WorldWideScience

Sample records for current status extent

  1. Current status of coral reefs in the United Arab Emirates: Distribution, extent, and community structure with implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzle, Raymond E; Ward, Krystin M; AlShihi, Rashid M S; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Coral reefs of the United Arab Emirates were once extensive, but have declined dramatically in recent decades. Marine management and policy have been hampered by outdated and inaccurate habitat maps and habitat quality information. We combined existing recent datasets with our newly mapped coral habitats to provide a current assessment of nation-wide extent, and performed quantitative surveys of communities at 23 sites to assess coral cover and composition. Over 132 km(2) of coral habitat was mapped, averaging 28.6 ± 3.8% live coral cover at surveyed sites. In the Arabian Gulf low cover, low richness Porites dominated communities characterized western Abu Dhabi, while reefs northeast of Abu Dhabi city generally contained higher richness and cover, and were dominated by merulinids (formerly faviids). Distinct communities occur in the Sea of Oman, where cover and richness were low. We provide management recommendations to enhance conservation of vulnerable coral reefs in the UAE.

  2. AUTO FIB Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  3. Current status of DUMAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, P.K.F.

    We give a brief description of the scientific aims of the DUMAND project, of the system lay-out and its capabilities, together with some technical details of the detector modules. Subsequently we present the anticipated project schedule and construction strategy, followed by an account of the present project status.

  4. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  5. Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat...

  6. Current status of natural fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available , automotive, aerospace, marine, electronic, leisure and household uses. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of research and development. It will also deal with future drivers for the growth and competitiveness of natural fibres...

  7. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  8. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  9. The Current Status of CLASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: I give a brief overview of the current status of some aspects of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS): description of the survey, current list of lens systems, cosmological parameters from lensing statistics, H_0 from time delays, dark lenses, wide-separation lenses.

  10. Current extent and stratification of agroforestry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Herder, Michael; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and objective estimate on the extent of agroforestry in Europe is critical for the development of supporting policies. For this reason, a more harmonised and uniform Pan-European estimate is needed. The aim of this study was to quantify and map the distribution of agroforestry in the ...

  11. Current status of Japanese detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

    2007-01-01

    Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

  12. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  13. Extent and status of mires, peatlands, and organic soils in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneberger, Franziska; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Tegetmeyer, Cosima; Busse, Stephan; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Key words: peatland distribution, peatland drainage, GIS, Global Peatland Database, European Mires Book The relevance of drained peatlands to climate change due to emission of huge amounts of greenhouse gases has recently been recognised e.g. by IPCC, FAO, and the European Union. Oppositely, natural and restored peatlands provide ecosystem services like enhancing biodiversity, nutrient retention, groundwater storage, flood mitigation, and cooling. To evaluate the drainage status of peatlands and organic soils and to develop specific restoration strategies comprehensive and exact geospatial data are needed. The Global Peatland Database (GPD) is hosted at Greifswald Mire Centre (http://tiny.cc/globalpeat). Currently, it provides estimates on location, extent, and drainage status of peatlands and organic soils for 268 countries and regions of the world. Due to the large diversity of definitions and terms for peatlands and organic soils, this mapping follows the broad definition of organic soils from IPCC that gives a minimum soil organic carbon threshold of 12% and considers any depth of the organic layer larger than 10 cm. GIS datasets are continuously collected, specific terms and definitions analysed and the completeness and accuracy of the datasets evaluated. Currently, the GPD contains geospatial data on peatlands and organic soils for all European countries (except Moldova). Recent information on status, distribution, and conservation of mires and peatlands in Europe is summarised in the European Mires Book. It includes descriptions from 49 countries and other geographic entities in Europe. All country chapters follow a generic structure and include also extensive descriptions of national terminology (also in national languages and script) and typologies as well as up to date area statistics and maps. They are complemented by integrative chapters presenting mire classification, mire regionality, peatland use, and mire conservation in Europe. The European Mires

  14. Current Status of JRR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Masami; Arai, Masaji; Maruo, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    JRR-3 at the Tokai-Shirakata site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake took place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with the solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage, and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery works, check and test to confirm the integrity of all components and structures, and seismic assessment necessary for proving that the seismic loads which worked on a structure or component by the earthquake accommodated within its allowable stress have been carried out. After our recovery works and verification of the integrity of JRR-3, we confirmed that the integrity is ensured, and then reported the fact to the regulatory body. As another topic, the regulatory body will introduce new regulatory requirements for research reactors. Now, JRR-3 considers applying the new requirements for restart. This paper presents the current status of JRR-3 including the recovery works, seismic assessment and new regulatory requirements.

  15. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  16. The TEMPIS Project: Current Status,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-19

    GRA&I 9 [ Valiente 19871 jC A 10 [Aba 1986AJ tnannounced ŕ [Ahn~ 1986B] oation- Table 1: Status of Subtasks Distribut on/ ____ Avail and/or 3 WkM On...W ~~ -tt-,u Rr ~~ n~ m1 Nn VJs -W r a -VW uS ru-p-urp-Vf U, 8 39. [ Valiente 19871 Valiente , J. Implementing TQuel Aggregates (in progress). Master’s

  17. Top Quark Current Experimental Status

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron.

  18. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed.

  19. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  1. Current status of transarterial radioembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas H Mahnken

    2016-01-01

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization(TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: 90Y-resin and 90Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease.

  2. The Current Status of Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Russell

    A study of the current status of Japanese Americans is divided into three sections. Following a brief introduction, a background section provides an overview of Japanese American history, population size and socioeconomic measures, and selected social characteristics. A second section looks in greater depth at socioeconomic status as reported in…

  3. Current status of cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To prove clinical benefits of cancer vaccine is currently difficult, except for one phase III trial has documented improved overall survival with the vaccine, Sipuleucel‑T, although induction of anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccine is theoretically promising and would be straightforward. In contrast, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4 mAb and anti-PD‑1 mAb has demonstrated clear evidence of objective responses including improved overall survival and tumor shrinkage, driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy in multi­ple cancer types. In addition, there is a promising novel cancer immunotherapy, CAR therapy—a personalized treatment that involves genetically modifying a patient’s T- cells to make them target tumor cells. We are now facing new era of cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    ... status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME...

  5. The Current Status of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

  6. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  7. Adventure Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene

    1995-01-01

    Overviews articles in this issue that focus on the current status of adventure therapy and describe efforts aimed at defining a framework for conceptualizing adventure therapy. Notes changes in the field, including introduction of state laws requiring licensure of programs, the drive for program accreditation, and growing training opportunities in…

  8. Changing head model extent affects finite element predictions of transcranial direct current stimulation distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indahlastari, Aprinda; Chauhan, Munish; Schwartz, Benjamin; Sadleir, Rosalind J.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In this study, we determined efficient head model sizes relative to predicted current densities in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Approach. Efficiency measures were defined based on a finite element (FE) simulations performed using nine human head models derived from a single MRI data set, having extents varying from 60%-100% of the original axial range. Eleven tissue types, including anisotropic white matter, and three electrode montages (T7-T8, F3-right supraorbital, Cz-Oz) were used in the models. Main results. Reducing head volume extent from 100% to 60%, that is, varying the model’s axial range from between the apex and C3 vertebra to one encompassing only apex to the superior cerebellum, was found to decrease the total modeling time by up to half. Differences between current density predictions in each model were quantified by using a relative difference measure (RDM). Our simulation results showed that {RDM} was the least affected (a maximum of 10% error) for head volumes modeled from the apex to the base of the skull (60%-75% volume). Significance. This finding suggested that the bone could act as a bioelectricity boundary and thus performing FE simulations of tDCS on the human head with models extending beyond the inferior skull may not be necessary in most cases to obtain reasonable precision in current density results.

  9. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  10. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamihara, Yoichi, E-mail: kamihara_yoichi@appi.keio.ac.jp [Keio University, Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO{sub 1 - x}F{sub x}. The very large H{sub c2} of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  11. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Yoichi

    2012-03-01

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO1 - xFx. The very large H c2 of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  12. Brucellosis in Mexico: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Martínez, J Eduardo; Mejía-Terán, Claudia

    2002-12-20

    Traditionally, Mexico has been recognized as endemic with brucellosis. The improvements in diagnostics techniques and vaccination strategies and the enforcement of a national eradication policy have contributed significantly to making progress in the control of brucellosis. The current status of brucellosis and its risk factors, in the different production species as well as in human population is reviewed. Also the trends in control and eventual eradication strategies and perspectives for the near future of Mexico are presented.

  13. Lung xenotransplantation: recent progress and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many preclinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation--including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ-and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury.

  14. Current status of domino heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudo, Yasuhiro; Ma, Michael; Boyd, Jack H; Woo, Yiping Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Domino heart transplant, wherein the explanted heart from the recipient of an en-bloc heart-lung is utilized for a second recipient, represents a unique surgical strategy for patients with end-stage heart failure. With a better understanding of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this procedure, its selective use in the current era can improve and maximize organ allocation in the United States. In this report, we reviewed the current status of domino heart transplantation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Extent of Surgery and Implications of Transection Margin Status after Resection of IPMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Paini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate surgical strategies for management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs of the pancreas are a matter of debate. Preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of malignant potential of IPMN and of patient’s comorbidities is of paramount importance to balance potential complications of surgery with tumors’ risk of being or becoming malignant; the decision about the extent of pancreatic resection and the eventual total pancreatectomy needs to be determined on individual basis. The analysis of frozen-section margin of pancreas during operation is mandatory. The goal should be the complete resection of IPMN reaching negative margin, although there is still no agreed definition of “negative margin.” Of note, the presence of deepithelization is often wrongly interpreted as absence of neoplasia. Management of resection margin status and stratification of surveillance of the remnant pancreas, based on characteristics of primary tumour, are of crucial importance in the management of IPMNs in order to decrease the risk of tumor recurrence after resection. Although risk of local and distant recurrence for invasive IPMNs is increased even in case of total pancreatectomy, also local recurrence after complete resection of noninvasive IPMNs is not negligible. Therefore, a long-term/life-time follow-up monitoring is of paramount importance to detect eventual recurrences.

  16. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, Xingjiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zhang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2016-01-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravit...

  17. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki M. Velonas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

  18. Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, C; Pearson, D; Pikalo, O; Schlafer, J; Yeh, H; Elliott, Chip; Colvin, Alexander; Pearson, David; Pikalo, Oleksiy; Schlafer, John; Yeh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the current status of the DARPA Quantum Network, which became fully operational in BBN's laboratory in October 2003, and has been continuously running in 6 nodes operating through telecommunications fiber between Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN since June 2004. The DARPA Quantum Network is the world's first quantum cryptography network, and perhaps also the first QKD systems providing continuous operation across a metropolitan area. Four more nodes are now being added to bring the total to 10 QKD nodes. This network supports a variety of QKD technologies, including phase-modulated lasers through fiber, entanglement through fiber, and freespace QKD. We provide a basic introduction and rational for this network, discuss the February 2005 status of the various QKD hardware suites and software systems in the network, and describe our operational experience with the DARPA Quantum Network to date. We conclude with a discussion of our ongoing work.

  19. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  20. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jeremiah P Ostriker; Tarun Souradeep

    2004-10-01

    Observational cosmology has indeed made very rapid progress in recent years. The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spearheaded by measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the past decade. Observations of the large scale structure in the distribution of galaxies, high red-shift supernova, have provided the required complementary information. We review the current status of cosmological parameter estimates from joint analysis of CMB anisotropy and large scale structure (LSS) data. We also sound a note of caution on overstating the successes achieved thus far.

  1. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  3. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  4. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  5. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  6. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  7. Current Status of the KSTAR Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. S. Bak; K. Kim; C. H. Choi; Y. K. Oh; B. C. Kim; N. I. Her; H. L. Yang; G. S. Lee; the KSTAR Team

    2004-01-01

    As there is substantial progress in the KSTAR tokamak engineering, all the major structures and sub-systems are under fabrication and in procurement phase. The vacuum vessel,port, cryostat cylinder, lid, and bellows are being rigorously fabricated in the factory. The lower part of the KSTAR such as cryostat base and gravity support has been almost finished in its fabrication. There are also great progresses and significant results in manufacturing of the superconducting magnet, including four Toroidal Field (TF) coils, lower and upper PF7 coils which are the largest Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The TF00 coil, which has been made for test and back-up of the TF magnet system, was successfully tested in the cool-down and current charging. As the fabrications and procurements of major structures have been actively proceeded, assembly works were also launched from Aug. 2003. More detailed description on these status, results, and plans will be described in this paper.

  8. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  9. Current status of neuronal cell xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadori, Marta; Aron Badin, Romina; Hantraye, Philippe; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2015-11-01

    Neural cell transplantation has long been considered as an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, several patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have been treated with human fetal-derived neurons with disparate results. However, the limited efficacy to date combined with the scarce availability of human fetal tissues and ethical concerns render this procedure inapplicable to a wide population scale. With a view to overcoming these shortcomings, transplantation of pig-derived cell precursors has been proposed and applied in preclinical and clinical trials. Recently long-term survival (more than 18 months) associated with clinical efficacy has been reported following transplantation of genetically engineered porcine neural precursors in fully immunosuppressed primate recipients. Despite the promising results obtained to date, several questions remain unanswered. In particular, the ideal xenogeneic cell-products to transplant, the extent of the immune response against the implanted xenograft and the most suitable therapeutic strategies to improve engraftment are all issues that still need to be thoroughly addressed. The present review describes the current knowledge in the pig-to-primate xenotransplantation field. In this context, recent data on human-to-nonhuman primate xenogeneic stem cell-based treatments for neurological disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  11. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysz, M.A. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Gambhir, S.S. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  12. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  13. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K.; Kumar, Parveen; Carr, William RJ; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Mini-gastric bypass (MGP) is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile) reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English. PMID:27251826

  14. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  15. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  16. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  17. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Mahawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mini-gastric bypass (MGP is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English.

  19. Status of wetlands in India: A review of extent, ecosystem benefits, threats and management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Bassi; M. DINESH KUMAR; Anuradha Sharma; Pardha-Saradhi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Study region: India. Study focus: India has a wealth of wetland ecosystems that support diverse and unique habitats. These wetlands provide numerous ecological goods and services but are under tremendous stress due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and agricultural intensification, manifested by the shrinkage in their areal extent, and decline in the hydrological, economic and ecological functions they perform. This paper reviews the wetland wealth of India in terms of their geograp...

  20. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Frerrick, J.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.; Rebhan, H.; Mecklenburg, S.; Goryl, P.; Féménias, P.

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to Copernicus services. Products include ocean, ice and land surface altimetry, complemented by thermal and visible wavelength multi-spectral image data. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. In terms of ocean applications, the Sentinel-3 payload is designed to monitor open-ocean, coastal and inland waters using a suite of contemporaneous measurements. The spacecraft accommodates a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). In addition, two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) have been developed as part of the mission. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Together, the optical and topography instruments of Sentinel-3 will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Four Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with Sentinel-3A planned for launch in late 2015 and the Sentinel-3B satellite launch expected in 2017. Procurement of the C and D satellites is ongoing. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. This paper reports the current status of the Sentinel-3 Mission and presets some first results from the instrument payload.

  1. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core-shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier.

  2. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  3. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  4. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  5. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  6. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Pellegrino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons.Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  7. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  8. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  9. Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Dilek Yelda

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

  10. Current Status and Future of Sports Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hailong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    According to the need of the popularization of sports nutrition knowledge and promoting of our country sports nutrition needs, the study expounds the new concept of sports nutrition food, the development of sports nutrition food abroad, the prospect of the domestic market and the status quo of cultivate. Sports nutrition food system which has been basically in more than a decade in domestic is made a detailed elaboration and an introduction of product research and development has been made. T...

  11. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  12. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  13. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  14. Current status of developmental neurotoxicity: regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    . Until recently, however, developmental neurotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals has not been a clear regulatory requirement in EU, probably due to the lack of an accepted OECD TG. The revised EU Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment (EU-TGD) has now included the OECD draft TG 426...... in the testing strategy for new and existing substances, and biocides. Hopefully, this will lead to an improved database for risk assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants. However, the regulatory authorities and toxicologists will also be faced with the challenge that decisions have to be made......The need for developmental neurotoxicity testing has been recognized for decades and guidelines are available, as the USEPA guideline and the OECD draft TG 426. Regulatory testing of industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity is required to some extent, especially for pesticides in the US...

  15. CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 80% of the current Nigerian primary energy consumption is met by petroleum. ... energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. ... The data presented in this paper is a crucial eye-opener for relevant ...

  16. The Current Status of the WARP Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelc, A. M.; Benetti, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calaprice, F.; Cambiaghi, M.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Cocco, A. G.; Dipompeo, F.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Mangano, G.; Montanari, C.; Palamara, O.; Pandola, L.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Roncadelli, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Santorelli, R.; Vignoli, C.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The WARP detector is a new idea in Dark Matter detection using liquid noble gases, specifically argon. We believe that argon is the medium best suited to detect nuclear recoils coming from interactions with the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detection technique, using two different discrimination methods, is capable of an identification power as high as one event in 108. During the second half of the year 2006 the next, 100 liter, detector will be constructed with an active veto shield to further suppress the background, while currently a 2.3 liter prototype, installed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy), has been taking data since May 2004. The small version of the detector is able to not only provide insight on the operation of a two-phase liquid argon chamber but is also able to provide physics results competitive with the current leading edge experiments.

  17. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  18. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2017-10-06

    Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  20. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  1. Current status of family health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Membrillo Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.

  2. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  3. Current status of nanotechnology in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Goyal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been investigated for its applications in medicine. The objective of this review was to summarize the current applications of nanotechnology in Urology. A systematic search of literature was performed and relevant articles were analyzed with specific reference to applications in Urology. Nanotechnology has applications in diagnostic urology like in uroimaging using nanoparticles and nanosensors. It has therapeutic applications in infections, malignancies, genetic disease using targeted drug delivery, gene transfers, nano device-based manipulations etc. Nanotechnology has many applications in Urology. More efforts are required to make these applications practically feasible and affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3114-3120

  4. Current status of respiratory nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    Multimodality image fusion is now becoming popular in respiratory nuclear medical field, since scintigraphic diagnosis, based on functional image interpretation, becomes more accurate and meaningful when supported by corresponding anatomical data. Although SPECT/PET scanner-mounted X-ray tomographic systems are now being introduced for an accurate image fusion in the chest, the use of a fully automatic multi-modality image fusion algorithm may be an alternative method. Our initial attempt of this algorithm for fusion imaging of Tc-99m MAA perfusion or thallium-201 SPECT and helical CT scan has contributed to accurate interpretation of the results without user interaction, and has facilitated the understanding of the functional basis of lung parenchymal CT attenuation changes. Three-dimensional displays with functional mapping are also now being increasingly introduced to various respiratory nuclear studies. A fractal analysis has shown successful results in the analysis of technegas and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion images, which will be increasingly applied for more objective assessment of the results. The feasibility of {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan in accurate staging of lung cancer and the good cost performance of this method in lung cancer strategy are repeatedly stressed by the recent studies. The feasibility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion scan in the evaluation of right-to-left shunt in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, and the potential of {sup 123}I-MIBG scan in the evaluation of the function status of pulmonary neuroadrenergic system are new aspects for these well established tracers. There is the first attempt of intraoperative {sup 99m}Tc-colloid sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. This may improve the precision of pathologic staging and limit the need for mediastinal node dissection in selected patients. Radiolabeled aerosol lung scintigraphy is being increasingly applied to evaluate lung deposition of various

  5. Current status of robotics in urologic laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Matthew T; Blute, Michael L; Peschel, Reinhard; Bartsch, Georg

    2003-02-01

    Urology has continuously embraced novel technologies like laparoscopy that reduce patient morbidity yet maintain an excellent standard of care. Because of limitations on maneuverability, operative vision, manual dexterity, and tactile sense, laparoscopy can be more difficult to perform than corresponding tasks in open surgery. To potentially increase clinical applicability of laparoscopy, robots that enhance operative performance have recently been introduced for a variety of laparoscopic procedures such as laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, pyeloplasty, and even laparoscopic cystectomy and neobladder construction. While these robots have generated excitement and many robotic applications have been described, the benefit of the advanced technology in expanded series of patients remains largely unknown. In addition, the ability of telerobotics to be used by surgeons inexperienced in conventional laparoscopy is also poorly understood. This review compares current features of available robots, advantages and limitations of robots, the emerging clinical applications, and the future potential of robotics in urology.

  6. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. RICH upgrade: Current status and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The second long shutdown of the LHC is currently scheduled to begin in 2018. During this period the LHCb experiment with all its sub-detectors will be upgraded in order to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2×10$^{33}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ and to read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) system will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream detector. Tests of the prototype of the smallest constituent of the new RICH system have been performed during testbeam sessions at the Test Beam Facility SPS North Area (CERN) in Autumn 2014.

  8. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  9. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  10. Lasers in cardiovascular surgery--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J G; Dixon, J A

    1985-04-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO(2) lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by "tissue welding" with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling "neocapillaries" in ischemic myocardium. Endocardial resection for destroying arrhythmic pathways and removing hypertrophied septal muscle has also been successfully accomplished with laser phototherapy. Last, laser-mediated vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation may offer a percutaneous approach to the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovascular uses of lasers are purely investigational at the current time. Much more needs to be known before widespread clinical use of lasers in the cardiovascular system can occur.

  11. [Current status of food-borne diseases in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akemi

    2012-08-01

    The current status of food-borne diseases in Japan was described. Although the number of outbreaks caused by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli(except enterohaemorrhagic E. coli) is decreasing, outbreaks by Campylobacter or Norovirus are increasing.

  12. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-07

    interventional methods. Few would challenge neurologists over the responsibility for emergency evaluation and triage of stroke victims for intra intravenous fibrinolysis, even though emergency physicians are most commonly the first to evaluate these patients. There are many unanswered questions about the role of imaging in defining best treatment. Perfusion imaging with CT or MRI appears to have relevance even though its role remains undefined and is the subject of ongoing research. Meanwhile, investigators are exploring new, and perhaps more specific,imaging methods with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and cellular acid-base imbalance. There are currently 6 ongoing trials of stroke intervention, many with proprietary technologies and private funding, competing for the same patient population as multicenter trials funded by the NIH. At the same time, much of the interventional stroke treatment currently occurs outside of trials in the community and academic settings without the collection of much-needed data. Market forces will certainly shape future stroke therapy, but it is unclear whether the current combination of private and public funding for these endeavors is the best method of development.

  13. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  14. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

  15. Current status of dentin adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinfelder, K F

    1998-12-01

    Undoubtedly, dentin bonding agents have undergone a major evolution during the last several years. The shear bond strength of composite resin to the surface of dentin is actually greater than the inherent strength of the dentin itself under well-controlled conditions. No longer must the clinician depend only upon the bonding to enamel as the sole bonding mechanism. Bonding to both types of dental structure permits even better reinforcement of the tooth itself. Perhaps even more important than the high level of bonding exhibited by the current dentin adhesives is their ability to seal the dentin. So effective is this sealing capability that it is now possible to protect the pulpal tissue from microbial invasion through the dentinal tubules. Further, by enclosing the odontoblastic processes and preventing fluid flow, the potential for postoperative sensitivity is diminished considerably. In fact, so evolutionary is the concept of bonding that the procedures associated with the restoration of teeth has changed dramatically. Undoubtedly, far greater improvements can be anticipated in the future.

  16. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  17. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Jean-François, E-mail: alaryjf@isobarex.ca [Isobarex Corp., 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Javahery, Gholamreza [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, Albert [IsoTrace Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Cousins, Lisa [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Charles, Christopher [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of {sup 36}S from {sup 36}Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion–molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  18. Current status of the LBNE neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig Damon; Crowley, Cory Francis; Hurh, Patrick; Hylen, James; Lundberg, Byron; Marchionni, Alberto; McGee, Mike; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Plunkett, Rob; Reitzner, Sarah Diane; Stefanik, Andrew M; Velev, Gueorgui; Williams, Karlton; Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility is designed to aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined by an amalgam of the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. The LBNE Neutrino Beam has made significant changes to the initial design through consideration of numerous Value Engineering proposals and the current design is described.

  19. Current status of the CLIO project

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Ishitsuka, H; Akutsu, T; Telada, S; Tomaru, T; Suzuki, T; Sato, N; Saitô, Y; Higashi, Y; Haruyama, T; Yamamoto, A; Shintomi, T; Tatsumi, D; Ando, M; Tagoshi, H; Kanda, N; Awaya, N; Yamagishi, S; Takahashi, H; Araya, A; Takamori, A; Takemoto, S; Higashi, T; Hayakawa, H; Morii, W; Akamatsu, J

    2008-01-01

    CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory) is a Japanese gravitational wave detector project. One of the main purposes of CLIO is to demonstrate thermal-noise suppression by cooling mirrors for a future Japanese project, LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Telescope). The CLIO site is in Kamioka mine, as is LCGT. The progress of CLIO between 2005 and 2007 (room- and cryogenic-temperature experiments) is introduced in this article. In a room-temperature experiment, we made efforts to improve the sensitivity. The current best sensitivity at 300 K is about $6 \\times 10^{-21} /\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ around 400 Hz. Below 20 Hz, the strain (not displacement) sensitivity is comparable to that of LIGO, although the baselines of CLIO are 40-times shorter (CLIO: 100m, LIGO: 4km). This is because seismic noise is extremely small in Kamioka mine. We operated the interferometer at room temperature for gravitational wave observations. We obtained 86 hours of data. In the cryogenic experiment, it was confirmed that the...

  20. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  1. Current status of laser applications in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Durek, C.; Jocham, Dieter

    1993-05-01

    The overall development of laser use in urology is recessing. The reasons are the refinement of methods of radical surgery and the continuing development of alternative technologies involving electric current. Taking the cost factor into account, are lasers still opportune in medicine? The answer is definitely yes. Cost reduction in medical practice without quality loss is only possible with effective methods of minimally invasive surgery. Continuing investigation of cutting, welding, coagulating and ablating instruments is justified. Competition of lasers to other technologies can only be beneficial to the cause. But where are the highlights of laser applications? The unsurpassed utilization of optical properties of lasers lie in the concept of photodynamic therapies and in optical feedback mechanisms for laser applications. The combination of lasers with three dimensional visualization of the treatment area by ultrasound (TULIP-procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia) is a novel approach in laser application. The further development of these treatment modalities will reveal the true benefit of laser technology in urological applications.

  2. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  3. Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L

    1998-08-01

    A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

  4. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  5. Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqi AA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammad Ahmad Farooqi,1 Zia ur Rehman,2 Jordi Muntane3,4 1Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST, Kohat, Pakistan; 3Department of General Surgery, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS, Hospital Universitary "Virgen del Rocío"/CSIC/University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain; 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD o Ciberehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain Abstract: There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA, and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent

  6. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  7. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  8. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  9. Current Status of Holland's Theory of Careers: Another Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Responds to Brown's critique of author's (Holland) theory of vocational choice. Discusses validation of theories in general and the validation of this theory in particular. Discusses common complaints about and current status of this theory. Evaluates and responds to Brown's advice. Speculates about future of career theory. (ABL)

  10. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  11. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  12. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of…

  13. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  14. Current status and future research in motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  15. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  16. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yongdong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  17. Chronic low back pain patients with accompanying leg pain : The relationship between pain extent and pain intensity, disability and health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Maarten R.; van der Wurff, Peter; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2013-01-01

    Accompanying leg pain is commonly observed in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and is assumed to be an indicator for the disorder severity. However, it is still unknown whether it is possible to estimate a patient's functional status by the extent of leg pain present. In a post rehabilitat

  18. Chronic low back pain patients with accompanying leg pain : The relationship between pain extent and pain intensity, disability and health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Maarten R.; van der Wurff, Peter; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2013-01-01

    Accompanying leg pain is commonly observed in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and is assumed to be an indicator for the disorder severity. However, it is still unknown whether it is possible to estimate a patient's functional status by the extent of leg pain present. In a post rehabilitat

  19. Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC √s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

  20. Current status of $\\varepsilon_K$ in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Weonjong

    2016-01-01

    We present the current status of $\\varepsilon_K$ evaluated directly from the standard model using lattice QCD inputs. The lattice QCD inputs include $\\hat{B}_K$, $\\xi_0$, $\\xi_2$, $|V_{us}|$, $m_c(m_c)$, and $|V_{cb}|$. Recently, FLAG has updated $\\hat{B}_K$, exclusive $|V_{cb}|$ has been updated with new lattice data in the $\\bar{B}\\to D\\ell\\bar{\

  1. Current Status of Deltabaculoviruses, Cypoviruses and Chloriridoviruses Pathogenic for Mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Becnel

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to three major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (DBVs) (Baculoviridae: Deltabaculovirus), cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus) and the iridoviruses (MIVs) (Iridoviridae: Chloriridovirus). Baculoviruses and iridoviruses are DNA viruses while cypoviruses are the main RNA viruses in mosquitoes. This review presents an overview of the current status and recent advancements in understanding the biology and molecular features of mosquito pathogenic viruses.

  2. Current Status and Development of National Grid in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With most primary energy resources far from load centers, the voltage level of power system in China has imperatively been upgraded to meet the demand of long-distance power transmission. The successful commissioning of the 750-kV HVAC line in Northwest Power Grid has opened an era of national grid devel opment and brought about a series of technical problems to be faced. This report introduces briefly the current status and policies of UHV development in China.

  3. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  4. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  5. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  6. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  7. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  8. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the toxicity of sediments was performed by NOAA's National Status and Trends (NSandT) Program throughout the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. The objectives of...

  9. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

  10. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources.

  11. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  12. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo;

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...... expectations for, the technique. The experts reached agreement on a number of statements and recommendations, which will support surgeons in adopting the technique. The panel agreed that the single-incision technique may offer a number of benefits to patients; however, further clinical data need...

  13. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  14. Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynska L. T.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

  15. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  16. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  17. Indirect dark matter searches: current status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many theoretical ideas for the particle nature of dark matter exist. The  most popular models often predict that dark matter particles self-annihilate or decay, giving rise to potentially detectable signatures in astronomical observations.  I will summarize the current status of searches for such signatures and critically reassess recent claims for dark matter signals.  I will further provide an outlook on anticipated developments in the next 10 years, and discuss new methods to facilitate strategy development.

  18. MicroRNAs of parasites: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Tuo, Wenbin; Gao, Hongwei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes at the post-transcriptional level. The complex life cycles of parasites may require the ability to respond to environmental and developmental signals through miRNA-mediated gene expression. Over the past 17 years, thousands of miRNAs have been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other parasites. Here, we review the current status and potential functions of miRNAs in protozoan, helminths, and arthropods, and propose some perspectives for future studies.

  19. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  20. Current status and future of Mo-99 supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). AIPES Reactors and Isotopes Working Group

    2016-01-15

    The global supply of Mo-99 relies on a limited number of research reactors and processing facilities. Its production is essential as medical diagnostic imaging techniques using Tc-99m account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures worldwide. The short half-life's of the radioisotopes requires a continuous supply. Several severe disruptions have been experienced over the past decade. Fortunately, the situation encouraged the industry to develop new projects and new production routes. The current status of Mo-99 supply is described and the efforts made to achieve a reliable Tc-99m availability for nuclear medicine is summarized.

  1. Current Status and Prospects of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xin

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Overview and Current Status of Utilization of China's Natural Gas Resources Natural gas as a green fuel with low carbon content can comply with the trend in the epoch for development of non carbonaceous energy source, and has a lot of advantages such as its abundance in resources, convenience in applica tion and cost competitiveness. The application of natural gas as a premium fuel has become a focus pursued aggres sively by international players, and the perspectives for gas demand growth will be better than that for oil globally.

  2. Current status and challenges in PEMFC stacks, systems and commercialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任远; 曹广益; 朱新坚

    2006-01-01

    The current status of worldwide developments of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks and system,research activities in resent years to analyze the cost of PEMFC stacks and systems, the remaining research and development issues that should be resolved before the PEMFC available for commercial application were discussed. The two main problems that challenge the PEMFC commercialization were cost and fuel supply infrastructure. The ways to lower the cost, to choose the fuel and improve the efficiency and reliability were described. To research the cost target of 125 kW and stack lifetime of 40 000 ~ 100 000h, basic research in PEMFC was indispensable.

  3. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandarkar Deepraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the various controversial issues surrounding the subject.

  4. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Newby, D E

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the heart has advanced rapidly, and it is now possible to perform a comprehensive assessment at a low radiation dose. CT myocardial perfusion imaging can provide additive information to CT coronary angiography, and is particularly useful in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries or coronary artery stents. A number of protocols are now available for CT myocardial perfusion including static, dynamic, and dual-energy techniques. This review will discuss the current status of CT myocardial perfusion imaging, its clinical application, and future directions for this technology.

  5. The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    2006-04-01

    The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

  6. Student Testing: Current Extent and Expenditures, with Cost Estimates for a National Examination. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    As the country began to debate the proposition that the United States adopt a national examination system, it became apparent that information was needed about the present extent and cost of testing, as well as the estimated cost of a national examination system. In the fall of 1991, the General Accounting Office (GAO) surveyed testing officials…

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  9. Product ecodesign and materials: current status and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieux, Fabrice; Zwolinski, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of ecodesign in the industry and its future implications for materials. There is today more and more focus on the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. In particular, ecodesign aims at integrating environmental aspects during the product's design process as any other criterion, in order to reduce the life cycle impacts. Although a lot of product environmental impact assessment and Design for Environment tools already exist, environmental aspects are unfortunately rarely routinely integrated into product development process in the industry. This is mainly due to the fact that current ecodesign tools are little adapted to designers' practices, requirements and competencies. After the sequential and DfX paradigms, design of products is today maturing into Integrated Design, where multiple points of views and expertise have to be considered at the same time to progressively define the product.

  10. To what extent does socioeconomic status explain differences in health between Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    The Roma make up one of the largest ethnic groups in Europe. The few studies that are available report health among the Roma as considerably worse than that of the majority population, and virtually nothing is known about the health status of Roma adolescents. The purpose of this study was to

  11. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  12. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  13. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  14. The current status of structural studies on proteins of the myelin sheath (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursula, P

    2001-11-01

    Myelin, the multilayered membrane structure surrounding axons, provides a unique environment to its proteins, which are either transmembrane proteins or interacting intimately with the membrane surface. Although myelin-specific proteins have been studied for decades, remarkably little is known of their three-dimensional structures. In addition, the exact functions of myelin proteins are to a large extent unknown. In this report, our current knowledge of peripheral nervous system myelin protein structures is reviewed, and the current status of attempts to solve the structures of full-length myelin proteins is evaluated. Furthermore, molecular models for the extracellular domain of the myelin-associated glycoprotein and the putative kinase-like domain of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase are presented and discussed.

  15. Current status of severe acute respiratory syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-He Nie; Xin-Dong Luo; Jian-Zhong Zhang; Qin Su

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also called infectious atypical pneumonia, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV). It is mainly characterized by pulmonary infection with a high infectivity and fatality.SARS is swept across almost all the continents of the globe, and has currently involved 33 countries and regions, including the mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North America and Europe. On June 30, 2003, an acumulative total reached 8450 cases with 810 deaths. SARS epidemic was very rampant in March, April and May 2003 in the mainland of China and Hong Kong. Chinese scientists and healthcare workers cooperated closely with other scientists from all over the world to fight the disease. On April 16, 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) formally declared that SARSCoV was an etiological agent of SARS. Currently, there is no specific and effective therapy and prevention method for SARS. The main treatments include corticosteroid therapy,antiviralagents, anti-infection, mechanical ventilation and isolation. This disease can be prevented and controlled, and it is also curable. Under the endeavor of the Chinese Government, medical staffs and other related professionals,SARS has been under control in China, and Chinese scientists have also made a great contribution to SARS research.Otherstudies in developing new detection assays and therapies, and discovering new drugs and vaccines are in progress. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of SARS in China.

  16. [Renaissance of immuno-oncology for urological tumors : Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M-O; Winkler, Y; Fetter, I; Oppel-Heuchel, H

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has gained new importance in oncology. Current research is focused on the cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints. The CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (melanoma) as well as the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and pembrolizumab (melanoma) are approved for the treatment of metastatic disease in Europe. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (re)activate the immune system against cancer cells and appear to be more effective than current standards for many tumors. The toxicity profile is favorable but involves new so-called immune-related side effects, which need to be recognized and treated in time. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are also currently being tested in uro-oncology in phase 3 trials relevant for approval status. Based on this it is to be expected that immune checkpoint inhibitors will become a new standard (as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy) in the early lines of therapy in the near future and replace the previous standard therapies, particularly for metastasized renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cancer.

  17. Current Soil Nutrient Status of Intensively Managed Greenhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yun-Cai; SONG Zhi-Wen; LU Wen-Long; C.POSCHENRIEDER; U.SCHMIDHALTER

    2012-01-01

    Nine districts covering the main greenhouse vegetable areas in Tianjin Municipality of the North China Plain were selected for the soil investigation in 2010 to survey the current soil nutrient status (soil available N,P and K),acidification and salinization due to excessive input of fertilizers in greenhouses in Tianjin. The study showed that,in particular,soil available P content increased with the age of greenhouses.In contrast,our results did not reveal higher K accumulation and lowered pH in the greenhouse soils compared with cultivation in open fields.Over-fertilization,causing high NO3- accumulation,most likely resulted in salinity problems in the greenhouses.Ninety percent of the investigated greenhouse soils had electrical conductivity values of saturated paste extracts of 2-10 d S m-1,which might affect the yields of vegetable crops like green bean,pepper,cabbage,carrot,eggplant,lettuce,spinach,celery,cucumber and tomato. The findings of our survey of the current fertility and salinity problems in greenhouse soils suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the farmers' practices and strategies in fertilization management in greenhouses of China.Because education and the agricultural technical extension services may play a more important role in avoiding overuse of fertilizers,we suggest that current nutrient management practices should be improved in the near future through training of local farmers in farmers' schools and through strengthening the agricultural extension services with practical techniques.

  18. Running Vacuum in the Universe: current phenomenological status

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Joan

    2016-01-01

    I review the excellent phenomenological status of a class of dynamical vacuum models in which the vacuum energy density, $\\rho_{\\Lambda}=\\rho_{\\Lambda}(H)$, as a function of the Hubble rate, evolves through its interaction with dark matter and/or through the accompanying running of the gravitational coupling $G$, including the possibility of being self-conserved with a nontrivial effective equation of state. Some of these models have been used to incorporate into a single vacuum structure the rapid stage of inflation, followed by the standard radiation and cold dark matter epochs all the way down until the dark energy era. Remarkably, the running vacuum models (RVM's) render an outstanding phenomenological description of the main cosmological data at a level that is currently challenging the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model, thereby implying that present observations seem to point to a running vacuum rather than to a rigid cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in our Universe.

  19. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  1. Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Guang

    2011-01-01

    We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

  2. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  3. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  4. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  5. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  6. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  7. The current status of world protection for mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengyun, Zhang; Zhixian, Su; Qiaoying, Zhang; Aiying, Shen

    2003-09-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other nonforestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people. Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood produets from the mangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world’s mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world’s mangrove forests.

  8. [Current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, M; Abe, M

    1989-03-01

    The current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumor is reviewed. Heating methods include external heating, intraluminal heating and interstitial heating, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Hyperthermia alone has significant effects on deep-seated tumors. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has been widely applied, resulting in 10-15% complete regression and 10-40% partial regression in the treatment of locally advanced tumors. The response rate of thermoradiotherapy was higher than that of radiotherapy for tumors in the brain, rectum and esophagus in the non-randomized study. The clinical application of thermochemotherapy is increasing and its effect is demonstrated in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. Reports of serious complications are rare. The technology for deep-heating and thermometry, and the new criteria for the assessment of thermotherapy for deep-seated tumors seems a promising new treatment modality.

  9. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  10. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  11. Current status of minimally invasive endoscopicmanagement for Zenker diverticulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Aiolfi; Federica Scolari; Greta Saino; Luigi Bonavina

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment ofpharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the pastcentury. Developments in minimally invasive surgeryand new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigmchange. The concept of dividing the septum betweenthe esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting thepouch itself has been revisited during the last threedecades and new technologies have been investigatedto make the transoral operation safe and effective. Theinternal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum.

  12. The Current Status of World Protection for Mangrove Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征云; 苏智先; 张桥英; 申爱英

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other non-forestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people.Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood products from the nangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world's mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world's mangrove forests.

  13. The spatial extent of the Deep Western Boundary Current into the Bounty Trough: new evidence from parasound sub-bottom profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Michael; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    Deep currents such as the Pacific Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) are strengthened periodically in Milankovitch cycles. We studied periodic fluctuations in seismic reflection pattern and reflection amplitude in order to detect cycles in the sedimentary layers of Bounty Trough and bounty fan, east of New Zealand. There, the occurrence of the obliquity frequency is caused only by the DWBC. Therefore, it provides direct evidence for the spatial extent of the DWBC. We can confirm the extent of the DWBC west of the outer sill, previously only inferred via erosional features at the outer sill. Further, our data allow an estimation of the extent of the DWBC into the Bounty Trough, limiting the DWBC presence to east of 178.15°E. Using the presented method a larger dataset will allow a chronological and areal mapping of sedimentation processes and hence provide information on glacial/interglacial cycles.

  14. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiangcan; XU Qiujin; HUANG Changzhu

    2005-01-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status,mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes.Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now.Lake eutrophication has become a

  15. Current status of myelin replacement therapies in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey K; Franklin, Robin J M

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the human central nervous system characterized by immune-mediated myelin and axonal damage, and chronic axonal loss attributable to the absence of myelin sheaths. There are two aspects to the treatment of MS-first, the prevention of damage by suppressing the maladaptive immune system, and second, the long-term preservation of axons by the promotion of remyelination, a regenerative process in which new axons are restored to demyelinated axons. Medicine has made significant progress in the first of these in recent years-there is an increasing number of ever more effective disease-modifying immunomodulatory interventions. However, there are currently no widely used regenerative therapies in MS. Conceptually, there are two approaches to remyelination therapy-transplantation of myelinogenic cells and promotion of endogenous remyelination mediated by myelinogenic cells present within the diseased tissue. In this chapter, in addition to describing why remyelination therapies are important, we review both these approaches, outlining their current status and future developments.

  16. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  17. Current Status of the Daejeon Ion Accelerator Complex at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sung-Ryul; Chang, Dae-Sik; Hwang, Churl-Kew; Lee, Seok-Kwan; Jin, Jeong-Tae; Oh, Byung-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Daejeon ion accelerator complex (DIAC) is being constructed at Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI) in order to fulfill an increasing demand for heavy ion beam facilities for various purposes including structural material study, biological research and nanomaterial treatment. The accelerators in the DIAC are designed to produce heavy ion beams with energies up to 1 MeV/u and beam currents up to 300 μA. [1–4] In this article, current status of the DIAC construction is presented and discussed. The DIAC facilities are designed to handle stable non-radioactive beams. According to user demand, the separated two ECR sources (i.e., an 18 GHz KEK – the high energy accelerator research organization ECR ion source with a metal oven and a 14.5 GHz KAERI ECR ion source) together with low energy beam transport line (LEBT) can supply linacs with both metal and non-metal ions. From the successful full-power test results, we confirmed that the IH and RFQ linacs work properly and then they are ready to accelerate heavy ions up to 1.09 MeV/nucleon. Since all tests and reorganization of the integrated control system were successful, it is supposed that the DIAC is now ready for beam tuning. Presently, construction of radiation shielded walls and radiation safety licensing are now in progress.

  18. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  19. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  20. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alday PH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available P Holland Alday,1 Joseph Stone Doggett1,2 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Oregon Health & Science University, 2Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, therapeutics, preclinical medicine, experimental medicine, mechanism of action, Apicomplexa

  1. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harutoshi; Sugiyama; Toshio; Tsuyuguchi; Yuji; Sakai; Rintaro; Mikata; Shin; Yasui; Yuto; Watanabe; Dai; Sakamoto; Masato; Nakamura; Reina; Sasaki; Jun-ichi; Senoo; Yuko; Kusakabe; Masahiro; Hayashi; Osamu; Yokosuka

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage(PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and Pub Med using the keywords "PBD", "pancreaticoduodenectomy", and "obstructive jaundice". Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention.

  2. Current status and progress in gastric cancer with liver metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; CHEN Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM), involving the routes, subtypes, and prognosis of GCLM; the genes and molecules associated with metastasis;the feasibility and value of each imaging modality; and current treatment options.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2005 to August 2010. The search terms were "gastric cancer" and "liver metastasis".Study selection Articles regarding the characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and vadous therapeutic options of GCLM were selected.Results The prognosis of GCLM is influenced by the clinicopathological characteristics of primary tumors, as well as the presence of liver metastases. Improved understanding of related genes and molecules will lead to the development of methods of early detection and targeted therapies. For the diagnosis of GCLM, each imaging modality has its relative benefits. There remains no consensus regarding therapeutic options.Conclusions Early detection and characterization of liver metastases is crucial for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Multidisciplinary team discussions are required to design optimal treatment strategies, which should be based on the clinicopathological characteristics of each patient.

  3. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. PMID:28182168

  4. The Current Status of Physical Therapy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Jones; Margot A Skinner

    2013-01-01

    The current health system in China has evolved by embracing both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.China is the only country in the world where the number of doctors is larger than the number of nurses but education programmes for other health professions like physical therapy have been slow to develop.In the case of physical therapy it was not until China won the bid for the Olympic Games that permission to establish the first physical therapy programme was granted.Since then China has undergone a period of rapid economic growth enabling many people to have a higher standard of living and improved health,but at the same time the country is faced with massive urbanization,industrialization,increasing environmental health threats,increased health disparities and an aging population.With the support of the Chinese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine,an increased investment by the Government in public health and rehabilitation and engagement of international education experts,entry-level education programmes for physical therapy have started to develop and there are now nine which are modeled,at least to some extent,on the World Confederation for Physical Therapy's international guidelines.The paper explores the development of physical therapy education in China and discusses possible options for the way forward so that as the demand for physical therapy to service 1.4 billion people grows,the profession is prepared and the standards expected of the entry-level physical therapist will not be compromised.

  5. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloska, Stephan P; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed.

  6. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Current status of cerebral glioma surgery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jin-song; ZHANG Jie; ZHUANG Dong-xiao; YAO Cheng-jun; QIU Tian-ming; LU Jun-feng; ZHU Feng-ping; MAO Ying; ZHOU Liang-fu

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of gliomas is highly individualized.Surgery for gliomas is essentially for histological diagnosis,to alleviate mass effect,and most importantly,to favor longer survival expectancy.During the past two decades,many surgical techniques and adjuvants have been applied to glioma surgery in China,which lead to a rapid development in the field of cerebral glioma surgery.This article broadly and critically reviewed the existing studies on cerebral glioma surgery and to portrait the current status of glioma surgery in China.A literature search was conducted covering major innovative surgical techniques and adjuvants for glioma surgery in China.The following databases were searched:the Pubmed (January 1995 to date);China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (January 1995 to date) and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (January 1995 to date).A selection criterion was established to exclude duplicates and irrelevant studies.The outcome measures were extracted from included studies.A total of 3307 articles were initially searched.After excluded by abstracts and full texts,69 studies conducted in the mainland of China were included and went through further analysis.The philosophy of surgical strategies for cerebral gliomas in China is undergoing tremendous change.Nowadays Chinese neurosurgeons pay more attention to the postoperative neurofunctional status of the patients.The aim of the glioma surgery is not only the more extensive tumor resection but also the maximal safety of intervention.The well balance of longer overall survival and higher quality of life should be judged with respect to each individual patient.

  8. Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabić-Stanković Kata M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in

  9. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay

  10. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay fo

  11. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  12. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  13. Robotic hepatobiliary surgery: update on the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, A D; Ali, M R; Khatri, V P

    2013-10-01

    An update on the current status of robotic hepatobiliary surgery based on a review of the available literature. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database with search phrases "robotic hepatectomy", "robotic liver resection", "robotic liver surgery", "robotic hepatobiliary surgery", and "robotic biliary reconstruction". We selected articles with high volume case series or case controlled series. As a result of our literature search we will focus on the 9 major articles on robotic liver resection (RLR) with 235 patients undergoing RLR for a total of 244 liver resections. In addition a brief update on robotic biliary reconstruction will also be presented based on the above articles and recent review articles. Indications for robotic liver resection included both benign (N.=72, 29.5%) and malignant disease (N.=172, 70.5%). The most common indication was colorectal liver metastasis (N.=87, 50.6%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (N.=57, 33%). The most common type of resection was subsegmental (N.=55, 22.5%), with a significant number of major hepatectomies (N.=80, 32.8%). Overall conversion rate was 7.8%, with majority converted to open (N.=18) and one converted to hand assisted. The overall complication rate was 11.8% (N.=29). No perioperative mortality was reported. Preliminary results show that robotic assisted laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery has materialized as a new technique that combines the advantages of laparoscopy with the dissection, suturing and articulation of robotics. This more closely approximates open surgery. The preliminary data demonstrates that RLR can be applied in major hepatobiliary centers safely. Future comparative studies are needed to determine if this is of significant benefit over current open techniques.

  14. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  15. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading "Huntington Disease" combined with text and key words "Huntington Disease", "Neuroimaging" and "PET". Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([(18)F]FDG and [(15)O]H2O), presynaptic ([(18)F]fluorodopa, [(11)C]β-CIT and [(11)C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([(11)C]SCH22390, [(11)C]FLB457 and [(11)C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([(18)F]JNJ42259152, [(18)F]MNI-659 and [(11)C]IMA107), and adenosine ([(18)F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([(18)F]MK-9470), opioid ([(11)C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([(11)C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive treatment in HD.

  16. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues.

  18. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  19. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  20. Immunotherapy in the management of melanoma: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alston D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dylan Alston,1 Jerry D Brewer21Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, 2Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: As the rate of melanoma continues to increase, so does the need for more effective and durable therapies. Despite considerable research, the management of advanced disease remains challenging. Numerous therapies are being investigated, many of which aim at upregulating the immune system's innate ability to attack the tumor. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibodies are immune stimulants that act as negative regulators of the immune system by modifying an antitumor T-cell response. Ipilimumab, one such cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, and vemurafenib, a BRAF competitive inhibitor, were approved as first-line therapies in 2011 due to improved survival rates versus standard chemotherapy. Allovectin-7 is a lipid plasmid that encodes for major histone compatibility complex DNA sequences. It has led to increases in cytotoxic T-cell production, which subsequently attacks the tumor. OncoVEX, an oncolytic herpes virus, and PV-10, a chemoablative agent, have yielded promising results in metastatic lesions and have demonstrated a unique "bystandarder" phenomenon. In this paper we review the basics of melanoma from the pathophysiology, risk factors, signs, diagnostic approaches, and current status of immunologic management of melanoma.Keywords: melanoma, immunotherapy, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, OncoVEX, Allovectin-7

  1. The SNO+ experiment. Current status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, Valentina [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator based experiment that reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector. The detector, located 2 km underground in a mine near Sudbury, Canada, consists of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator. The main physics goal of SNO+ is to search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 130}Te. During the double-beta phase, the liquid scintillator will be initially loaded with 0.3-0.5% natural tellurium. In 5 years of data taking, SNO+ expects to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 55-133 meV, just above the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. Recently, the possibility to deploy up to 10 times more natural tellurium has been investigated, by which SNO+ could explore deep into the parameter space for the inverted hierarchy in the near future. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, SNO+ can additionally measure the reactor antineutrino oscillations, geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch supernova neutrinos and measure low-energy solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon. The scintillator phase is expected to start after few months of water data taking. The 0νββ decay phase is foreseen for the 2017. In this talk the current status and the broad physics program of SNO+ will be presented.

  2. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  3. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  4. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  5. Current Status of Manufacturing Hazardous Waste in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changqing; Zhang Jiangshan; Zhao Youcai

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to manage the manufacturing hazardous waste(MHW)whichis generated from a huge amount of complicated sources and causes very serious pollution.Therefore more and more attention has been paid to MHW pollution.shanghai,as an industrial and economic center and an intemational metropolis in China,has a vast industrial system spanning a multitude of sectors,which generates MHW not only in a huge magnitude but also in a large variety of types from complicated sourrces,resulting in severe pollution.In 2003,the production of MHW in Shanghai is about 3.96 x 10ton,involving 33 indices.Most of MHW in Shanghai is treated and disposed of,but a significant portion is not handled properly and effectively.This paper carries out in-field investigation on the current status of MHW production and treat ment in Shanghai,and puts forward scientific proposals that Shanghai should facilitate cleaner production and minimize haz ardous waste;strictly enforce hazardous waste registration system, strengthen monitoring the certified enterprises;strengthen intent disposal center construction and realize hazardous waste reclamation;accelerate establishing tlle technical criteria and the management policy,promote the research and development on the treatment and disposal technology,and strengthen information management,thus realizing integrated management on MHW pollution.

  6. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  7. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  8. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  9. Current status of HIV/AIDS in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturaka Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases ′South Asia′ plus ′HIV′ , ′AIDS′, and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language. Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS. Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context.

  10. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  11. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  12. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, John; Constantinides, Steve

    1997-04-01

    Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at 3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed.

  13. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law.

  14. Current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T D; Doanh, P N; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2016-09-01

    Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported to be the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both humans and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia and Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate hosts of Fasciola spp. However, due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the past decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease.

  15. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  16. Pig islets for islet xenotransplantation: current status and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qinghua; Liu Zhongwei; Zhu Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the current status and progress on pig islet xenotransplantation.Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literature of Pubmed database.The search terms were "pig islet" and "xenotransplantation".Study selection The original articles and critical reviews selected were relevant to this review's theme.Results Pigs are suggested to be an ideal candidate for obtaining available islet cells for transplantation.However,the potential clinical application of pig islet is still facing challenges including inadequate yield of high-quality functional islets and xenorejection of the transplants.The former can be overcome mainly by selection of a suitable pathogen-free source herd and the development of isolation and purification technology.While the feasibility of successful preclinical pig islet xenotranplantation provides insights in the possible mechanisms of xenogeneic immune recognition and rejection to overwhelm the latter.In addition,the achievement of long-term insulin independence in diabetic models by means of distinct islet products and novel immunotherapeutic strategies is promising.Conclusions Pig islet xenotransplantation is one of the prospective treatments to bridge the gap between the needs of transplantation in patients with diabetes and available islet cells.Nonetheless,further studies and efforts are needed to translate obtained findings into tangible applications.

  17. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R S; Scott, J F; Kohlstedt, H; Petraru, A; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO(2), Cr(2)O(3), FeO(x) and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO(3), Pb(Zr(x) Ti(1-x))O(3), BiFeO(3) and Pr(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3); (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al(2)O(3) and Gd(2)O(3); (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In(2)Se(3) and In(2)Te(3). Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  18. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshi V

    2013-06-01

    take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  19. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants.

  20. Current Status of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING-DAN CHEN; LIN-HUA TANG; LONG-QI XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To Carry out national surveys for ascertaining the current status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in China,providing scientific basis for forther developing control strategies.Methods In 1988-1992(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 1990"),a stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey.In 2001-2004(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 2003"),in order to compare with the survey in 1990,two-characteristic stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 687 investigation spots were sampled from the 2848 spots selected in the survey in 1990.Kato-Katz thick smear method was used to examine the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes in fecal samples. Results The prevalence rates were 53.6% and 19.6% for soil-transmitted nematodes,14.6%and 6.120% for hookworms,44.6% and 12.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides,17.4% and 4.630% for Trichuris trichiura in survey 1990 and survey 2003,respectively.The prevalence rates of soil-transmitted nematodes were higher in 13 provinces than the average level in China in the survey in 1990.and higher in 8 provinces than the average level in the survey in 2003.The prevalence of hookworms,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichurls trichiura and the overall prevalence of soft-transmitted nematodes were higher in females than in males.It is estimated from the results of survey in 2003 that the number of persons with soil-transmitted nematode infections in the country is about 129 million,less than that in the survey in 1990. Conclusion The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes has declined considerably but is still relatively high in some provinces and autonomous regions.Control activities and socioeconomic development may have contributed to the decreased prevalence.

  1. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons.

  2. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

  3. Applicability of RNA interference in cancer therapy: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maduri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a manifestation of dysregulated gene function arising from a complex interplay of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes present in our body. Cancer has been constantly chased using various therapies but all in vain as most of them are highly effective only in the early stages of cancer. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi therapy, a comparatively new entrant is evolving as a promising player in the battle against cancer due to its post-transcriptional gene silencing ability. The most alluring feature of this non-invasive technology lies in its utility in the cancer detection and the cancer treatment at any stage. Once this technology is fully exploited it can bring a whole new era of therapeutics capable of curing cancer at any stage mainly due to its ability to target the vital processes required for cell proliferation such as response to growth factors, nutrient uptake/synthesis, and energy generation. This therapy can also be used to treat stage IV cancer, the most difficult to treat till date, by virtue of its metastasis inhibiting capability. Recent research has also proved that cancer can even be prevented by proper modulation of physiological RNAi pathways and researchers have found that many nutrients, which are a part of routine diet, can effectively modulate these pathways and prevent cancer. Even after having all these advantages the potential of RNAi therapy could not be fully tapped earlier, due to many limitations associated with the administration of RNAi based therapeutics. However, recent advancements in this direction, such as the development of small interfering RNA (siRNA tolerant to nucleases and the development of non-viral vectors such as cationic liposomes and nanoparticles, can overcome this obstacle and facilitate the clinical use of RNAi based therapeutics in the treatment of cancer. The present review focuses on the current status of RNAi therapeutics and explores their potential as future diagnostics and

  4. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2015-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

  5. Current and Future Status of Diversity in Ophthalmologist Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xierali, Imam M; Nivet, Marc A; Wilson, M Roy

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care. To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States. Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015. For 2014, associations of sex, race, and ethnicity with physician practice locations were assessed. Proportions of ophthalmologists stratified by sex, race, and ethnicity between 2005 and 2015. Women and minority groups traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM)-black, Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander-were underrepresented as practicing ophthalmologists (22.7% and 6%, respectively), ophthalmology faculty (35.1% and 5.7%, respectively), and ophthalmology residents (44.3% and 7.7%, respectively), compared with the US population (50.8% and 30.7%, respectively). During the past decade, there had been a modest increase in the proportion of female practicing ophthalmologists who graduated from US medical schools in 1980 or later (from 23.8% to 27.1%; P workforce despite an available pool of medical students. Given the prevalent racial and ethnic disparities in eye care and an increasingly diverse society, future research and training efforts that increase the level of diversity among medical students and residents seems warranted.

  6. Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-01-16

    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases. Presently, three types of genome editing tools viz., zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) are widely used for the editing of the genomes of diverse organisms. These tools are also applied in vector mosquitoes to control the spread of vector-borne diseases. A few studies have been carried out on genome editing to control the diseases spread by vector mosquitoes and more studies need to be performed with the utilization of more recently invented tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to combat the spread of deadly diseases by vector mosquitoes. The high specificity and flexibility of CRISPR/Cas9 system may offer possibilities for novel genome editing for the control of important diseases spread by vector mosquitoes. In this review, we present the current status of genome editing research on vector mosquitoes and also discuss the future applications of vector mosquito genome editing to control the spread of vectorborne diseases.

  7. Analysis on Current Status and Plights of Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-wen; QIAN Feng

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine, which is a new concept appearing in the field of international medical health in the past three or four years, forms a discipline of the system medicine (including systematic pathology, diagnosis and comprehensive treatment as well as pharmacology, etc) synchronizing with personalized medicine and predictable medicine. It is a branch of medical research trying to build a better bridge between the basic studies and the clinical medical treatment. It can promote the predicative, prognostic and personalized medicines by the evaluation and application of molecular markers, the individual therapies based on molecular subtypes and the evaluation and predication of therapeutic responses and prognosis. And its purpose is to build a direct connection between basic research and clinical practice so as to transform the knowledge and achievements of basic research into new therapeutic methods in clinic, which can be used to serve the clinic and solve clinical problems. Nevertheless, the study on translational medicine is limited, and there are few review articles about the progress of translational medicine in English. With the development of innovative and new technology, the therapeutic methods become more accurate and diverse, and the translational medicine will make outstanding advances and provide more space for the future treatment of various diseases so as to better serve the clinical practices and the patients. In addition, except the outstanding achievements, there are still multiple plights in the translational medicine research. Therefore, this study aimed to review the current status and the present problems in translational medicine, hoping to expand the study outcomes in China to the whole world.

  8. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  9. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  10. Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Ruiz, Sol; Schneider, Christian K

    2013-06-01

    provided through several Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guidelines as well as individual scientific advice requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) by various companies for the development and regulation of biosimilars. This review is mainly focused on the current status of regulation of biosimilars in the EU as well as on future challenges lying ahead for the improvement of the requirements needed for the marketing authorization of biosimilars. Emphasis is given on the quality requirements concerning these medicinal products (biologics).

  11. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  12. Current status of the JET ITER-like Wall Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, G F; Edwards, P; Greuner, H; Loving, A; Maier, H; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V; Riccardo, V; Rubel, M; Ruset, C; Scmidt, A; Villedieu, E [JET-EFDA Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gfm@jet.uk

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents an overview of the status and relevant technical issues for the ITER-like Wall Project with emphasis on progress since the 11th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications.

  13. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  14. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  15. Current status of the New Antiepileptic drugs in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Sidhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various Non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer’s Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder

  16. Current Status of the Problem of Cosmological Variability of Fundamental Physical Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshslovich, D.A.; Ivanchik, A.V.; Orlov, A.V.; Potekhin, A.Y.; Petitjean, P.

    We review the current status of the problem of cosmological variability of fundamental physical constants, provided by modern laboratory experiments, Oklo phenomena analysis, and especially astronomical observations.

  17. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  18. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  19. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1993-08-04

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.

  20. Current Trends in Treatment of Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjemann, John P

    2015-12-01

    Status epilepticus is a heterogeneous disorder with varied definitions and presentations. Taken together, all forms of status epilepticus carry significant morbidity and mortality, much of which is dictated by the underlying etiology. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus, which represents a common form, is a true neurologic emergency that requires emergent management. Treatment focuses on stabilizing the patient and aggressive medical management to achieve the timely termination of seizures. For other forms of status epilepticus including nonconvulsive and focal status epilepticus, the goal remains early seizure termination, but the use of intravenous medications should be weighed against the risks associated with these therapies. The diagnostic evaluation of status epilepticus is guided by the patient's history and should be broad, including a screen for toxins, electrolytes, structural abnormalities, and central nervous system infectious and autoimmune/inflammatory etiologies. Considerable research is still needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms, consequences, and therapy of status epilepticus.

  1. Army Institutional Training: Current Status and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    will be the actual developmental level tomorrow” ( Vygotsky , 1978, p. 42 87). To the extent that the learner can maintain position at the edge of...engage in something approximating peer scaffolding. Vygotsky (1978) initially posited the possibility of peer scaffolding, and Lai and Law (2006) and...Wirklichkeit, Munich: Piper. Von Glasersfeld, E. (1997). Amplification of a constructivist perspective. Issues in Education, 3, 203-209. Vygotsky , L. S

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. Current status on marine litter indicators in Nordic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna; Magnusson, Kerstin

    Status for project on Marine litter in the Nordic waters. This includes a review of Nordic studies on marine litter indicators. Various studies as part of either research or existing monitoring have provided information on occurrence of marine litter in Nordic waters from Baltic Sea to the Arctic....

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  7. Current status of intestinal Schistosomiasis and soil- transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    a year until the level of infection falls below the level of public health importance. There is also a need to ... Since then, the status of the disease has not been known in the area. ..... habit in the rainy season and contact with water while crossing ...

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  9. Current status of the JET ITER-like Wall Project

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, G. F.; Edwards, P; H. Greuner; Loving, A.; Maier, H; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V.; Riccardo, V.; Rubel, Marek J.; Ruset, C.; Scmidt, A.; Villedieu, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the status and relevant technical issues for the ITER-like Wall Project with emphasis on progress since the 11th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications. QC 20101118

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. Overly ambitious: contributions and current status of Q methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J.K.; Tamas, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This essay offers a small description of recent contributions and status of Q methodology by means of a review of suggested best practices, a systematic review of practice, and a methodological audit. Both theoretical and empirical study suggest that Q methodology neither delivers its promised

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  18. The Influence of Data Resolution on Predicted Distribution and Estimates of Extent of Current Protection of Three 'Listed' Deep-Sea Habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K Ross

    Full Text Available Modelling approaches have the potential to significantly contribute to the spatial management of the deep-sea ecosystem in a cost effective manner. However, we currently have little understanding of the accuracy of such models, developed using limited data, of varying resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of predictive models constructed using non-simulated (real world data of different resolution. Predicted distribution maps for three deep-sea habitats were constructed using MaxEnt modelling methods using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data and associated terrain derived variables as predictors. Model performance was evaluated using repeated 75/25 training/test data partitions using AUC and threshold-dependent assessment methods. The overall extent and distribution of each habitat, and the percentage contained within an existing MPA network were quantified and compared to results from low resolution GEBCO models. Predicted spatial extent for scleractinian coral reef and Syringammina fragilissima aggregations decreased with an increase in model resolution, whereas Pheronema carpenteri total suitable area increased. Distinct differences in predicted habitat distribution were observed for all three habitats. Estimates of habitat extent contained within the MPA network all increased when modelled at fine scale. High resolution models performed better than low resolution models according to threshold-dependent evaluation. We recommend the use of high resolution multibeam bathymetry data over low resolution bathymetry data for use in modelling approaches. We do not recommend the use of predictive models to produce absolute values of habitat extent, but likely areas of suitable habitat. Assessments of MPA network effectiveness based on calculations of percentage area protection (policy driven conservation targets from low resolution models are likely to be fit for purpose.

  19. The Influence of Data Resolution on Predicted Distribution and Estimates of Extent of Current Protection of Three 'Listed' Deep-Sea Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lauren K; Ross, Rebecca E; Stewart, Heather A; Howell, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    Modelling approaches have the potential to significantly contribute to the spatial management of the deep-sea ecosystem in a cost effective manner. However, we currently have little understanding of the accuracy of such models, developed using limited data, of varying resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of predictive models constructed using non-simulated (real world) data of different resolution. Predicted distribution maps for three deep-sea habitats were constructed using MaxEnt modelling methods using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data and associated terrain derived variables as predictors. Model performance was evaluated using repeated 75/25 training/test data partitions using AUC and threshold-dependent assessment methods. The overall extent and distribution of each habitat, and the percentage contained within an existing MPA network were quantified and compared to results from low resolution GEBCO models. Predicted spatial extent for scleractinian coral reef and Syringammina fragilissima aggregations decreased with an increase in model resolution, whereas Pheronema carpenteri total suitable area increased. Distinct differences in predicted habitat distribution were observed for all three habitats. Estimates of habitat extent contained within the MPA network all increased when modelled at fine scale. High resolution models performed better than low resolution models according to threshold-dependent evaluation. We recommend the use of high resolution multibeam bathymetry data over low resolution bathymetry data for use in modelling approaches. We do not recommend the use of predictive models to produce absolute values of habitat extent, but likely areas of suitable habitat. Assessments of MPA network effectiveness based on calculations of percentage area protection (policy driven conservation targets) from low resolution models are likely to be fit for purpose.

  20. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. Microbiological aspects of biofuel production: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa S. Elshahed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel research is currently an area of immense interest due to the increase in global energy demand by emerging economies and the recent increases in global oil prices. Multiple approaches are currently being researched for the use of microorganisms in the production of various biofuel (e.g. alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biogas from multiple starting materials. This review provides a brief overview on the research currently underway on laboratory and industrial scales in the area of biofuels, with specific emphasis on the economic viability of various approaches currently being utilized.

  18. Projecting the Current & Future Impact of Storm Surges on Coastal Flood Extent at Pigeon Point, South-West Tobago, through Hydrodynamic Modelling Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenath, Avidesh; Wilson, Matthew; Miller, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Under climate change, sea levels will continue to rise and the intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes will amplify. Consequently, the incidence rate of high magnitude storm surges may increase which will enhance the probability of coastal flood events in low lying coastal communities. The purpose of this study is to determine the current and potential future areas that may be at risk of flooding from storm surges, of different magnitudes, for the low lying Pigeon Point area of south-west Tobago. The objective of this research is to develop an understanding of the extent of flooding that these events can ensue on low lying coastal areas that are widespread through the Caribbean under current and future sea level conditions. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood model was created for Pigeon Point using the model code LISFLOOD-FP by incorporating topographic data of the terrain and sea bed referenced to mean sea level together with tides. This was used to assess the impact of different storm surge levels on the study area. Storm surge scenarios were computed using information acquired from the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale which provides an estimate of storm surge height based on the category of hurricane, existing projections of global sea level rise and recorded values of high tide for Pigeon Point. Results indicate that the quantity of area likely to flood, in each surge scenario, increases significantly under future projected global sea level conditions compared to current conditions. The potential implications of this on the local population, island's economy and beach geomorphology are examined. Results obtained were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to produce current and future flood maps indicating potential inundation extent based on storm surge height to guide coastal flood management programmes in south-west Tobago. We conclude that greater focus should be placed on implementing flood mitigation measures to protect our coasts and

  19. Fermilab’s Accelerator Complex: Current Status, Upgrades and Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, M. E. [Fermilab

    2016-10-31

    We report on the status of the Fermilab accelerator complex, including recent performance, upgrades in progress, and plans for the future. Beam delivery to the neutrino experiments surpassed our goals for the past year. The Proton Improvement Plan is well underway with successful 15 Hz beam operation. Beam power of 700 kW to the NOvA experiment was demonstrated and will be routine in the next year. We are also preparing the Muon Campus to commission beam to the g-2 experiment.

  20. Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V.M., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.Yu. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.M. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.A.; Domogatsky, G.V.; Doroshenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A.N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S.V. [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Gress, O.A.; Gress, T.I.; Grishin, O.G. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Kebkal, K.G.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Klabukov, A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-10-11

    We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results.

  1. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  3. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  4. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  5. Current status and future directions of research on facial attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the perception of facial attractiveness and to assess the opportunity for research on poorly explored issues regarding facial preferences...

  6. Magnesium Nanocomposites: Current Status and Prospects for Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reviewed the current state of Mg development for Army-related ground vehicle applications (56). Two Mg alloys—WE43 and Elektron 675—currently under...development through a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Magnesium Elektron , NA show great promise for a variety of...applications. WE43 has superior corrosion resistance to many early Mg alloys and is being considered for a variety of applications. Elektron 675 is

  7. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Clausen, Preben

    indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently...... needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway....

  8. Current Status of Imaging Physics and Instrumentation In Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Joung [Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Diagnostic and functional imaging device have been developed independently. The recognition that combining of these two devices can provide better diagnostic outcomes by fusing anatomical and functional images. The representative examples of combining devices would be PET/CT and SPECT/CT. Development and their applications of animal imaging and instrumentation have been very active, as new drug development with advanced imaging device has been increased. The development of advanced imaging device resulted in researching and developing for detector technology and imaging systems. It also contributed to develop a new software, reconstruction algorithm, correction methods for physical factors, image quantitation, computer simulation, kinetic modeling, dosimetry, and correction for motion artifacts. Recently, development of MRI and PET by combining them together was reported. True integration of MRI and PET has been making the progress and their results were reported. The recent status of imaging and instrumentation in nuclear medicine is reported in this paper.

  9. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations.

  10. Current Status of the GRACE Follow-On Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael; Flechtner, Frank; Webb, Frank; Landerer, Felix; Grunwald, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE Follow-On Mission has now advanced to the Assembly and Test Phase with the delivery of essentially all satellite subsystems and science instruments. As of the time of this abstract submission, the team continues to plan launch in 2017. The project team is conducting tests of satellite and instrument operation and performance and putting together updated simulations of expected performance on-orbit, including intersatellite ranging (both microwave and laser), accelerometer, thermal variability and deformation, and other errors. In addition, all required ground analysis software of the Science Data System is in development and testing at JPL, The UTCSR, and GFZ, in preparation for fully integrated end-to-end (international) testing from Level-1 through Level-3 data in the coming year. In this presentation, we will provide the detailed status of project integration and test, the latest simulations of science performance, and schedule for remaining project milestones.

  11. Current status of duplex surface engineered Ti-based materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Bell

    2004-01-01

    Industrial exploitation of the high specific strength and corrosion resistance of titanium were dominated historically by the technological advances which have been made in gas-turbine engine and aircraft components. Realization of the possible benefits in general engineering has been limited by the absence of any proven and reliable means of overcoming the poor wear resistance and galling tendency suffered by titanium alloys when in contact with other materials. This problem can only be addressed by optimizing and demonstrating industrially viable surface engineering processes for titanium in general engineering. The status of single and duplex surface engineering systems are reviewed. In addition, in order to fully realize the potential of advanced surface engineering of titanium components contact mechanics models are developed to enable the automotive engineers to design dynamically the loaded automotive engine and transmission components.

  12. Current status of radioisotope production in the year of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C

    2004-02-01

    The RIPF(Radio Isotope Production Facility) is the unique facility in Korea which has been used for the isotope production. Through the survey on the radioisotope quantities of production and consumption in the domestic industry, we were trying to show the trend of isotope production. The quantities of Tc-99m, Mo-99, Cr-51, I-131 solution and I-131 capsule produced in the hot cell and clean room of RIPF were compared with the quantities at the previous year. Also the output of the labeling compound such as Hippuran, MIBG, RIHSA, Phytate, MDP, DISIDA, DTPA, etc was compared with the previous year by the radioactivity and the vial. We treated the sum of selling amount of industrial isotopes and tracer isotopes and the status of technical supports also.

  13. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  14. Robotic single port surgery: Current status and future considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Samarasekera

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: R-LESS is technically feasible and the benefits of robotic surgery eliminate many of the challenges seen with conventional LESS. However, despite the advantages of the robotic platform, R-LESS is not free of challenges. Instrument clashing remains an issue due to the bulky profile of the current robotic system. Other issues include lack of space for the assistant at the bedside, inability to incorporate the 4 th robotic arm for retraction and difficulties with triangulation. Although solutions for some of these issues are currently under development, R-LESS is still very much in its infancy.

  15. The current status of high temperature superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, B. P.; Burkhanov, G. S.

    1991-12-01

    The principal technological difficulties associated with the manufacture of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) wires based on yttrium and lanthanum ceramics are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the superconducting and mechanical properties of HTSC wires or ribbons are largely determined by their microstructure. Particular attention is given to the currently used method of producing HTSC wires whereby the ceramic powder is encased in a pipe shell and then deformed by different methods, such as rolling, drawing, or pressing. The requirements for the shell material are examined, and current densities are presented for HTSC wires produced in shells of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel, and zirconium.

  16. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND during radical prostatectomy (RP for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement.

  17. Current status of nuclear medicine in chronic airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide imaging, quite apart from its role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, offers information about the distribution of ventilatory and perfusion abnormalities within the lung. The extent of ventilatory abnormality seen can be related to the severity of airways obstruction as assessed spirometrically, whilst abnormalities in the matching of perfusion to ventilation can be related to the severity of hypoxaemia in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with chronic mucus hypersection may be assessed by following the clearance rate of insoluble radioaerosol particles; by such means the relative contributions of mucociliary transport and of cough to the overall clearance can be observed. Clearance is often severely impaired in patients with airways obstruction; the radioaerosol technique can be used to determine the effects of drug or physiotherapy treatment. Chronic airflow limitation leading to hypoxaemia can be associated with pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy - this may be investigated noninvasively by a radionuclide test of right ventricular ejection fraction.

  18. Wind, current and swell influences on the ice extent and flux in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area as observed in the LIMEX '87 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Susan Digby; Carsey, Frank; Holt, Benjamin

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents data collected by airborne and satellite instruments during the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment, that demonstrate the effects of oceanic and atmospheric processes on the ice conditions in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area. Special consideration is given to the development of algorithms for extracting information from SAR data. It is shown that SAR data can be used to monitor ice extent, determine ice motion, locate shear zones, monitor the penetration of swell into the ice, estimate floe sizes, and establish the dimensions of the ice velocity zones. It is also shown that the complex interaction of the ice cover with winds, currents, swell, and coastlines is similar to the dynamics established for a number of sites in both polar regions.

  19. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.;

    2016-01-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, a...

  20. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  1. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was

  2. Measles: Current Status and Outbreak Control on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amler, Robert W.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    1984-01-01

    The current effort to eliminate measles in the United States has caused record low levels of the disease. This strategy must continue to be applied in order to break the transmission of measles on college campuses through high immunization levels, promotion of rapid reporting of cases, and quick responses to outbreaks. (Author/DF)

  3. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  4. Current status of food-borne trematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, R; Esteban, J G; Fried, B

    2012-08-01

    Food-borne trematodiases constitute an important group of the most neglected tropical diseases, not only in terms of research funding, but also in the public media. The Trematoda class contains a great number of species that infect humans and are recognized as the causative agents of disease. The biological cycle, geographical distribution, and epidemiology of most of these trematode species have been well characterized. Traditionally, these infections were limited, for the most part, in populations living in low-income countries, particularly in Southeast Asia, and were associated with poverty. However, the geographical limits and the population at risk are currently expanding and changing in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on parasitological techniques and only a limited number of drugs are currently available for treatment, most of which are unspecific. Therefore, in-depth studies are urgently needed in order to clarify the current epidemiology of these helminth infections and to identify new and specific targets for both effective diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we describe the biology, medical and epidemiological features, and current treatment and diagnostic tools of the main groups of flukes and the corresponding diseases.

  5. Continuing Professional Development in School Psychology: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Current patterns and trends in continuing education for school psychologists are identified by looking at the programs developed by the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists, followed by a brief description of the National School Psychology Inservice Training Network project. (Author/BW)

  6. Current status of renal biopsy for small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Beom; Kwak, Cheol

    2014-09-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered.

  7. Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Beom

    2014-01-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

  8. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  9. Current status in the therapy of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson's disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

  10. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was s

  11. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was s

  12. EMDR and the anxiety disorders: exploring the current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the assumptions of Shapiro's adaptive information-processing model, it could be argued that a large proportion of people suffering from an anxiety disorder would benefit from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This article provides an overview of the current empirical evi

  13. Nonablative lasers and nonlaser systems in dermatology: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Mukta; Hameed, Sunaina; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Nonablative lasers and nonlaser systems are newer systems used for skin rejuvenation, tightening, body sculpting, and scar remodeling. Different technologies such as lasers, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), and radiofrequency have been introduced. Most nonablative laser systems emit light within the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (1000-1500 nm). At these wavelengths, absorption by superficial water containing tissue is relatively weak, thereby effecting deeper tissue penetration. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Nonablative technology have been used for several indications such as skin tightening, periorbital tissue tightening, treatment of nasolabial lines and jowl, body sculpting/remodeling, cellulite reduction, scar revision and remodeling and for the treatment of photodamaged skin. Nonablative laser and light modalities can be carried out in a physician treatment room or hospital setting or a nursing home with a small operation theater. The dermatologic consultation should include detailed assessment of the patient's skin condition and skin type. An informed consent is mandatory to protect the rights of the patient as well as the practitioner. All patients must have carefully taken preoperative and postoperative pictures. Depends on the indication, the area to be treated, the acceptable downtime for the desired correction, and to an extent the skin color. These lasers are mostly pain-free and tolerated well by patients but may require topical anesthesia. In most cases, topical cooling and numbing using icepacks is sufficient, even in an apprehensive patient. The nonablative lasers, light sources and radiofrequency systems are safe, even in darker skin types, and postoperative care is minimal. Proper postoperative care is important in avoiding complications. Post-treatment edema and redness settle in a few hours to a few days. Postoperative sun avoidance and use of sunscreen is mandatory.

  14. Nonablative lasers and nonlaser systems in dermatology: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sachdev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonablative lasers and nonlaser systems are newer systems used for skin rejuvenation, tightening, body sculpting, and scar remodeling. Devices: Different technologies such as lasers, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL, and radiofrequency have been introduced. Most nonablative laser systems emit light within the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (1000-1500nm. At these wavelengths, absorption by superficial water containing tissue is relatively weak, thereby effecting deeper tissue penetration. A detailed understanding of the device being used is recommended. Indications: Nonablative technology have been used for several indications such as skin tightening, periorbital tissue tightening, treatment of nasolabial lines and jowl, body sculpting/remodeling, cellulite reduction, scar revision and remodeling and for the treatment of photodamaged skin. Facility: Nonablative laser and light modalities can be carried out in a physician treatment room or hospital setting or a nursing home with a small operation theater. Preoperative counseling and informed consent: The dermatologic consultation should include detailed assessment of the patient′s skin condition and skin type. An informed consent is mandatory to protect the rights of the patient as well as the practitioner. All patients must have carefully taken preoperative and postoperative pictures. Choice of the device and parameters: Depends on the indication, the area to be treated, the acceptable downtime for the desired correction, and to an extent the skin color. Anesthesia: These lasers are mostly pain-free and tolerated well by patients but may require topical anesthesia. In most cases, topical cooling and numbing using icepacks is sufficient, even in an apprehensive patient. Postoperative care: The nonablative lasers, light sources and radiofrequency systems are safe, even in darker skin types, and postoperative care is minimal. Proper postoperative care is important in avoiding

  15. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, June Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Coronary artery disease is on the rise over the world. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a well established technique to detect coronary artery disease and to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it has the unique ability to predict the prognosis of the patients. Moreover, the application of ECG-gated images provided the quantitative data and improved the accuracy. This approach has been proved to be cost-effective and suitable for the emerging economies as well as developed countries. However, the utilization of nuclear cardiology procedures vary widely considering the different countries and region of the world. Korea exits 2-3 times less utilization than Japan, and 20 times than the United States. Recently, with the emerging of new technology, namely cardiac CT, cardiac MR and stress echocardiography, the clinical usefulness of nuclear cardiology has been called in question and its role has been redefined. For the proper promotion of nuclear cardiology, special educations should be conducted since the nuclear cardiology has the contact points between nuclear medicine and cardiology. Several innovations are in horizon which will impact the diagnostic accuracy as well as imaging time and cost savings. Development of new tracers, gamma camera technology and hybrid systems will open the new avenue in cardiac imaging. The future of nuclear cardiology based on molecular imaging is very exciting. The newly defined biologic targets involving atherosclerosis and vascular vulnerability will allow the answers for the key clinical questions. Hybrid techniques including SPECT/CT indicate the direction in which clinical nuclear cardiology may be headed in the immediate future. To what extent nuclear cardiology will be passively absorbed by other modalities, or will actively incorporate other modalities, is up to the present and next generation of nuclear cardiologists.

  16. Antidotes for novel oral anticoagulants: current status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Mark; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the anti-Xa agents rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban are a new generation of oral anticoagulants. Their advantage over the vitamin K antagonists is the lack of the need for monitoring and dose adjustment. Their main disadvantage is currently the absence of a specific reversal agent. Dabigatran's, unlike the anti-Xa agents, absorption can be reduced by activated charcoal if administered shortly after ingestion and it can be removed from the blood with hemodialysis. Prothrombin complex concentrate, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and recombinant factor VIIa all show some activity in reversing the anticoagulant effect of these drugs but this is based on ex vivo, animal, and volunteer studies. It is unclear, which, if any, of these drugs is the most suitable for emergency reversal. Three novel molecules (idarucizumab, andexanet, and PER977) may provide the most effective and safest way of reversal. These agents are currently in premarketing studies.

  17. [Robotic colorectal surgery: current status and future developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, D

    2013-08-01

    Robotic assistance has the potential to compensate for the limitations inherent in standard laparoscopic surgery. The daVinci® surgical system remains the only currently available commercial robotic system. It has found popularity in rectal cancer surgery where its application has consistently been shown to reduce the need to convert to open surgery. With this exception, the technological advances of the robotic system have not so far translated into any reproducible patient benefit. The first part of this manuscript presents an overview of the current daVinci® platform, its applications, the evidence base and future developments in colorectal surgery. The second part of the manuscript looks at other robot systems in development and the different innovations and strategies taken to advance minimally invasive surgery.The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  18. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-05-23

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Large Antenna Control Methods: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Lin, Y. H.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Current methods for control of large antennas, as well as future trends required for improved performance are addressed. Some of the target missions in which these methods would be used are: the Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) for communications; the Satellite Surveillance (SSS) for aircraft traffic control; the orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI), or QUASAT, for radio astronomy; and the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) for IR and submillimeter astronomy.

  20. Acute respiratory infection due to : current status of diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Loens, K.; Goossens, H.; Ieven, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Because of the absence of well-standardized both in-house and FDA-approved commercially available diagnostic tests, the reliable diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae remains difficult. In addition, no formal external quality assessment schemes which would allow to conclude about the performance of M. pneumoniae diagnostic tests exist. In this review, the current state of knowledge of M. pneumoniae-associated respiratory infections in the context ...

  1. Current status of afterloading in gynecological contact therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M.; Fournier, D. von; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Kuttig, H.; Junkermann, H.

    1987-01-12

    The present state of the remote-controlled afterloading technique is described. Beside the description of the development and the advantages of this method we discuss the currently available afterloading equipment as well as the appropriate radionuclids. The simulation of the treatment of the classic schools from Paris, Stockholm and Manchester is demonstrated by means of proper application combinations. Finally advantages and disadvantages of the HDR and LDR-treatment - especially in regard to radio-biological effects - are discussed.

  2. Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoen, Sakda [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

  3. Current Status and Prospects of New Architecture Materials from Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of the technologies has been discussed in the paper that bamboo is used for middling and top-grade building construction, architecture decorating, and other major applications. The content includes the current application of bamboo materials in construction field; the bamboo bearing material technological process such as the laminated bamboo board, bamboo mat plywood processes; bamboo ceiling and wall material technologies such as the bamboo particleboard, cement-bonded bamboo particlebo...

  4. Current status of clinical laser applications in periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Akira; Mizutani, Koji; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi; Sasaki, Katia Miyuki; Nagai, Shigeyuki; Schwarz, Frank; Yoshida, Itaru; Eguro, Toru; Zeredo, Jorge Luis; Izumi, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by bacterial infection. Laser treatment demonstrates specific characteristics that may be valuable in managing periodontal disease. In addition, lasers reduce stress and uncomfortable conditions for patients during and after treatment compared to other conventional tools. This article reviews the literature to describe the current clinical applications of lasers for gingival tissue management-including esthetic treatment, non-surgical and surgical periodontal pocket therapy, osseous surgery, and implant therapy.

  5. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G. Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutu...

  6. EMDR and the anxiety disorders: exploring the current status

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh, A; Ten Broeke, E

    2009-01-01

    Based on the assumptions of Shapiro's adaptive information-processing model, it could be argued that a large proportion of people suffering from an anxiety disorder would benefit from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This article provides an overview of the current empirical evidence on the application of EMDR for the anxiety disorders spectrum other than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Reviewing the existing literature, it is disappointing to find that 20 years aft...

  7. Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases repor...

  8. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient’s home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  9. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  10. Current status of the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Heather L.; /Los Alamos

    2004-11-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  11. Current status of HIV/AIDS in the ART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health. According to the WHO global health survey, 36.7 million people were infected with HIV, causing 1.1 million deaths in 2015. Since the discovery of HIV-1, many anti-retroviral drugs have been developed. Following the discovery and wide-spread use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) the life expectancy of HIV infected individuals has substantially increased. By 2015, all major guidelines recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count. Despite effective ART with virological suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MS), bone abnormalities and non-HIV-associated malignancies remain a major complication associated with HIV infection. In this review article, I would like to describe recent ART status and problems in the ART-era.

  12. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  13. Current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume for lapar......BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume...... for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, it is important to know the typical indications for surgery, re-operation rates, details of surgical technique, and status of surgical training on a national level in order to rationalize interventions to improve outcome. METHODS: Data from the National Hernia Database...... for the last 8 years regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were used in combination with questionnaire data obtained from all surgical units in Denmark. The questionnaire included issues such as the number of operating surgeons in the department, number of residents training in the laparoscopic...

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping In Gastric Cancer Surgery: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara Tivadar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphonodular metastases remain an important predictive and prognostic factor in gastric cancer development. The precise determination of the lymphonodular invasion stage can be made only by extended intraoperative lymphadenectomy and histopathological examination. But the main controversy is the usefulness of extended lymph dissection in early gastric cancer. This increases the duration of the surgery and the complications rate, and it is unnecessary without lymphonodular invasion. The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes has been successfully applied for some time in the precise detection of lymph nodes status in breast cancer, malignant melanoma and the use for gastric cancer patients has been a controversial issue. The good prognosis in early gastric cancer had been a surgery challenge, which led to the establishment of minimally invasive individualized treatment and acceptance of sentinel lymph node mapping. The dual-tracer method, submucosally administered endoscopically is also recommended in sentinel lymph node biopsy by laparoscopic approach. There are new sophisticated technologies for detecting sentinel lymph node such as: infrared ray endoscopy, florescence imaging and near-infrared technology, carbon nanoparticles, which will open new perspectives in sentinel lymph nodes mapping.

  15. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  16. Current status of General Pathology training in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casademont, J; Porcel, J M; Vargas Núñez, J A; González Macías, J

    2013-12-01

    One of the core subjects in university training of the physicians has been General Pathology. Responsibility for this has historically fallen on Internal Medicine specialists. However, we are unaware if this situation is currently maintained. A questionnaire was sent to the coordinators of the subject of the 39 Spanish medical schools to know, among other things, the current denomination of the subjects (traditionally known as «General Pathology»), number of credits, teaching activities included in the subject and number and specialty of the professors responsible for it. Some data from the medical schools that did not respond were obtained from their web pages. A total of 28 of the 39 (72%) medical schools existing in Spain answered the survey. The current denomination of the subject «General Pathology» varied greatly. The mean number of credits (one credit=20-25 h) was 11.2 (range 3 to 29). In 22 of 34 schools (65%), the subject was taught in the third year of the studies, but in 21% of the schools, it was partially and in 15% of the schools, totally, taught in the second year. More than half of the professors (54%) who taught the subject were Internal Medicine specialists, although this responsibility was shared with other specialists in a large proportion. Teaching of General Pathology shows a marked heterogeneity that does not seem to be due to teaching or pedagogic criteria among the different schools of Spain. These facts may be due to less presence in the university setting of Internal Medicine compared to other specialties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Current status and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jamie R; Morrison, Gladys; Dolan, M Eileen; Fleming, Gini F

    2016-01-01

    As there are increasing numbers of cancer survivors, more attention is being paid to the long term unwanted effects patients may experience as a result of their treatment and the impact these side effects can have on their quality of life. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common long-term toxicities from chemotherapy. In this review we will briefly review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, with a focus on CIPN related to platinum and taxane agents. We will then discuss current clinical models of peripheral neuropathy and ongoing research to better understand CIPN and develop potential treatment options.

  18. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-12-18

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease.

  19. Immunotherapy for opportunistic infections: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Löffler, Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann; Kapp, Markus

    2016-11-16

    The outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has significantly improved during the last decades. However, opportunistic infections such as viral and mold infections are still a major obstacle for cure. Within this field, adoptive T cell therapy against pathogens is a promising treatment approach. Recently, the techniques to develop T cell products including pathogen-specific T cells have been sophisticated and are now available in accordance to good manufacturing practice (GMP). Here, we aim to summarize current knowledge about adoptive T cell therapy against viral and mold infections.

  20. Prostate Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhur, Anirudh; McWilliams, Justin P

    2017-02-01

    Prostate artery embolization has garnered much attention as a promising treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. We aim to provide an up-to-date review of this minimally invasive technique, including discussion of potential benefits and technical challenges. Current evidence suggests it is a safe and effective option for patients with medication-refractory urinary obstructive symptoms who are poor surgical candidates or refuse surgical therapy. Larger, randomized studies with long-term follow-up data are needed for this technique to be formally established in the treatment paradigm for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  1. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged for decades. It is argued that this domain is ripe for a paradigm change that takes advantage of recent developments in statistical techniques and technology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Status and Current Sensitivity of the CELESTE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Naurois, Mathieu

    2000-01-01

    The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment.

  3. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  4. The Current Status of Oral Contraceptives: Progress and Recent Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobof, Alexandra; Kiley, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Millions of women in the United States and abroad use oral contraceptive pills. These popular contraceptives are the most common reversible birth control method in the United States, and a wide variety of pills are available for prescription. Oral contraceptives provide safe and effective protection against pregnancy and offer several noncontraceptive benefits. Over the years, advances in the laboratory and knowledge gained through epidemiologic data promoted the development of new contraceptive preparations. Generations of oral contraceptives emerged over time, containing lower doses of estrogens and new and novel progestins. The current review discusses the clinical characteristics of oral contraceptives, with emphasis on basic pharmacology and the evolution of various contraceptive formulations and regimens.

  5. Atomic clock with nuclear transition: current status in TU Wien

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakov, G. A.; Schreitl, M.; Winkler, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Steinhauser, G; Schumm, T.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleus of 229Thorium presents a unique isomer state of very low energy and long lifetime, current estimates are around 7.8 eV and seconds to hours respectively. This nuclear transitions therefore is a promising candidate for a novel type of frequency standard and several groups worldwide have set out to investigate this system. Our aim is to construct a "solid state nuclear clock", i.e. a frequency standard where Thorium ions are implanted into Calciumfluoride crystals transparent in vac...

  6. Current readings: Status of surgical treatment for endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Robert C; Leacche, Marzia; Shah, Jinesh; Byrne, John G

    2014-01-01

    Valve endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality and requires a thorough evaluation including early surgical consultation to identify patients who may benefit from surgery. We review 5 recent articles that highlight the current debates related to best treatment strategies for valve endocarditis. Recent publications have focused on neurologic risk assessment, timing of surgery, and prognostic factors associated with native and prosthetic valve endocarditis. The initial patient assessment and management is best performed by a multidisciplinary team. Future investigations should focus on identifying surgical candidates early and the outcomes affected by replacement valve choice in both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  7. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore......, aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current...

  8. Current Status of Immunotherapy Treatments for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Luna, Cristina; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raul; Melguizo, Consolacion; Torres, Carolina; Caba, Octavio

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal disease representing the seventh most frequent cause of death from cancer worldwide. Resistance of pancreatic tumors to current treatments leads to disappointing survival rates, and more specific and effective therapies are urgently needed. In recent years, immunotherapy has been proposed as a promising approach to the treatment of PC, and encouraging results have been published by various preclinical and clinical studies. This review provides an overview of the latest developments in the immunotherapeutic treatment of PC and summarizes the most recent and important clinical trials.

  9. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  10. Current status of neonatal intensive care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik Nagesh, N; Razak, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Globally, newborn health is now considered as high-level national priority. The current neonatal and infant mortality rate in India is 29 per 1000 live births and 42 per 1000 live births, respectively. The last decade has seen a tremendous growth of neonatal intensive care in India. The proliferation of neonatal intensive care units, as also the infusion of newer technologies with availability of well-trained medical and nursing manpower, has led to good survival and intact outcomes. There is good care available for neonates whose parents can afford the high-end healthcare, but unfortunately, there is a deep divide and the poor rural population is still underserved with lack of even basic newborn care in few areas! There is increasing disparity where the 'well to do' and the 'increasingly affordable middle class' is able to get the most advanced care for their sick neonates. The underserved urban poor and those in rural areas still contribute to the overall high neonatal morbidity and mortality in India. The recent government initiative, the India Newborn Action Plan, is the step in the right direction to bridge this gap. A strong public-private partnership and prioritisation is needed to achieve this goal. This review highlights the current situation of neonatal intensive care in India with a suggested plan for the way forward to achieve better neonatal care.

  11. Genomic architecture of HIV-1 infection: current status & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Neeraj; Kaul, Mrinali H; Bansal, Rhea A; Vajpayee, Madhu; Wig, Naveet; Sharma, Surender K; Mehra, Narinder K

    2013-11-01

    Studies on host genomics have revealed the existence of identifiable HIV-1 specific protective factors among infected individuals who remain naturally resistant viraemia controllers with little or no evidence of virus replication. These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others). These features have been identified through multiple experimental approaches ranging from candidate gene approaches, genome wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis in conjunction with functional assays in humans to primate based models. Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations. This review collates current information on studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as well as non MHC genes in the context of HIV-1 infection and AIDS involving varied ethnic groups. Special focus of the review is on the genetic studies carried out on the Indian population. Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

  12. Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denifl, S.; Garcia, G.; Huber, B. A.; Marinković, B. P.; Mason, N.; Postler, J.; Rabus, H.; Rixon, G.; Solov'yov, A. V.; Suraud, E.; Yakubovich, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron - medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

  13. [Current status and prospects of portable NIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Gao, Hong-Zhi; Peng, Zhong-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a reliable, rapid, and non-destructive analytical method widely applied in as a number of fields such as agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. In order to suit different applications, near-infrared spectrometers are now varied. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are needed for rapid on-site identification and analysis. Instruments of this kind are rugged, compact and easy to be transported. In this paper, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are reviewed. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are built of different monochromator systems: filter, grating, Fourier-transform methods, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a large number of new methods based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The first part focuses on working principles of different monochromator systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different systems are also briefly mentioned. Descriptions of each method are given in turn. Typical spectrometers of each kind are introduced, and some parameters of these instruments are listed. In the next part we discuss sampling adapters, display, power supply and some other parts, which are designed to make the spectrometer more portable and easier to use. In the end, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are summarized. Future trends of development of portable near-infrared spectrometers in China and abroad are discussed.

  14. The Current Status of Radiology in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyong Gong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  "n"nThe availability of multimodal imaging techniques enables the acquisition of both structural and functional information of the brain, and it opens a unique window for revealing the brain activity and connectivity in neuro-psychiatric disorders.  The current lecture will review some of the most often used imaging modalities, with particular emphasis on MRI, in the research field of major neuro-psychiatric disorders from the functional perspective. Diffused tension image shows the white matter in vivo and provides us with useful parameters such as FA and ADC to assess the brain tissue integrity. Perfusion MRI helps to assess the cerebral blood flow relevant to functional alteration. BOLD fMRI is readily available for the functional brain assessment in psychiatry with task and non-task design (i.e. resting-state fMRI. The topic of fMRI will be focused, and in particular, the resting-state fMRI which has recently attracted considerable attentions and has shown potentials in future clinical applications. The current lecture will specifically focuse on the recent advances of MR imaging research in epilepsy, schizophrenia and major depressive disorders.     

  15. Current Status of the SANAEM RFQ Accelerator Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Yildiz, V; Mete, O; Oz, S; Ozbey, A; Yildiz, H; Yaman, F; Akgun, Y; Alacakir, A; Bolukdemir, S; Bozbey, A; Sahin, A; Unel, G; Erhan, S

    2015-01-01

    The design and production studies of the proton beamline of SPP, which aims to acquire know-how on proton accelerator technology thru development of man power and serves as particle accelerator technologies test bench, continue at TAEK-SANAEM as a multi-phase project. For the first phase, 20 keV protons will be accelerated to 1.3 MeV by a single piece RFQ. Currently, the beam current and stability tests are ongoing for the Inductively Coupled Plasma ion source. The measured magnetic field maps of the Low Energy Beam Transport solenoids are being used for matching various beam configurations of the ion source to the RFQ by computer simulations. The installation of the low energy diagnostics box was completed in Q1 of 2015. The production of the RFQ cavity was started with aluminum 7075-T6 which will be subsequently coated by Copper to reduce the RF (Ohmic) losses. On the RF side, the development of the hybrid power supply based on solid state and tetrode amplifiers continues. All RF transmission components hav...

  16. Rheology of Rings: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gregory

    Understanding the dynamics of circular or ring-like polymers has been a subject of investigation since the 1980s and is one which remains an area that is not fully understood. Part of the reason for this is the difficulty of making synthetic rings of sufficient size to establish the nature of the entanglement dynamics, if entanglements even exist in these materials. Furthermore, there is now strong evidence that small amounts of linear impurities can impact the dynamics. Hence, one of the major challenges to our understanding of ring dynamics is to make large molecular weight rings of sufficient purity that the dynamics of the rings themselves can be determined. In the present work the current state of understanding of the dynamics of rings is outlined and current work from our group of collaborators to make extremely large circular polymers using Echeverria Coli as a route to make pure rings (circular DNA) in sufficient quantity and size to determine the dynamics of these materials will be shown. First results of ring dynamics in dilute solution are presented and new results on concentrated and entangled solutions will be discussed. Remaining challenges will be elucidated. Partially supported by the John R. Bradford Endowment and the Paul Whitfield Horn Professorship at Texas Tech University.

  17. Medicinal foods from marine animals: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pallela, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    The lifestyle of human being is changing day by day toward the simplified and more convenient way of living. Human wellbeing is majorly dependent on the daily food habits that are in accordance with the habits of individual community and the surrounding environments. Although the food habits are simplified and fashioned according to the current lifestyle, many of the Asians are still showing much importance to the naturally derived and traditional foods. One such medicinally important natural source is the foods from marine organisms, which are an important growing notion for the development of marine nutraceuticals and functional foods. In this context, we have already brought the recent trends and applications of marine algal (macro and micro) foods in my previous volume. The current preliminary chapter of this book volume on marine animals and microbes describes about the prospects of various marine animals and their derived substances/materials as medicinal foods. In addition, this chapter encourages the new researchers as well as various health communities to implement the marine animal-based medicinal foods and their applications.

  18. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador.

  19. Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul T; Kirchhoff, Mary M

    2002-09-01

    Over the course of the past decade, green chemistry has demonstrated how fundamental scientific methodologies can protect human health and the environment in an economically beneficial manner. Significant progress is being made in several key research areas, such as catalysis, the design of safer chemicals and environmentally benign solvents, and the development of renewable feedstocks. Current and future chemists are being trained to design products and processes with an increased awareness for environmental impact. Outreach activities within the green chemistry community highlight the potential for chemistry to solve many of the global environmental challenges we now face. The origins and basis of green chemistry chart a course for achieving environmental and economic prosperity inherent in a sustainable world.

  20. Ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma spp: current status and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Cong, Wei-Ran; Su, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2013-11-01

    White-rot fungal species belonging to Ganoderma have long been used as medicinal mushrooms in many Asian countries. In recent years, however, attention is not just being paid to their pharmacological properties, but to their other potentially valuable features as well, including their secretion of enzymes which decompose lignin. The current literature regarding lignin-modifying enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, their potential uses, and the components, structures and processes of lignocellulose degradation are discussed. The ligninolytic enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, as well as the number of additional enzymes that participate in lignin degradation, are summarized; further, the potential applications of these enzymes are analyzed and probed in this article. This review will provide insight on the valuable applications of Ganoderma spp. and will serve as a useful reference on the use of lignocellulose degradation as a means of environmental protection.

  1. Treatment of sepsis: current status of clinical immunotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, A

    2012-02-03

    While antibiotics address the root cause of sepsis--that of pathogen infection--they fail to provide an adequate cure for the condition. Currently, 30% to 50% of septic patients die, and this figure is likely to increase in line with the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. With an increased understanding of the immune response, it has been proposed that modulation of this defence mechanism offers the best hope of cure. Many entry-points in the immune system have been identified and targeted therapies have been developed,but why are these not in routine clinical practice? This review examines the latest evidence for the use of immuno-modulating drugs, obtained from human clinical trials. We discuss cytokine-based therapies, steroids and anti-coagulants. Finally, consideration is given as to why successful therapies in the laboratory, and in vivo models, do not automatically translate into clinical benefit

  2. Perfectionism and eating disorders: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Frost, Randy O; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mitchell, James E; Uppala, Saritha; Simonich, Heather

    2007-04-01

    The literature examining the relation between perfectionism and eating disorders was reviewed and content and methodological comparisons were made with the perfectionism literature in anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. A PsychInfo search using the key words "perfectionism/perfect/perfectionistic," "anorexia," "bulimia," and "eating disorders" was performed and the generated list of papers was supplemented based on a review of reference lists in the papers. A total of 55 papers published between 1990 and 2005 were identified that assessed perfectionism among individuals with diagnosed eating disorders. The key research questions were distilled from these publications and empirical findings were summarized for each question, followed by a comparison with perfectionism papers in the anxiety and depressive disorder literatures. Also, key research design methodological parameters were identified and comparisons made across the three literatures: eating disorders, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders. The current review concludes with conceptual and methodological recommendations for researchers interested in perfectionism and eating disorders.

  3. Transformational leadership in sport: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Calum A; Bastardoz, Nicolas; Eklund, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Borrowed from organizational psychology, the concept of transformational leadership has now been applied to a sport context for a decade. Our review covers and critically discusses empirical articles published on this growing topic. However, because the majority of studies used cross-sectional designs and single-source questionnaires to tap what has been a fuzzy construct, current theoretical and methodological issues impede understanding of whether transformational leadership matters for sport outcomes. To make a difference to applied practice and policy, the transformational leadership construct requires a refined definition and stronger empirical tests allowing for robust causal inference. We highlight avenues for advancing research on transformational leadership in the sport context. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

  5. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): current status and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-li; YANG Yun-sheng; SUN Gang; GUO Ming-zhou

    2010-01-01

    Objective To give a conceptual description of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), review theearly efforts in the NOTES field, and discuss its challenges and limitations.Data sources The data were retrieved mainly from publications listed in MEDLINE, PubMed and China WanfangDatabase from 2005 to 2009. The search term was "NOTES". Study selection The articles involved in the "NOTES" study were selected and the review articles were excluded from the comparison. Results A marked increase in quantity in articles was shown each year for NOTES studies from 2006 to 2009. Animalexperiments with "NOTES" have been carried out in China from 2007, and two independent "NOTES" procedures onhumans were reported in 2009. Conclusion Although still in its infancy, the "NOTES" procedure is promising as another type of minimally invasivesurgery and favorable alternative to current interventions.

  6. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential:a current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.

  7. Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Sidelnik, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

  8. THE CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERY - CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Pažur

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishery in, objectively speaking, a modest sector of agriculture characteristic for its extreme production aspects, i. e. one of the most intensive agricultural sector are the trout ponds with over 140 ton of fish a year per 1 ha of water surface, the carp ponds with about 500 kg/ha are semi-intensive sector, while the management of over 60,000 ha of open water is completely extensive with catch less than 10 kg/ha, so such waters are used only for sport and recreation. The paper will analyse both subjective and objective causes of the current situation and propose the measures that might gain a high income-earning position for the sector in different economic categories, since the conditions for such development are realistic.

  9. Molecular Testing of Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Current Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Jeon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, a new perspective on the next-generation sequencing for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purpose in malignant lymphoma will be summarized.

  10. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Michaela; Caramalho, Rita; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by members of the Mucorales order are rapidly progressing and fatal. The importance of mucormycosis has grown in recent years as the number of patients with predisposing factors has increased dramatically. Clinical symptoms are elusive and conventional techniques are often insensitive and unspecific; in particular, cultures are often negative even though direct microscopy is positive. For early diagnosis of the causative agent of disease and subsequently guiding therapy to improving patients' outcome, molecular assays are promising add-ons. This article provides an overview on current laboratory methods for diagnosing mucormycosis with a special focus on new molecular-based tools. We aim to highlight the pros and cons of various techniques at hand. Given the increase in number and the severity of these infections, molecular approaches for improved diagnosis are highly warranted.

  12. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, B.S.; Cotta, M.A. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL (United States); Jeffries, T.W. [Inst. for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., USDA, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of industrially suitable microorganisms for converting biomass into fuel ethanol has traditionally been cited as a major technical roadblock to developing a bioethanol industry. In the last two decades, numerous microorganisms have been engineered to selectively produce ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass contains complex carbohydrates that necessitate utilizing microorganisms capable of fermenting sugars not fermentable by brewers' yeast. The most significant of these is xylose. The greatest successes have been in the engineering of gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Zymomonas mobilis. E. coli and K. oxytoca are naturally able to use a wide spectrum of sugars, and work has concentrated on engineering these strains to selectively produce ethanol. Z. mobilis produces ethanol at high yields, but ferments only glucose and fructose. Work on this organism has concentrated on introducing pathways for the fermentation of arabinose and xylose. The history of constructing these strains and current progress in refining them are detailed in this review. (orig.)

  14. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  15. Current Status of Obstetric Anaesthesia: Improving Satisfaction and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sudharma Ranasinghe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reported in 2003 that although the maternal mortal-ity rate has decreased by 99% since 1900, there has been no further decrease in the last two decades [1] . A more recent report indicates a rate of 11.8 per 100,000 live births [2] , although anaesthesia-related maternal mortality and morbidity has considerably decreased over the lastfew decades. Despite the growing complexity of problems and increasing challenges such as pre-existing maternal disease, obesity, and the increasing age of pregnant mothers, anaesthesia related maternal mortality is extremely rare in the developed world. The current safety has been achievedthrough changes in training, service, technical advances and multidisciplinary approach to care. The rates of general anaesthesia for cesarean delivery have decreased and neuraxial anaesthetics have become the most commonly used techniques. Neuraxial techniques are largely safe and effective, but potential complications, though rare, can be severe.

  16. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ∼1 cm2 up to 10 m2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R&D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications.

  17. DM-Ice: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Pettus, Walter C

    2015-01-01

    DM-Ice is a program towards the first direct detection search for dark matter in the Southern Hemisphere with a 250 kg-scale NaI(Tl) crystal array. It will provide a definitive understanding of the modulation signal reported by DAMA by running an array at both Northern and Southern Hemisphere sites. A 17 kg predecessor, DM-Ice17, was deployed in December 2010 at a depth of 2457 m under the ice at the geographic South Pole and has concluded its 3.5 yr data run. An active R&D program is underway to investigate detectors with lower backgrounds and improved readout electronics; two crystals with 37 kg combined mass are currently operating at the Boulby Underground Laboratory. We report on the final analyses of the DM-Ice17 data and describe progress towards a 250 kg DM-Ice experiment.

  18. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Saraswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications.

  19. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchino, Sabrina; Abdouh, Mohamed [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Bernier, Gilbert, E-mail: gbernier.hmr@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2011-03-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  20. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  1. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  2. Current Status of Lead-Free Soldering and Conductive Adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsuakiSuganuma

    2003-01-01

    Lead-free soldering technology took offin the Japanese market during the year 2000, and as the year 2001-03 ushered in the 21 st century, a large number of products with lead-free soldering were already appearing on store shelves. Elsewhere, EU deliberation on the draft of the WEEE/RoHS directive finalized in February 2003 and be in force in July 2006. The course had been set for adopting lead-free solder for mounting processes of parts as well, bringing the possibility of lead-free solder mounting very close to achievement. This review will provide a view of the current state of technological progress in lead-free soldering, both in Japan and abroad, and will discuss future prospects.

  3. NCBI Reference Sequences: current status, policy and new initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana; Klimke, William; Maglott, Donna R

    2009-01-01

    NCBI's Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/) is a curated non-redundant collection of sequences representing genomes, transcripts and proteins. RefSeq records integrate information from multiple sources and represent a current description of the sequence, the gene and sequence features. The database includes over 5300 organisms spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, with records for more than 5.5 x 10(6) proteins (RefSeq release 30). Feature annotation is applied by a combination of curation, collaboration, propagation from other sources and computation. We report here on the recent growth of the database, recent changes to feature annotations and record types for eukaryotic (primarily vertebrate) species and policies regarding species inclusion and genome annotation. In addition, we introduce RefSeqGene, a new initiative to support reporting variation data on a stable genomic coordinate system.

  4. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential: A current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphrodisiac is the word derived from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  5. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential:A current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; Gaurav Gupta; Alok Semwal; G Jeyabalan

    2013-01-01

    Aphrodisiac is the word derived fromAphrodite, theGreek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent(food or drug) that arouses sexual desire.Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction.Ayurveda and otherIndian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments.India has about more than45000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction.This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  6. [Organ cryopreservation: current status of research carried out in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, J L; Payen, E; Rambeaud, J J; Peuridieu, J F; Baudot, A; Odin, J; Mazuer, J; Boutron, P; Delon-Martin, C; Dupeyre, R

    1995-12-01

    After discussing the problem of organ cryopreservation and reviewing the current data available on this subject, the Grenoble project is presented. Physical and biological studies have been combined with experimentation of autologous renal transplantation in rabbits to assess the functional value of the retransplanted organ after treatment and cooling. Renal resistances are measured during perfusion of the kidney with the cryoprotective solution. In order to verify the homogeneity of the cryoprotector concentration in the organ, on NMR spectral imaging test has been developed. A new rapid imaging method now allows real time monitoring of concentration variations during perfusion. In addition to concentration and homogeneity, analysis of local spectra also provides information about the local temperature de the kidney.

  7. Flecainide: Current status and perspectives in arrhythmia management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; K; Andrikopoulos; Sokratis; Pastromas; Stylianos; Tzeis

    2015-01-01

    Flecainide acetate is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent and its clinical efficacy has been confirmed by the results of several clinical trials. Nowadays, flecainide is recommended as one of the first line therapies for pharmacological conversion as well as maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or supraventricular tachycardias. Based on the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial study results, flecainide is not recommended in patients with structural heart disease due to high proarrhythmic risk. Recent data support the role of flecainide in preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated both with ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin mutations. We herein review the current clinical data related to flecainide use in clinical practice and some concerns about its role in the management of patients with coronary artery disease.

  8. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-04

    This presentation was given at the 2016 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. It covers the current status and challenges and opportunities of prognostics and health management of wind turbines.

  9. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  10. Personality disorders in the DSM-5: current status, lessons learned, and future challenges. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Krueger, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    Provides an introduction to a special section of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. The purpose of this special section is to provide a discussion of the current status, lessons learned, and future challenges for the classification of personality disorders.

  11. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano eFreschi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of plant responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the endogenous levels of NO. In addition, studies conducted during the induction of diverse plant responses have demonstrated that NO may also affect biosynthesis, catabolism/conjugation, transport, perception and/or transduction of different phytohormones, such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonates and brassinosteroids. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between NO and plant hormones have recently been investigated in a number of species and plant responses. This review specifically focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in NO-phytohormone interactions during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant events. The modifications triggered by NO on the transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic/degradative enzymes as well as proteins involved in the transport and signal transduction of distinct plant hormones will be contextualized during the control of developmental, metabolic and defense responses in plants. Moreover, the direct post-translational modification of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes and receptors through S-nitrosylation will also be discussed as a key mechanism for regulating plant physiological responses. Finally, some future perspectives toward a more complete understanding of NO-phytohormone interactions will also be presented and discussed.

  12. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets.

  13. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  14. Current status of temporomandibular joint arthroscopy in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sangeetha M; Matthews, N Shaun

    2012-10-01

    In an era during which minimally invasive procedures are increasingly becoming the norm, arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) seems to be infrequently used for diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ. The reasons for this are not clear. The purpose of this study was to find out the current state of arthroscopy of the TMJ in the UK and, more specifically, how often it is used, the indications for its use, the level of experience of practising surgeons, and the reasons for not using it. Information was gathered between 2009 and 2010 from a postal and e-mail questionnaire to all oral and maxillofacial consultants in the UK. Of the 346 consultants, 215 (60%) responded to the questionnaire. Forty-two said that they currently used arthroscopy of the TMJ, and 33 of those (81%) have more than 5 years' experience. During the past year, a total of 8 consultants nationally have done 20 arthroscopies or more. Thirty-three of the procedures (81%) were done for both diagnosis and treatment. Lack of perceived need of patients and lack of interest in this specialty were the main reasons given for not doing arthroscopy, lack of training being a key secondary reason. The Storz and Olympus systems were the most commonly used within the UK. Results seem to support the opinion that arthroscopy of the TMJ is under-used, and consideration should be given to ensuring that trainees are instructed in its use, which is important in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ.

  15. Current Status of Early Blight Resistance in Tomato: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pragya; Oh, Yeonyee; Panthee, Dilip R

    2017-09-21

    Early blight (EB) is one of the dreadful diseases of tomato caused by several species of Alternaria including Alternaria linariae (which includes A. solani and A. tomatophila), as well as A. alternata. In some instances, annual economic yield losses due to EB have been estimated at 79%. Alternaria are known only to reproduce asexually, but a highly-virulent isolate has the potential to overcome existing resistance genes. Currently, cultural practices and fungicide applications are employed for the management of EB due to the lack of strong resistant cultivars. Resistance sources have been identified in wild species of tomato; some breeding lines and cultivars with moderate resistance have been developed through conventional breeding methods. Polygenic inheritance of EB resistance, insufficient resistance in cultivated species and the association of EB resistance with undesirable horticultural traits have thwarted the effective breeding of EB resistance in tomato. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring EB resistance have been detected in the populations derived from different wild species including Solanum habrochaites, Solanum arcanum and S. pimpinellifolium, but none of them could be used in EB resistance breeding due to low individual QTL effects. Pyramiding of those QTLs would provide strong resistance. More research is needed to identify additional sources of useful resistance, to incorporate resistant QTLs into breeding lines through marker-assisted selection (MAS) and to develop resistant cultivars with desirable horticultural traits including high yielding potential and early maturity. This paper will review the current understanding of causal agents of EB of tomato, resistance genetics and breeding, problems associated with breeding and future prospects.

  16. Current Status of Early Blight Resistance in Tomato: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early blight (EB is one of the dreadful diseases of tomato caused by several species of Alternaria including Alternaria linariae (which includes A. solani and A. tomatophila, as well as A. alternata. In some instances, annual economic yield losses due to EB have been estimated at 79%. Alternaria are known only to reproduce asexually, but a highly-virulent isolate has the potential to overcome existing resistance genes. Currently, cultural practices and fungicide applications are employed for the management of EB due to the lack of strong resistant cultivars. Resistance sources have been identified in wild species of tomato; some breeding lines and cultivars with moderate resistance have been developed through conventional breeding methods. Polygenic inheritance of EB resistance, insufficient resistance in cultivated species and the association of EB resistance with undesirable horticultural traits have thwarted the effective breeding of EB resistance in tomato. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring EB resistance have been detected in the populations derived from different wild species including Solanum habrochaites, Solanum arcanum and S. pimpinellifolium, but none of them could be used in EB resistance breeding due to low individual QTL effects. Pyramiding of those QTLs would provide strong resistance. More research is needed to identify additional sources of useful resistance, to incorporate resistant QTLs into breeding lines through marker-assisted selection (MAS and to develop resistant cultivars with desirable horticultural traits including high yielding potential and early maturity. This paper will review the current understanding of causal agents of EB of tomato, resistance genetics and breeding, problems associated with breeding and future prospects.

  17. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  18. Current Status and Control Measures of Ecological Restoration in Karst Rocky Desertification Area of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the current status and control measures of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou.[Method] The current status and existing problems of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou were studied firstly,and main control measures were put forward according to existing problems.[Result] At present,Karst rocky desertification area in Guizhou has suitable ecological environment,obvious control results and rich control exper...

  19. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurush Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease (AD, Parkinson′s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS, recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

  20. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  1. Current status and future directions of pharmacological therapy for acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Moisés; Espinosa, Etual; Ramírez, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic systemic disorder caused in the vast majority of cases by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. The treatment of choice is the trans-sphenoidal resection of the adenoma, and although 80% of patients with microadenomas or confined macroadenomas achieve biochemical remission, the surgical success rate for patients harboring tumors with extrasellar extension is below 50%. Thus, a considerable proportion of patients will require some form of adjuvant treatment. Acromegaly can be approached pharmacologically by inhibiting GH secretion by the tumor (somatostatin analogues, dopamine agonists) or by antagonizing GH actions at its target tissues (GH receptor antagonists). The primary pharmacological treatment of acromegaly is increasingly gaining acceptance by both physicians and patients. The decision to use primary pharmacological treatment has to take into account the clinical characteristics of the patient (presence of comorbidities that significantly increase the surgical risk) and the biological nature of the adenoma (tumor size and location), as well as other aspects such as the availability of a pituitary surgeon and the cost of medications. This review provides a critical summary and update of the pharmacological treatment of acromegaly focusing both, on well-established agents and strategies as well as on novel compounds that are currently being developed.

  2. Mediterranean limnology: current status, gaps and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ALVAREZ COBELAS

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The current ecosystem paradigm in limnology is represented by the cold temperate, stratifying lake and the single-channelled river. However, the variety of inland water ecosystems is much higher, and so is the ecological complexity of many of them. Most Mediterranean limnosystems are quite distinct from the contemporary limnological paradigm. This overview will deal with the striking and exciting differences between Mediterranean and other temperate limnosystems. For example, most are very small, their catchment area is much larger than their size, and they experience both a longer vegetation period and a strong seasonality in water supply which occurs outside the hot season, often from groundwater sources. In addition, we encourage research on the often poorly known limnological processes taking place in Mediterranean regions by pointing at insufficiently covered research fields. Furthermore, competition for water among different users, arising from population increase in fertile and/or tourist areas, is certainly limiting the ability of many Mediterranean limnosystems to survive at present and in the near future, particularly in the face of the harsher environmental conditions that climatic change is triggering. A new paradigm on Mediterranean limnology is thus necessary. This will enable us to predict and mitigate more accurately the unstoppable effects of man-made change in these beautiful and still largely ignored ecosystems.

  3. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  4. Current status in the treatment options for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Jyong-Hong; Lu, Hung-I; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Wu, Keng-Liang

    2013-09-07

    Recent advances in the treatment of achalasia include the use of high-resolution manometry to predict the outcome of patients and the introduction of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The first multicenter randomized, controlled, 2-year follow-up study conducted by the European Achalasia Trial group indicated that laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) was not superior to pneumatic dilations (PD). Publications on the long-term success of laparoscopic surgery continue to emerge. In addition, laparoscopic single-site surgery is applicable to advanced laparoscopic operations such as LHM and anterior fundoplication. The optimal treatment option is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review, we provide an update of the current progress in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Unless new conclusive data prove otherwise, LHM is considered the most durable treatment for achalasia at the expense of increased reflux-associated complications. However, PD is the first choice for non-surgical treatment and is more cost-effective. Repeated PD according to an "on-demand" strategy based on symptom recurrence can achieve long-term remission. Decision making should be based on clinical evidence that identifies a subcategory of patients who would benefit from specific treatment options. POEM has shown promise but its long-term efficacy and safety need to be assessed further.

  5. Drugs from the seas - current status and microbiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, P; Edrada, R A; Ebel, R

    2002-07-01

    The oceans are the source of a large group of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, bryozoans, and molluscs. Several of these compounds (especially the tunicate metabolite ET-743) show pronounced pharmacological activities and are interesting candidates for new drugs primarily in the area of cancer treatment. Other compounds are currently being developed as an analgesic (ziconotide from the mollusc Conus magus) or to treat inflammation. Numerous natural products from marine invertebrates show striking structural similarities to known metabolites of microbial origin, suggesting that microorganisms (bacteria, microalgae) are at least involved in their biosynthesis or are in fact the true sources of these respective metabolites. This assumption is corroborated by several studies on natural products from sponges that proved these compounds to be localized in symbiotic bacteria or cyanobacteria. Recently, molecular methods have successfully been applied to study the microbial diversity in marine sponges and to gain evidence for an involvement of bacteria in the biosynthesis of the bryostatins in the bryozoan Bugula neritina.

  6. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter GM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grace M Richter,1,2 Anne L Coleman11UCLA Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2USC Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy; suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent; reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation; and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent. The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. Keywords: MIGS, microincisional glaucoma surgery, trabecular stent, Schlemm’s canal, suprachoroidal shunt, ab interno

  7. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  8. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or) erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  9. Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in hypertension: current status and future possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Hargovan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is a critical mechanism for controlling blood pressure, and exerts most of its physiological effects through the action of angiotensin II. In addition to increasing blood pressure by increasing vascular resistance, angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland. Aldosterone acts to cause an increase in sodium and water reabsorption, thus elevating blood pressure. Although treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors initially lowers circulating aldosterone, with chronic treatment aldosterone levels increase back to baseline, a phenomenon termed aldosterone escape; aldosterone blockade may therefore give added value in the treatment of hypertension. The first mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist developed was spironolactone, but its use has been severely hampered by adverse (notably oestrogenic effects. The more recently developed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone exhibits a better adverse effect profile, although it is not devoid of effects similar to spironolactone. In addition, aldosterone activates non-genomic receptors that are not inhibited by either eplerenone or spironolactone. It is believed that deleterious organ remodelling is mediated by aldosterone via such non-genomic pathways. A new class of drugs, the aldosterone synthase inhibitors, is currently under development. These may offer a novel therapeutic approach for both lowering blood pressure and preventing the non-genomic effects of aldosterone. Here, we will review the cardiovascular effects of aldosterone and review the drugs available that target this hormone, with a particular focus on the aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

  10. Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in hypertension: current status and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargovan, Milan; Ferro, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is a critical mechanism for controlling blood pressure, and exerts most of its physiological effects through the action of angiotensin II. In addition to increasing blood pressure by increasing vascular resistance, angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland. Aldosterone acts to cause an increase in sodium and water reabsorption, thus elevating blood pressure. Although treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors initially lowers circulating aldosterone, with chronic treatment aldosterone levels increase back to baseline, a phenomenon termed aldosterone escape; aldosterone blockade may therefore give added value in the treatment of hypertension. The first mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist developed was spironolactone, but its use has been severely hampered by adverse (notably oestrogenic) effects. The more recently developed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone exhibits a better adverse effect profile, although it is not devoid of effects similar to spironolactone. In addition, aldosterone activates non-genomic receptors that are not inhibited by either eplerenone or spironolactone. It is believed that deleterious organ remodelling is mediated by aldosterone via such non-genomic pathways. A new class of drugs, the aldosterone synthase inhibitors, is currently under development. These may offer a novel therapeutic approach for both lowering blood pressure and preventing the non-genomic effects of aldosterone. Here, we will review the cardiovascular effects of aldosterone and review the drugs available that target this hormone, with a particular focus on the aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

  11. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  12. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Needles, A. [Visualsonics, Toronto (Canada); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  13. The current status of bone scintigraphy in malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgeb, Bahar; Mulligan, Michael H; Kim, Chun K

    2007-12-01

    For the past few decades, planar bone scintigraphy has been the most frequently performed imaging study in the evaluation of metastatic bone disease. Although scintigraphic findings alone are often nonspecific for skeletal pathologies, this technique reportedly has an exquisite sensitivity. However, recently accumulated data on the efficacy of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride as well as magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating skeletal metastatic disease now indicate that conventional planar bone scintigraphy is not very sensitive in the detection of metastatic bone lesions in selected malignancies. Nevertheless, bone scintigraphy still remains the primary imaging modality for evaluation of metastatic bone disease owing mainly to its cost effectiveness and wide availability. In addition, recently introduced hybrid imaging systems combining single-photon emission computed tomography and spiral computed tomography, although not widely available yet, increase considerably both the sensitivity and specificity of bone scintigraphy. This article focuses primarily on the current role of bone scintigraphy and its strengths and weaknesses in assessing different types of malignant diseases relative to other imaging modalities in selected malignancies.

  14. The current status of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prokar Dasgupta; Roger S.Kirby

    2009-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a rapidly evolving technique for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.In the United States,over 65% of radical prostatectomies are robot-assisted,although the acceptance of this technology in Europe and the rest of the world has been somewhat slower.This article reviews the current literature on RARP with regard to oncological,continence and potency outcomes-the so-called 'trifecta'.Preliminary data appear to show an advantage of RARP over open prostatectomy,with reduced blood loss,decreased pain,early mobilization,shorter hospital stay and lower margin rates.Most studies show good postoperative continence and potency with RARP;however,this needs to be viewed in the context of the paucity of randomized data available in the literature.There is no definitive evidence to show an advantage over standard laparoscopy,but the fact that this technique has reached parity with laparoscopy within 5 years is encouraging.Finally,evolving techniques of single-port robotic prostatectomy,laserguided robotics,catheter-free prostatectomy and image-guided robotics are discussed.

  15. Current status of radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has been extensively explored in the past. Along with the comprehensive understanding of the biology of prostate cancer and rapid advances in terms of technology, the outcome of treatment for the patients with prostate cancer has improved. The authors review radiotherapy as the primary treatment for the disease, with particular emphasis on the technological advances from both the radiobiological and radiophysics aspects. Nonconventional fractionated irradiation like hyper- or hypo-fractionation has been implemented in the clinic, the final results still need to be confirmed in the future. Technological advances like IMRT, IGRT,in the last two decades have significantly improved the delivery of external radiotherapy to the prostate. This has resulted in an overall increase in the total dose that can be safely delivered to the prostate, which has led to modest improvements in the biochemical outcome. However, establishing the standard therapy for prostate cancer remains controversial. It is hoped that the next decades will bring continued advances in the development of biologicals that will further improve current clinical outcomes.

  16. BANK DEPOSIT CONTRACT: CURRENT STATUS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kozhevnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.734The relevance of the study is determined by the debates around legal rules devoted to the bank deposit contract, as well as an extensive judicial practice, revealing the problems of existing legislation. Purpose: to systematize the main problems of enforcement related to the bank deposit contract and to suggest ways of improving the current legislation. Meth-ods: general and special scientific methods (systemic, comparative, formal-logical and other are used. Results: on the basis of the comparative experience of Belarus, Kazakhstan and other foreign countries, analysis of judicial practice proposals to improve existing legislation are presented (including types of contract, investigation of deposits, bail-in.The authors conclude, it is necessary to supplement Chapter 44 of Russian Civil Code by rules on types of bank deposit agreement, establish the order of registration of the deposit and deposited funds with the remote technology, by list of requirements as to the form of deposit and savings certificates, by details and peculiarities of treatment, as well as consolidate the definition of "interest capitalization" and establish the list of cases of restriction of the rights of depositors for disposal of deposits. Procedural rules on the investigation of the deposits, determining the jurisdiction of cases on the protection of investors, are also should be improved.

  17. Companion diagnostics in oncology - current status and future aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2013-01-01

    A large number of targeted anticancer drugs are currently under development and most of them will have a companion diagnostic linked to their use. If a diagnostic assay is developed in conjunction with a targeted anticancer drug, such an assay will later end up determining the conditions for the use of the drug after its approval. The assay then becomes a kind of 'gatekeeper' in relation to which patients should be treated with the drug in question. This 'gatekeeper' role implies that companion diagnostic assays must live up to the same regulatory standards and requirements known from drug development. The assays must have proven to be analytically robust and reliable and to have demonstrated clinical utility before they are routinely used in the clinic. In the drug-diagnostic codevelopment model, several 'traditional' study designs have been used to demonstrate clinical utility. However, if we are to benefit from the increasing knowledge provided by molecular oncology, new ways should be developed to demonstrate the clinical utility of drug-diagnostic combinations. The development of such an approach will require a rethinking at different levels and is likely to include a number of ethical, regulatory and practical challenges.

  18. "The current status of work on the origin of life"

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Work on the Origin of Life is poised to converge onto a fourth phase and, many of us hope, success. The first phase concerned prebiotic synthesis of the small molecules, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids and others, essential for life and spanned some forty years. The second overlapping phase was inspired by the symmetric of the DNA or RNA double helix, presumed that life must necessarily be based on some form of template replication of one strand by ligation of free nucleotides to create the second strand, melting of the two strands and cycling again. Spearheaded by L. Orgel, but with many others, this effort has, to date, failed. The third phase begins with the discovery that RNA molecules can act as enzymes, and posited the RNA world, in which RNA molecules dominated. This has led to slightly successful efforts to evolve an RNA sequence able to template replicate itself. Current success is an evolved ribozyme able to do so for 14 nucleotides. The forth phase is converging around four ideas: 1) liposomes, h...

  19. Effect-directed analysis: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Giesy, John P.; Lee, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-09-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) has become useful for identification of toxicant(s) that occur in mixtures in the environment, especially those that are causative agents of specific adverse effects. Here, we summarize and review EDA methodology including preparation of samples, biological analyses, fractionations, and instrumental analyses, highlighting key scientific advancements. A total of 63 documents since 1999 (Scopus search) including 46 research articles, 13 review papers, and 4 project descriptions, have been collected and reviewed in this study. At the early stage (1999-2010), most studies that applied EDA focused on organic extracts of freshwater and coastal contaminated sediments and wastewater. Toxic effects were often measured using cell-based bioassays ( in vitro) and the causative chemicals were identified by use of low resolution gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GCMSD). More recently (2010-present), EDA has been extended to various matrices such as biota, soil, crude oil, and suspended solids and techniques have been improved to include determination of bioavailability in vivo. In particular, methods for non-target screenings of organic chemicals in environmental samples using cutting-edge instrumentation such as time of flight-mass spectrometry (ToF-MS), Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR), and Orbitrap mass spectrometer have been developed. This overview provides descriptions of recent improvements of EDA and suggests future research directions based on current understandings and limitations.

  20. Current status of outcome measure development in vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Peter A; Aydin, Sibel Z; Boers, Maarten; Cornell, Christina; Direskeneli, Haner; Gebhart, Don; Hatemi, Gulen; Luqmani, Raashid; Matteson, Eric L; Milman, Nataliya; Robson, Joanna; Seo, Philip; Tomasson, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    The conduct of randomized controlled trials for vasculitis, especially for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides [AAV, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis], has been greatly advanced by the development, use, and acceptance of validated outcome measures. Trials have subsequently provided the opportunity to validate and refine reliable, valid outcome measures for these multisystemic and relapsing rare diseases. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group was formed in 2004 to foster development of validated and widely accepted outcomes in vasculitis using data-driven analyses, a dedication to building consensus, and adherence to, and guidance by, the principles of the OMERACT approach. This work led to the endorsement by OMERACT of the core set of domains and associated outcome measures for AAV. Next steps for the study of existing outcome tools in AAV include better definition of response criteria through development of more data-driven weighting of the elements of activity and damage assessment. The Working Group is now also embarking on a series of linked projects to develop validated patient-reported outcomes for use in clinical research in vasculitis. Additionally, the Working Group is studying how current methods of disease assessment and plans for new outcomes can be informed by the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Function of the World Health Organization. The success of the Group's work in AAV has also led to a formal process for developing outcomes for the large vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis) and Behçet disease.

  1. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  2. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions.

  4. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  5. Adrenal insufficiency and adrenal replacement therapy. Current status in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, Anna; Casanueva, Felipe; Goñi, Fernando; Monereo, Susana; Moreno, Basilio; Picó, Antonio; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Salvador, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J; Webb, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare endocrine disease, associated to increased mortality if left untreated. It can be due to a primary failure of the adrenal glands (primary AI) or malfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (secondary AI). The lack of data on incidence/prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in Spain complicates any evaluation of the magnitude of the problem in our country. Initial symptoms are non-specific, so often there is a delay in diagnosis. Current therapy with available glucocorticoids is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with treated AI, as well as with increased mortality and morbidity, probably related to both over-treatment and lack of hydrocortisone, associated with non-physiological peaks and troughs of the drug over the 24 hours. The availability of a new drug with a modified dual release (immediate and retarded), that requires one only daily dose, improves and simplifies the treatment, increases compliance as well as quality of life, morbidity and possibly mortality. This revision deals with the knowledge on the situation both globally and in Spain, prior to the availability of this new drug.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.

  7. Laccase applications in biofuels production: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudanga, Tukayi; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2014-08-01

    The desire to reduce dependence on the ever diminishing fossil fuel reserves coupled with the impetus towards green energy has seen increased research in biofuels as alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulose materials are one of the most promising feedstocks for advanced biofuels production. However, their utilisation is dependent on the efficient hydrolysis of polysaccharides, which in part is dependent on cost-effective and benign pretreatment of biomass to remove or modify lignin and release or expose sugars to hydrolytic enzymes. Laccase is one of the enzymes that are being investigated not only for potential use as pretreatment agents in biofuel production, mainly as a delignifying enzyme, but also as a biotechnological tool for removal of inhibitors (mainly phenolic) of subsequent enzymatic processes. The current review discusses the major advances in the application of laccase as a potential pretreatment strategy, the underlying principles as well as directions for future research in the search for better enzyme-based technologies for biofuel production. Future perspectives could include synergy between enzymes that may be required for optimal results and the adoption of the biorefinery concept in line with the move towards the global implementation of the bioeconomy strategy.

  8. Current status of peroral cholangioscopy in biliary tractdiseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy (POC) is an important toolfor the management of a selected group of biliarydiseases. Because of its direct visualization, POC allowstargeted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. POCcan be performed using a dedicated cholangioscopethat is advanced through the accessory channel of aduodenoscope or via the insertion of a small-diameterendoscope directly into the bile duct. POC was firstdescribed in the 1970s, but the use of earlier generationdevices was substantially limited by the cumbersomeequipment setup and high repair costs. For nearlyten years, several technical improvements, includingthe single-operator system, high-quality images, thedevelopment of dedicated accessories and the increasedsize of the working channel, have led to increaseddiagnostic accuracy, thus assisting in the differentiationof benign and malignant intraductal lesions, targetingbiopsies and the precise delineation of intraductaltumor spread before surgery. Furthermore, lithotripsyof difficult bile duct stones, ablative therapies forbiliary malignancies and direct biliary drainage can beperformed under POC control. Recent developmentsof new types of conventional POCs allow feasible, safeand effective procedures at reasonable costs. In thecurrent review, we provide an updated overview ofPOC, focusing our attention on the main current clinicalapplications and on areas for future research.

  9. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  10. Current status of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Villademoros, F; Calandre, E P; Slim, M

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of fibromyalgia requires pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. The pharmacological treatment of fibromyalgia is limited to a few drugs that have been demonstrated to be moderately effective in some but not all dimensions of the disease. Therefore, the search for new drugs to treat this condition is warranted. Atypical antipsychotics offered an attractive alternative because they had been shown to be active against several key symptoms of fibromyalgia. The results of open-label studies, however, appear to indicate that atypical antipsychotics are poorly tolerated in patients with fibromyalgia, and only quetiapine XR has been studied in randomized controlled trials. Quetiapine XR has demonstrated effectiveness in treating comorbid major depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance. However, in two randomized controlled trials, quetiapine XR was not differentiated from placebo and failed to demonstrate noninferiority to amitriptyline in terms of improving overall symptomatology. The effect of quetiapine XR on pain and its usefulness as part of a combination pharmacological regimen should be further evaluated. Overall, the use of quetiapine (initiated at a low dose and slowly titrated) in fibromyalgia should be limited to patients with comorbid major depression or patients who are currently receiving other treatments and have unresolved and disabling depressive and/or anxiety symptoms.

  11. Current Status of Atomic Spectroscopy Databases at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramida, Alexander; Ralchenko, Yuri; Reader, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    NIST's Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center maintains several online databases on atomic spectroscopy. These databases can be accessed via the http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData web page. Our main database, Atomic Spectra Database (ASD), recently upgraded to v. 5.3, now contains critically evaluated data for about 250,000 spectral lines and 109,000 energy levels of almost all elements in the periodic table. This new version has added several thousand spectral lines and energy levels of Sn II, Mo V, W VIII, and Th I-III. Most of these additions contain critically evaluated transition probabilities important for astrophysics, technology, and fusion research. A new feature of ASD is providing line-ratio data for diagnostics of electron temperature and density in plasmas. Saha-Boltzmann plots have been modified by adding an experimental feature allowing the user to specify a multi-element mixture. We continue regularly updating our bibliography databases, ensuring comprehensive coverage of current literature on atomic spectra for energy levels, spectral lines, transition rates, hyperfine structure, isotope shifts, Zeeman and Stark effects. Our other popular databases, such as the Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopy Data, searchable atlases of spectra of Pt-Ne and Th-Ne lamps, and non-LTE plasma-kinetics code comparisons, continue to be maintained.

  12. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerup, Jens; Sutherland, Brad A.; Buchan, Alastair M.; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade. PMID:23109881

  13. Clinical proteomics: Current status, challenges, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Horng Chiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This account will give an overview and evaluation of the current advances in mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics platforms and technology. A general review of some background information concerning the application of these methods in the characterization of molecular sizes and related protein expression profiles associated with different types of cells under varied experimental conditions will be presented. It is intended to provide a concise and succinct overview to those clinical researchers first exposed to this foremost powerful methodology in modern life sciences of postgenomic era. Proteomic characterization using highly sophisticated and expensive instrumentation of MS has been used to characterize biological samples of complex protein mixtures with vastly different protein structure and composition. These systems are then used to highlight the versatility and potential of the MS-based proteomic strategies for facilitating protein expression analysis of various disease-related organisms or tissues of interest. Major MS-based strategies reviewed herein include (1 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-MS and electron-spray ionization proteomics; (2 one-dimensional or two-dimensional gel-based proteomics; (3 gel-free shotgun proteomics in conjunction with liquid chromatography/tandem MS; (4 Multiple reaction monitoring coupled tandem MS quantitative proteomics and; (5 Phosphoproteomics based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-MS/MS.

  14. Prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Nyholm

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Nyholm1, Mark R Schleiss21Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women’s Health, and 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is the most common cause of perinatal viral infection in the developed world, resulting in approximately 40,000 congenitally infected infants in the United States each year. Congenital CMV infection can produce varying degrees of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The significant impact of congenital CMV has led the Institute of Medicine to rank development of a CMV vaccine as a top priority. Vaccine development has been ongoing; however no licensed CMV vaccine is currently available. Treatment of pregnant women with CMV hyperimmune globulin has shown promising results, but has not been studied in randomized controlled trials. Education on methods to prevent CMV transmission, particularly among young women of child-bearing age, should continue until a CMV vaccine becomes available. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention strategies, and treatment of CMV infections are reviewed.Keywords: cytomegalovirus, CMV vaccines, congenital CMV, CMV infection, immunoglobulin

  15. Current status and perspectives of cell therapy in Chagas disease

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    Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One century after its discovery, Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a major health problem in Latin America. Mortality and morbidity are mainly due to chronic processes that lead to dysfunction of the cardiac and digestive systems. About one third of the chronic chagasic individuals have or will develop the symptomatic forms of the disease, with cardiomyopathy being the most common chronic form. This is a progressively debilitating disease for which there are no currently available effective treatments other than heart transplantation. Like in other cardiac diseases, tissue engineering and cell therapy have been investigated in the past few years as a means of recovering the heart function lost as a consequence of chronic damage caused by the immune-mediated pathogenic mechanisms elicited in individuals with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Here we review the studies of cell therapy in animal models and patients with chronic Chagas disease and the perspectives of the recovery of the heart function lost due to infection with T. cruzi.

  16. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

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    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  17. Clinical utility of ivabradine in cardiovascular disease management: current status

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    Rosano GMC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe MC Rosano,1,2 Cristiana Vitale,1,2 Ilaria Spoletini,1 Maurizio Volterrani11Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy; 2Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK Abstract: Ivabradine is a selective antagonist of the funny channels with anti-anginal and anti-ischemic properties, approved for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD and heart failure (HF. It provides pure heart rate reduction, reducing the diastolic depolarization slope, without altering hemodynamic parameters. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the efficacy of ivabradine in patients with cardiovascular diseases, with a particular focus on its role in the clinical management of patients with CAD and HF. There is consistent evidence that ivabradine is effective in reducing angina pectoris symptoms and myocardial ischemia. At approved doses ivabradine is safe, improves exercise tolerance, and reduces heart rate. Available data from clinical trials support its use in the management of patients with stable CAD and chronic HF. Recent studies have cast doubt on the safety of non-approved high doses of ivabradine for the treatment of patients with CAD and without clinical HF, but have shown no concerns on the doses approved for clinical use. Keywords: ivabradine, coronary artery disease, heart failure, angina pectoris, exercise performance

  18. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

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    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  19. The current status of PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Jennifer; George, Angela; Banerjee, Susana

    2016-10-13

    Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology of epithelial ovarian cancer have led to the development of a number of targeted therapies, including poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP inhibitors are a novel class of therapeutic agents that target tumors with deficiencies in the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. Early studies have shown significant efficacy for PARP inhibitors in patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. It has become evident that BRCA wild-type patients with other defects in the homologous recombination repair pathway benefit from this therapeutic approach. Importantly, companion homologous recombination deficiency scores are being developed to help guide the selection of patients most likely to gain clinical benefit from PARP inhibition. Olaparib, the first and most extensively investigated PARP inhibitor, is now licensed in Europe for maintenance treatment of patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed BRCA-mutated (germline or somatic) high-grade serous ovarian cancer who have responded to platinum-based chemotherapy. In the United States, olaparib is licensed for treatment of patients with germline BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer who have received 3 or more lines of chemotherapy. There are a number of other PARP inhibitors in late phase clinical development in ovarian cancer including rucaparib, niraparib, veliparib, and talazoparib. This review will focus on the current evidence for PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer and discuss ongoing clinical trials and future research directions in this rapidly evolving area.

  20. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

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    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  1. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil.

  2. Liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma:Current status and new insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Sapisochín; Elena; Fernández; de; Sevilla; Juan; Echeverri; Ramón; Charco

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the biliary system that can be classified into intrahepatic(i CCA),perihiliar(ph CCA) and distal. Initial experiences with orthotopic liver transplantation(OLT) for patientswith i CCA and ph CCA had very poor results and this treatment strategy was abandoned. In the last decade,thanks to a strict selection process and a neoadjuvant chemoradiation protocol,the results of OLT for patients with non-resectable phC CA have been shown to be excellent and this strategy has been extended worldwide in selected transplant centers. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a growing disease in most countries and can be diagnosed both in cirrhotic and in non-cirrhotic livers. Even though OLT is contraindicated in most centers,recent investigations analyzing patients that were transplanted with a misdiagnosis of HCC and were found to have an iC CA have shown encouraging results. There is some information suggesting that patients with early stages of the disease could benefit from OLT. In this review we analyze the current stateof-the-art of OLT for cholangiocarcinoma as well as the new insights and future perspectives.

  3. Current Status of Interventional Radiology Treatment of Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, T., E-mail: thomas.rand@wienkav.at [General Hospital Hietzing, Department of Radiology (Austria); Uberoi, R. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Treatment of infrapopliteal arteries has developed to a standard technique during the past two decades. With the introduction of innovative devices, a variety of techniques has been created and is still under investigation. Treatment options range from plain balloon angioplasty (POBA), all sorts of stent applications, such as bare metal, balloon expanding, self-expanding, coated and drug-eluting stents, and bio-absorbable stents, to latest developments, such as drug-eluting balloons. Regarding the scientific background, several prospective, randomized studies with relevant numbers of patients have been (or will be) published that are Level I evidence. In contrast to older studies, which primarily were based mostly on numeric parameters, such as diameters or residual stenoses, more recent study concepts focus increasingly on clinical features, such as amputation rate improvement or changes of clinical stages and quality of life standards. Although it is still not decided, which of the individual techniques might be the best one, we can definitely conclude that whatever treatment of infrapopliteal arteries will be used it is of substantial benefit for the patient. Therefore, the goal of this review is to give an overview about the current developments and techniques for the treatment of infrapopliteal arteries, to present clinical and technical results, to weigh individual techniques, and to discuss the recent developments.

  4. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Barlati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which appeared in the PubMed database until April 2013 has been performed and all the meta-analyses and review articles on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia have been also taken into account. Results. Numerous intervention programs have been designed, applied, and evaluated, with the objective of improving cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. Several quantitative reviews have established that cognitive remediation is effective in reducing cognitive deficits and in improving functional outcome of the disorder. Furthermore, the studies available support the usefulness of cognitive remediation when applied in the early course of schizophrenia and even in subjects at risk of the disease. Conclusions. Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia and should be considered a key strategy for early intervention in the psychoses.

  5. Significance of Tribocorrosion in Biomedical Applications: Overview and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “tribocorrosion,” a research area combining the science of tribology and corrosion, has drawn attention from scientists and engineers belonging to a wide spectrum of research domains. This is due to its practical impact on daily life and also the accompanying economical burdens. It encompasses numerous applications including the offshore, space, and biomedical industry, for instance, in the case of artificial joints (Total Hip Replacement, THR in orthopedic surgery, where implant metals are constantly exposed to tribological events (joint articulations in the presence of corrosive solutions, that is, body fluids. Keeping the importance of this upcoming area of research in biomedical applications in mind, it was thought to consolidate the work in this area with some fundamental aspects so that a comprehensive picture of the current state of knowledge can be depicted. Complexity of tribocorrosion processes has been highlighted, as it is influenced by several parameters (mechanical and corrosion and also due to the lack of an integrated/efficient test system. Finally a review of the recent work in the area of biotribocorrosion is provided, by focusing on orthopedic surgery and dentistry.

  6. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  7. Mercury in the National Parks: Current Status and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, C.; Blett, T. F.; Morris, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed contaminant that can harm human and wildlife health, and threaten resources the National Park Service (NPS) is charged with protecting. Due in part to emissions and long-range transport from coal burning power plants, even remote national park environments receive mercury deposition from the atmosphere. Given the concern regarding mercury, there are and have been many mercury monitoring initiatives in national parks to determine the risk from mercury contamination. This includes the study of litter fall at Acadia National Park (Maine), snow at Mount Rainier National Park (Washington), heron eggs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana), bat hair at Mammoth Cave National Park (Kentucky), and panthers at Everglades National Park (Florida). Wet deposition is also measured at 16 national parks as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Network / Mercury Deposition Network. Results from these studies indicate that mercury deposition is increasing or is elevated in many national parks, and fish and other biota have been found to contain levels of mercury above toxicity thresholds for impacts to both humans and wildlife. Current research coordinated by the NPS Air Resources Division (ARD) in Denver, Colorado, on the effects of mercury includes broad-scale assessments of mercury in fish, dragonfly larvae, and songbirds across 30+ national parks. Fish provide the trophic link to human and wildlife health, dragonfly larvae can describe fine-scale differences in mercury levels, and songbirds shed light on the risk to terrestrial ecosystems. External project partners include the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Maine, and the Biodiversity Research Institute. In addition, the dragonfly project engages citizen scientists in the collection of dragonfly larvae, supporting the NPS Centennial Initiative by connecting people to parks and advancing the educational mission, and increasing public awareness about mercury impacts. Much of

  8. Current status on performance of CT colonography and clinical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laghi, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.laghi@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Polo Pontino, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Via Franco Faggiana 43, 04100 Latina (Italy); Rengo, Marco [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Polo Pontino, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Via Franco Faggiana 43, 04100 Latina (Italy); Graser, Anno [InstitutfürKlinische Radiologie, Klinikumder Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Campus Großhadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 München (Germany); Iafrate, Franco [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Policlinico Umberto I, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    CT colonography (CTC) is a robust and reliable imaging test of the colon. Accuracy for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is as high as conventional colonoscopy (CC). Identification of polyp is size dependent, with large lesions (≥10 mm) accurately detected and small lesions (6–9 mm) identified with moderate to good sensitivity. Recent studies show good sensitivity for the identification of nonpolypoid (flat) lesions as well. Current CTC indications include the evaluation of patients who had undergone a previous incomplete CC or those who are unfit for CC (elderly and frail individuals, patients with underlying severe clinical conditions, or with contraindication to sedation). CTC can also be efficiently used in the assessment of diverticular disease (excluding patients with acute diverticulitis, where the exam should be postponed), before laparoscopic surgery for CRC (to have an accurate localization of the lesion), in the evaluation of colonic involvement in the case of deep pelvic endometriosis (replacing barium enema). CTC is also a safe procedure in patients with colostomy. For CRC screening, CTC should be considered an opportunistic screening test (not available for population, or mass screening) to be offered to asymptomatic average-risk individuals, of both genders, starting at age 50. The use in individuals with positive family history should be discussed with the patient first. Absolute contraindication is to propose CTC for surveillance of genetic syndromes and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (in particular, ulcerative colitis). The use of CTC in the follow-up after surgery for CRC is achieving interesting evidences despite the fact that literature data are still relatively weak in terms of numerosity of the studied populations. In patients who underwent previous polypectomy CTC cannot be recommended as first test because debate is still open. It is desirable that in the future CTC would be the first-line and only diagnostic test for

  9. Robotic surgery for gastric tumor: current status and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hae Min; Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Surgical techniques have evolved tremendously over this past century. To maximize the efficacy and minimize the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery, researchers have sought to implement wider application of robotics. Nevertheless, both optimism without sound evidence and fear of new technology obscure the appropriate uses of robotic surgery. In the present review, we attempted to provide a balanced perspective on the current state of robotic gastrectomy, outlining evidence and opportunities for the use thereof. Although evidence is limited, the use of robotics is feasible for gastric cancer surgery, and less than 10 cases of robotic surgery are needed to become proficient therein. Compared to the clinical impact of laparoscopy on gastric cancer surgery, the additional benefits of robotic surgery to patients seem to be limited. Despite additional costs and longer surgeries, robotic surgery reportedly does not offer surgical outcomes superior to those for laparoscopic surgery, according to a recent multicenter study. Meanwhile, however, our in-depth review of retrospective and prospective reports revealed that robots could expand the indications of minimally invasive gastrectomy for patients requiring total gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Moreover, we found that robotic gastrectomy is associated with a higher number of retrieved lymph nodes, less bleeding, fewer complications, and shorter hospital stay, compared to laparoscopic gastrectomy. Accordingly, new surgical approaches using advanced technologies, such as near infrared detectors, the Tilepro(®) multi-input display, dual consoles, and the Single-Site(®) system, are under investigation. In conclusion, measuring the additional benefits of robotic over laparoscopic surgery would be difficult and clinically insignificant. Thus, developing new surgical procedures that extend the benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery to patients in whom minimally invasive surgery would not be possible is

  10. Shigella vaccine development: prospective animal models and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Shigella was first discovered in 1897 and is a major causative agent of dysenteric diarrhea. The number of affected patients has decreased globally because of improved sanitary conditions; however, Shigella still causes serious problems in many subjects, including young children and the elderly, especially in developing countries. Although antibiotics may be effective, a vaccine would be the most powerful solution to combat shigellosis because of the emergence of drug-resistant strains. However, the development of a vaccine is hampered by several problems. First, there is no suitable animal model that can replace human-based studies for the investigation of the in vivo mechanisms of Shigella vaccines. Mouse, guinea pig, rat, rabbit, and nonhuman primates could be used as models for shigellosis, but they do not represent human shigellosis and each has its own weaknesses. However, a recent murine model based on peritoneal infection with virulent S. flexneri 2a is promising. Moreover, although the inflammatory responses and mechanisms such as pathogenassociated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns have been studied, the pathology and immunology of Shigella are still not clearly defined. Despite these obstacles, many vaccine candidates have been developed, including live attenuated, killed whole cells, conjugated, and subunit vaccines. The development of Shigella vaccines also demands considerations of the cost, routes of administration, ease of storage (stability), cross-reactivity, safety, and immunogenicity. The main aim of this review is to provide a detailed introduction to the many promising vaccine candidates and animal models currently available, including the newly developed mouse model.

  11. Gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Waseem; Gennery, Andrew R

    2014-06-01

    Gene therapy using autologous haematopoietic stem cells offers a valuable treatment option for patients with primary immunodeficiencies who do not have access to an HLA-matched donor, although such treatments have not been without their problems. This review details gene therapy trials for X-linked and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). X-linked SCID was chosen for gene therapy because of previous 'natural' genetic correction through a reversion event in a single lymphoid precursor, demonstrating limited thymopoiesis and restricted T-lymphocyte receptor repertoire, showing selective advantage of progenitors possessing the wild-type gene. In early studies, patients were treated with long terminal repeats-intact gamma-retroviral vectors, without additional chemotherapy. Early results demonstrated gene-transduced cells, sustained thymopoiesis, and a diverse T-lymphocyte repertoire with normal function. Serious adverse effects were subsequently reported in 5 of 20 patients, with T-lymphocyte leukaemia developing, secondary to the viral vector integrating adjacent to a known oncogene. New trials using self-inactivating gamma-retroviral vectors are progressing. Trials for ADA-SCID using gamma-retroviral vectors have been successful, with no similar serious adverse effects reported; trials using lentiviral vectors are in progress. Patients with WAS and CGD treated with early gamma-retroviral vectors have developed similar lymphoproliferative adverse effects to those seen in X-SCID--current trials are using new-generation vectors. Targeted gene insertion using homologous recombination of corrected gene sequences by cellular DNA repair pathways following targeted DNA breakage will improve efficacy and safety of gene therapy. A number of new techniques are discussed.

  12. Dust Composition in Climate Models: Current Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Perlwitz, J. P.; Kok, J. F.; Scanza, R.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust created by wind erosion of soil particles is the dominant aerosol by mass in the atmosphere. It exerts significant effects on radiative fluxes, clouds, ocean biogeochemistry, and human health. Models that predict the lifecycle of mineral dust aerosols generally assume a globally uniform mineral composition. However, this simplification limits our understanding of the role of dust in the Earth system, since the effects of dust strongly depend on the particles' physical and chemical properties, which vary with their mineral composition. Hence, not only a detailed understanding of the processes determining the dust emission flux is needed, but also information about its size dependent mineral composition. Determining the mineral composition of dust aerosols is complicated. The largest uncertainty derives from the current atlases of soil mineral composition. These atlases provide global estimates of soil mineral fractions, but they are based upon massive extrapolation of a limited number of soil samples assuming that mineral composition is related to soil type. This disregards the potentially large variability of soil properties within each defined soil type. In addition, the analysis of these soil samples is based on wet sieving, a technique that breaks the aggregates found in the undisturbed parent soil. During wind erosion, these aggregates are subject to partial fragmentation, which generates differences on the size distribution and composition between the undisturbed parent soil and the emitted dust aerosols. We review recent progress on the representation of the mineral and chemical composition of dust in climate models. We discuss extensions of brittle fragmentation theory to prescribe the emitted size-resolved dust composition, and we identify key processes and uncertainties based upon model simulations and an unprecedented compilation of observations.

  13. Ion-counting nanodosimetry: current status and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, R; Bashkirov, V; Garty, G; Leloup, C; Shchemelinin, S; Breskin, A; Chechik, R; Milligan, J; Grosswendt, B

    2003-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of interactions of ionizing radiation with condensed matter at the nanometer level. The motivation for this research is the hypothesis that the number of ionizations occurring within short segments of DNA-size subvolumes is a major factor determining the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. A novel dosimetry technique, called nanodosimetry, measures the spatial distribution of individual ionizations in an irradiated low-pressure gas model of DNA. The measurement of nanodosimetric event size spectra may enable improved characterization of radiation quality, with applications in proton and charged-particle therapy, radiation protection, and space research. We describe an ion-counting nanodosimeter developed for measuring radiation-induced ionization clusters in small, wall-less low-pressure gas volumes, simulating short DNA segments. It measures individual radiation-induced ions, deposited in 1 Torr propane within a tissue-equivalent cylindrical volume of 2-4 nm diameter and up to 100 nm length. We present first ionization cluster size distributions obtained with 13.6 MeV protons, 4.25 MeV alpha particles and 24.8 MeV carbon nuclei in propane; they correspond to a wide LET range of 4-500 keV/microm. We are currently developing plasmid-based assays to characterize the local clustering of DNA damage with biological methods. First results demonstrate that there is increasing complexity of DNA damage with increasing LET. Systematic comparison of biological and nanodosimetric data will help us to validate biophysical models predicting radiation quality based on nanodosimetric spectra. Possible applications for charged particle radiation therapy planning are discussed.

  14. Dengue vaccines: Challenges, development, current status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with dengue virus (DENV is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The clinical spectrum of dengue, caused by any of the four serotypes of DENV, ranges from mild self-limiting dengue fever to severe dengue, in the form dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Increased rates of hospitalization due to severe dengue, during outbreaks, result in massive economic losses and strained health services. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy, control of transmission of DENV by vector management is the sole method available for decreasing dengue-associated morbidity. Since vector control strategies alone have not been able to satisfactorily achieve reduction in viral transmission, the implementation of a safe, efficacious and cost-effective dengue vaccine as a supplementary measure is a high public health priority. However, the unique and complex immunopathology of dengue has complicated vaccine development. Dengue vaccines have also been challenged by critical issues like lack of animal models for the disease and absence of suitable markers of protective immunity. Although no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available, several vaccine candidates are under phases of development, including live attenuated virus vaccines, live chimeric virus vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNA vaccines and viral-vectored vaccines. Although some vaccine candidates have progressed from animal trials to phase II and III in humans, a number of issues regarding implementation of dengue vaccine in countries like India still need to be addressed. Despite the current limitations, collaborative effects of regulatory bodies like World Health Organization with vaccine manufacturers and policy makers, to facilitate vaccine development and standardize field trials can make a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine a reality in near future.

  15. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  16. Robotic surgery for gastric tumor: current status and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hae Min; Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical techniques have evolved tremendously over this past century. To maximize the efficacy and minimize the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery, researchers have sought to implement wider application of robotics. Nevertheless, both optimism without sound evidence and fear of new technology obscure the appropriate uses of robotic surgery. In the present review, we attempted to provide a balanced perspective on the current state of robotic gastrectomy, outlining evidence and opportunities for the use thereof. Although evidence is limited, the use of robotics is feasible for gastric cancer surgery, and less than 10 cases of robotic surgery are needed to become proficient therein. Compared to the clinical impact of laparoscopy on gastric cancer surgery, the additional benefits of robotic surgery to patients seem to be limited. Despite additional costs and longer surgeries, robotic surgery reportedly does not offer surgical outcomes superior to those for laparoscopic surgery, according to a recent multicenter study. Meanwhile, however, our in-depth review of retrospective and prospective reports revealed that robots could expand the indications of minimally invasive gastrectomy for patients requiring total gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Moreover, we found that robotic gastrectomy is associated with a higher number of retrieved lymph nodes, less bleeding, fewer complications, and shorter hospital stay, compared to laparoscopic gastrectomy. Accordingly, new surgical approaches using advanced technologies, such as near infrared detectors, the Tilepro® multi-input display, dual consoles, and the Single-Site® system, are under investigation. In conclusion, measuring the additional benefits of robotic over laparoscopic surgery would be difficult and clinically insignificant. Thus, developing new surgical procedures that extend the benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery to patients in whom minimally invasive surgery would not be possible is necessary

  17. Dengue vaccines: challenges, development, current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Dar, L

    2015-01-01

    Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The clinical spectrum of dengue, caused by any of the four serotypes of DENV, ranges from mild self-limiting dengue fever to severe dengue, in the form dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Increased rates of hospitalization due to severe dengue, during outbreaks, result in massive economic losses and strained health services. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy, control of transmission of DENV by vector management is the sole method available for decreasing dengue-associated morbidity. Since vector control strategies alone have not been able to satisfactorily achieve reduction in viral transmission, the implementation of a safe, efficacious and cost-effective dengue vaccine as a supplementary measure is a high public health priority. However, the unique and complex immunopathology of dengue has complicated vaccine development. Dengue vaccines have also been challenged by critical issues like lack of animal models for the disease and absence of suitable markers of protective immunity. Although no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available, several vaccine candidates are under phases of development, including live attenuated virus vaccines, live chimeric virus vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNA vaccines and viral-vectored vaccines. Although some vaccine candidates have progressed from animal trials to phase II and III in humans, a number of issues regarding implementation of dengue vaccine in countries like India still need to be addressed. Despite the current limitations, collaborative effects of regulatory bodies like World Health Organization with vaccine manufacturers and policy makers, to facilitate vaccine development and standardize field trials can make a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine a reality in near future.

  18. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    currently under development.

  19. Current status of AIDS and HIV infection in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S

    1994-01-01

    A total 494 cases of AIDS had been reported to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in India by October 31, 1993. Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have the highest number of cases at 152 and 117 respectively, Kerala has 76, Punjab/Chandigarh 47, and Delhi 42, while the other states reported 1-17. More than 90% of cases were in the 15-45 year-old age group. Multipartner sex probably accounts for 80% of infections, blood and blood product transfusions for 12%, and sharing unsterilized drug injecting equipment for 5%. This number of reported cases, however, represents only a small fraction of actual AIDS morbidity in India due to general underreporting; the actual number of AIDS cases is probably in the range of 10,000-20,000 thousand. As for HIV infection, 13,448 of the 1,933,834 individuals tested for HIV through the nationwide surveillance network over the period October 1985-October 1993, were found to be infected. The seropositivity rate increased from 2.5/1000 in 1986 to 11.2/1000 by 1992. The author notes, however, that up to 90% of the population groups screened thus far came from high-risk groups. HIV-infected individuals were found in almost all states and Union Territories, although the major concentration of HIV remains in Bombay which may contain 5-10% of the country's infected individuals. Surveillance reports from the commercial sex workers show a marked rise in HIV prevalence from 10% in 1986 to 32% in 1991. Other hot spots are Pune, Madras, Madurai, and Vellore. The latest studies have shown HIV infection among IV drug users to be 74% in Manipur, 50% in Nagaland, and 6-10% in Mizoram. More than 1.5 million people were estimated to have been infected by the end of 1993. Lack of information from rural and semi-urban areas, however, does not allow estimates and projections beyond the major municipal centers. The author warns that current conditions of HIV infection and AIDS in India strongly resemble those in certain regions of Africa in the 1980s after

  20. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiño-Janeiro BK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro,1,2 Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro,1 María Isabel Castiñeiras-Landeira,1 Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín,1,3 José R González-Juanatey,1,3,4 Ezequiel Álvarez1,4 1Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble, France; 3Cardiology Department, University Clinic Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Medicine Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Abstract: The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility

  1. Current status of research on biophysical effects of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, S B; ter Haar, G R; Ziskin, M C; Nyborg, W L; Maeda, K; Bang, J

    1994-01-01

    This overview of bioeffects of ultrasound presents some key aspects of selected papers dealing with biophysical end-points. Its purpose is to establish a basis for exposure and dosimetric standards for medical ultrasonic equipment. It is intended to provide essential background resource material for the medical/scientific community, and more specifically for scientific working groups. This document was prepared by members of the Safety Committee of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. It was produced as a resource document in response to a request for information by Working Group 12 (Ultrasound exposure parameters) of the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 87, Ultrasonics. IEC TC 87, WG12 is the working group responsible for generating international standards for the classification of equipment by its acoustic fields based on safety thresholds. Our paper is intended to update and supplement information on the thermal mechanism provided in the publication, "WFUMB Symposium on Safety and Standardisation in Medical Ultrasound: Issues and Recommendations Regarding Thermal Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound" (WFUMB 1992). It also provides an overview of trends in research into nonthermal mechanisms as a preliminary to the next WFUMB Symposium on Safety of Medical Ultrasound when this subject will be examined in detail by a select group of international experts. The WFUMB-sponsored workshop will take place in Utsunomiya, Japan during 11-15th July, 1994. The purpose of the meeting is to evaluate the scientific literature and to formulate internationally accepted recommendations on the safe use of diagnostic ultrasound that may be endorsed as official policy of the WFUMB. It should be noted that the current publication is not intended for review or endorsement as an official WFUMB document. It is produced as a scientific paper by individuals who are members of the WFUMB Safety Committee, and it therefore

  2. Extended Range Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, A. K.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Joseph, S.; Chattopadhyay, R.; S, S.; Rajeevan, M.; Mandal, R.; Dey, A.

    2014-12-01

    added value to both deterministic and probability forecast compared to raw SME's and this better skill is probably flows from large spread and improved spread-error relationship. CGMME system is currently capable of generating ER prediction in real time and successfully delivering its experimental operational ER forecast of ISM for the last few years.

  3. Current status of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penders J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE encompass subacute neurological degenerative diseases for which the prototypes are scrapie in sheep and some forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man. The emergence of a new form of TSE in cattle in United Kingdom (UK since 1986, namely bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, sharply increased the interest for these diseases, especially because of the epidemic nature of BSE in UK, its subsequent spread in continental Europe and the later discovery of its zoonotic character. The number of measures of veterinary public health taken to control the disease and to prevent its spread to animals and human beings increased in time and culminated by the total feed ban. Indeed, since the beginning of 2001, feed containing proteins of animal origin is prohibited for the feeding of production animals, including ruminants and monogastric species. The effect of this total ban of mammalian meat and bone meal needs to be evaluated. The incidence of BSE has a trend to decrease in UK and in most of the other European member states. However, as BSE is a rare event distributed in a large bovine population, it is difficult to state unambiguously whether this trend is significant. Furthermore, the evaluation of this measure will be only effective at least five years after its introduction, since this period is the mean incubation time of BSE. The main concern is currently the eradication of BSE in the infected countries. Additionally, the control of scrapie is also carried out due to the possible contamination of sheep with the BSE agent. These actions must take into account several new facts: the recent discovery of BSE cases in countries with a low geographical BSE risk level as Japan, Canada and the United States of America (USA; the growing incidence of chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy observed in deer in USA; the characterization of a new pattern of bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy in

  4. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    availability of (68)Ge-(68)Ga generators is increasing and studies involving prostate-specific membrane antigen or DOTA-chelated peptides or both are performed in at least seven countries. Although therapeutic radionuclide agents are mostly imported from outside the region, this does not limit the availability of therapies with (90)Y, (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (131)I, (188)Re, and (89)Sr. Nevertheless, therapies based on alpha particle emitters are still largely not available in the region and are currently only available in Israel and Turkey. Regarding human resources, according to the data provided there are 1157 NM physicians, 1953 technologists, 586 medical physicists, and 173 radiopharmacists or radiochemists in the region. Approximately half of all available human resources are accounted for by Turkey. The region has great potential for expanding the applications of NM; this becomes especially important in view of the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Further increasing awareness of the clinical applications of NM in healthcare and strengthening technical and human capacities including the establishment of training programs for all professionals and disciplines in the field are recognized as key components in advancing the practice of NM in the Middle East.

  5. Lunar-A mission: Outline and current status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Mizutani; A Fujimura; S Tanaka; H Shiraishi; T Nakjima

    2005-12-01

    elements in the Moon.These data will provide much stronger geophysical constraints on the origin and evolution of the Moon than has been obtained so far. Currently,the Lunar-A system is being reviewed and a more robust system for communication between the penetrators and spacecraft is being implemented according to the lessons learned from Beagle-2 and DS-2 failures.More impact tests for penetrators onto a lunar regolith analogue target will be undertaken before its launch.

  6. 75 FR 9232 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future... about current and potential measurements for assessing progress in food safety and associated... workshop, contact Juanita Yates, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-009), Food and...

  7. Gene-environment interactions and alcohol use and dependence: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    To discuss the current status of gene-environment interaction research with regard to alcohol use and dependence. Further, we highlight the difficulties concerning gene-environment studies. Overview of the current evidence for gene-environment interactions in alcohol outcomes, and of the associated

  8. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, Romeela [University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Mauthoor, Sumayya, E-mail: sumayya.mauthoor@umail.uom.ac.mu [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana [Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  9. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling.

  10. Semiparametric analysis of incomplete current status outcome data under transformation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2014-06-01

    This work, motivated by an osteoporosis survey study, considers regression analysis with incompletely observed current status data. Here the current status data, including an examination time and an indicator for whether or not the event of interest has occurred by the examination time, is not observed for all subjects. Instead, a surrogate outcome subject to misclassification of the current status is available for all subjects. We focus on semiparametric regression under transformation models, including the proportional hazards and proportional odds models as special cases. Under the missing at random mechanism where the missingness of the current status outcome can depend only on the observed surrogate outcome and covariates, we propose an approach of validation likelihood based on the likelihood from the validation subsample where the data are fully observed, with adjustments of the probability of observing the current status outcome, as well as the distribution of the surrogate outcome in the validation subsample. We propose an efficient computation algorithm for implementation, and derive consistency and asymptotic normality for inference with the proposed estimator. The application to the osteoporosis survey data and simulations reveal that the validation likelihood performs well; it removes the bias from the "complete case" analysis discarding subjects with missing data, and achieves higher efficiency than the inverse probability weighting analysis.

  11. Current susceptibility status of Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) against DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V L; Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Lim, P E; Leong, C S; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide investigation was carried out to determine the current susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations against four active ingredients representing four major insecticide classes: DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin. Across 14 study sites, both larval and adult bioassays exhibited dissimilar trends in susceptibility. A correlation between propoxur and malathion resistance and between propoxur and permethrin resistance in larval bioassays was found. The results obtained from this study provide baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of this mosquito should be monitored from time to time to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control operations in Malaysia.

  12. The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkilic, Cumali [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin; Behcet, Rasim [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. (author)

  13. An overview of RDF processing systems: Current status, design features, and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, O.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Walter, D.K. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Waste Material Management Div.); Goodman, B.J. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent history of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing facilities in the United States. The current status of these facilities, including environmental, institutional, and economic considerations is discussed. The unit operations used to produce a desired RDF product are described, and the future potential of RDF processing systems is evaluated. Current research sponsored by the US Department of Energy is also presented. 6 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. A status analysis of current digital marketing: a case study of Kauneusstudio FAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a small company's current digital marketing status. This study was con-ducted in order for the owners of the beauty and hair salon Kauneusstudio FAB to improve their understanding of their customers’ behavior online and the significance of each digital channel they are using in the present marketing strategy. The goal of this study is to provide information for the company to recognize the strengths and the development points of the current digital marketing stra...

  15. Instantaneous translocation statuses on the fluctuation of ionic current for DNA through graphene nanopore

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Wenping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanopore has the ultra-high DNA sequencing sensitivity for the atomic thickness and excellent electronic properties. Extracting the sequence information of DNA from the blocked ionic current is the crucial step for the ionic current based sequencing technology on nanopores. In this letter, the investigation of the effect of measurement induced noise of ionic current as well as the instantaneous translocation statuses from the fluctuation of ionic current signals for DNA through a graphene nanopore was carried out based on molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the molecular thermal noise of ionic current in a graphene nanopore was related with the time interval of measurement, and the tiny conformational and dynamical variations of DNA could be revealed from the fluctuation of the denoised ionic current through a graphene nanopore. Additionally, the neighborhood effect of ionic current blockage for DNA near a graphene nanopore (within 1.5 nm) was observed. These findings suggest that the ionic...

  16. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  17. Review of Current Status and Research Approaches to Nitrogen Pollution in Farmlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Sheng-wei; GAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Yuan-quan; SUI Peng; A Egrinya Eneji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the history, current status, and research approaches to nitrogen pollution were reviewed using systems analysis and deductions. The seriousness of N pollution world-wide was highlighted and recommendations were made to address the situation. A new hypothesis based on phytoremediation, which means the use of plants to directly or indirectly degrade or remove contaminats from soil and water, was proposed.

  18. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  19. Non-Cr Paint Systems on Commercial Aircraft - Current Status and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    777X Status: ▪ 7 candidates tested, top candidate reformulated for improved adhesion ( blisters ) ▪ Reformulation successful, candidate currently in...implementation increases manufacturing complexity – Ensuring the correct coating system on the correct application BCA Chemical Risk Management is

  20. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...... aimed at making the processes and practices of grant review more consistent, transparent, and user friendly....

  1. Current status and progress of research on the management of bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ©2000 National Agricultural Research Organisation. Current status ... Them a in ohj ective of this study was to identify control measures that can reduce the disease on ... practices in controlling root rot was carried out in 1997 for two seasons ...

  2. Current status data with competing risks: Consistency and rates of convergence of the MLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Maathuis, M.H.; Wellner, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We study nonparametric estimation of the sub-distribution functions for current status data with competing risks. Our main interest is in the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), and for comparison we also consider a simpler “naive estimator.” Both types of estimators were studied by Je

  3. Current status data with competing risks: limiting distribution of the MLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Maathuis, M.H.; Wellner, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We study nonparametric estimation for current status data with competing risks. Our main interest is in the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), and for comparison we also consider a simpler “naive estimator.” Groeneboom, Maathuis and Wellner [Ann. Statist. (2008) 36 1031–1063] proved t

  4. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss…

  5. Current status of laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer patients : a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parry, K.; Ruurda, J. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; van der Sluis, P. C.; van Hillegersberg, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    Minimally invasive techniques in transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) were introduced to reduce morbidity and enhance postoperative recovery. Aim of this study was to systematically review the current status and possible beneficial effects of the minimally invasive approach in THE. A systematic search

  6. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  7. Research on the Child Development Project: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the current status of the Child Development Project (San Ramon, California). States that major concerns focus upon validity of measures and criterion validity. Notes that there are indications that the program is being implemented and children's attitudes are being affected. Predicts additional teacher questionnaire measures and the…

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  9. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  10. Improving the Professional Status of Teaching: Perspectives of Future Teachers, Current Teachers, and Education Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Hsieh, Chia-lin

    1999-01-01

    Examined future teachers', current teachers', and teacher educators' attitudes regarding various suggestions for improving the professional status of teaching. All groups rated extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for teaching the most important. They considered raising the standards of preservice programs and teacher certification important and…

  11. Improving the Professional Status of Teaching: Perspectives of Future Teachers, Current Teachers, and Education Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Hsieh, Chia-lin

    1999-01-01

    Examined future teachers', current teachers', and teacher educators' attitudes regarding various suggestions for improving the professional status of teaching. All groups rated extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for teaching the most important. They considered raising the standards of preservice programs and teacher certification important and…

  12. Current status of the Standard Model CKM fit and constraints on $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, J; Descotes-Genon, S; Lacker, H; Menzel, A; Monteil, S; Niess, V; Ocariz, J; Orloff, J; Perez, A; Qian, W; Tisserand, V; Trabelsi, K; Urquijo, P; Silva, L Vale

    2015-01-01

    This letter summarises the status of the global fit of the CKM parameters within the Standard Model performed by the CKMfitter group. Special attention is paid to the inputs for the CKM angles $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma$ and the status of $B_s\\to\\mu\\mu$ and $B_d\\to \\mu\\mu$ decays. We illustrate the current situation for other unitarity triangles. We also discuss the constraints on generic $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics. All results have been obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using Rfit to handle theoretical uncertainties.

  13. To what extent do financial strain and labour force status explain social class inequalities in self-rated health? Analysis of 20 countries in the European Social Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Shaw

    Full Text Available Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries.Our analyses used data for working age (25-59 men (n = 48,249 and women (n = 52,654 for 20 countries from five rounds (2002-2010 of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status.Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42, while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22. Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI -0.05 to 0.10, health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25. Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment.Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position.

  14. A frailty model approach for regression analysis of multivariate current status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Man-Hua; Tong, Xingwei; Sun, Jianguo

    2009-11-30

    This paper discusses regression analysis of multivariate current status failure time data (The Statistical Analysis of Interval-censoring Failure Time Data. Springer: New York, 2006), which occur quite often in, for example, tumorigenicity experiments and epidemiologic investigations of the natural history of a disease. For the problem, several marginal approaches have been proposed that model each failure time of interest individually (Biometrics 2000; 56:940-943; Statist. Med. 2002; 21:3715-3726). In this paper, we present a full likelihood approach based on the proportional hazards frailty model. For estimation, an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and simulation studies suggest that the presented approach performs well for practical situations. The approach is applied to a set of bivariate current status data arising from a tumorigenicity experiment.

  15. Surgical residency training in the mission setting: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery has traditionally been an important aspect of services offered by mission hospitals, but only in the last 20 years has surgical residency training been incorporated into the mission hospital setting. A working group of surgical educators met in conjunction with the Global Missions Health Conference in November 2015 and discussed the current status of surgical training in the mission setting. This paper outlines the current status and makes recommendations for mission groups who are contemplating starting a residency training program. Potential difficulties and the importance of regional recognition of the program are discussed. The work group felt that it was important to include a strong spiritual emphasis as part of the training. Future directions and the concern about employment opportunities are explored.

  16. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  17. Current status and perspective of diagnosis and treatment of thoracolumbar fracture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天驷; 俞杭平

    2003-01-01

    @@ Since the late 20th century owing to the improvement of spinal surgery techniques, the diagnosis and treatment of thoracolumbar fracture have been perfected more and more. Although the advent of modern spinal surgery in China was late, we have gained some advanced achievements owing to various international communications benefited from the open policy. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the current status and perspective of diagnosis and treatment of thoracolumbar fracture. There are several issues we would like to discuss here.

  18. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found ...

  19. Photonics industry in China: from current status and trends to the importance of innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chongcheng

    2011-12-01

    Current status and trends in various sectors of photonics industry in Mainland China are reviewed, which includes optical fiber communication, optical preform, fiber and cable, photonic devices and chips, LED illumination and display, and photovoltaics. Then, from the challenges and risks they are facing, critical importance of innovation is discussed. In the evolving Innovation Economy, the core competence of a company, an industry or a country is its innovation power and the capability to grab (and manage) talented people.

  20. Current Status and Future Strategies for Development of Transgenic Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Ping Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review, the author summarized the current status, challenges, and strategies in China in the development of transgenic plants and its commercialization. Based on sets of successful examples and data achieved from execution of the National Special Project for Transgenic Plant Research and Commercialization in the last five years, the priorities and key directions were put forward for the future development of transgenic plants in China.