  5. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  6. Current status of family health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Membrillo Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.

  7. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  8. Current status of nanotechnology in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Goyal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been investigated for its applications in medicine. The objective of this review was to summarize the current applications of nanotechnology in Urology. A systematic search of literature was performed and relevant articles were analyzed with specific reference to applications in Urology. Nanotechnology has applications in diagnostic urology like in uroimaging using nanoparticles and nanosensors. It has therapeutic applications in infections, malignancies, genetic disease using targeted drug delivery, gene transfers, nano device-based manipulations etc. Nanotechnology has many applications in Urology. More efforts are required to make these applications practically feasible and affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3114-3120

  9. Current status of respiratory nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    Multimodality image fusion is now becoming popular in respiratory nuclear medical field, since scintigraphic diagnosis, based on functional image interpretation, becomes more accurate and meaningful when supported by corresponding anatomical data. Although SPECT/PET scanner-mounted X-ray tomographic systems are now being introduced for an accurate image fusion in the chest, the use of a fully automatic multi-modality image fusion algorithm may be an alternative method. Our initial attempt of this algorithm for fusion imaging of Tc-99m MAA perfusion or thallium-201 SPECT and helical CT scan has contributed to accurate interpretation of the results without user interaction, and has facilitated the understanding of the functional basis of lung parenchymal CT attenuation changes. Three-dimensional displays with functional mapping are also now being increasingly introduced to various respiratory nuclear studies. A fractal analysis has shown successful results in the analysis of technegas and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion images, which will be increasingly applied for more objective assessment of the results. The feasibility of {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan in accurate staging of lung cancer and the good cost performance of this method in lung cancer strategy are repeatedly stressed by the recent studies. The feasibility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion scan in the evaluation of right-to-left shunt in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, and the potential of {sup 123}I-MIBG scan in the evaluation of the function status of pulmonary neuroadrenergic system are new aspects for these well established tracers. There is the first attempt of intraoperative {sup 99m}Tc-colloid sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. This may improve the precision of pathologic staging and limit the need for mediastinal node dissection in selected patients. Radiolabeled aerosol lung scintigraphy is being increasingly applied to evaluate lung deposition of various

  10. Current status of robotics in urologic laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Matthew T; Blute, Michael L; Peschel, Reinhard; Bartsch, Georg

    2003-02-01

    Urology has continuously embraced novel technologies like laparoscopy that reduce patient morbidity yet maintain an excellent standard of care. Because of limitations on maneuverability, operative vision, manual dexterity, and tactile sense, laparoscopy can be more difficult to perform than corresponding tasks in open surgery. To potentially increase clinical applicability of laparoscopy, robots that enhance operative performance have recently been introduced for a variety of laparoscopic procedures such as laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, pyeloplasty, and even laparoscopic cystectomy and neobladder construction. While these robots have generated excitement and many robotic applications have been described, the benefit of the advanced technology in expanded series of patients remains largely unknown. In addition, the ability of telerobotics to be used by surgeons inexperienced in conventional laparoscopy is also poorly understood. This review compares current features of available robots, advantages and limitations of robots, the emerging clinical applications, and the future potential of robotics in urology.

  11. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RICH upgrade: Current status and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The second long shutdown of the LHC is currently scheduled to begin in 2018. During this period the LHCb experiment with all its sub-detectors will be upgraded in order to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2×10$^{33}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ and to read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) system will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream detector. Tests of the prototype of the smallest constituent of the new RICH system have been performed during testbeam sessions at the Test Beam Facility SPS North Area (CERN) in Autumn 2014.

  13. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  14. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  15. Lasers in cardiovascular surgery--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J G; Dixon, J A

    1985-04-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO(2) lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by "tissue welding" with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling "neocapillaries" in ischemic myocardium. Endocardial resection for destroying arrhythmic pathways and removing hypertrophied septal muscle has also been successfully accomplished with laser phototherapy. Last, laser-mediated vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation may offer a percutaneous approach to the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovascular uses of lasers are purely investigational at the current time. Much more needs to be known before widespread clinical use of lasers in the cardiovascular system can occur.

  16. [Current status of food-borne diseases in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akemi

    2012-08-01

    The current status of food-borne diseases in Japan was described. Although the number of outbreaks caused by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli(except enterohaemorrhagic E. coli) is decreasing, outbreaks by Campylobacter or Norovirus are increasing.

  17. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysz, M.A. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Gambhir, S.S. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  18. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-07

    interventional methods. Few would challenge neurologists over the responsibility for emergency evaluation and triage of stroke victims for intra intravenous fibrinolysis, even though emergency physicians are most commonly the first to evaluate these patients. There are many unanswered questions about the role of imaging in defining best treatment. Perfusion imaging with CT or MRI appears to have relevance even though its role remains undefined and is the subject of ongoing research. Meanwhile, investigators are exploring new, and perhaps more specific,imaging methods with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and cellular acid-base imbalance. There are currently 6 ongoing trials of stroke intervention, many with proprietary technologies and private funding, competing for the same patient population as multicenter trials funded by the NIH. At the same time, much of the interventional stroke treatment currently occurs outside of trials in the community and academic settings without the collection of much-needed data. Market forces will certainly shape future stroke therapy, but it is unclear whether the current combination of private and public funding for these endeavors is the best method of development.

  19. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  20. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

  1. Current status of dentin adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinfelder, K F

    1998-12-01

    Undoubtedly, dentin bonding agents have undergone a major evolution during the last several years. The shear bond strength of composite resin to the surface of dentin is actually greater than the inherent strength of the dentin itself under well-controlled conditions. No longer must the clinician depend only upon the bonding to enamel as the sole bonding mechanism. Bonding to both types of dental structure permits even better reinforcement of the tooth itself. Perhaps even more important than the high level of bonding exhibited by the current dentin adhesives is their ability to seal the dentin. So effective is this sealing capability that it is now possible to protect the pulpal tissue from microbial invasion through the dentinal tubules. Further, by enclosing the odontoblastic processes and preventing fluid flow, the potential for postoperative sensitivity is diminished considerably. In fact, so evolutionary is the concept of bonding that the procedures associated with the restoration of teeth has changed dramatically. Undoubtedly, far greater improvements can be anticipated in the future.

  2. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  3. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Jean-François, E-mail: alaryjf@isobarex.ca [Isobarex Corp., 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Javahery, Gholamreza [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, Albert [IsoTrace Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Cousins, Lisa [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Charles, Christopher [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of {sup 36}S from {sup 36}Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion–molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  4. Current status of the LBNE neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig Damon; Crowley, Cory Francis; Hurh, Patrick; Hylen, James; Lundberg, Byron; Marchionni, Alberto; McGee, Mike; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Plunkett, Rob; Reitzner, Sarah Diane; Stefanik, Andrew M; Velev, Gueorgui; Williams, Karlton; Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility is designed to aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined by an amalgam of the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. The LBNE Neutrino Beam has made significant changes to the initial design through consideration of numerous Value Engineering proposals and the current design is described.

  5. Current status of the CLIO project

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Ishitsuka, H; Akutsu, T; Telada, S; Tomaru, T; Suzuki, T; Sato, N; Saitô, Y; Higashi, Y; Haruyama, T; Yamamoto, A; Shintomi, T; Tatsumi, D; Ando, M; Tagoshi, H; Kanda, N; Awaya, N; Yamagishi, S; Takahashi, H; Araya, A; Takamori, A; Takemoto, S; Higashi, T; Hayakawa, H; Morii, W; Akamatsu, J

    2008-01-01

    CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory) is a Japanese gravitational wave detector project. One of the main purposes of CLIO is to demonstrate thermal-noise suppression by cooling mirrors for a future Japanese project, LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Telescope). The CLIO site is in Kamioka mine, as is LCGT. The progress of CLIO between 2005 and 2007 (room- and cryogenic-temperature experiments) is introduced in this article. In a room-temperature experiment, we made efforts to improve the sensitivity. The current best sensitivity at 300 K is about $6 \\times 10^{-21} /\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ around 400 Hz. Below 20 Hz, the strain (not displacement) sensitivity is comparable to that of LIGO, although the baselines of CLIO are 40-times shorter (CLIO: 100m, LIGO: 4km). This is because seismic noise is extremely small in Kamioka mine. We operated the interferometer at room temperature for gravitational wave observations. We obtained 86 hours of data. In the cryogenic experiment, it was confirmed that the...

  6. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  7. Current status of neuronal cell xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadori, Marta; Aron Badin, Romina; Hantraye, Philippe; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2015-11-01

    Neural cell transplantation has long been considered as an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, several patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have been treated with human fetal-derived neurons with disparate results. However, the limited efficacy to date combined with the scarce availability of human fetal tissues and ethical concerns render this procedure inapplicable to a wide population scale. With a view to overcoming these shortcomings, transplantation of pig-derived cell precursors has been proposed and applied in preclinical and clinical trials. Recently long-term survival (more than 18 months) associated with clinical efficacy has been reported following transplantation of genetically engineered porcine neural precursors in fully immunosuppressed primate recipients. Despite the promising results obtained to date, several questions remain unanswered. In particular, the ideal xenogeneic cell-products to transplant, the extent of the immune response against the implanted xenograft and the most suitable therapeutic strategies to improve engraftment are all issues that still need to be thoroughly addressed. The present review describes the current knowledge in the pig-to-primate xenotransplantation field. In this context, recent data on human-to-nonhuman primate xenogeneic stem cell-based treatments for neurological disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  9. Current status of laser applications in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Durek, C.; Jocham, Dieter

    1993-05-01

    The overall development of laser use in urology is recessing. The reasons are the refinement of methods of radical surgery and the continuing development of alternative technologies involving electric current. Taking the cost factor into account, are lasers still opportune in medicine? The answer is definitely yes. Cost reduction in medical practice without quality loss is only possible with effective methods of minimally invasive surgery. Continuing investigation of cutting, welding, coagulating and ablating instruments is justified. Competition of lasers to other technologies can only be beneficial to the cause. But where are the highlights of laser applications? The unsurpassed utilization of optical properties of lasers lie in the concept of photodynamic therapies and in optical feedback mechanisms for laser applications. The combination of lasers with three dimensional visualization of the treatment area by ultrasound (TULIP-procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia) is a novel approach in laser application. The further development of these treatment modalities will reveal the true benefit of laser technology in urological applications.

  10. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  11. Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L

    1998-08-01

    A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

  12. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  13. Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqi AA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammad Ahmad Farooqi,1 Zia ur Rehman,2 Jordi Muntane3,4 1Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST, Kohat, Pakistan; 3Department of General Surgery, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS, Hospital Universitary "Virgen del Rocío"/CSIC/University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain; 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD o Ciberehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain Abstract: There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA, and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent

  14. 物联网时代的高等教育现状与对策分析%Analysis of Status Quo of Higher Education in the Age of "The Internet of things" and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清利

    2012-01-01

    "The Internet of things" is the third wave in world information industry after computer technology and network technology. Its drastic rise and rapid development have attracted the highest attention from all nations, all levels of governments, and production, academy and research circles. By discussion on connotation of "The Internet of things", its characteristics and research status both home and abroad, and by analysis of the status quo of higher education in this age and the countermeasures to be taken, proposals may be made to teaching reform and the development of higher education.%物联网是继计算机技术、网络技术之后世界信息产业掀起的第三次浪潮,它的短期升温和急速发展引起世界各国、各级政府、产学研各界的高度重视。通过讨论物联网内涵、特征及国内外研究现状,详细分析物联网时代高等教育所面临的现状以及应该采取的应对策略,旨在为教学改革和高等教育的发展献言献策。

  15. 基于维持现状偏好理论的信息系统使用决策研究%Decision Mechanism Analysis of Information System Use Based on Status Quo Bias Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 侯碧梅

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the researches on information system (IS) continuance use have been increasingly drawing attentions from the academic area. In this paper, we analyze the prior researches on IS continuance from the perspective of decision-making mechanism, resulting in the following three categories. Firstly, rational decision mechanism emphasizes that IS continuance behavior is conscious and rational. While emotional decision mechanism refers to the affects of psychological emotion, feeling and attitude on IS continued use. Lastly, habitual decision mechanism means that IS continuance is a kind of unconscious repetitive behavior. Besides, this paper particularly elaborates on the status quo bias theory in the view of IS use decision mechanism. Based on the explanation of concept, we give detailed examples to illustrate the status quo bias in IS use. Furthermore, the related researches are deeply analyzed to reveal a meaningful reference for the studies in future.%近些年来,信息系统的用户行为研究得到学术界的关注和重视.文章从决策机制的角度分析了现有的关于信息系统持续使用的研究,将用户的信息系统使用决策行为划分为理性决策、情感决策和习惯决策三个阶段.理性决策强调用户持续使用某一信息系统是一种有意识的理性决策行为;情感决策强调用户在使用某一信息系统的过程中形成的情感、感觉和态度等心理感受会影响其持续使用该系统的意愿;习惯决策则意味着用户持续使用某一信息系统是一种无意识的重复行为.文章重点介绍了在信息系统使用中维持现状偏好理论的具体体现,及其对用户使用决策的影响,以期对后续研究提供有益借鉴.

  16. 吸烟的冠心病患者戒烟现状及影响因素分析%Status quo and factors influencing smoking cessation in cigarette smoking patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗太阳; 雷涛; 刘小慧; 彭雪梅; 康俊萍; 吕强; 王海云; 马长生

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解吸烟的冠心病患者对于吸烟问题的认识及戒烟状况,揭示戒烟及戒烟未成功的原因和影响因素,为更有效地帮助冠心病患者控烟提供参考.方法 对350例吸烟的冠心病患者进行问卷调查,包括性别、年龄、吸烟史等,采用分组分析、logistic回归分析等方法分析戒烟的影响因素.结果 350例吸烟的冠心病患者平均年龄(59.6±10.2)岁,男321例(占91.7%).57.1%(200/350)的患者已戒烟,42.9%(150/350)的患者目前仍在吸烟.将患者按年龄分两组,非老年组患者(≤65岁,n=239)戒烟率50.6%,显著低于老年组患者(>65岁,n=111)的71.2%(P4000 元/月(OR=1.828,P=0.003).结论 吸烟的冠心病患者戒烟水平和意识仍有待提高;除现有的控烟政策外,应更加关注中青年、文化程度较低、未行经皮冠状动脉介入治疗及冠状动脉旁路移植术、家人有人吸烟、体质指数及家庭总收入越高的吸烟冠心病患者的控烟活动;在针对吸烟冠心病患者控烟活动的同时对其周围环境宣传控烟活动也是迫切需要的.%Objective To investigate the status quo of smoking cessation and analyze factors influencing smoking cessation in cigarette smoking patients with coronary artery disease(CAD).Method A total of 350 smoking patients with CAD was surveyed by questionnaire,logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors influencing smoking cessation.Results Incidence of smoking cessation was 57.1%(200/350)in this cohort.Patients were divided into two groups,the elderlv(>65 years old,n=111)and the young group(≤65 years old,n=239).The smoking cessation rate in the elderlv group is significantly higher than in the young group(71.2%vs.50.6%,P4000 RMB/month (OR=1.828,P=0.003)are risk factors for failed smoking cessation.There are 76 patients smoking again in current smokers,most due to lack of self-control(76.3%).Compared to the elderly group,there is a higher proportion of smoking again due

  17. 治疗性单克隆抗体药物的现状及发展趋势%The Status Quo and Development Trend of the Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志明; 高健; 李耿

    2013-01-01

    After more than 30 years of development,monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of clinical drugs.Currently,these antibody drugs are used to treat many kinds of diseases,such as cancer,autoimmune diseases,infectious diseases and transplant rejection reactions.Ended in 2012,there are 29 kinds of therapeutic monoclonal antibody drugs through the FDA approval and on sale.And in 2011,there were more than 1000 kinds of antibody drugs undergoing clinical trials in the European Union or the United States,of which about 164 kinds of antibodies in clinical phase Ⅲ trials.The safety and efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibody drug is largely decided by the target.Some monoclonal antibody drugs in research have the same targets with the antibodies on sale,and some have the unique targets.At the same time,more and more new targets are being found.There are four kinds of the most popular targets of research:tumor necrosis factor-α,cluster of differentiation 20,epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor.Detailed review which focuses on the different targets of the monoclonal antibody drugs,whether in research or on sale,is expected to provide valuable references for the monoclonal antibody drug development trend.The status quo of monoclonal antibody drug in our country was discussed,and the development strategies in the future were proposed.%治疗性单克隆抗体药物经历了三十多年的发展,已经成为生物医药的最重要组成部分之一.在疾病治疗上具有广阔的应用前景,成功用于治疗肿瘤、自身免疫性疾病、感染性疾病和移植排斥反应等多种疾病.截至2012年已有29种治疗性单克隆抗体药物通过FDA审批并上市销售.治疗性单抗的安全性和有效性很大程度上由其作用的靶点决定,上市和在研的单抗药物有些靶向相同的靶点,有些有自己独特的作用靶点,新的作用靶点也在不断出现.以治疗性单抗的作用靶点

  18. The Status Quo of HR Management in Electricity Enterprise and Improvement Countermeasures——a Case Study of China Southern Power Grid Co., Ltd%国有电力企业人力资源管理现状及提升方案浅析——以南方电网公司为研究实证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博

    2011-01-01

    尝试以本企业人力资源管理实践过程为实证,阐述国有电力企业人力资源管理的发展历程、现状及困境,并提出可行性改善提升方案.%This essay is about the status quo and the development process of HR management in Chinese electricity enterprise, and the improvement countermeasures.

  19. On the Status Quo of Mental Health of College Students and Countermeasures%浅析高校学生心理健康现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔琪

    2011-01-01

    学生进入高校后,学习生活的环境都发生了变化,学生只有适应了这些变化才能够健康的成长,但在适应的过程中学生的心理不断的发生着变化,认真研究分析这些心理方面的变化,并通过多种方法途径对出现的心理问题进行优化与引导,是当前高校热门的研究话题,本文就目前高校学生心理健康问题的现状及成因,予以分析并提出相关的完善对策。%Students entering college,the learning environment of living have changed,students are only able to adapt to these changes and healthy growth,with high school students in the process of adaptation of the psychological constantly changing,carefully study and analyze the changes in these psychological and through a variety of approaches for the occurrence of psychological problems and lead optimization is a hot research topic in colleges and universities,colleges and universities this article on the current status of students' mental health problems and causes related to analysis and improvement strategies.

  20. 临床护理人员安全文化的现状与对策%Status Quo of Safety Culture of Clinical Nursing Staff and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乐; 姜贺

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of safety culture of clinical nursing staff, and to analyze potential problems in nursing safety management, and provide reasonable measures for managers. Methods A total of 580 clinical nursing staff were investigated with a self-designed questionnaire with convenience sampling. The problem percent response (PPR) towards every item and dimension were calculated to reflect the status of safety culture. Results The score of safety culture was 35.9%, which was in positive level, however, the PPR of the fear of blame, the frequency of adverse event and the executive force of nurses were slightly high, and all of them were in negative level. Conclusion The results show an overall positive safety culture exists, but some aspects need to be strengthened. In order to promote the development of safety culture, it is necessary to transfer current management concepts, establish an adverse event reporting system and safety culture measurement system.%目的 了解临床护理人员的安全文化现状,分析安全管理中存在的问题,提出相应的管理对策.方法 采用方便抽样法,以自行编制的"安全文化测评问卷"对580 名临床护理人员进行调查,统计分析各条目及维度的问题应答率以反映安全文化现状.结果 临床护士安全文化的问题应答率与中立值之和为35.9%,处于正向水平,但惩罚性感受、不良事件报告和护士执行力3 个维度问题应答率与中立值之和较高,均处于负向水平.结论临床护士的安全文化总体表现较为理想,但部分领域仍需改进.转变当前的管理理念,建立完善的不良事件报告系统和安全文化测评机制将有助于安全文化氛围的积极转变.

  1. [Current status and changes of metabolic and bariatric surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingang

    2017-04-25

    Through continuous development, metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) has become widely recognized in academic and medical circles. In China, the volume of MBS operations has increased year by year. Therapeutic goals of MBS have evolved from treating obesity to treating Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and further to treating a series of obesity-associated metabolic diseases (including conditions in the endocrine system, circulatory system, respiratory system, reproductive system, and etc). Surgical approach of MBS has also been evolving continuously. Currently the common surgical procedures include laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and bilio-pancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS). All surgical procedures have pros and cons, and the choice of surgical procedures should be based on the conditions of patients, the surgeon's technical ability, and benefits and operative risks. With the development of MBS, the proportions of different surgical procedures also changed in China. In recent five years, the proportion of AGB has decreased continuously and LAGB is no longer a common procedure. The proportion of LSG has increased rapidly, rising from 9% in 2010 to 55% in 2015. The proportion of RYGB has increased from 57% to 64% between 2010 and 2013, and remained at 45% afterwards. Since 2010, most MBS operations are laparoscopic surgery. 3D Laparoscopic surgery, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery and da Vinci Robotic Surgery have also been introduced in MBS. This review discusses the status quo and changes of MBS in china, as well as the new technology in MBS, aiming to strengthen the information and comprehension of MBS in china.

  2. 应用技术型高校工科专业创业教育的现状及对策研究%The status quo and countermeasures of application technology college’s engineering professional entrepreneurship education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅娴

    2014-01-01

    面临日益严峻的大学生就业形势,应用技术型本科高校如何搞好本科教育的同时,做到“出口畅”,除了传统的就业方式,如考研、找工作、出国外,做好大学生创业教育,很有必要的同时,也是难点,本文分析应用技术型高校的工科专业创业教育的现状,并提出了一些对策。%Facing increasingly severe employment situation, how to improve technology application undergraduate course colleges and universities undergraduate education? In addition to the traditional way of employment, such as one's deceased father grind, looking for a job, a foreign, do a good job in college students' entrepreneurship education, it is necessary, but it is also the difficulty, this paper analyzes the status quo of application technology college of engineering professional entrepreneurship education, and puts forward some countermeasures.

  3. Application status quo of SERVQUAL gap model in nursing service quality evaluation%服务质量差距模型在护理服务质量评价中的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦娜; 盛孝敏; 王小梅

    2016-01-01

    It expounded the service quality model (SERVQUAL)promoting the continuous improvement of nursing service quality scale in nursing service quality evaluation,to know about the status quo of service,found out the weak links,and explore the influencing factors of the nursing service quality.It suggested that SE-RVQUA model was different from other evaluation methods,and it could evaluate the nursing service quality obj ectively,comprehensively and scientific.%阐述了服务质量差距(SERVQUAL)模型在护理服务质量评价中促进护理服务质量量表的不断改进,了解服务现状、发现薄弱环节,探索护理服务质量影响因素的作用。提示SERVQUAL模型区别于其他评价方法,能够客观、全面、科学评价护理服务质量。

  4. The Status Quo and Measures for the Ecological Industrial Park Constrution for Pingxiang Economic Development Zone%萍乡经济开发区生态工业园建设现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭剑峰

    2011-01-01

    The ecologial industrial park is the third generation industrial park in China,representing the direction and trends of the park development.It is the specific realizing model of cycling economy,and reflects the characters of new industrializatin and the demands of sustainable development strategy.This paper analysed the status quo of the Ecological Industrial Park Constrution for Pingxiang Economic Development Zone,and further analysed the main problems existing in the park development,and gave specific improvement measures,and therefore promoted the construction development for the Ecological Industrial Park Constrution for Pingxiang Economic Development Zone.%生态工业园区是我国第三代产业园区,代表了园区发展的方向和趋势,是循环经济的具体实现模式,体现了新型工业化特征及可持续发展战略的要求。本文在对萍乡经济开发区生态工业园区建设现状进行分析的基础上,分析了园区发展中存在的主要问题,并提出了具体的改进措施,从而促进萍乡经济开发区生态工业园的建设发展。

  5. 美国及欧洲的医疗卫生服务体系现状分析%Status quo of the medical service systems in the USA and Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carola Fink-Anthe; 凌栋; 方红娟

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to the status quo of the healthcare system,medical fund raising practice,medical insurance coverage,healthcare delivery,and healthcare administration in the UK,Germany and USA.Focusing on problems found in these healthcare systems and reform actions to take,the paper Came up with fundamental principles for healthcare reforms as reference to reforms in China's heahhcare system.%介绍了英国、德国和美国近年来的医疗卫生体系、医疗费用筹集制度、医疗保险覆盖程度、卫生服务提供情况和医疗管理体制现状,重点论述了各医疗卫生体系存在的问题和目前的改革措施,提出医疗卫生改革的基本原则,以期为我国的医疗体制改革提供借鉴.

  6. 长江大学外国留学生教育现状分析与对策研究%The Education of International Students in Yangtze University:Status Quo and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫永东

    2012-01-01

    The upcoming years are the vital period for Yangtze University to develop its education of international students.The past three years witnessed the rapid increase of the international student number in the university which has brought in kinds of problems.This paper tries an analysis of the status quo of the education of international students,including university management,recruitment,teaching and logistic service and points out some problems.Strategies for the sustainable development of the education are put forward to deal with the problems.%长江大学外国留学生教育正在经历重要的发展机遇期。随着在校留学生规模不断扩大,各类矛盾和问题不断呈现。通过对留学生教育在学校层面、招生方面、教学方面以及后勤服务方面的现状分析,找出了一些问题,并提出解决问题的相应对策。

  7. Development status quo of critical thinking in nursing education in abroad%评判性思维在国外护理教育中的发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣倩; 尹安春

    2014-01-01

    It summarized the connotation of critical thinking in the for-eign literatures,analyzed the development status quo of critical thinking in nursing education in abroad.It focused on expounding the critical thinking related curriculum set up,difficulties and obstacles during criti-cal thinking teaching and teaching methods and strategies of critical thinking training,so as to provide enlightenment and evidences for the cultivation of critical thinking in nursing education in China.%总结了国外文献中评判性思维的含义,分析了评判性思维在国外护理教育中的发展现状,重点阐述了与评判性思维相关的课程设置、评判性思维教学过程中的困境与障碍及评判性思维培养的教学方法和策略,为我国护理教育中评判性思维的培养提供启示和依据。

  8. 汽车品牌4S店的现状分析与前景展望%Status Quo Analysis and Prospects of the Automotive 4S Stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江

    2009-01-01

    文中首先对汽车品牌4S店的现状进行分析,指出4S店在建设实施过程中的优、劣势.针对克服劣势的对策,从战略和战术的角度提出了解决思路.再对汽车品牌4S店的发展前景进行了展望,在明确4S店发展呈现集团化趋势的基础上,提出了"服务是核心,品牌是目标;关注售后环节,体现增值服务"的观点,并以实例进行了论证.%Status quo of the automotive 4S stores is ana-lyzed, and the advantage and disadvantage in the construction process of 4S stores is pointed out. The solution idea to overcome the disadvantage from the point view of strategic and tactical is put forward. Then, the future development of the automotive 4S stores is prospected. It is clearly indicated that the development of 4S stores is in the trend of grouping, based on which the point of view of " Service is the core, branding is the goal; Concern about the after -sales to reflect the value - added services " is pointed out, and example is given to validate it.

  9. 我国职业运动俱乐部企业社会责任现状及趋势研究%On the Status Quo and Trend of Social Responsibility of Corporate Professional Sports Clubs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩平

    2014-01-01

    通过对企业社会责任研究为切入点,对我国职业运动俱乐部企业社会责任的研究现状进行了分析,认为我国体育学者对职业运动俱乐部企业社会责任虽然进行了深入的研究,但从研究现状分析仍然存在着研究范围较窄,研究成果多集中在理论方面,对企业社会责任具体实施的法律保障机制的研究不足。并提出未来研究重点与方向。%The status quo of research on corporate social responsibility of professional sports clubs in Chi -na is analyzed in this paper, and it is considered that the Chinese sports scholars have carried out the thorough research on professional sports club 's corporate social responsibility , but the research scope is still narrow, the results of the study are more concentrated in the theory , lack of research on the legal protection mechanism of the specific implementation of corporate social responsibility .The future research emphasis and direction are put forward .

  10. Research progress on status quo of dysarthria in patients with Wilson’s disease and nursing care of it%Wilson病构音障碍的研究现状及护理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳; 喻绪恩; 王训; 韩咏竹

    2016-01-01

    分析了 Wilson病(WD)构音障碍的研究现状,从摄食护理、言语训练护理、声音响度护理、口部运动护理、音乐疗法、心理护理方面总结了 WD病人构音障碍的有效护理方法,提出只有采取有效的、科学的护理干预措施,才能提高病人的生活质量。%It analyzed the research status quo of dysarthria in patients with Wilson’s disease,summarized the ef-fective nursing method of dysarthria from aspects of feeding care,speech training care,loudness care,care oral sports,music therapy and psychological care.It put forward that only the effective and scientific nursing inter-ventions were accepted,the quality of life of patients would be improved.

  11. The Analysis of the Status Quo of and Approaches to Specially Contracted Teachers' Professional Development in Western Rural Areas%西部农村特岗教师专业发展的现状及途径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洪亮; 罗利群

    2012-01-01

    Based on teachers' professional development theory and integrating the particularities of western rural education,the paper probes into the status quo of specially contracted teachers' professional development in four aspects: the establishment of teachers' professional ideals,the expansion of professional knowledge,the development of professional skills and the formation of professional self and then proposes the developing approaches: preliminary preparations for teaching education,the pre-and on-the-job and self-education.%在教师专业发展理论基础上,结合西部农村教育的特殊性,从特岗教师专业理想的建立、专业知识的拓展、专业能力的发展、专业自我的形成四方面探析其专业发展的现状,进而提出了发展途径:师范教育的前期准备,特岗教师的入职和在职培训,特岗教师的自我教育。

  12. Analysis on Status quo and Development Trend of Cold Chain Logistics in China%我国冷链物流现状与发展趋势探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁飞

    2012-01-01

    As a high-tech cryogenic system engineering,cold chain logistics has become a part of our daily life,thus we should speed up our efforts in this aspect.With respect to its hardware facilities,software levels,scale of development and commercialize degree,this paper is going to analyze the status quo of cold chain logistics in China and trying to find out its development trend along with experience gained from developed countries.%冷链物流作为一种高科技含量的低温系统工程,已走进了我们的生活,必须加速建设。从我国冷链物流的硬件设施、软件水平、发展规模、市场化程度等方面阐述了我国冷链物流的发展现状,并结合国外发达国家的冷链物流发展现状,提出了我国冷链物流的发展趋势。

  13. Research Status Quo of Perfusion Imaging with Multidetector Row Computed Tomography on Esophageal Cancer%食管癌多层螺旋CT灌注成像研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天武; 董志辉

    2011-01-01

    食管癌是常见的恶性肿瘤之一.多层螺旋CT 灌注成像作为一种无创手段,可以在活体状态下评价其微循环.近年来,CT 灌注成像在食管癌的微循环评价、放化疗的疗效判断方面取得进展.本文着重综述多层螺旋CT灌注成像技术在食管癌中的应用研究现状.%Esophageal cancer is one of frequent malignant tumors worldwide. As a noninvasive technique. computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging could be valuable to assess the microcirculation of esophageal cancer in uivo.Recently, multidetector row CT ( MDCT) perfusion imaging has sparked new interest in the assessment of the microcirculation of esophageal cancer, and therapeutic effects of chemoradiotherapy on this tumor. In this paper, we reviewed the status quo of perfusion imaging with MDCT on esophageal cancer.

  14. Research status quo of influencing factors and coping strategies of nurses'job burnout%护士职业倦怠影响因素及应对措施的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳琪; 刘迎春

    2015-01-01

    It expounded the status quo of nurse's job burnout.It reviewed the research progress on the influen-cing factors and coping strategies from self factors,environment factors and occupational factors.It pointed out that job burnout could cause a series of problems in the psychological,emotional,family and professional as-pects.Hospital managers should take appropriate interventions to prevent and reduce the generation of nurses’ burnout starting from main influencing factors,to stabilize nursing team and improve the quality of nursing service.%阐述护士职业倦怠现状,从自身因素、环境因素、职业因素综述护士职业倦怠影响因素及应对措施的研究进展,指出职业倦怠可造成护士心理、情感、家庭和专业等方面一系列的问题,医院管理者应从倦怠产生的主要影响因素着手,采取适当的干预措施,预防和减轻护士倦怠的产生,稳定护理团队,提高护理服务质量。

  15. 典型牧区“四化”同步发展的历史与现状评价%On the History and the Status Quo of Synchronous Development of Sihua in Typical Pasturing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩柱

    2014-01-01

    The patural area in Inner Mongolia is important part of the patural areas in China .In the construction of well‐off society ,in synchronous development of Sihua (industrialization ,urbanization ,in‐formatization and agricultural modernization ) ,we should not neglect the patural area in Inner Mongolia . By analyzing and assessing the history and the status quo of the development of Sihua in pasturing Areas , this article gives some suggestions on increasing the synchronous development of Sihua in patural areas .%内蒙古牧区是中国牧区的重要组成部分,是新世纪全面建设小康社会,实现工业化、城镇化、信息化和农业现代化同步发展不可忽视的地区。本文通过分析评价牧区“四化”发展历史与现状,提出了加快牧区“四化”同步发展的对策建议。

  16. 中国高层次人才政策现状、问题与对策%Status quo, problems, and countermeasures of Chinese high - level talents policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑代良; 钟书华

    2012-01-01

    当前中国高层次人才政策存在政策“弱法律化”、“激励官本化”、“项目碎片化”、“弱企业化”、“重引进轻自主培养化”等显著特征,从而需从营造知识积聚环境,实现“人尽其才、才尽其用”用人机制;出台人才基本法律,健全和完善中国特色人才政策法律体系;实践人才强国战略,启动“培养为主引进为辅”战略转型;创新政策评估机制,完善人才政策效果评价指标体系;改革国际接轨制度,强化以企业为主的人才政策导向等方面进行完善与创新。%At present, the policy for the high - level talents in China is characterized by weak awareness of law, bureaucratic incentive, project fragmentization, ignoring the importance of enterprises, and focusing on talent external introduction and ignoring internal training. In order to change the current status, the following steps have to be taken: Creating a knowledge - oriented environment for the talents who are able to do their best; establishing a sound and healthy system for the talents with Chinese characteristics based on the reform and perfection of the current legal system for talent policy; implementing the strategy for strengthe- ning the country through talents; initiating the transformation of talent strategy from external introduction of talents to internal training; innovating the evaluation mechanism of policy; improving the index system of talent policy evaluation; adjusting the talent systems according to the international standard; and strengthening the enterprise -oriented talent policy.

  17. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  18. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  19. Current Status of Holland's Theory of Careers: Another Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Responds to Brown's critique of author's (Holland) theory of vocational choice. Discusses validation of theories in general and the validation of this theory in particular. Discusses common complaints about and current status of this theory. Evaluates and responds to Brown's advice. Speculates about future of career theory. (ABL)

  20. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  1. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  2. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of…

  3. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  4. Current status and future research in motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  5. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  6. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yongdong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  7. 助产士主导模式在产前照护中的发展现状及展望%Development status quo and prospect of midwives leading mode in prenatal care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱嵘; 周倩; 杨湘妹

    2016-01-01

    It summarized the status quo of developing prenatal care model both at home and abroad,it empha-sized to review the advantages,influencing factors of implementations and effect of prenatal care in the midwives leading model.Previous research focus on how to provide perinatal continuity of midwifery service model,but lack of research on prenatal care model for midwives.The mode of prenatal care for midwives has remarkable advantages in improving health status of pregnant women and birth outcomes,and all pregnant women should enjoy individual,continuous prenatal care provided by professional midwives.It is proposed that setting up the obstetric service guide and establishing the system of emergency plan to deal with the process.%综述国内外产前照护模式开展现状,着重回顾助产士主导模式下的产前照护的优势、具体实施及效果影响因素。现有研究多集中在如何提供围生期连续性助产服务模式上,缺乏针对助产士主导的产前照护模式的研究。助产士主导的产前照护模式在改善孕妇健康状态及分娩结局方面有显著优势,所有孕妇均应享受由专业助产士提供的个体化、连续性产前照护。提出应制定产科服务指南及建立系统的紧急预案处理流程。

  8. 民办小学体育教学条件现状探究——以惠城区小学为例%The Investigation of the Status Quo of the PE Teaching in Private Primary Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪浩; 李让代

    2012-01-01

    By using the methods of documentary, questionnaire investigation, on - the - spot investigation, interview and mathematical statistics,the basic situation of sports teaching condition, general development situation and teaching status of 5 private elementary schools in Huizhou. The results show that, the sources of students of the civilian - run elementary schools are different from those of the public elementary schools in Huicheng District , the teachers strength is in relative shortage, the sports funds is in lack, the sports equip- ments are not complete enough, the sports curriculum settings are not comparatively reasonable, and the status quo of the PE teaching is not optimistic. And 4 suggestions are proposed. This research has practical significance to the promotion of the development of the PE teaching of the private elementary schools in Huizhou.%运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、实地考察及访谈法、数理统计法,以城区5所民办小学为对象,对其体育教学条件的基本情况、发展概况、教学现状等方面进行调查探究,结果表明:惠城区民办小学的生源与公办小学不同;体育师资力量相对不足;体育专项经费欠缺;场地器材设备不齐全;体育课周课时数不足且常被挪用;体育教学现状不容乐观,对此提出4条建议。本研究对促进惠州市民办小学体育教学的发展有重要的现实意义。

  9. Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC √s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

  10. Current status of $\\varepsilon_K$ in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Weonjong

    2016-01-01

    We present the current status of $\\varepsilon_K$ evaluated directly from the standard model using lattice QCD inputs. The lattice QCD inputs include $\\hat{B}_K$, $\\xi_0$, $\\xi_2$, $|V_{us}|$, $m_c(m_c)$, and $|V_{cb}|$. Recently, FLAG has updated $\\hat{B}_K$, exclusive $|V_{cb}|$ has been updated with new lattice data in the $\\bar{B}\\to D\\ell\\bar{\

  11. Current Status of Deltabaculoviruses, Cypoviruses and Chloriridoviruses Pathogenic for Mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Becnel

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to three major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (DBVs) (Baculoviridae: Deltabaculovirus), cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus) and the iridoviruses (MIVs) (Iridoviridae: Chloriridovirus). Baculoviruses and iridoviruses are DNA viruses while cypoviruses are the main RNA viruses in mosquitoes. This review presents an overview of the current status and recent advancements in understanding the biology and molecular features of mosquito pathogenic viruses.

  12. Current Status and Development of National Grid in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With most primary energy resources far from load centers, the voltage level of power system in China has imperatively been upgraded to meet the demand of long-distance power transmission. The successful commissioning of the 750-kV HVAC line in Northwest Power Grid has opened an era of national grid devel opment and brought about a series of technical problems to be faced. This report introduces briefly the current status and policies of UHV development in China.

  13. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  14. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  15. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  16. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  17. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  18. Analysis of the Status Quo of Land Exploitation in Shizhu County of Chongqing Based on GIS%基于GIS的重庆市石柱县土地利用现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨沁汶; 安祺; 谢莹; 杨盼; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the data of land survey of Shizhu County of Chongqing in 2010,by using GIS technology,this paper selects land exploitation data to make systematic analysis of the status quo of land exploitation in Shizhu County from such three aspects as quantity and structure,spatial structure and exploitation intensity of land,and the results show that the forest land in Shizhu County is the largest,which is mainly distributed at the east region of the studied area,that arable land is the second largest,which is mainly located at northwest region and southwest region,that forest land,arable land and grass land account for 88.35 percent of the total land area of the County,and that land exploitation difference of each town is big and the overall land exploitation level is low.%以重庆市石柱县2010年土地调查变更数据为基础,利用GIS技术,选取土地利用指数,从土地利用的数量结构、空间结构和利用强度3个方面,对石柱县的土地利用现状进行了系统分析。结果表明:石柱县的林地最多,主要分布在研究区的东部;其次是耕地,主要分布在西北角和西南角;林地、耕地和草地3种地类占全县土地面积的88.35%;各乡镇土地利用程度差异大,总体利用水平较低。

  19. Production Status Quo of Ecological Organic Tobacco and Its Developing Strategies%我国生态有机烟叶生产现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟; 齐永杰; 邓宾玲; 韦建玉; 孙建生

    2013-01-01

    介绍了生态有机烟叶的概念和国内外生产概况,在分析生态有机烟叶具有外观质量、化学成分的协调性、评吸质量和安全性等优势的前提下,针对我国目前生态有机烟叶生产中存在的烟叶质量安全意识不高、生产技术标准不规范、商品有机肥成本较高、烟叶产量不高等问题,提出了开发生态有机烟叶要选择优良的生态环境、加大科技投入、实行标准化生产、提高产量等对策。%The concept of ecological organic tobacco and its production status quo in China and abroad were reviewed at first. Then, the advantages of ecological organic tobacco were analyzed, including appearance quality, coordination of chemical components, smoking quality and safety. But there were also some problems in production, such as weak safety awareness in tobacco quality, no standardized production techniques, relatively high cost of commercial organic fertilizer, and low tobacco yield. In the end, the developing strategies for ecological organic tobacco were put forward, including choosing great ecological environment, increasing technical input, applying standardized production, and increasing yield.

  20. 论公共部门人力资源管理者职业化的现状与路径%Status Quo and Way of Professionalism of Human Resource Managers in Public Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2011-01-01

    公共部门人力资源管理者的素质高低对公共部门形象和职能的实现以及人民群众生活质量有着重要影响,因而提高公共部门人力资源管理者的素质,就必须走职业化道路;我国目前公共部门人力资源管理者的素质和现状已经不适应我国由人力资源大国向人力资源强国转变的需要;必须通过建立健全职业资格认证制度,加强职业道德塑造良好的职业形象,注重自身职业生涯的开发与管理等途径实现.%The quality level of human resource managers in public sector is important to the image of public sector, functional realization and quality of people's life. So. we must take the professional road to improve human resource managers' quality in public sector. And, now, human resource managers' quality and status quo in public sector no longer meet the needs of China's human resources transformation. We must establish and improve the professional qualification certification system,strengthen professional ethics to create a good professional image, pay attention to their own career development and management.

  1. 湖南省农业野生植物资源现状与保护管理对策%Status Quo of Agricultural Wild Plant Resources in Hunan Province and Its Protecting and Administrating Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖顺勇; 陈欣欣; 徐阜良; 周建成; 张梦; 尹丽辉

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural wild plant resources and its endangered status quo in Hunan province were introduced at first. Then, the progresses in the protection of agricultural wild plants in Hunan province were expounded, and then the problems existing in its protection and management were analyzed, including protecting cognition needs to be improved; scientific research needs to be strengthened; financial input should be increased. Based on these, some countermeasures and suggestions for protection of agricultural wild plant resources in Hunan province were put forward, such as carrying out general survey and knowing resources; doing a good advertising and improving cognitions; doing monitoring and warning and understanding dynamics; making a layers of protection and establishing a grading area;perfecting system and strengthening supervision; scientifically researching and rationally using.%介绍了湖南省农业野生植物资源及其濒危现状,阐述了湖南省农业野生植物保护工作进展,分析了湖南省农业野生植物保护管理存在保护意识有待提高、科学研究有待加强、财政投入有待加大等问题,在此基础上,提出了开展普查,掌握家底;抓好宣传,提升意识;监测预警,掌握动态;层层保护,分级建区;完善制度,强化监管;科学研究,合理利用等湖南省农业野生植物资源保护的对策和建议。

  2. 云南省医疗机构制剂注册申报现状浅析%Analysis on Status Quo of Registration and Declaration of Pharmaceutical Preparations in Medical Institutions of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玫; 杨继红

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for the registration and declaration for pharmaceutical preparations in medical institutions. METHODS: The status quo of the registration and declaration for pharmaceutical preparations were analyzed in medical institutions of Yunnan province during 2005 -2011. The common problems of registration dossier were summarized. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The basic test data is not standardized in the declaration for pharmaceutical preparations in medical institutions, such as insufficient prescription and technology research, quality risk of preparation, neglected stability test, deficiency of pharma-codynamics study, toxicity and safety evaluation, etc. It is suggested to develop the registration and declaration for new pharmaceutical preparations by strengthening research collaboration and abiding by technical guidelines.%目的:为医疗机构制剂新品种注册申报提供参考.方法:对2005年至2011年云南省医疗机构制剂申报情况及注册审评工作现状进行分析,总结申报资料中普遍存在的问题.结果与结论:目前医院制剂申报中普遍存在基础性试验资料不规范如处方及工艺研究不足,制剂质量控制存在隐患,不重视稳定性试验考察,缺乏药效学研究、毒性和安全性评价等情况.建议申报人通过加强科研协作、并按相关技术指导原则进行新品种注册申报工作.

  3. 我国医师多点执业的现状及政策问题确认%Status Quo and Confirmation of Policy Issues on Multi-site Physician Practice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To definite the status quo and to ensure policy issues on the multi-site physician practice in China. Methods Combining qualitative research with quantitative research. Results The policy of the multi-site physician practice is a pilot project in China at present and the stockholders have different views on it. The pilot project is faced with several policy issues, such as reform of personnel system, medical quality assurance, medical dispute management and so on. Conclusion The policy of multi-site physician practice is an important measure that has been taken to optimize allocation of resources, mobilize the initiative of medical personnel, and promote the transform of public hospital. Meanwhile, we should tamp the foundation, plan effectively, strengthen the regulation, deepen the reform of personnel system and promote the policy step by step.%目的 明确我国医师多点执业的现状,并进行政策问题确认.方法 定性研究与定量研究相结合.结果 当前我国医师多点执业政策尚处于试点推行阶段,各方反响不一;政策的推行面临一系列诸如人事制度、医疗质量保障和医疗争议追究等体制、机制上的政策问题.结论 推行医师多点执业政策是优化资源配置、调动医务人员的积极性、推动公立医院改革的重要举措,但需夯实基础、合理规划、加强监督,逐步深化人事制度改革,促进政策的稳步推行.

  4. Status Quo of Small and Micro Rural Financial Services Personnel Training and Its Countermeasures%农村小微型金融服务人才培养的现状与对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽华

    2012-01-01

    With the progressive advance of the new village construction, small and micro businesses in rural areas continue to blossom and grow, but in financial services, rural finance cannot effectively meet the financial needs of small and micro rural economies. National policies and rural economic development are an urgent need to adapt to small and micro rural financial industry, yet the shortage of financial personnel constitutes a serious impediment to the financial services in the rural economy, hindering the healthy development of rural finance and rural economy. Targeted at the status quo of rural financial personnel, the paper offers the corresponding countermeasures against the problem in question from the perspectives of the personnel training environment, vectors and methods of small and micro rural financial organizations.%随着新农村建设的不断推进,小微型企业在农村不断发展壮大,但在金融服务方面,农村金融不能有效满足农村小微型经济体的金融需求.国家政策和农村经济的发展迫切需要适应农村的小微型金融产业,但目前的农村小微型金融人才缺失严重阻碍了金融服务在农村经济中发挥作用,制约了农村金融和农村经济的健康发展.针对农村金融人才现状,从农村小微型金融人才培养的环境、载体和方法等方面提出了相应的对策.

  5. NBA罚球命中率现状及训练方法探讨%An Exploration into the Status quo of NBA Penalty Hit Rate and Training Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞

    2012-01-01

    In the NBA games,the win-or-lose scenes by penalty line are becoming more and more,and the penalty hit rate counts most.By means of literature and video,we have conducted an investigation into the status quo of penalty hit rate in NBA games,and the findings show that the penalty hit rate in NBA games is very hard to improve and the main reason is that coaches do not attach importance to it.Owing to the reasons mentioned above,the author assumes that the method of combing suggestive training and self-suggestion should be applied to train players to form the good habit of penalty,helping the players to set confidence and to improve the penalty hit rate in games.%在NBA比赛中,罚球线上决定比赛胜负的场面是越来越多,罚球命中率则尤为关键。通过文献和视频资料法对NBA罚球命中率的现状进行分析,发现NBA的罚球命中率一直难以提高,而主要原因在于教练不够重视。针对此因,拟注重运用暗示训练和自我暗示相结合的训练方法,培养球员形成良好的罚球习惯,树立自信心,提升在比赛中的罚球命中率。

  6. Investigation of Developmental Status Quo of Cold Water Fishes Aquaculture in Shanxi Province%山西冷水性鱼类养殖发展现状调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于振海; 丁建华; 靖莹; 陈有光

    2011-01-01

    Through the spot investigation of aquaculture area, yield, aquaculture varieties and aquaculture mode for cold water fishes in Shanxi province, the status quo of cold water fishes aquaculture in Shanxi province were analyzed. According to the domestic and foreign development condition of cold water fishes, the aquaculture experience and natural resources in Shanxi province, it is suggested that the construction of healthy aquaculture system should be pushed forward from the aspects of water cycle, breeding of improved variety, disease prevention and nutrition feed, and some advices were proposed to exploit the development potential of cold water fishes by carrying out industry access system, brand strategy and establishing cooperative organization of cold water fishes.%通过对山西境内冷水性鱼类的养殖面积、产量、养殖品种、养殖模式的实地调研,分析了山西省冷水性鱼类养殖现状.根据国内外冷水性鱼类发展状况、省域内的自然资源条件以及养殖经验,建议从循环水养殖、良种选育、病害防治及营养饲料等方面推进健康养殖体系建设,提出通过实行冷水鱼养殖准入制度、实施品牌战略、建立冷水鱼发展合作组织等三方面挖掘冷水鱼发展潜力.

  7. ICU护士岗位核心胜任力现状调查及影响因素分析%Survey on status quo of ICU nurse post core competency and its influencing factors analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭爱霞; 郦珍芳; 周田田

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查重症监护病房(ICU)护士岗位核心胜任力,了解其影响因素,为提升ICU护士核心胜任力制定相应干预策略,为更好地提升护理服务质量提供科学依据。方法2015年1月采用发放问卷调查的方式,对三级甲等医院96名ICU护士进行问卷调查。结果 ICU护士核心胜任力总评分为(3.75±0.59)分,与学历、ICU工作年限、婚姻状况、常上班次有关,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 ICU护士核心胜任力处于中上水平,受学历、ICU工作年限、婚姻状况、常上班次的影响。因此,根据主要影响因素采取有效措施可提高ICU护士核心胜任力,也有助于提高危重症患者的护理质量和抢救成功率。%Objective To investigate the status quo of post core competency among ICU nurses and to understand its in-fluencing factors to formulate the corresponding interventional strategy and provide the scientific basis for better elevating the nursing service quality. Methods Totally 96 ICU nurses in the class 3A hospitals were investigated by questionnaire in January 2015. Results The total score of ICU nurses core competency was (3.75±0.59)points,which were related with the educational background,ICU working years,marital status and common work shift,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion The core competency of ICU nurses is in the upper level,which is affected by the educational background,ICU working years,marital status and common work shift. Therefore taking effective measures according to the main influencing factors not only can improve the nurse core competency ,but also increases the nursing quality and treatment success rate of critically ill patients.

  8. 脑瘫患儿父母希望水平现状调查及影响因素%Survey of status quo of hope level of cerebral palsy children’s parents and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖杰; 杨卫联; 郭冀丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status quo of hope level of parents of children with cerebral palsy,and analyze its influencing factors.Methods:A total of 100 parents of children with cerebral palsy were investigated by using basic information questionnaire and Herth hope scale.Results:The hope level score of parents of cere-bral palsy children was 32.78 ± 6.01.Education,working status,marital status,monthly family income and place of residence were the correlation factors of influencing the hope levels of parents of cerebral palsy chil-dren.Conclusion:The hope level of cerebral palsy children’s parents is affected by many factors.Nursing per-sonnes should provide targeted nursing support according to the specific circumstances of the parents of chil-dren,so as to improve the hope level of parents of children with cerebral palsy.%[目的]调查脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平现状,分析其影响因素。[方法]采用基本资料调查表及 Herth希望量表对100名脑瘫患儿父母进行问卷调查。[结果]脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平得分为32.78分±6.01分,学历、工作状况、婚姻状况、家庭月收入及居住地是影响脑瘫患儿父母希望水平的相关因素。[结论]脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平受诸多因素的影响,护理人员应根据患儿父母的具体情况,提供针对性护理支持,提高脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平。

  9. Status quo of British communities and their nurse prescribing rights%英国社区及其护士处方权现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进鹏; 韩世范

    2014-01-01

    综述英国社区在国家医疗体系中的位置、英国社区护士发展现状及其先进的护士处方权管理办法,为我国社区护理健康快速的发展提供参考。%It reviewed the position of British community in national health care system,nurses development status and advanced nurse prescribing rights management approach in British community,so as to provide a refer-ence for the healthy and rapid development of China’s community care.

  10. 农村教师的身份认同状况及其思考%The Status Quo and Reflection on Identity Crisis of Rural Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金奇

    2011-01-01

    农村教师的身份经历了由政治身份向专业身份的演变。文化资本与超负荷的工作承载使农村教师的自我认同度和社会认同度不高,直接影响到教师职业文化的继承与传递。政府要采取措施,实施均权的身份政策,尤其要通过提升农村教师的社会地位来提升农村教师的身份认同感。%The identity status of rural teachers has experienced the changes from political identity to professional identity. The cultural capital for the survival and overburden of teaching work have reduced the self-identity and social-identity of rural teachers, which has threatened the succession of teachers' culture. The government should take measures to carry out equal policy in identity, especially to improve the social status of rural teachers so as to promote the identity of rural teachers.

  11. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

  12. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources.

  13. 福建东山造礁石珊瑚资源现状及其保护%Investigating the Status Quo of Hermatypic Corals Resources and Its Protection in Dongshan Water Areas, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜峰; 陈明茹; 杨圣云

    2011-01-01

    hermatypic corals outside the nature reserve. If the investigations were expanded to the entire Dongshan water areas, it would be more helpful for obtaining a clearer picture of the coral biodiversity. The status quo of resources,biogeography distribution, as well as biological significance of hermatypic corals in the Dongshan water area were discussed. Threats to hermatypic corals, like irrational development activities,global climate change, and alien species invasion were comprehensively analyzed. Some ecosystem-based protection and management suggestions were given, including 1) strengthening public awareness and education, 2) enhancing supervision, 3) transforming the mode of economic growth, and 4) strengthening scientific research.%造礁石珊瑚是珊瑚礁生态系统的主要组成部分,具有重要的生态价值.福建东山珊瑚省级自然保护区面积3630hm2,核心区面积约1498hm2,已记录到的珊瑚虫纲动物共3目13科32种,其中石珊瑚目6科10种,有7种造礁石珊期属于国家Ⅱ级重点保护动物,并被列入世界CITES公约()附录Ⅱ.该海域是中国大陆近岸亚热带海域造礁石珊瑚群落自然分布的北缘.本文讨论东山造礁石珊瑚的资源现状、生物地理分布和生态学意义及其正遭受的不合理开发活动、全球气候变化、外来物种入侵等威胁,并提出以生态系统为基础的造礁石珊瑚的保护与管理对策.

  14. Research and application status quo of motivational interviewing%动机性访谈的研究及应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫江楠; 金昌德; 段晓佳

    2015-01-01

    It introduced the formation and development Motivational Interviewing (MI),MI theory foundation, principles and skills of MI,MI assessment tools and application status of MI.Tips should develop measurement tools suitable for China,to expand the application people and play the role of Motivational Interviewing in nurs-ing work.%介绍了动机性访谈的形成及发展、理论基础、原则及技巧、评价工具及应用现状。提示,应研制适合我国国情的测量工具,扩大应用人群,发挥动机性访谈在护理工作中的作用。

  15. XRF技术的应用研究现状概述%Review of Research on the Status Quo of XRF Technology Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑大千; 张焱

    2014-01-01

    XRF技术由于其卓越的技术特点,近年来被越来越广泛地应用于工业、环境、安全等众多领域之中。本文从应用领域角度出发,就XRF技术的应用研究现状进行了梳理与总结。%Because of the superior technical characteristics, XRF technology has been used widely in many areas of industry, envi-ronment, and security in recent years. In this article, the status of application of XRF technology has been combed and summarized from the applications perspective.

  16. 涉军网络舆情现状及对策研究%Research on the status quo and countermeasures of network public opinion involved the military

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娇; 杨林海; 周剑波; 刘拓

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current situation of military network public opinion, and combination of the problem existing in currently military’s solving the network incident involved public opinion, this paper puts forward some measures and countermeasures to strengthen the monitoring of military network public opinion.%文章根据涉军网络舆情的现状,结合目前部队网络舆情事件处置存在的问题提出了加强涉军网络舆情监控的几点措施及对策。

  17. The Status Quo of Rare-earth Three Primary Colors Phosphor for Lamps%灯用稀土三基色荧光粉的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振宇

    2012-01-01

    介绍了灯用稀土三基色荧光粉的发光原理、类型体系、发展过程、目前的市场情况,对其市场前景进行了预测,汇总了目前的研究课题。%The light-emitting principle,types of system,development process and current market situation of the rare earth three primary colors phosphor for lamps are introduced.Its market prospect is forcasted.The current research topics are collected.

  18. Women's Rights and Wedding Bells: 19th-Century Pro-Family Rhetoric and (Re)Enforcement of the Gender Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Researchers suggest that backlashes to feminism may appear in the form of pro-family campaigns. Social scientists have observed themes in the current pro-marriage movement to support this claim; others note historical cycles of pro-family backlash to feminism. This article is a sociohistorical analysis of texts from a leading organized advocate of…

  19. Women's Rights and Wedding Bells: 19th-Century Pro-Family Rhetoric and (Re)Enforcement of the Gender Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Researchers suggest that backlashes to feminism may appear in the form of pro-family campaigns. Social scientists have observed themes in the current pro-marriage movement to support this claim; others note historical cycles of pro-family backlash to feminism. This article is a sociohistorical analysis of texts from a leading organized advocate of…

  20. Status quo and strategy of AIDS knowledge among Uygur nurses%维吾尔族护士艾滋病KAP现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 李青; 王喜华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of AIDS knowledge among Uygur nurses to put forward corresponding measures. Methods 150 Uygur nurses from 20 hospitals in AIDS - hit areas in Xinjiang were investigeted by self- designed questionnaire, and the results were analyzed. Results Uygur nurses lacked comprehenaive knowledge of AIDS, the average understanding rate was 70.9%; their acceptability attitude for AIDS and patients was low, the average acceptability rate was 52.5%; nurses'behaviors related HIV occupational prevention should be standardized and strengthened, the average positive behavior incidence rate was 66.2%. Conclusions In order to play a paeitive role in AIDS prevention and cure in Xinjiang, Uygur nurses should be trained AIDS knowledge effectively, combining with practice status, decreasing their discrimination against AIDS and im-proving the awareness of HIV occupational prevention.%目的 了解维吾尔族护士艾滋病相关知识、态度、实践(KAP)等现状,针对所存在的问题,提出相应的对策.方法 采用自设问卷,对新疆艾滋病重点疫区20家医院的150名维吾尔族护士进行调查,对其结果进行统计学分析.结果维吾尔族护士的艾滋病知识掌握情况欠佳,平均知晓率为70.9%;对艾滋病及其患者的正性接纳态度呈较低状态,平均接纳率为52.5%,维吾尔族护士HIV职业防护行为有待于规范与加强,正性行为平均发生率为66.2%.结论 结合实际情况,采取有效途径,加强维吾尔族护士艾滋病知识培训,减少对艾滋病的歧视态度,提高HIV职业防护意识,以便维吾尔族护士在新疆的艾滋病防治工作中发挥积极作用.

  1. Study on the Status quo of Health Promotion and its Influence on Adoles-cents' Smoking%健康促进对青少年吸烟现状及其影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧; 王莉

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨健康促进对青少年吸烟现状的影响效果.方法 选取该市4所初级中学在读学生460名,采用抽签法将其分为对照组216名与观察组244名,对照组学生均采用常规健康教育方式控烟,观察组学生给予健康促进控烟干预措施,比较两组学生的干预效果.结果 观察组学生对控烟知识的了解程度及对学校禁烟制度的认同程度均显著好于对照组;观察组中初一学生与初二学生吸烟率均显著低于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 健康促进控烟干预能够积极提高青少年对吸烟与控烟的认知状况,良好抑制其吸烟行为,具有确切实施价值.%Objective To investigate the effect of health promotion on the status quo of smoking among adolescents. Methods Select 460 students from 4 junior middle school in the city, By using the method of drawing lots, it was divided into the control group of 216 and the observation group of 244, The students in the control group were used in tobacco control rou-tine health education, the observation group to give students health promotion of tobacco control interventions, To compare the effect of the two groups of students. Results The observation group of students on tobacco control knowledge and accep-tance of the school anti-smoking system were significantly better than the control group; In observation group, the smoking rate of grade one and grade two students were significantly lower than those in control group,the differences were statistical-ly significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Health promotion intervention can actively improve the cognitive status of smoking and smoking of teenagers, Can good inhibit their smoking behavior, with the exact implementation of value.

  2. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  3. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo;

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...... expectations for, the technique. The experts reached agreement on a number of statements and recommendations, which will support surgeons in adopting the technique. The panel agreed that the single-incision technique may offer a number of benefits to patients; however, further clinical data need...

  4. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  5. Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynska L. T.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

  6. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  7. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  8. Indirect dark matter searches: current status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many theoretical ideas for the particle nature of dark matter exist. The  most popular models often predict that dark matter particles self-annihilate or decay, giving rise to potentially detectable signatures in astronomical observations.  I will summarize the current status of searches for such signatures and critically reassess recent claims for dark matter signals.  I will further provide an outlook on anticipated developments in the next 10 years, and discuss new methods to facilitate strategy development.

  9. MicroRNAs of parasites: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Tuo, Wenbin; Gao, Hongwei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes at the post-transcriptional level. The complex life cycles of parasites may require the ability to respond to environmental and developmental signals through miRNA-mediated gene expression. Over the past 17 years, thousands of miRNAs have been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other parasites. Here, we review the current status and potential functions of miRNAs in protozoan, helminths, and arthropods, and propose some perspectives for future studies.

  10. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  11. Current status and future of Mo-99 supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). AIPES Reactors and Isotopes Working Group

    2016-01-15

    The global supply of Mo-99 relies on a limited number of research reactors and processing facilities. Its production is essential as medical diagnostic imaging techniques using Tc-99m account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures worldwide. The short half-life's of the radioisotopes requires a continuous supply. Several severe disruptions have been experienced over the past decade. Fortunately, the situation encouraged the industry to develop new projects and new production routes. The current status of Mo-99 supply is described and the efforts made to achieve a reliable Tc-99m availability for nuclear medicine is summarized.

  12. Current Status and Prospects of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xin

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Overview and Current Status of Utilization of China's Natural Gas Resources Natural gas as a green fuel with low carbon content can comply with the trend in the epoch for development of non carbonaceous energy source, and has a lot of advantages such as its abundance in resources, convenience in applica tion and cost competitiveness. The application of natural gas as a premium fuel has become a focus pursued aggres sively by international players, and the perspectives for gas demand growth will be better than that for oil globally.

  13. Current status and challenges in PEMFC stacks, systems and commercialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任远; 曹广益; 朱新坚

    2006-01-01

    The current status of worldwide developments of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks and system,research activities in resent years to analyze the cost of PEMFC stacks and systems, the remaining research and development issues that should be resolved before the PEMFC available for commercial application were discussed. The two main problems that challenge the PEMFC commercialization were cost and fuel supply infrastructure. The ways to lower the cost, to choose the fuel and improve the efficiency and reliability were described. To research the cost target of 125 kW and stack lifetime of 40 000 ~ 100 000h, basic research in PEMFC was indispensable.

  14. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandarkar Deepraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the various controversial issues surrounding the subject.

  15. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Newby, D E

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the heart has advanced rapidly, and it is now possible to perform a comprehensive assessment at a low radiation dose. CT myocardial perfusion imaging can provide additive information to CT coronary angiography, and is particularly useful in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries or coronary artery stents. A number of protocols are now available for CT myocardial perfusion including static, dynamic, and dual-energy techniques. This review will discuss the current status of CT myocardial perfusion imaging, its clinical application, and future directions for this technology.

  16. The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    2006-04-01

    The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

  17. FDA’s Proposed Regulations to Expand Access to Investigational Drugs For Treatment Use: The Status Quo in the Guise of Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Rossen, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    On December 14, 2006, FDA proposed two new regulations in the Federal Register amending current regulations governing expanded access to investigational drugs for treatment use and charging for investigational drugs. The proposal comes at a time when FDA has been under new pressure to provide seriously ill patients with early access to investigational drugs outside the framework of clinical trials. In recent years, patient advocacy groups have filed citizen petitions with FDA asking the agenc...

  18. Status quo of development of stretch hood packaging%拉伸套管膜包装的发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丁; 耿存

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the working process of stretch hood packaging, property demands and raw material formulae of hood-type stretch film, and application fields, market status and equipment supply of stretch hood packaging. The manufacturers in this industry already developed the packaged technologies for preparing the stretch hood and launched the products with puncture resistance, transparency and high elasticity which were considered as-the main property requirements of the stretch hood The market share of the stretch hood packaging has been expanding in the fields of logistics and packaging due to its excellent tension, outstanding packaging efficiency and favorable cost-saving.%综述了拉伸套管膜包装的工作流程,拉伸套管弹性套膜的性能要求和原料配方,拉伸套管膜包装的应用领域、市场现状和设备供应.抗穿刺性、透明性、高弹性是拉伸套管膜的主要性能要求,目前已开发出成套工艺并投放市场.拉伸套管膜包装因其出色的夹持力、优秀的包装效率和可观的成本控制等在物流包装领域的份额不断扩大.

  19. 舰艇惯性导航技术现状及发展趋势%Status Quo and Trends of Marine Inertial Navigation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 马林

    2011-01-01

    讲述了国内外海军舰艇用惯性导航技术的现状,分析并预测了发展趋势.简述了“舰艇用惯性导航技术”的技术特点和使用需求特点,从惯性敏感器技术和系统技术两个方面对“惯性导航系统”产品进行了分类.通过阐述技术特点与不同使用需求之间的对应关系,探寻技术发展方向;并以国内外舰艇惯性导航技术发展的历程进行佐证.%The status of domestic and overseas marine inertial navigation technology is introduced and the development trends of the technology are analyzed and forecasted, the characteristics and requirements in the use of marine inertial navigation technology are described. The productions of inertial navigation system are classified from inertial sensors technology and inertial navigation system technology. The correct development direction is selected by means of exactly grasping the characteristic of technology and the corresponding connection of the different requirements. The directions of development are clarified by retrospect of the development course of marine inertial navigation technology.

  20. On Western Theories of Middle Class and the Status Quo of China's Middle Class today%关于中产阶级的理论与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2005-01-01

    The middle class theory holds that when the middle class becomes the majority of a society, the social structure will be in a stable status,and vice versa.Most theorists agree on this logic. There are,however, contentions on two points about the middle class theory.One is about the social position of the middle class: some consider it to consist of the lower class and some just think the opposite. The other controversy is about whether the middle class is a united and homogeneous group, or a divided and heterogeneous one. In contemporary western societies, the middle class is the majority of the population, thus structurally making social stabilization possible in these countries. This experience is what China should draw on. It is a crucial problem about China's social structure that the middle class is too small and the lower class is too large. By analyzing China's several census data, the author predicts that it would take about 40 to 70 years for the China's middle class to become the majority of the society.

  1. The status quo of evaluation on clinical pathway and its implementation effect%临床路径及其实施效果评价的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞云

    2012-01-01

    介绍了临床路径的起源、概念、意义、国内外研究现状及实施过程中的病种选择、项目设置、评价指标、过程控制和变异等相关内容,探讨临床路径及实施效果的评价,促进临床路径在我国的推行和发展.%It introduced the origin, concept, significance, research status in a-broad and at home of clinical pathway, and related contents of disease selec-tion, the project settings,evaluation indexes,process control and variability in the implementation process of disease,project settings,and probe into the eval-uation on clinical pathway and its implementation effect and so as to promote the implementation and development of clinical pathway in our country.

  2. The Status Quo and Improvement Strategy of HSE Management%HSE管理工作当前现状及整改策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹波

    2013-01-01

    This paper through introduction of examples, desc-ribes and analyses the presence of HSE management problems, and ultimately makes the analysis through examples on the ex-isting problems of current HSE management, and puts forward the countermeasures.%  本文通过实例说明,对于HSE管理中存在的问题进行叙述和分析,最终旨在通过实例对我国当前 HSE 管理中的存在的问题进行分析,并提出对策。

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  5. Product ecodesign and materials: current status and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieux, Fabrice; Zwolinski, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of ecodesign in the industry and its future implications for materials. There is today more and more focus on the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. In particular, ecodesign aims at integrating environmental aspects during the product's design process as any other criterion, in order to reduce the life cycle impacts. Although a lot of product environmental impact assessment and Design for Environment tools already exist, environmental aspects are unfortunately rarely routinely integrated into product development process in the industry. This is mainly due to the fact that current ecodesign tools are little adapted to designers' practices, requirements and competencies. After the sequential and DfX paradigms, design of products is today maturing into Integrated Design, where multiple points of views and expertise have to be considered at the same time to progressively define the product.

  6. 护士职业幸福感现状及对开展优质护理服务的影响%Status quo of career happiness of nurses and its influence on carrying out high quality of nursing service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 张素霞; 易巧云

    2013-01-01

    It reviewed the concept of career happiness, status quo of nurses' satisfaction and subjective well - being,and analyzed the influence of career happiness of nurses on carrying out high quality of nursing service, and it thought that both influenced each other, promoted each other.%对职业幸福感概念、护士满意度和主观幸福感的现状进行了综述,分析护士职业幸福感对开展优质护理服务的影响,认为二者相互影响、相互促进.

  7. The Status Quo & Development of Printing & Consumables Industry in China 2012%2012年中国打印耗材行业现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕明珠; 许清丽

    2013-01-01

      中国打印耗材产业经历了从无到有、从小到大、从弱到强的发展过程,现已成全球耗材生产基地.国内市场当前是原装、通用、假冒耗材并存,市场销售总体下滑而其中细分市场连续供墨却正增长的现状.本文综述了其生产、质量、标准等方面的情况.,分析了国内、国际市场现状与前景.%Printing & consumables industry in China has experienced the development process from nonexistence to pass into existence, small to large, weak to strong, it is a global production base of consumables now. To sum up the situation of production, quality, and standard etc. The current domestic market is coexisted with the OEM, general used&fake consumables, the market sales decline overall in which the market segment&CISS are growing in current situation. The present situation and prospect of domestic and international markets are analyzed in this paper.

  8. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  9. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  10. On the Status Quo of Jiangxi Province Town,Reflection and Prospect%江西市镇研究的现状、反思与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万振凡; 卢飞龙

    2016-01-01

    The town is a historical product of the development of commodity economy, but also an important part of the regional social structure and multi -level marketing network.The study of the city and towns can be used as a window to interpret the social, economic, and culture of the historical period, and it can provide a historical reference for the construction of new urbani-zation.This paper intends to study the research status of Jiangxi in recent decades, through the comparison with other regional towns, the author believes that the study of Jiangxi should focus on the study of the field of vision, the study period and the re-gional development, the research on the theory and method of the research, and the research on the practical care and research data.%市镇是商品经济发展的历史产物,也是区域社会结构、多层级市场网络的重要组成部分。对市镇的研究,可以作为解读历史时期区域社会、经济、文化的窗口,也可为时下新型城镇化建设提供历史借鉴。对近几十年来江西市镇的研究现状进行梳理,通过与其他区域市镇研究进行比较后认为,今后江西市镇研究应该注重研究视野的拓宽,研究时段和地域的拓展,多学科研究理论和方法的融贯,研究取向的现实关怀与研究资料的发掘创新,从而深化市镇及其相关问题的研究。

  11. 工作流管理的发展历程和趋势%The Status Quo and Future of Workflow Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛; 黄力芹; 吴耿锋

    2001-01-01

    工作流管理被誉为信息系统的后勤,它让合适的人或软件在恰当的时间执行正确的工作,使计算机上的业务处理流程自动化。本文用历史的观点对工作流管理的发展历程进行了回顾,揭示了工作流管理对未来信息系统的影响。根据分析当前的工作流管理系统,我们总结出流程建模和系统结构方面的不足,并对工作流管理的未来发展趋势从建模和实施两个方面进行了预测。%Workflow management is known as the“logistics”of information systems.It can arrange suitable people or software to perform right tasks at right time,and automate business processes.In this paper,we review the evolution of workflow management in a historical view,and show its strong impact on future information systems.Through analyzing current workflow management systems(WFMSs),we generalize two deficiencies in workflow modeling and the system architecture of current WFMSs and predict the development trend of the two main aspects of workflow management.

  12. Status quo and influencing factors of disabilities caused by injury in Guangdong province%广东省伤害致残现况及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代金芳; 董晓梅; 宋卓平; 江明旭; 王畅; 王声湧

    2011-01-01

    .11%,30/157)与肇庆(19.72%,14/71)的比率明显高于清远(0.00%,0/55)与惠州(6.09%,8/131),4地区间的差异有统计学意义(x2=22.309,P<0.001);失火或烧烫伤致残在广州的比率( 10.83%,17/157)明显高于清远(0.00%,0/55)、肇庆(1.41%,1/71)与惠州(2.27%,3/131),在4地区间的差异有统计学意义(x2=17.826,P<0.001)。分类树模型揭示年龄、职业与城乡是伤害致残的主要影响因素,25~44岁年龄组人群的伤害致残比率最高(59.21%,151/255)。结论 广东省交通事故、跌倒或坠落、工伤、医疗事故、失火或烧烫伤是主要伤害致残类型,性别、年龄、城乡等因素与因伤致残有关联。%Objective To analyze the epidemiology status and risk factors of disabilities caused by injury in Guangdong province. Methods Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to identify 1530 subjects with disabilities (among them,415 disabilities caused by injury) ,in the villages or districts in the four regions of Guangzhou, Qingyuan, Zhaoqing and Huizhou in 2010. Subjects were interviewed by trained staff with self-made questionnaires about the status of the disabled ,then 415 disabled caused by injury were interviewed about the process of the injury causing disability. The variables in this survey included gender,regions,rural (urban) residences, occupation, age and injury style. The difference of injury were analyzed through x2 test,and the influencing factors were explored through classification tree model. Results The top five causes of disability were road traffic injury, fall, work-related injury, medical accident, scald or burn,accounting for 32.53 % ( 135/415 ), 21.45% ( 89/415 ), 12.77% ( 53/415 ), 8. 43% ( 35/415 ) and 5.06% (21/415) ,respectively. The proportion of male was higher than female in all disabilities caused by injury (295 male, 117 female, 3 unknown ). Female had higher proportion 8.55% ( 10/117 ) than male 3.05% (9

  13. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  14. Status quo of China's Fitness Instructor and Development Research%我国健身指导员队伍现状与发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志锋

    2014-01-01

    当前我国健身指导员无论是数量、质量及等级结构,与当今社会对该行业的需求极不对称,社会需求差距较大;这里面存在着年龄问题,专业知识问题,及本行业工作经验问题;同时从数量上看,专职人员少,有指导员称号的很少,指导力量相对薄弱,健身指导员行业需进一步发展,培训体制和人民的意识有待进一步提高。%Our fitness instructor either the quantity, quality and structure of the current level, and needs of the industry in to-day's society is very asymmetric, the larger gap between the needs of society;there exists the problem of age, expertise issues and problems in the industry work experience;while quantitatively, fewer full-time staff, there are very few instructors title, guiding force is relatively weak, fitness instructor industry needs further development, the people's awareness and training system should be further improved.

  15. Status Quo and Enlightenment for Recognition of Produce Brands%农产品品牌认知:现状与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔惠斌

    2014-01-01

    Currently, low recognition for produce brands has a direct effect on the development of agricultural markets, leading to consumers'"adverse selection", which results in the severe price fluctuations and farmers' low income. From the perspective of brand recognition, an exploration is made of the micro-factors affecting the development of agricultural markets by surrounding the"consumers-enterprises-governments-media"relationship. It is good to avoid price fluctuations for a better recognition of competitive produce brands.%当前,农产品市场品牌辨识度不高直接影响到农产品市场的发育,导致消费者“逆向选择”现象出现,引致的价格波动严重影响农户经济收入。因而以品牌市场辨识度为视角,基于现阶段消费者对农产品市场上的品牌认知现状,进一步围绕“消费者---企业---政府---媒体”四个角度来考察影响农产品品牌培育的微观因素,有利于规避农产品价格波动的风险,培育具有竞争力的农产品品牌。

  16. 机器人的研究现状及其发展趋势%Research Status Quo and Future Directions of Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航; 宋春华; 罗胜彬; 韦兴平; 刘小利

    2013-01-01

    对国内外最新的机器人产品及研究成果进行了广泛调研.介绍了工业机器人、农业机器人、微机器人、类人机器人、自重构模块机器人、清洁机器人和反恐防暴机器人等几种当前应用广泛和未来发展前景广阔的机器人.以工业焊接机器人为例分析了当前机器人产品和技术的不足,展望了未来机器人技术的发展趋势.%The latest robot products and research were extensively researched. Several robots with wide application prospects such as industrial robot,agricultural robot, micro-robot, humanoid robotrself-reconfigurable modular robot,cleaning robot and counterterrorism riot robot were introduced. Taking industrial welding robot as an example,the deficiencies of the current robot products and technology were discussed, and the development trend was analyzed.

  17. 我国冷链物流的现状分析与思考%The Analysis and Reflection on the Status -quo of China's Cold Chain Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦俭

    2014-01-01

    Demand birth supply and even spawned an absolutely new industry,cold chain logistics is in such a pattern generating a new logistics model.New Era With economic development,people's living standards and the quality of life is gradually improves,especially demand for food freshness increasingly,cold chain logistics is produced in such a demand.This paper focus on cold chain logistics,and make a detailed analysis about its current development,at the same time proposing some solutions to existing problems it has.%需求催生供应甚至一个行业的产生,冷链物流就是在这样一种模式下产生的新的物流模式。新时期随着经济发展,人们生活水平逐渐提升,生活品位也在逐渐改善,尤其对于食品新鲜程度的要求越来越高,冷链物流即是在这样一种需求中产生。文中以冷链物流为研究中心,对其发展现状进行了细致分析,在此基础上对其存在的问题提出了一些解决方案。

  18. 中国药膳的渊源、现状与思考%On Origin,Status quo and Reflections of Chinese Medicated Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周希瑜; 凌伯勋

    2011-01-01

    In recent 30 years,Chinese Medicated Diet is showing a vigorous development both in research and spread.It has become an urgent topic about how to achieve standardized management and safe use of medicated diet.This paper analyzes the history and current situation of medicated diet,and put forward some constructive suggestions and tentative ideas from a scientific and security viewpoint,in order to promote healthy development and standard management of Chinese Medicated Diet.%近30年来,我国药膳的研发与普及呈现出前所未有的蓬勃发展态势。实现药膳的标准化、规范化管理,保障药膳的食用安全,已成为一个十分紧迫的现实课题。本文在研究分析药膳的渊源及现状的基础上,从药膳的科学性与安全性角度提出了一些建议和构想,旨在促进我国药膳事业的健康发展与规范管理。

  19. 河南省金融市场现状分析%Analysis on Status Quo of Financial Market of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of financial market in Henan province is not optimistic. Small and mediumsized enterprises, listed companies and commercial banks are generally met with the money shortage problem. On the other hand, the surplus private capital is looking for investment. The commercial banks compete to launch financial products, the guarantee companies win over the depositors with high interest rates, and some are even engaged in illegal fundraising. Therefore, analyzing the financial market situation in Henan province is of great significance for the survival of SMEs, expanding employment, and the smooth development of economy in Henan province.%目前,金融市场形势不容乐观,从中小企业、上市公司,到各家商业银行,都普遍遭遇到"钱荒"的困扰,与此同时,过剩的民间资本在寻找投资的出口。商业银行竞相发布理财产品,担保业异化,高息揽储,更有甚者搞非法集资。因此,在当前的形势下,研究分析河南省金融市场现状对于中小企业的生存、扩大就业以及河南省经济平稳发展有着极其重大的现实意义。

  20. The Status Quo and Exploration of VFP Teaching in Medical Universities%医学院校VFP教学现状与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹非

    2014-01-01

    Visual FoxPro, as a public course for university non-computer majors, is particularly important for medical uni-versities. This paper first analyzed the common problems in the current computer teaching, and proposed some suggestions based on the characteristics of medical universities, aiming to stimulate students' enthusiasm and improve teaching effect through the teaching method reform.%Visual FoxPro是高校非计算机专业学生学习的一门公共课程,作为医学院校VFP教学尤为重要。本文首先针对目前计算机课程教学中经常出现的问题进行了分析,并且针对医学院校的特点提出了一些建议,通过这些教学方法的改革,来调动学生学习的积极性,提高教学效果。

  1. Research on Sport Tourism and Its Status Quo in Zhaoqing%肇庆市体育旅游的开展现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭分全

    2015-01-01

    肇庆是全国优秀旅游城市,体育旅游资源丰富,但体育旅游发展与其自身优势极不相称.采用问卷调查法、访谈法等研究方法对肇庆市体育旅游开展现状进行调查分析,阐述了其开展的特点,以期能为肇庆市体育旅游的发展对策提供实践参考依据.%Zhaoqing is the outstanding tourist city, rich in sports tourism resources, but the development of sports tourism is di sproportionate to its own advantage. Using questionnaires, interviews and other research methods, it carried out Zhaoqing sports tourism current situation investigation and analysis, and summarized its characteristics, in order to be able to provide practical reference for the development of Zhaoqing sports tourism.

  2. Analysis of the status quo of tourism promotion under the new norm%新常态下旅游宣传现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金婷婷; 姜亮

    2016-01-01

    Under the environment of the new economic norm, the tourism industry is also showing the new normal trend. Tourism promotion as an important marketing tool, in the promotion of tourism in the economy plays an important strategic position. This paper studies the propaganda methods and characteristics of the current situation of China in tourism propaganda, in order to provide theoretical support for the development of tourism economy.%在中国经济新常态的大环境下,旅游业也随之在各个方面展现出新常态的趋势。旅游宣传作为旅游业的重要营销手段,必然在推动旅游经济中起着不可或缺的重要战略地位。本文在旅游经济的新常态的确定研究下,对中国旅游宣传现状中的宣传方式和特点进行具体分析和研究,以期为旅游经济发展提供基础理论支撑。

  3. The Biofuel Debate – Status Quo and Research Needs to Meet Multiple Goals of Food, Fuel and Ecosystem Services in the Tropics and Subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The current biofuel debate is characterized by concerns about the environmental effects of large-scale biofuel plantations, controversies about GMO-based feedstocks and the recent global food crisis. Predictions for the development of the biofuel sector are either departing from the supply-side or the demand-side, but are mostly based on modelling efforts with an unclear experimental basis and only broadly defined economic settings. Results vary widely and tend to undervalue technical progress in processing efficiency or management-related increases in biomass yields. Moreover, calculations often neglect the impact of climate change, the need for irrigation and processing water, for soil fertility maintenance and the importance of socio-economic issues. Against these shortcomings and in view of several decades to centuries of Ecosystem Carbon Payback Times of most biofuel plantations, their future as a large-scale replacement for hydrocarbons will strongly depend on improved matter conversion efficiencies and successful prevention mechanisms for conflicts over land use.

  4. Analysis of the Research Status Quo of China' s Teacher Education%我国教师教育研究现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷婷; 栗洪武

    2012-01-01

    师范教育向教师教育的转型与发展,是目前教师教育理论研究中最重要和关键的问题。改革开放30年来,教师教育理论研究成果颇丰,学术研究的政策导引力渐强。本研究力图从三个维度:综述本身、政策发展、理论研究来构建立体框架,梳理和总结自1999年以来师范教育向教师教育转型之始至今,十多年关键转型期的重要研究成果,为转型后教师教育的新发展剥离浮藻、展露新生点。%The shift from normal education to teacher education is the most important and crucial isue in the current teacher education theory. Since 30 years' reform and opening up, the research on teacher education theory has produced fruitful achievements and academic research policy orientation is strengthening. This research tries to construct three-dimensional frameworks: summeary itself, policy developement and theory research. It sorts out and summarizes the important research results in the more than ten years' transitional periods since 1999 when China began to shift its orientation from normal education to teacher education. It is aimed to move towards the new development of teacher education.

  5. Tick-borne Diseases (Borreliosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis) in German and Austrian Dogs: Status quo and Review of Distribution, Transmission, Clinical Findings, Diagnostics and Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchev, Nikola; Pluta, Silvia; Huisinga, Elke; Nather, Stephanie; Scheufelen, Miriam; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schweinitz, Andrea; Hampel, Herwig; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2015-08-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of

  6. On the Status Quo and Development Strategies of College Newspapers%高校校报发展现状及对策探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春刚

    2012-01-01

    我国高等院校校报,是高校党委和行政的机关报,也是高校重要的思想舆论阵地。自第一份校报创刊以来,我国高校校报已经走过了百余年的历程。随着时代的变换,校报也在不断发展、完善,但在当今仍避免不了出现一些诸如作品内容单一、副刊语言新闻化等问题。针对这些问题,就需要编辑从策划、内容的选择与修改、版面设置、校对等环节多加注意,这样才能使校报有更好更快的发展。%College newspaper is not only the organ/official newspaper of CPC (Communist Party of China) univer- sity committees and university administrative agencies but also a stronghold for ideological education and public o- pinion supervision at colleges and universities. Since the first college newspaper came into being, the development of college newspapers in China has spanned over one hundred years. As the times progress and society advances, college newspapers are developing in tandem. However, there are still many problems facing the current develop- ment of college newspapers, such as the content being monotonous, the language being too journalistic, etc. To solve these problems, college newspaper editors need to pay more attention to newspaper planning, content selec- tion and modification, page layout, collation, etc. , so as to promote a better and faster development of college newspapers henceforward.

  7. 我国物流业现状和经营战略选择%The Status Quo of China's Logistics Industry and Business Strategic Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶忠康; 迟桂华

    2012-01-01

    我国现代物流业的现状制约着我国物流业与国际闾的有效接轨.同时也为我国物流业进一步发展壮大提供了动力与发展空间;我国物流业的问题在一定程度上影响国民经济的发展尤其是服务业的发展。企业要想适应不断变化的市场需要,提高其核心竞争力,必须制定企业物流经营战略,适时、有效地整合其物流资源,我国物流业经营战略选择的依据是:立足于本土优势是战略选择的基础;可供物流企业选择三种经营战略模式是:传统外包型;战略联盟型;综合物流运作模式。%China's modem logistics industry current situation restricting China's logistics industl.'y and international h) conform effectively, but also for China's logistics industry develop further provides power and space for development of logistics industry in China; the problem to a certain extent, affected the development of the national economy especially the development of service in- dustry. If the enterprises want to adapt to changing market needs, enhance its core competition ability, must develop enleprise logistics management strategy, timely, effective integration of logistics resources, China's logistics industry strategic choice of operating basis is: Based on the local advantages is the strategic choice of basis; for logistics enterprises strategic model of operation is: three traditional outsoureing; strategic alliance; integrated logistics operation mode.

  8. Discussion on Waste Recycling Tetra Pak Aseptic Package Status Quo%对我国废弃利乐无菌包回收利用的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓蓉

    2014-01-01

    Waste of resources and environmental pollution caused by waste Tetra Pak is the current problem to be solved. Analysis of the domestic and foreign recycling situation about waste Tetra Pak pointed out that the European Union and the United States and other developed countries have developed a relatively complete waste Tetra Pak recycling regulations, the recovery rate of waste Tetra Pak is more than 70% in some EU countries. Although China has been specializing in waste recycling business on Tetra Pak, but recycling system is imperfect, corresponding laws and regulations are not perfect and the recovery less than 20%. Tetra Pak recycling industry needs government’s promotion, concerns of the whole society and help of relevant legislation. We should improve the recovery rate of waste Tetra Pak by measures such as develop relevant policies and regulations reduce the number of productions, establish reasonable logistics recycling system and so on.%废弃利乐包造成的资源浪费以及环境污染问题是当前需要解决的问题。分析了国内外废弃利乐包回收利用状况,指出欧盟及美国等发达国家已制定了相对完善的废弃利乐包回收法规,欧盟一些国家对废弃利乐包的回收率高达70%以上。我国虽然已有专门从事废弃利乐包回收的企业,但回收体系不完善,相应的法规不健全,废弃利乐包的回收率不到20%,利乐包的回收产业需要政府的推动、相关立法的帮助和全社会的关注与配合,应通过制定相关政策法规、减少利乐包的生产数量、建立合理的物流回收处理体系等措施,提高废弃利乐包的回收率。

  9. 创客运动的国际现状分析%Analysis of the international status quo of the Maker Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2016-01-01

    随着互联网和新技术的快速发展,人们对信息资源、软件工具的获取变得越来越便利。3D 打印技术和开源硬件、软件也为创客的实践活动提供了物质基础,推动了全球创客运动的蓬勃发展。创客运动因其“开放性”、“创造性”、“实践性”以及“教育性”的特点,吸引了国内外政府、企业、学校以及社区的普遍关注。文章采用文献分析法,主要聚焦于更加广泛的创客运动的讨论,分析了国际上推动创客运动的组织机构和相关研究报告及文章,等,通过对国外创客运动的现状分析,以期为我国创客运动的发展提供方向,同时为我国创客教育的探索提供启示。%With the rapid development of the Internet and new technologies,access to information resources and software tools is becoming increasingly convenient.3D printing technology as well as open source hardware and software can provide material basis for makers'activities,thus promoting the rapid development of the global Maker Movement.Because of its open,creative,practical and educational characteristics,the Maker Movement attracts attention from governments,enterprises,schools and communities at home and abroad.By making literature analysis and focusing on discussion of the more extensive Maker Movement,this paper analyzes international organizations that promote the Maker Movement and relevant research reports and articles.Through analyzing the international current situation of the Maker Movement,we intend to point out direction for the development of the Maker Movement in China,and provide enlightenment for the exploration of maker education in our country.

  10. 临床护理人员护理继续教育现状分析%Analysis of the status quo of nursing continuing education for clinical nursing staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莎莎; 尼春萍; 吕美娜; 郭明贤; 张银铃; 黄叶莉; 马金凤; 邵佩

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To analyze the status quo of continuing education of clinical nursing staff,to know about the influencing factors of nursing continuing education, so as to provide evidences for scientific unfolding continuing education. Methods: A total of 2 727 clinical nursing staff from 10 comprehensive hospitals in China were selected randomly and were investigated anonymously by adopting the "clinical nursing staff continuing education questionnaire ".All data were analyzed in delineation by adopting SPSS software package. Results:More then 92.0% nursing staff recognized the necessity and importance of nursing continuing education and 90.1% nursing staff thought that the objective of nursing continuing education was to obtain knowledge and upgrade their skills. Factors influencing nursing staff to take part in nursing continuing education mainly included insufficient energy and time( 68. 7 %) ,insufficient opportunities(48. 6%) and funds problems(44.5%). Conclusion: To update concept, to strengthen recognition and scientific coordination,to stimulate power and to expand channels,so as to achieve the ultimate goal of nursing continuing education.%[目的]分析临床护理人员继续教育的现状,了解护理继续教育的影响因素,为科学开展继续教育提供依据.[方法]随机抽取国内10所综合医院临床护理人员2 727人,使用"临床护理人员继续教育问卷"进行调查.[结果]92.0%以上的护理人员认识到护理继续教育的必要性和重要性,90.1%护理人员护理继续教育的目的是荻取知识、提升技能,影响其参加护理继续教育的因素主要是精力和时间不足(68.7%)、机会欠缺(48.6%)及经费问题(44.5%).[结论]更新观念、强化认识,科学统筹、激发动力,拓宽渠道、突出实效,切实达到护理继续教育的最终目的.

  11. The Status Quo and Future Policy Development of Research Infrastructures in the EU%欧盟大型科研基础设施概述及政策走向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勤

    2015-01-01

    European Research Area (ERA) was initiated aiming at pooling the advanced resources in science and technology and providing innovative solutions to meet the socioeconomic challenges in the world. Research Infrastructures (RIs) acts as an important component, to serve as an effective platform for joint research, to create more opportunities of research and innovations, and to promote exchanges of knowledge and experiences among the multi-disciplinary researchers in various EU member states. The article studies the status quo and the future roadmap of the RIs development in the EU, and analyzes the management structure, funding, legal arrangement, operational procedures, evaluation methodologies, international cooperative activities and future policy framework, which can be taken as clues and models in developing the research infrastructures in China.%欧盟研究区建设的主要目标是统筹科技优势资源,集中一切力量为当今世界面临的经济社会挑战提供科技与创新解决方案.科研基础设施是其重要组成部分,为跨成员国和跨不同区域的科技人员提供高效的联合研究平台,创造研发创新机遇,促进知识积累与经验共享.本文对欧盟及其成员国科研基础设施建设状况及其未来发展路线图进行总体研究,就其建设与运行的管理结构、资金投入、法律安排、程序运作、评估方式、国际合作,以及未来政策走向进行系统分析,为我国的大型科研基础设施和创新体系建设提供有益的线索和经验借鉴.

  12. 基于Web设计的我国985高校体育网站现状%Status Quo of the PE Websites of China's 985 Project Universities Based on Web Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董埙

    2012-01-01

    摘要:综合运用网络调查法、文献资料法和数理统计法对我国985高校体育网站Web设计现状进行调查。结果显示:我国985高校体育网站Web设计水平偏低,主要表现在导航系统设计可用性偏低,平面设计缺乏美感,文本排版缺乏可读性和易读性,栏目内容过于行政化,缺少以Web用户为中心的设计,内容的原创度较高,但充实度低,扩展性较差。鉴于此,建议储备专业技术人才,建立网站建设团队,实行网站建设的责任制,转变网站设计理念等方面入手,提高我国高校体育网站设计水平。%By the ways of web survey, literature study and statistics, the author made an investigation of the status quo of the web design of the PE websites of the 985 Project universities in China. The result shows that the web design level is low. The usability of navigation design is at a lower level. The graphic design lacks sense of beauty and the typesetting lacks readability and legibility. The contents of the columns are too administrative and lack the web-user-centered design. The originality of the contents is relatively high, but the enrichment is low and the expansibility is unsatisfactory. Therefore, the paper suggests restoring professional talents, forming a website construction team, assuming a responsibility system of website construction and transforming the web design concept so as to improve the design level of the university PE websites in China.

  13. Status Quo, Problems and Thinking of Economy and Trade Cooperation between China and Russia%中俄经贸合作现状、问题及其思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向洁; 何伦志; 闫海龙

    2016-01-01

    China is close to Russia and they have a similar development strategy .However , their long-term bilateral re-lation often manifests the situation of “hot politics and cold economy”, and the potential of their economic and trade co-operation has not yet been released in full .As the outbreak of Ukraine crisis , western sanctions against Russia , the choice of Russian “east” development strategy , the new norm of China′s economy and the raising of “One Belt And One Road” in 2013, especially under the background of the silk road economic belt and the Eurasian economic union joint co -operation , all of above new situations give the cooperation between China and Russia in economy and trade a new require -ment and opportunity .This paper uses an entry point that the new background of the economy and trade cooperation be -tween China and Russia to analyze the status quo , problems and difficulties of them , and puts forward some ideas about deepening the cooperation of the two countries in economy and trade .%中俄地理相邻,发展战略高度契合,但双边关系长期“政热经冷”,经贸合作潜力释放不足。随着乌克兰危机爆发、西方对俄制裁、俄罗斯“东向”战略选择,以及中国经济进入新常态、“一带一路”等国际国内新形势的出现,特别是在“丝绸之路经济带”与欧亚经济联盟对接合作的新背景下,中俄经贸合作有了进一步提升的要求和契机。本文以中俄经贸合作的新背景为切入点,分析探讨新形势下中俄经贸合作的发展现状、面临问题与困境,提出深化中俄经贸合作的若干思考。

  14. 同步发电机励磁控制研究的现状与走向%Status quo and future trend in research on synchronous generator excitation control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英铎; 谢小荣; 崔文进

    2001-01-01

    Excitation control of synchronous generator is one of the mosteconomic and effective control measures in power systems. Research in this field has been very active for a long time and will continue to be attractive in the future. To advance the theoretic study and engineering application of excitation control, and in the long run to improve the security, stability and quality of today's large-scale power systems, this paper deals with various issues on the topic of generator excitation control. Firstly, some key problems concerning this topic are clarified. An overview is then given for the history and status quo of designing excitation control. The authors also try to establish some general conclusions on several basic problems and bring forward a few hard nuts deserving researchers' further efforts. Prospective progress in the research of generator excitation control depends on the fact that researchers and engineers in this area take a practical and realistic attitude in solving both theoretic and practical problems.%同步发电机励磁控制是电力系统最经济和有效的控制手段之一,是一个非常活跃的研究领域。为促进励磁控制理论研究和工程应用的进一步开展,并最终提高现代大型电力系统的安全稳定性和运行质量,论文阐明了这一研究领域的核心问题所在,比较全面地概括了其发展历史与现状,试图在一些主要问题上与众多研究者取得共识,并提出了进一步研究工作应该面对的重点课题。电力系统发电机励磁控制理论与方法的不断进步,有赖于广大科研工作者和工程人员本着实事求是的科学态度,走出误区,脚踏实地解决理论和实际问题。

  15. 新疆高技术产业发展现状及趋势分析%Status Quo and Trend Analysis of th'e High and New Technology Development in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋香荣; 苏斌; 唐小玉

    2012-01-01

    From the static and dynamic perspectives, this paper conducts a systematic comparative analysis of the status quo and trends of the development of high - tech industry in Xinjiang. First, the high - tech industry with higher profit in Xinjiang is mainly funded with domestic companies, the local enterprises are smaller, hut there is still a gap with other regions; The senior technical staff has a high proportion, but it is short of technology agency personnel total. Second, the key industry of the high - tcch industry in Xinjiang is obvious, the industrial structure tends to optimize. Third, the development of high - tech industry in Xinjiang is accelerating, and the contribution volatility of the national economy rises up. However, new product development is not enough, output rate continuing trend is low, the rate of new products export is high ; technology expenses speed up, funding sources and expenditure structure need to be optimized. In the end, this paper concludes the main factors that hinder the development of the high - tech industry in Xiujiang and make relevant recommendations%本文首先从静态和动态两个角度对新疆高技术产业发展现状和趋势进行系统性对比分析得出:其一,新疆高技术产业主要以内资企业为主,本地企业规模较小,产业利润率较高,但与我国其他地区相比仍有差距;高级技术人员占比高,但科技机构人员总量匮乏。其二,新疆高技术产业重点产业突出,产业结构趋于优化。其三,新疆高技术产业发展速度加快,国民经济贡献度波动上升。但新产品开发力度不够,产值率持续下降,且新产品出口率偏高;科技经费支出增速加快,资金来源和支出结构有待优化。最后总结出阻碍新疆高技术产业发展的主要因素并提出相关建议。

  16. On the Status Quo and Cultivation of ELF Learning Motivation for Non-English Majors%非英语专业大学生英语学习动机的现状与培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏维; 王珍妮

    2015-01-01

    现今,英语正在从一门课程逐渐地向人人都需掌握的一种工具演变。研究者们也对英语学习过程进行了诸多探讨,其中影响英语学习过程的情感因素包括动机、态度、性格、年龄、性别等。其中,学习动机是直接影响学习效果的重要因素之一,然而我国大部分非英语专业的大学生对英语学习缺乏学习动机。因此,英语教师们如何激发学生的学习动机已经作为重要的教学目标之一。由此,分析非英语专业大学生英语学习的现状及特点,有助于培养学生英语学习动机可行性策略的研究和定位。%At present, English is gradually evolving from a course to a tool that everyone should mas-ter.The previous researchers have explored the process of English learning and one is the major concern is affective factor underlying English learning process, including motivation, attitude, character, age and gender, among which learning motivation is one of key direct influential factors.However, most non-English majors lack motivation of learning English.Therefore, it becomes one of the important teaching objectives for the teacher to inspire students’ learning motivation.And to analyze the status quo and characters of non-English majors’ English learning is helpful to study strategies and orientation of in-spiring students’ English learning motivation.

  17. Status Quo of Community Nurses Based on Mode of Family Doctor%家庭医生服务模式下社区护士工作现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媚珍; 潘美珠; 苏琼英; 邹思梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解深圳市家庭医生服务模式下社区护士的工作现状。方法采用自制调查问卷,对深圳市24个社区健康服务中心共186名社区护士进行调查。结果家庭医生服务模式下,深圳市社区护士目前最常做的工作主要有:基本医疗服务(81.3%)、健康管理(76.1%)、计划免疫(75.8%)、儿童保健(75.0%)、老年人保健(74.5%)、慢性病管理(72.3%)、健康教育(71.7%)以及计划生育指导(68.0%),而传染病管理(56.7%)、精神卫生保健(56.6%)、残疾人管理(56.3%)等工作开展相对较少。结论深圳市社区护士的工作内容既有基础医疗服务,又有公共卫生服务,已逐步向社区"六位一体"的功能扩展,但还需针对工作中开展不足的项目逐步完善。%Objective To understand the status quo of community nurses based on the mode of family doctor in Shenzhen. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was conducted among 186 community nurses from 24 community health service centers in Shenzhen. Results The work of community nurses based on the mode of family doctor included basic medical service, health management, immunization, health care of children and the elderly, chronic disease management, health education and guidance of family planning. But very few nurses carried out mental health care and management of disabled persons. Conclusion There are both basic medical service and public health service in the work of community nurses in Shenzhen. The integrated mode of “Six in One” among community nursing is gradually improved and great emphasis of nursing should be put on the full implementation of community health care.

  18. 医院护士工作绩效现状及其影响因素的调查分析%Status quo of job performance and its influencing factors among clinical nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹吉善; 史沙沙; 崔文香

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the status quo of job performance and its influencing factors among clinical nurses.Methods 903 of clinical registered nurses from 5 comprehensive hospitals in Jilin province were investigated by the questionnaire.Results The level of job performance of clinical nurses from these 5 comprehensive hospitals in Jilin province was high,the average score of it was (3.345±0.442).The score of six dimensions followed by high and low were as followed:critical care,leadership,professional development,communication,planning and teaching.Some factors such as the title of a technical post,possession of spouse,classification of hospital,empowerment and organizational support were considered as the related factors via multiple regression analysis.Conclusions The leader should pay attention to empowerment and organizational support,so as to promote the job performance.%目的 探讨医院护士工作绩效的现状及其影响因素.方法 采用便利抽样法对吉林省5所综合医院的903名临床注册护士进行问卷调查,了解其工作绩效现状及影响因素情况.结果 护士工作绩效得分为(3.345±0.442)分,以重症护理能力和人际/沟通能力2个维度得分最高.经过多元回归分析得出影响护士工作绩效的主要因素有:职称、配偶情况、医院级别、授权赋能行为和组织支持感.其中授权赋能行为、组织支持感对护士工作绩效影响较大.结论 护理管理者应创造良好的组织支持系统,以利于护士授权赋能行为环境的形成,进而提升护士的工作绩效.

  19. Status quo of training demands of nursing staff in three grade class A general hospitals in Shenzhen city%深圳市三级甲等综合医院护理人员培训需求现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小梅; 丁小容; 李敏红; 曾杏珍; 余颖娟; 梁桂玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]了解护理人员对院内培训的培训内容、培训方式、培训时间的需求现状,为制订针对性的培训提供依据。[方法]采用整群抽样的方法对深圳市3家三级甲等综合医院654名护理人员采用自行设计的问卷进行调查,并进行统计学分析。[结果]护理人员最希望培训的内容为专科知识,而不同的群体之间培训内容需求又存在一定的差异;对不同的培训内容希望有不同的培训特点并采取不同的培训方式;80.6%护理人员希望培训时间能够具有一定的灵活性和自主选择性。[结论]培训内容应因人而异,不同的培训内容应采取不同的培训方式,同时培训本身能有一定的灵活性以增强培训效果。%Obj ective:To know about the status quo of training demands of nursing staff for training content,training methods and training time,so as to provide the basis for formulating targeted training.Methods:A total of 654 nurses were surveyed by adopt cluster sampling method and self de-signed questionnaire in three grade class A general hospital in Shenzhen city.Related data were statistical analysed.Results:The most training con-tent nursing staff hope was specialized knowledge.And training content re-quirements existed certain differences between different groups.Nursing staff hope different characteristics for different training contents,and adopt different ways of training.80.6% of nursing staff hoped that the training time have a certain flexibility and independent selectivity.Conclusion:The training content should be different from person to person.Different ways of training should be adopted for different training contents.At the same time,training itself can have a certain flexibility in order to improve train-ing effect.

  20. 国内大学图书馆博客服务现状调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis of Status quo of Blog-based Services in Domestic University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国秀; 亢成业; 白益彪

    2012-01-01

    通过对国内96个大学图书馆博客网站的网络调查,从建站单位、建站时间、单位属性、博文数量及访问量、主题内容、建站平台等6个方面,对国内大学图书馆利用博客提供服务的现状进行全方位的分析和研究,得出4点结论:①国内大学图书馆的博客服务只在部分图书馆进入成熟应用阶段,而在大多数图书馆还处于初期尝试阶段;②学科馆员博客是目前国内大学图书馆提供博客服务的首选形式;③读者协会博客的活跃表现显示出大学图书馆在新的网络环境下的广阔前景;④以免费公共平台托管方式建站是国内大学图书馆最常见的博客建站方式:%After investigating 96 domestic university libraries' blogs, this paper analyzes the status quo of the blog-based services from the aspects of affiliated library, date of blog launched, blog traffic of access, blog subject and content, platform and sofiware used. There are four conclusions drawn : ( 1 ) While a few university libraries have entered a successful phase on the blog-based services, the most are still at an early stage; (2)The subject librarian blog is the most common type; (3)The reader-association blogs are very actives, it reflects the wide prospect of domestic university library in the new network environment; (4)The free business hosting is the most common mode selected by the blog constructors.

  1. Status quo and Future Development of Industrial biotechnology in EU%欧盟工业生物技术研发现状及发展趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勤

    2014-01-01

    欧盟是现代工业制造业的发源地,长期保持着工业技术的世界领先水平。欧委会根据全球高新技术日新月异的快速发展及其重要性,以及欧盟相对处于世界领先地位的技术优先领域,扬长避短确定了欧盟工业可持续发展的六大关键势能技术(KETs)。工业生物技术,作为欧盟优先确定的六大关键势能技术之一,欧盟己制定具体的优惠政策和行动举措给予重点扶持,旨在提升欧盟先进制造业的世界竞争力,促进经济增长和扩大就业。通过综合研究分析欧盟工业生物技术及产业的发展现状、研发创新、面临的挑战和未来发展趋势,旨在为我国战略性新兴技术产业的可持续发展,提供有益的路径和经验借鉴。%European Union ( EU ) is the cradle of modern industrial manufacturing, and has been maintaining the leading position in the global manufacturing industries. Based on the trend of high technology development and European countries’ comparable advantages in industry technology, EU identified six key enabling technologies (KETs) to promote the sustainability of European industrial development. As one of the key KETs, industrial biotechnologies have been taken as a priority and therefore fully supported by the EU through developing a series of favorable policies and measures, aiming at promoting EU’s leading role in advanced manufacturing industry in the world, enhancing its economic growth and creating more job opportunities. This article overviews the status quo, research and development, challenges and future trend of industrial biotechnology in EU, so as to provide valuable experiences and clues for the development of emerging technology industries with strategic importance in China.

  2. 老人院老年人孤独感与依恋的现状及其影响因素研究%Research on status quo of loneliness and attachment of the elderly at retirement home and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩倩; 张青; 陈秋杏; 王亚楠; 傅涵涵; 龚雪; 黄毅

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the status quo of loneliness and attachment of the elderly at retirement home and its influencing factors and probe into the relationship between loneliness and attachment of the elderly at re-tirement home.Methods:A survey was conducted on A total of 150 elderly people were drew out in retirement home in Wuhan city and were investigated with Intimacy Experience Scale and elderly loneliness questionnaires. Results:Gender,with or without children,monthly income and self care ability were the influencing factors of the elderly’s loneliness.Education level and monthly income were the influencing factors of the elderly’s attach-ment anxiety.Attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety were positively correlated with loneliness.Conclu-sion:Retirement home should make measures based on the influencing factors of the elderly’s loneliness,so as to reduce the elderly's attachment avoidance and medical anxiety and improve their mental health level.%[目的]分析老人院老年人孤独感和依恋的现状及其影响因素,探讨老人院老年人孤独感与依恋的关系。[方法]抽取141名武汉市老人院老年人,采用亲密关系体验量表和老年人孤独感问卷进行问卷调查。[结果]性别、有无子女、月收入、自我照顾能力是老年人孤独感的影响因素,受教育程度和月收入是老年人依恋焦虑的影响因素;依恋回避、依恋焦虑与孤独感呈正相关。[结论]老人院应针对老年人孤独感的影响因素制定策略,减轻老年人的依恋回避和依恋焦虑,提高其心理健康水平。

  3. 中国对中亚地区投资现状及其比较分析%The Status Quo of Chinese Investment in Central Asia and the Comparative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钦; 许云霞

    2012-01-01

    通过对中国与中亚五国的投资现状及比较分析发现:中国与中亚地区经济贸易互补性强,投资发展势头良好。当前的主要问题是缺少对中亚国家经济实力和资源禀赋的深入分析,投资在地区分布上不均衡,层次低、规模小、效益差等不足;中亚各国投资和政策的环境不断改善,但投资保障和优惠力度却与经济实力成反比;中亚各国外高投资政策法律规范性较差,投资环境存在风险因素。中国政府应综合运用各种手段,促进经济技术对接;通过对中亚地区的援助项目,加强技术输出,推动经贸与投资的有机结合;充分发挥新疆的区位优势,促进中国对中亚地区和投资发展,稳固开拓中亚市场。%Analyzing the status quo of China's investment in five Central Asia countries, we find that China and Central Asia have strong economic and trade complementarity with favorable investment trend. However, problems are to be resolved, including a lack of in-depth analysis on the economic strength and resource endowment of Central Asia countries; and uneven, low level, small scale and poor efficient regional investment. Although these countries' investment and policy environments are improving, the investment safeguard measures and privileges have an inverse relationship with the economic strength. In addition, the investment policies and laws are poorly standardized, bringing about investment environmental risk factors. In order to expand the Central Asia market, Chinese government should take mea- sures to strengthen economic and technical links; promote technical output and integration between economy, trade and investment by means of aid projects in this region; give full play to the geographical advantages of Xinjiang to promote the investment in Central Asia.

  4. 湘潭地区高中男子篮球队的现状与对策研究%Countermeasures Research on Status Quo of the High School Basketball Team in Xiangtan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 王艳

    2014-01-01

    本文通过文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法和数理统计法等方法,对湘潭地区高中男子篮球队的现状进行了调查,并在分析研究基础上提出建议:学校应该做好“体教结合”提升队员的文化成绩;在湘潭地区高中篮球队从业教练员工作时间外,为他们提供继续学习和深造的机会,鼓励和支持湘潭地区高中篮球队从业教练员到高校或文化培训机构进一步学习,丰富教练员的文化修养,提高他们的整体综合素质,增强他们的业务水平,最终提升湘潭地区高中篮球队的整体质量;完善学校的训练场地、器材,提供一个安全、高效的环境。%Through using the method of literature review , interview, questionnaire and mathematical statistics , this paper makes analysis on status quo of the high school basketball team in Xiangtan , and puts forward the suggestions on the basis of analysis and research: schools should increase cultural achievements of athletes with combination of education and sports .In Xiangtan area , outside working hours , high school basketball team coaches should have opportunity to continue to study , and encourage and support them further study and enrich their culture life, improve their overall quality , improve their business level , eventually improve the overall quality of the Xiangtan area high school basketball team;Improve school training venues , equipment, provide a safe and efficient environment .

  5. 胃癌靶向治疗的研究现状与进展%Research status quo and progression in targeted therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯睿; 张小田; 杨升

    2016-01-01

    HER family include the Cetuximab, Nimotuzumab, Matuzumab, Panitumumab and Erlotinib which are aimed at HER-1, the Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and T-DM1 (trastuzumab emtansine) which are aimed at HER-2, and the Lapatinib and Afatinib which are the multi-target agents of HER. The agents which target VEGF signaling pathway include the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab), the anti-VEGFR drugs (Ramucirumab, Apatinib, Sorafenib, Sunitinib and cediranib), and the recombinant fusion protein (Aflibercept). The LY294002, BEZ235 and Everolimus which are aimed at PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway have shown great promise. Bortezomib has been researched more as a new agent which targets NF-κB signaling pathway. Currently, only Trastuzumab, Ramucirumab and Apatinib have been completed the stage 3 clinical trials and succeeded. In future , researches should focus on multi-target agents or applications in combination treatment. This review collects the recent researches and the clinical trials to summarize the current state and progress of research on gastric cancer targeted therapy.

  6. 越南高校汉语师资现状分析%The Analysis of Status Quo of Chinese Teachers in Vietnamese Universities and Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮文清; 曾小燕

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the current situation of Chinese teachers in Vietnamese universities and colleges from three aspects from the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives, including the teachers��basic information such as the age, gender, numbers and educational background, the relevant policies of higher education in Vietnam such as the working time, the re⁃search requirements and the payment, and the policies by the Ministry of Education such as setting up Chinese major in differ⁃ent degrees, i.e., degree from junior colleges, bachelor��s degree, master��s degree and doctoral degree. In sum, there are eight problems:1. The distribution of teachers��age and gender is unreasonable. 2. The proportion between teachers and students is unbalanced. 3. Teachers��speciality and the courses they teach cannot match with each other. 4. Teachers are poorly paid and they lack the initiative of doing research. 5. Teachers are not totally qualified and they have to fulfill a lot of administrative work. 6. The outstanding local Chinese teachers are not sufficient. 7. There isn��t any related TCSL journal, association for Chi⁃nese language teachers, or forum for Chinese teaching. 8. The guidance by the Ministry of Education or the Vietnamese Higher Education Institutions is insufficient. In order to improve the present situation of Chinese teachers in Vietnamese universities and colleges, this paper puts forward some corresponding suggestions.%立足于宏观与微观的视角,从教师的基本信息,包括年龄、性别、数量和学历;高校相关政策制度,包括教师的工作时间、科研要求和薪酬待遇;教育部对高校开设汉语专业点的相关政策,包括开设“专、本、硕、博”汉语专业点的规定等三个方面,对越南高校汉语教师的现状进行了调查分析。越南高校师资存在的问题可总结为以下8种:1.越南高校汉语教师年龄和性别结构不合理;2.高

  7. Current status of severe acute respiratory syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-He Nie; Xin-Dong Luo; Jian-Zhong Zhang; Qin Su

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also called infectious atypical pneumonia, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV). It is mainly characterized by pulmonary infection with a high infectivity and fatality.SARS is swept across almost all the continents of the globe, and has currently involved 33 countries and regions, including the mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North America and Europe. On June 30, 2003, an acumulative total reached 8450 cases with 810 deaths. SARS epidemic was very rampant in March, April and May 2003 in the mainland of China and Hong Kong. Chinese scientists and healthcare workers cooperated closely with other scientists from all over the world to fight the disease. On April 16, 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) formally declared that SARSCoV was an etiological agent of SARS. Currently, there is no specific and effective therapy and prevention method for SARS. The main treatments include corticosteroid therapy,antiviralagents, anti-infection, mechanical ventilation and isolation. This disease can be prevented and controlled, and it is also curable. Under the endeavor of the Chinese Government, medical staffs and other related professionals,SARS has been under control in China, and Chinese scientists have also made a great contribution to SARS research.Otherstudies in developing new detection assays and therapies, and discovering new drugs and vaccines are in progress. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of SARS in China.

  8. [Renaissance of immuno-oncology for urological tumors : Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M-O; Winkler, Y; Fetter, I; Oppel-Heuchel, H

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has gained new importance in oncology. Current research is focused on the cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints. The CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (melanoma) as well as the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and pembrolizumab (melanoma) are approved for the treatment of metastatic disease in Europe. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (re)activate the immune system against cancer cells and appear to be more effective than current standards for many tumors. The toxicity profile is favorable but involves new so-called immune-related side effects, which need to be recognized and treated in time. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are also currently being tested in uro-oncology in phase 3 trials relevant for approval status. Based on this it is to be expected that immune checkpoint inhibitors will become a new standard (as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy) in the early lines of therapy in the near future and replace the previous standard therapies, particularly for metastasized renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cancer.

  9. Current Soil Nutrient Status of Intensively Managed Greenhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yun-Cai; SONG Zhi-Wen; LU Wen-Long; C.POSCHENRIEDER; U.SCHMIDHALTER

    2012-01-01

    Nine districts covering the main greenhouse vegetable areas in Tianjin Municipality of the North China Plain were selected for the soil investigation in 2010 to survey the current soil nutrient status (soil available N,P and K),acidification and salinization due to excessive input of fertilizers in greenhouses in Tianjin. The study showed that,in particular,soil available P content increased with the age of greenhouses.In contrast,our results did not reveal higher K accumulation and lowered pH in the greenhouse soils compared with cultivation in open fields.Over-fertilization,causing high NO3- accumulation,most likely resulted in salinity problems in the greenhouses.Ninety percent of the investigated greenhouse soils had electrical conductivity values of saturated paste extracts of 2-10 d S m-1,which might affect the yields of vegetable crops like green bean,pepper,cabbage,carrot,eggplant,lettuce,spinach,celery,cucumber and tomato. The findings of our survey of the current fertility and salinity problems in greenhouse soils suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the farmers' practices and strategies in fertilization management in greenhouses of China.Because education and the agricultural technical extension services may play a more important role in avoiding overuse of fertilizers,we suggest that current nutrient management practices should be improved in the near future through training of local farmers in farmers' schools and through strengthening the agricultural extension services with practical techniques.

  10. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  11. 医务人员服务现状的调查与分析%An Investigation and analysis of the status quo of the medical staff services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯山; 李顺民; 杨曙东

    2015-01-01

    目的::调查深圳市中医院医患关系的现状、医德医风现状和医务人员服务意识等情况。方法:2013年9月在深圳市中医院对患者采取面对面和电话访问的方式完成1555份样本调查,对医务人员采取自填问卷调查的方式完成695份样本调查,调查人员以亲身体验的方式完成12份样本调查。结果:调查发现导致医患关系紧张的主要原因是医疗纠纷的处理机制不健全、媒体报道不当、医院的管理制度不到位等因素,而医护人员的服务态度、医护人员的责任心不强也是影响医患关系的重要因素;深圳市中医院的医务人员对患者的服务意识较强,但在医患沟通方面仍有待提升;医院医务人员总体满意度为69.74分,介于一般满意和比较满意之间;患者总体满意度为82.88分,距离患者的期望值还有一定差距。结论:深圳市中医院的平均日诊量较大,医务人员数量不能满足工作需要,同时管理制度的落实有待加强;应加强对医护人员的沟通技巧培训,一线医务人员的服务规范、服务效率有待提高;在医院管理的细节方面应加强制度建设和完善服务措施。%Purpose To make an overall investigation concerning currently running doctor-patients relationship, doctor’s ethics and ethos, as well as staff’s consciousness of service in Shenzhen Chinese Medicine Hospital. Investigation Starting in Sep of 2013, an investigation was expanded in Shenzhen Chinese Medicine Hospital. 1555 patients separately submitted their questionnaires through a face-to-face or phone call interview, and 695 people among medical staff fulfilled their answer forms in a self-administered way. Besides, there are 12 questionnaires done by investigators personally according to their self-experience.Outcome The survey explains an unharmonious relationship between doctor and patient is most likely to be caused by several

  12. Running Vacuum in the Universe: current phenomenological status

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Joan

    2016-01-01

    I review the excellent phenomenological status of a class of dynamical vacuum models in which the vacuum energy density, $\\rho_{\\Lambda}=\\rho_{\\Lambda}(H)$, as a function of the Hubble rate, evolves through its interaction with dark matter and/or through the accompanying running of the gravitational coupling $G$, including the possibility of being self-conserved with a nontrivial effective equation of state. Some of these models have been used to incorporate into a single vacuum structure the rapid stage of inflation, followed by the standard radiation and cold dark matter epochs all the way down until the dark energy era. Remarkably, the running vacuum models (RVM's) render an outstanding phenomenological description of the main cosmological data at a level that is currently challenging the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model, thereby implying that present observations seem to point to a running vacuum rather than to a rigid cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in our Universe.

  13. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  15. Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Guang

    2011-01-01

    We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

  16. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  17. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  18. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  19. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  20. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  1. The current status of world protection for mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengyun, Zhang; Zhixian, Su; Qiaoying, Zhang; Aiying, Shen

    2003-09-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other nonforestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people. Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood produets from the mangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world’s mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world’s mangrove forests.

  2. [Current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, M; Abe, M

    1989-03-01

    The current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumor is reviewed. Heating methods include external heating, intraluminal heating and interstitial heating, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Hyperthermia alone has significant effects on deep-seated tumors. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has been widely applied, resulting in 10-15% complete regression and 10-40% partial regression in the treatment of locally advanced tumors. The response rate of thermoradiotherapy was higher than that of radiotherapy for tumors in the brain, rectum and esophagus in the non-randomized study. The clinical application of thermochemotherapy is increasing and its effect is demonstrated in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. Reports of serious complications are rare. The technology for deep-heating and thermometry, and the new criteria for the assessment of thermotherapy for deep-seated tumors seems a promising new treatment modality.

  3. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  4. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  5. Current status of minimally invasive endoscopicmanagement for Zenker diverticulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Aiolfi; Federica Scolari; Greta Saino; Luigi Bonavina

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment ofpharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the pastcentury. Developments in minimally invasive surgeryand new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigmchange. The concept of dividing the septum betweenthe esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting thepouch itself has been revisited during the last threedecades and new technologies have been investigatedto make the transoral operation safe and effective. Theinternal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum.

  6. The Current Status of World Protection for Mangrove Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征云; 苏智先; 张桥英; 申爱英

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other non-forestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people.Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood products from the nangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world's mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world's mangrove forests.

  7. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiangcan; XU Qiujin; HUANG Changzhu

    2005-01-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status,mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes.Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now.Lake eutrophication has become a

  8. Investigation on the Status Quo and the Influencing Factors of"Soft Skills"of Nursing among Junior Nurses%低年资护士护理软技能现状及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐艳

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:Investigate the status quo and influencing factors of soft skills of nursing among junior nurses in minority areas, and provide reference for setting training schemes for nursing staff. Methods:A total of 175 junior nurses in minority areas were investigated by administering the Assessment Scale for Soft Skills of Nursing. Results:The average total score of soft skills of nursing was 176.33±16.59 and the average score in Professional Sentiment was 29.06±3.33. Both were significantly higher than nationwide norms (P0.05). Marital status was discovered as an influencing factor of the"soft skills"among junior nurses (P<0.05、P<0.01). Conclusion:The junior nurses'"soft skills"of nursing in minority areas were better than the nationwide norm. However, it is still suggested that nurse managers should take active and responsive measures to strengthen their"soft skills", bridging the gap caused by marital status and other factors.%  目的了解少数民族地区低年资护士护理软技能水平状况,为制定护理人员培养策略提供参考依据。方法采用护理软技能测评量表对175名延边朝鲜族自治州低年资护士进行问卷调查。结果少数民族地区低年资护士护理软技能总分为176.33±16.59分,职业情操维度得分29.06±3.33,均高于全国常模(新护士),具有统计学意义(P<0.05);护理软技能5个维度中,自我管理维度得分最高(37.32±4.37),认知技能维度得分最低(22.85±3.34),与全国常模(新护士)比较无统计学意义(P>0.05)。婚姻状况成为低年资护士护理软技能影响因素(P<0.05、P<0.01)。结论少数民族地区低年资护士护理软技能高于全国常模(新护士)水平,但护理管理者仍需有针对性的加强低年资护士护理软技能的培养,减少因婚姻情况等原因造成的影响。

  9. Analysis of status quo and risk factors of self efficacy in elderly patients’fall%老年病人跌倒自我效能现状及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽红; 宋锦平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status quo of self efficacy in elderly patients falling and to analyze risk factors of elderly patients fall.Methods:A total of 105 elderly inpatients in our hospital were selected from June 2014 to May 2015 and were divided into fall group with 36 cases and control group with 69 cases according to whether there were fall events during the recent one year or not.Modified Falls Efficacy Scale(MFES)was a-dopted to measure the self efficacy in elderly patients’fall.Berg balance scale(BBS)and the Biodex balance func-tion test training system were applyed to measure balance function of elderly patients.And Biodex gait analysis training system was applied for gaits analysis of patients.Results:After fall event,the MFES score in fall group was significantly lower than that in control group(P<0.05).Self efficacy of elderly patients was related to ma-rital status,educational status,emphasis and body mass index.The self balance feeling of patients in fall group was lower than that in control group.The fall index and the variation index of the left and right foot pace were higher than that of patients in control group(P<0.05).The average leg speed in walking process in fall group was slower than that in control group(P<0.05).Conclusions:In view of the self efficacy factors that affected the fall of elderly patients,corresponding intervention measures should be put forward to improve the quality of life of elderly patients,aiming at the influencing factors of self efficacy of elderly patients’fall.%[目的]调查老年病人跌倒自我效能的现状,分析影响老年病人跌倒的危险因素。[方法]选择2014年6月—2015年5月在我院住院老年病人105例,根据近1年来有无发生跌倒事件分为跌倒组36例和对照组69例。采用修正版跌倒效能量表(MFES)测量老年病人跌倒的自我效能情况,采用Berg平衡量表(BBS)及Biodex平衡功能测试训练系统测量老年病人的平衡功能。采

  10. Endodontic Biofilm: Quo Vadis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatiana Ramírez Mora

    2016-01-01

    .... However, the evidence of biofilm along the root canal system and the inability of current instruments and irrigants to eliminate bacterial biofilm have built a barrier toward a higher favorable...

  11. 我国高校信息公开网站建设现状调查与优化对策%Survey of the Status Quo of Construction and Optimizing Countermeasures of University Information Dis- closure' s Website in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海群; 吕红

    2012-01-01

    为了解我国高校信息公开网站建设现状,采用网络调查法,对2417所高等学校的信息公开网站进行调研。将我国高校信息公开网站建设情况归纳为外部、内在、依申请公开、用户及网络效应五大属性进行阐述,并分析高校信息公开网站存在的问题,提出相关优化建议。研究结果可为我国高校信息公开网站的研究和实践提供指导和借鉴。%In order to understand the construction status quo of university information disclosure websites in China, this paper makes a study of 2 417 websites of university information disclosure through method of online survey. The author expounds the construction status quo of the university information disclosure websites for external, internal, according to apply for public, user and network effect five properties, makes an analysis of the existing problems of the websites, and puts forward the optimizing countermeasures. The empirical results can provide guidance and reference for research and practice of university information disclosure' s website in China.

  12. Research progress on status quo of psychological distress in malignant tumor patients and its related factors%恶性肿瘤病人心理痛苦现状及相关因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩满霞; 陈华英

    2016-01-01

    [目的]了解国内外恶性肿瘤病人心理痛苦的现状及其相关因素的研究进展,为心理痛苦的后续研究及临床应用提供方向和指导依据。[方法]查阅国内外有关恶性肿瘤病人心理痛苦的文献资料,对心理痛苦的概念、评估工具、不同病种的病人心理痛苦的现状及整体相关因素进行分析和综述。并讨论这些研究深度和广度的局限性以及临床需求。[结果]国内外检索出以“肿瘤”和“心理痛苦”或“心理困扰”的文献较多,主要涉及某一单一肿瘤类型病人的心理痛苦的调查研究,且国外研究多于国内的研究。[结论]国内外学者均对肿瘤病人心理痛苦进行了相关调查研究,但研究范围仍比较局限。国内研究处于起步阶段,相关研究较国外少且评价工具不统一,对其相关影响因素的分析也各有侧重。因此,应进一步统一心理痛苦的评估工具,扩大对不同病种的研究,并对相关影响因素进行较为全面的分析,以此指导我国心理痛苦的临床治疗和护理。%Objective:To know about the research progress on status quo of psychological distress in malignant tumor patients and its related factors in abroad and at home,so as to provide direction and guidance for the fur-ther research on psychological distress and its clinical application.Methods:The literatures on psychological dis-tress in malignant tumor patients in abroad and at home were checked out.The concept of psychological dis-tress,assessment tools,the status quo of psychological distress in patients with different diseases and the overall related factors were analyzed and reviewed.And it discussed these limitations of the research depth and breadth and clinical needs.Results:In abroad and at home the retrieved literatures on “tumor”and “psychological pain”or “psychological distress”were more,mainly referred to the investigation on psychological distress in

  13. Status quo of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogris, Sotirios; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2010-02-01

    Paediatric nephrolithiasis is quite challenging in terms of management because of the smaller size of the urinary tract and the bigger risk for stone recurrence. Children bear a higher risk of metabolic and infectious causes of stone disease and a longer lifetime risk for recurrence, especially in cases of residual fragments. Complete stone clearance should become the absolute objective and clinically insignificant residual fragments should be avoided. Nowadays, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) arises as a logical first-line treatment option for considerable paediatric nephrolithiasis as miniaturization of endoscopes and advances in energy sources for stone fragmentation have facilitated stone-free rates. In this review we present the evolution of PCNL in children and we demonstrate its safety and efficacy. As appropriate instruments are available and relevant surgical experience is accumulating, age should no longer exist as a limiting factor for performing PCNL.

  14. China's Nylon Industry Status Quo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The overall situation of China's nylon industry allows of no optimist from Jan. to May this year, presented in the following aspects: stable growth of output, small decrease of rate of production and marketing, downward trend of both imports and exports, and rapid falling of profits.

  15. Forest research and education: the status quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards and climatic extreme events cause serious damages to human populations all around the globe. Such events are supposed to increase in the future, as a result of climatic changes mainly induced by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. Foresters are needed to cope with such natural hazards, to manage forest ecosystems in a sustainable way, in order to counteract future catastrophic events and climatic changes. Foresters have a sound interdisciplinary preparation in several different biological and geophysical fields and, thus, unique professional skills to manage forest ecosystems as a whole. However, recently a worrying decline of interest of the Academia in forest research has been recorded worldwide. This journal Forest@ aims at showing how important forest-related education and research are for a sustainable management of the Earth.

  16. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    To secure the validity and applicability of stated preference measures in economic analysis, hypothetical preferences must mimic real life preferences. For instance, people have a propensity to prefer what they already have when presented with alternatives that, all things being equal, seem...

  17. Status Quo Of Drug Supervision in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Drugs are a special kind of commodity used to prevent,treat and diagnose diseases.Effective supervision of drugs has a great bearing on ensuring the safe use of pharmaceuticals by consumers and on safeguarding the right to lire and health of the general public.The Chinese government has always attached great importance to supervision over drug safety,and has always been commltted to the goal of strengthening such supervision and guaranteeing public drug safety.

  18. Software-defined anything challenges status quo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Wayne; Borders, Tammie

    2015-01-01

    INL successfully developed a proof of concept for "Software Defined Anything" by emulating the laboratory's business applications that run on Virtual Machines. The work INL conducted demonstrates to industry on how this methodology can be used to improve security, automate and repeat processes, and improve consistency.

  19. Current status of myelin replacement therapies in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey K; Franklin, Robin J M

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the human central nervous system characterized by immune-mediated myelin and axonal damage, and chronic axonal loss attributable to the absence of myelin sheaths. There are two aspects to the treatment of MS-first, the prevention of damage by suppressing the maladaptive immune system, and second, the long-term preservation of axons by the promotion of remyelination, a regenerative process in which new axons are restored to demyelinated axons. Medicine has made significant progress in the first of these in recent years-there is an increasing number of ever more effective disease-modifying immunomodulatory interventions. However, there are currently no widely used regenerative therapies in MS. Conceptually, there are two approaches to remyelination therapy-transplantation of myelinogenic cells and promotion of endogenous remyelination mediated by myelinogenic cells present within the diseased tissue. In this chapter, in addition to describing why remyelination therapies are important, we review both these approaches, outlining their current status and future developments.

  20. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  1. Current Status of the Daejeon Ion Accelerator Complex at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sung-Ryul; Chang, Dae-Sik; Hwang, Churl-Kew; Lee, Seok-Kwan; Jin, Jeong-Tae; Oh, Byung-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Daejeon ion accelerator complex (DIAC) is being constructed at Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI) in order to fulfill an increasing demand for heavy ion beam facilities for various purposes including structural material study, biological research and nanomaterial treatment. The accelerators in the DIAC are designed to produce heavy ion beams with energies up to 1 MeV/u and beam currents up to 300 μA. [1–4] In this article, current status of the DIAC construction is presented and discussed. The DIAC facilities are designed to handle stable non-radioactive beams. According to user demand, the separated two ECR sources (i.e., an 18 GHz KEK – the high energy accelerator research organization ECR ion source with a metal oven and a 14.5 GHz KAERI ECR ion source) together with low energy beam transport line (LEBT) can supply linacs with both metal and non-metal ions. From the successful full-power test results, we confirmed that the IH and RFQ linacs work properly and then they are ready to accelerate heavy ions up to 1.09 MeV/nucleon. Since all tests and reorganization of the integrated control system were successful, it is supposed that the DIAC is now ready for beam tuning. Presently, construction of radiation shielded walls and radiation safety licensing are now in progress.

  2. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  3. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  4. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alday PH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available P Holland Alday,1 Joseph Stone Doggett1,2 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Oregon Health & Science University, 2Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, therapeutics, preclinical medicine, experimental medicine, mechanism of action, Apicomplexa

  5. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harutoshi; Sugiyama; Toshio; Tsuyuguchi; Yuji; Sakai; Rintaro; Mikata; Shin; Yasui; Yuto; Watanabe; Dai; Sakamoto; Masato; Nakamura; Reina; Sasaki; Jun-ichi; Senoo; Yuko; Kusakabe; Masahiro; Hayashi; Osamu; Yokosuka

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage(PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and Pub Med using the keywords "PBD", "pancreaticoduodenectomy", and "obstructive jaundice". Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention.

  6. Current status and progress in gastric cancer with liver metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; CHEN Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM), involving the routes, subtypes, and prognosis of GCLM; the genes and molecules associated with metastasis;the feasibility and value of each imaging modality; and current treatment options.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2005 to August 2010. The search terms were "gastric cancer" and "liver metastasis".Study selection Articles regarding the characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and vadous therapeutic options of GCLM were selected.Results The prognosis of GCLM is influenced by the clinicopathological characteristics of primary tumors, as well as the presence of liver metastases. Improved understanding of related genes and molecules will lead to the development of methods of early detection and targeted therapies. For the diagnosis of GCLM, each imaging modality has its relative benefits. There remains no consensus regarding therapeutic options.Conclusions Early detection and characterization of liver metastases is crucial for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Multidisciplinary team discussions are required to design optimal treatment strategies, which should be based on the clinicopathological characteristics of each patient.

  7. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. PMID:28182168

  8. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloska, Stephan P; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed.

  9. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Current status of cerebral glioma surgery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jin-song; ZHANG Jie; ZHUANG Dong-xiao; YAO Cheng-jun; QIU Tian-ming; LU Jun-feng; ZHU Feng-ping; MAO Ying; ZHOU Liang-fu

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of gliomas is highly individualized.Surgery for gliomas is essentially for histological diagnosis,to alleviate mass effect,and most importantly,to favor longer survival expectancy.During the past two decades,many surgical techniques and adjuvants have been applied to glioma surgery in China,which lead to a rapid development in the field of cerebral glioma surgery.This article broadly and critically reviewed the existing studies on cerebral glioma surgery and to portrait the current status of glioma surgery in China.A literature search was conducted covering major innovative surgical techniques and adjuvants for glioma surgery in China.The following databases were searched:the Pubmed (January 1995 to date);China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (January 1995 to date) and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (January 1995 to date).A selection criterion was established to exclude duplicates and irrelevant studies.The outcome measures were extracted from included studies.A total of 3307 articles were initially searched.After excluded by abstracts and full texts,69 studies conducted in the mainland of China were included and went through further analysis.The philosophy of surgical strategies for cerebral gliomas in China is undergoing tremendous change.Nowadays Chinese neurosurgeons pay more attention to the postoperative neurofunctional status of the patients.The aim of the glioma surgery is not only the more extensive tumor resection but also the maximal safety of intervention.The well balance of longer overall survival and higher quality of life should be judged with respect to each individual patient.

  11. Investigation and analysis on status quo of grasping knowledge about palliative nursing of nurses in Shanghai%上海市护士姑息护理知识的现状调查与原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹敏

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查分析上海市护士姑息护理知识掌握现状,找出护理人员姑息护理知识结构上存在的问题,针对存在的主要问题提出相应建议.方法 应用Ross等研制的姑息护理知识问卷(PCQN),利用整群抽样方法对上海市9所医院973名护士进行问卷调查.结果 最终939名护士完成调查.PCQN评分为(8.88±2.51)分.上海市护士对姑息护理知识掌握情况不尽如人意,护士在姑息护理的哲理与原则[维度1,(0.376±0.009)分]、心理社会和精神支持[维度3,(0.310±0.008)分]两方面的知识较薄弱,对疼痛和症状控制方面的掌握程度[维度2,(0.496±0.005)分]优于其他两方面,维度1与维度2、3比较,t=-1 1.787、5.465,P< 0.01;维度2与维度3比较,t=19.673,P<0.01.结论 教育和培训的缺乏、相关机构重视不够及传统观念的限制造成了护士姑息护理知识结构的缺陷.%Objective To investigate and analyse the status and influential factors of nurses' palliative care knowledge in Shanghai city.Methods Using cluster sampling method,a questionnaire survey using Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) was conducted on 973 nurses in 9 hospitals of Shanghai city.Results 939 nurses completed the survey whose scores were 8.88±2.51.The status quo of palliative care knowledge of Shanghai nurses were not very desirable.The scores of palliative care philosophy and principles and psychological,social and spiritual support were 0.376±0.009 and 0.310±0.008.The scores of knowledge of the pain and symptomcontrol was 0.496±0.005,which was better than the other two aspects.There were differences between dimension 1 and dimension 2,3 (t=-1 1.78,5.465,P<0.01),and also between dimension 2 and 3 (t=19.673,P<0.01).Conclusions Lacking of education and training,insufficient recognition of related institutions and the limit of traditional ideas caused the defect in the knowledge structure of palliative nursing.

  12. 安徽省专科护士人力资源现状及管理策略%The analysis of human resources status quo and management strategy for specialized nurse in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔晓斐; 江启成; 宋瑰琦; 王真; 黄璐

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the work status, clinical application and management of specialized nurse, and to provide recommendations and strategies for cultivation and management of specialized nurse. Methods:A retrospective survey was conducted to investigate the qualified specialized nurse trained by Anhui training base for specialized nurses from 2006 to 2012 by self and peer-assessment. Results:Primary professional title accounted for 49.27%of the specialized nurses;92.58%of them were distributed mainly in Class III Grade A hospital and Class II Grade A hospitals;the amount of nurses trained in each institution had a large difference;82%of them were mainly engaged in general clinical nursing work, and played a relatively weak role in senior clinical practice, quality management and research. Conclusion:The status quo is still insufifcient resulting from low selection criteria, lacking of long-term planning, lacking of professional management, emphasizing the training and overlooking the employing. And they are still a young team. The role of senior clinical practice is still not fully developed.%目的:了解安徽省专科护士人力资源现状及临床使用与管理情况,为专科护士培养与管理提供建议与策略。方法:采取回顾性调查的方法,对2006-2012年间经安徽省专科护士培训基地培训并取得资格的专科护士进行自评与他评调查。结果:初级职称人员占49.27%;专科护士主要分布在三级甲等医院、二级甲等医院,占92.58%;机构间培养专科护士数量差距大;18.0%专科护士脱离原临床直接护理岗位;82%的专科护士主要从事临床一般护理,在高级临床护理实践、护理业务管理、科研等方面发挥作用不够。结论:专科护士是一支年轻的护理队伍,选拔标准低;专科护士数量配置不合理,机构培养专科人才缺乏长期规划,专科护士流失严重;医院对专科护士缺乏专职化管理,重

  13. 脑卒中患者的社会心理现状及急诊护理干预%Psychosocial Status Quo and Emergency Nursing Intervention of Patients with Cerebral Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨脑卒中患者的社会心理现状,分析急诊护理干预对不良心理状况的影响.方法:180名脑卒中患者根据调查顺序平分为两组:治疗组与对照组各90例,两组都开始依据相关原则建立了常规急诊措施,治疗组患者在此基础上加用积极的护理干预措施,干预内容包括知识教育和认知行为干预两大方面.结果:两组护理干预前的四项心身功能指标无明显差异,护理干预后,治疗组的躯体功能和生活质量评分比对照组明显增高(P0.05).在行为功能变化方面,治疗组的逃避和屈服评分均高于干预前,差异具有显著意义(均P0.05),而对照组的各项指标干预前后差异均无显著意义(均P>0.05).结论:脑卒中患者的心理以负面为主,急诊护理干预可降低焦虑抑郁情绪,提高生活质量和躯体功能方,同时使患者积极寻求一切可能的社会支持,有利于心理健康的恢复.%Objective:To explore psychosocial status quo of patients with cerebral apoplexy.Methods and analyze negative effect of emergency nursing intervention on their unhealthy psychological status.Methods:One hundred and eighty patients with cerebral apoplexy were evenly divided into Treatment Group and Control Group (each 90 cases) as per investigation sequence.Routine emergency measures had been established for both groups by the principle. On this basis,Treatment Group was protected by more positive nursing intervention precautions,composed of knowledge education and cognition behavior intervention.Results:Both showed no significant difference in 4 indexes of somatic and mental functions before nursing intervention.After that,Treatment Group was significantly higher than Control Group in somatic function and scores of quality of life;however,anxiety and depression scores of Treatment Group decreased significantly (P0.05).In change of behavioural function,Treatment Group showed higher scores of avoidance and resignation than before

  14. Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabić-Stanković Kata M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in

  15. [Acupuncture: quo vadis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcker, M; Tao, I; Dobos, G J

    2006-03-10

    On the current discussion about efficacy and "point-specificity" of the needle therapy To improve the evidence base for acupuncture in pain treatment the German health insurance initiated the so called "Acupuncture randomised trials (ART)" and "German Acupuncture Trials" (GERAC) with a sample size of 300 (ART) and 1000 (GERAC) patients, providing a new dimension in acupuncture research. These studies have yielded data, which indicate that acupuncture is effective in the treatment of migraine, tension type headache, osteoarthritis of the knee and chronic low back pain. For the two latter indications acupuncture showed an even higher therapeutic response rate than conventional standard treatment. In migraine acupuncture showed an effect comparable to pharmacological treatment. The studies moreover indicate that the relevance of point-specific effects may have been overestimated concerning some indications. This article discusses the results of ART and GERAC, based on differentiating the mechanisms of action in acupuncture therapy. It is shown that the current data neither support the postulate of a "no-matter-where acupuncture" nor the irrefutability of the theorems of Chinese Medicine. Future studies will have to determine more precisely the mechanism by which the therapeutic effect of acupuncture is mediated. Furthermore, it will be necessary to find out more clearly in what diseases the location of needling represents the crucial part of the treatment and in what diseases rather different factors, like the intensity of stimulation or the doctor-patient interaction, are more relevant for the therapeutic effect. Research into acupuncture is still at the beginning. For this reason it should be avoided to draw premature and untenable conclusions from the current data.

  16. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  17. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  18. Robotic hepatobiliary surgery: update on the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, A D; Ali, M R; Khatri, V P

    2013-10-01

    An update on the current status of robotic hepatobiliary surgery based on a review of the available literature. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database with search phrases "robotic hepatectomy", "robotic liver resection", "robotic liver surgery", "robotic hepatobiliary surgery", and "robotic biliary reconstruction". We selected articles with high volume case series or case controlled series. As a result of our literature search we will focus on the 9 major articles on robotic liver resection (RLR) with 235 patients undergoing RLR for a total of 244 liver resections. In addition a brief update on robotic biliary reconstruction will also be presented based on the above articles and recent review articles. Indications for robotic liver resection included both benign (N.=72, 29.5%) and malignant disease (N.=172, 70.5%). The most common indication was colorectal liver metastasis (N.=87, 50.6%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (N.=57, 33%). The most common type of resection was subsegmental (N.=55, 22.5%), with a significant number of major hepatectomies (N.=80, 32.8%). Overall conversion rate was 7.8%, with majority converted to open (N.=18) and one converted to hand assisted. The overall complication rate was 11.8% (N.=29). No perioperative mortality was reported. Preliminary results show that robotic assisted laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery has materialized as a new technique that combines the advantages of laparoscopy with the dissection, suturing and articulation of robotics. This more closely approximates open surgery. The preliminary data demonstrates that RLR can be applied in major hepatobiliary centers safely. Future comparative studies are needed to determine if this is of significant benefit over current open techniques.

  19. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  20. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading "Huntington Disease" combined with text and key words "Huntington Disease", "Neuroimaging" and "PET". Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([(18)F]FDG and [(15)O]H2O), presynaptic ([(18)F]fluorodopa, [(11)C]β-CIT and [(11)C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([(11)C]SCH22390, [(11)C]FLB457 and [(11)C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([(18)F]JNJ42259152, [(18)F]MNI-659 and [(11)C]IMA107), and adenosine ([(18)F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([(18)F]MK-9470), opioid ([(11)C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([(11)C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive treatment in HD.

  1. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues.

  3. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  4. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  5. Immunotherapy in the management of melanoma: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alston D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dylan Alston,1 Jerry D Brewer21Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, 2Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: As the rate of melanoma continues to increase, so does the need for more effective and durable therapies. Despite considerable research, the management of advanced disease remains challenging. Numerous therapies are being investigated, many of which aim at upregulating the immune system's innate ability to attack the tumor. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibodies are immune stimulants that act as negative regulators of the immune system by modifying an antitumor T-cell response. Ipilimumab, one such cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, and vemurafenib, a BRAF competitive inhibitor, were approved as first-line therapies in 2011 due to improved survival rates versus standard chemotherapy. Allovectin-7 is a lipid plasmid that encodes for major histone compatibility complex DNA sequences. It has led to increases in cytotoxic T-cell production, which subsequently attacks the tumor. OncoVEX, an oncolytic herpes virus, and PV-10, a chemoablative agent, have yielded promising results in metastatic lesions and have demonstrated a unique "bystandarder" phenomenon. In this paper we review the basics of melanoma from the pathophysiology, risk factors, signs, diagnostic approaches, and current status of immunologic management of melanoma.Keywords: melanoma, immunotherapy, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, OncoVEX, Allovectin-7

  6. The SNO+ experiment. Current status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, Valentina [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator based experiment that reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector. The detector, located 2 km underground in a mine near Sudbury, Canada, consists of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator. The main physics goal of SNO+ is to search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 130}Te. During the double-beta phase, the liquid scintillator will be initially loaded with 0.3-0.5% natural tellurium. In 5 years of data taking, SNO+ expects to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 55-133 meV, just above the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. Recently, the possibility to deploy up to 10 times more natural tellurium has been investigated, by which SNO+ could explore deep into the parameter space for the inverted hierarchy in the near future. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, SNO+ can additionally measure the reactor antineutrino oscillations, geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch supernova neutrinos and measure low-energy solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon. The scintillator phase is expected to start after few months of water data taking. The 0νββ decay phase is foreseen for the 2017. In this talk the current status and the broad physics program of SNO+ will be presented.

  7. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  8. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  9. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  10. Current Status of Manufacturing Hazardous Waste in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changqing; Zhang Jiangshan; Zhao Youcai

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to manage the manufacturing hazardous waste(MHW)whichis generated from a huge amount of complicated sources and causes very serious pollution.Therefore more and more attention has been paid to MHW pollution.shanghai,as an industrial and economic center and an intemational metropolis in China,has a vast industrial system spanning a multitude of sectors,which generates MHW not only in a huge magnitude but also in a large variety of types from complicated sourrces,resulting in severe pollution.In 2003,the production of MHW in Shanghai is about 3.96 x 10ton,involving 33 indices.Most of MHW in Shanghai is treated and disposed of,but a significant portion is not handled properly and effectively.This paper carries out in-field investigation on the current status of MHW production and treat ment in Shanghai,and puts forward scientific proposals that Shanghai should facilitate cleaner production and minimize haz ardous waste;strictly enforce hazardous waste registration system, strengthen monitoring the certified enterprises;strengthen intent disposal center construction and realize hazardous waste reclamation;accelerate establishing tlle technical criteria and the management policy,promote the research and development on the treatment and disposal technology,and strengthen information management,thus realizing integrated management on MHW pollution.

  11. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  12. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  13. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  14. Current status of HIV/AIDS in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturaka Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases ′South Asia′ plus ′HIV′ , ′AIDS′, and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language. Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS. Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context.

  15. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  16. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  17. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, John; Constantinides, Steve

    1997-04-01

    Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at 3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed.

  18. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law.

  19. Current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T D; Doanh, P N; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2016-09-01

    Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported to be the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both humans and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia and Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate hosts of Fasciola spp. However, due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the past decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease.

  20. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.