WorldWideScience

Sample records for current state-of-the-art scheme

  1. State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD. Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD.

  2. State-of-the-Art Visual Cryptography Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud E. Hodeish

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual Cryptography (VC is recent technology used to the strengthen security of many applications in various fields. It allows visual information like printed text, handwritten notes, and images to be encrypted by dividing it into shares. The most important characteristic of VCS is that one can visually decrypted the secret image by stacking shares without computation. The current paper aims at introducing a descriptive review for VC, which covering the "state-of-the-art" concept, and classification of schemes. In this paper, we have classified the VC schemes and provide some interpretation on the base of some various measures such as pixel expansion, share generated, format of secret image and number of secret image, which actually deemed as valuable contribution in the field of VC studies

  3. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  4. Current state of the art of vision based SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Fofi, David; Ainouz, Samia

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a robot to localise itself and simultaneously build a map of its environment (Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping or SLAM) is a fundamental characteristic required for autonomous operation of the robot. Vision Sensors are very attractive for application in SLAM because of their rich sensory output and cost effectiveness. Different issues are involved in the problem of vision based SLAM and many different approaches exist in order to solve these issues. This paper gives a classification of state-of-the-art vision based SLAM techniques in terms of (i) imaging systems used for performing SLAM which include single cameras, stereo pairs, multiple camera rigs and catadioptric sensors, (ii) features extracted from the environment in order to perform SLAM which include point features and line/edge features, (iii) initialisation of landmarks which can either be delayed or undelayed, (iv) SLAM techniques used which include Extended Kalman Filtering, Particle Filtering, biologically inspired techniques like RatSLAM, and other techniques like Local Bundle Adjustment, and (v) use of wheel odometry information. The paper also presents the implementation and analysis of stereo pair based EKF SLAM for synthetic data. Results prove the technique to work successfully in the presence of considerable amounts of sensor noise. We believe that state of the art presented in the paper can serve as a basis for future research in the area of vision based SLAM. It will permit further research in the area to be carried out in an efficient and application specific way.

  5. Prostate biopsy strategies: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Badar M

    2004-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate biopsy have revolutionized our ability to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. The transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy procedure has undergone a number of modifications over the past 10 years to meet our goal of early detection of cancer at a curable stage. Biopsy schemes have evolved from lesion-directed biopsies to systematic mapping of the peripheral zone of the prostate, which harbors almost all of the significant tumor foci. An increase in the number of biopsy cores from 6 to 10 (or 12) has resulted in a significant improvement in the detection of clinically localized cancer, without any appreciable increase in the number of indolent cancers. Current biopsy schemes also have enhanced our ability to determine the true prognostic value of pathologic lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical small acinar proliferation which have been associated with cancer detection in repeat biopsies. I discuss the rationale behind, and the outcomes of, various biopsy strategies. More than 15 years after PSA testing was popularized for early detection, a number of men are presenting for evaluation regarding repeat prostate biopsy for various clinical indications. The indications, biopsy scheme, and cancer detection rates for repeat prostate biopsy are discussed in detail.

  6. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    strength between 190 to 240 MPa and is broadly characterized as a reactive powder concrete (RPC). RPCs have fine aggregates and powders but do not...ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -1 9 Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art G eo te...Discontinuous Fibers in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art Charles A. Burchfield Geotechnical and

  7. Robots in Education: The Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, David; LePage, Pamela

    1996-01-01

    Describes how robots are currently being used in education as well as their future potential. Discusses limitations and effectiveness of robotics technology. Explores three ways robots are being used in the classroom: (1) to teach basic concepts; (2) to assist disabled students; and (3) as objects of study. Contains 60 references. (Author/AEF)

  8. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  9. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schraml

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques.

  10. Minimally invasive veneers: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanlıoğlu BA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Burçin Akoğlu Vanlioğlu, Yasemin Kulak-Özkan University of Marmara, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Ceramic veneers are considered a conservative solution for patients requiring improvement of the shape, color, or position of their anterior teeth. Ceramic veneers have been extensively and successfully used to mask intrinsic staining, to give the appearance of straightening, and to correct minor malformations of anterior teeth without the removal of substantial amounts of sound tooth substance. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success and correct application of ceramic veneers. Keywords: ceramic veneers, esthetic treatment

  11. Current state of the art of medical foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Stephanie; Brito, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the five most prevalent gastrointestinal disease burdens in the US, with an overall health care cost of more than USD 1.7 billion. It commonly requires a lifetime of care, and accounts for more than 700,000 physician visits, 100,000 hospitalizations, and disability in 119,000 patients each year. IBD is a multifactorial disease and comprises genetic susceptibility, uncontrolled immune responses, and environmental factors which play a role in the pathogenesis and course of the disease. IBD patients are lifelong on medication, either for induction or maintenance therapy. Current treatment option (corticosteroids, immune suppressants, biologics), administered in mono- or combination therapy, are still unsatisfactory. Due to the nature of disease, 20-40% of patients relapse within the first 12 months. Although modern treatment algorithms have diminished the risk of surgery, the treatments harbor significant side effects, which impacts patients' quality of life. The role of nutrition in IBD has gathered high interest, especially in pediatric Crohn's disease, where studies have shown that exclusive enteral nutrition can induce remission in mild-to-moderate disease comparable to corticosteroids. Thus, gastroenterologists and patients become increasingly aware that specific nutritional interventions offered in addition to the standard of care are an appealing option for a safe long-term disease management. Such specific nutritional solutions should be based on scientific/clinical evidence and specifically designed to address the patients' distinct nutritional requirements. As per definition, these nutrition products fall under the regulatory framework of a Medical Food (Foods for Special Medical Purposes in Europe).

  12. Current State of the Art in High Brightness LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craford, George

    2007-03-01

    LED's have been commercially available since the 1960's. For many years they were used primarily for indicator applications. The remarkable increase in materials technology and efficiency that has been achieved since the early 1990's for AlInGaP red and amber LEDs, and InGaN green and blue LEDs, has enabled the penetration of markets such as outdoor display, signaling, and automotive brake light and turn signal applications. White LEDs, which are either blue LEDs combined with a phosphor, or a combination of red, green, and blue LEDs, are being used in emerging applications such as cell phone flash, television backlights, projection, and automotive headlights. In addition, to efficiency improvements these applications have required the development of higher power packages and, in some of these applications which are etendue limited, higher luminance devices. High power devices are commercially available which are capable of 140 lumens output and have an efficacy of around 70 lm/W for white emission. New package and chip technologies have been demonstrated which have a luminance of 38 mega nits (Mcd/m^2), approximately 50% more luminance than that of an automotive headlamp halogen bulb (˜25 mega nits). The recent progress in materials technology, packaging, and chip technology makes it clear that LED's will become important for general illumination applications. The rate of LED penetration of this market will depend upon continued increases in performance and lower costs as well as better control of the white spectral emission. Efficiency, current density, and costs are closely linked because the cost in dollars/lumen is inversely proportional to how many lumens can be realized from each unit of device area for a given device type. Performance as high as 138 lm/W, and over 40% wall plug efficiency, has been reported for low power research devices and over 90 lm/W for high power research devices. It is clear that high power commercial products with performance in

  13. Localized excitations in nonlinear complex systems current state of the art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri; Karachalios, Nikos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Palmero-Acebedo, Faustino

    2014-01-01

    The study of nonlinear localized excitations is a long-standing challenge for research in basic and applied science, as well as engineering, due to their importance in understanding and predicting phenomena arising in nonlinear and complex systems, but also due to their potential for the development and design of novel applications. This volume is a compilation of chapters representing the current state-of-the-art on the field of localized excitations and their role in the dynamics of complex physical systems.

  14. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Herb E.; Davide La Torre; Franklin Mendivil; Manuel Ruiz Galán; Rachad Zaki

    2014-01-01

    We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on ...

  15. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X’avia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-03-17

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been revealed in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been hotspot for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for the disease of interest. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state-of-the-art of the technologies, and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, we will underscore some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research.

  16. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X'avia; Gritsenko, Marina A; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been implicated in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been considered as hotspots for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for diseases of interest. This review highlights recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state of the art of the technologies and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research are underscored.

  17. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litscher, Daniela; Litscher, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear) acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all describe the method of injecting different kinds of drugs into a defined body acupuncture point, are used. This article presents the history of liquid acupuncture, as well as the current scientific state of the art, from the point of view of two European researchers. Some articles are discussed and a few practical examples are presented.

  18. Advanced robotics for medical rehabilitation current state of the art and recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on the key technologies in developing robots for a wide range of medical rehabilitation activities – which will include robotics basics, modelling and control, biomechanics modelling, rehabilitation strategies, robot assistance, clinical setup/implementation as well as neural and muscular interfaces for rehabilitation robot control – this book is split into two parts; a review of the current state of the art, and recent advances in robotics for medical rehabilitation. Both parts will include five sections for the five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) the upper limb; (ii) lower limb for gait rehabilitation (iii) hand, finger and wrist; (iv) ankle for strains and sprains; and (v) the use of EEG and EMG to create interfaces between the neurological and muscular functions of the patients and the rehabilitation robots. Each chapter provides a description of the design of the device, the control system used, and the implementation and testing to show how it fulfils the needs of that specific ...

  19. Analysis of nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2011-12-28

    More than 500 phenolic compounds have been reported as present in foodstuffs, and their intake has been related to the prevention of several chronic diseases. Most of the literature on phenolic compounds focuses on those present in the supernatant of aqueous-organic extractions: extractable phenolics. Nevertheless, significant amounts of phenolic compounds remain in the solid residues after such extractions. These nonextractable phenolics are mostly proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and hydrolyzable tannins that are closely associated with the food matrix. Studies of this fraction of dietary phenolic compounds are scarce, and the few there are usually refer to particular types of phenolics rather than to the fraction as a whole. The present review reports the state-of-the-art methods that currently exist for analyzing nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods.

  20. Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Altieri, Barbara; Annweiler, Cedric; Balercia, Giancarlo; Pal, H B; Boucher, Barbara J; Cannell, John J; Foresta, Carlo; Grübler, Martin R; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Mascitelli, Luca; März, Winfried; Orio, Francesco; Pilz, Stefan; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to provide the current state of the art regarding the role of vitamin D in chronic diseases (osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, autism, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, male and female fertility). The document was drawn up by panelists that provided their contribution according to their own scientific expertise. Each scientific expert supplied a first draft manuscript on a specific aspect of the document's topic that was subjected to voting by all experts as "yes" (agreement with the content and/or wording) or "no" (disagreement). The adopted rule was that statements supported by ≥75 % of votes would be immediately accepted, while those with D in bone health but not in other health conditions. However, subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been found to be at high risk of developing chronic diseases. Therefore, although at the present time there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin D supplementation as treatment of chronic diseases, the treatment of vitamin D deficiency should be desiderable in order to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases.

  1. Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learning engagement: The current state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Kester, Liesbeth; Corbalan, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Kester, L., & Corbalan, G. (2011). Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learner engagement: The current state of the art. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.003

  2. Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learning engagement: The current state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Kester, Liesbeth; Corbalan, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Kester, L., & Corbalan, G. (2011). Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learner engagement: The current state of the art. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.003

  3. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  4. State of the art of control schemes for smart systems featuring magneto-rheological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Li, Weihua; Yu, Miao; Du, Haiping; Fu, Jie; Do, Phu Xuan

    2016-04-01

    This review presents various control strategies for application systems utilizing smart magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) and magneto-rheological elastomers (MRE). It is well known that both MRF and MRE are actively studied and applied to many practical systems such as vehicle dampers. The mandatory requirements for successful applications of MRF and MRE include several factors: advanced material properties, optimal mechanisms, suitable modeling, and appropriate control schemes. Among these requirements, the use of an appropriate control scheme is a crucial factor since it is the final action stage of the application systems to achieve the desired output responses. There are numerous different control strategies which have been applied to many different application systems of MRF and MRE, summarized in this review. In the literature review, advantages and disadvantages of each control scheme are discussed so that potential researchers can develop more effective strategies to achieve higher control performance of many application systems utilizing magneto-rheological materials.

  5. Numerical methods in vehicle system dynamics: state of the art and current developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M.; Burgermeister, B.; Führer, C.; Hippmann, G.; Rill, G.

    2011-07-01

    Robust and efficient numerical methods are an essential prerequisite for the computer-based dynamical analysis of engineering systems. In vehicle system dynamics, the methods and software tools from multibody system dynamics provide the integration platform for the analysis, simulation and optimisation of the complex dynamical behaviour of vehicles and vehicle components and their interaction with hydraulic components, electronical devices and control structures. Based on the principles of classical mechanics, the modelling of vehicles and their components results in nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) of moderate dimension that describe the dynamical behaviour in the frequency range required and with a level of detail being characteristic of vehicle system dynamics. Most practical problems in this field may be transformed to generic problems of numerical mathematics like systems of nonlinear equations in the (quasi-)static analysis and explicit ODEs or DAEs with a typical semi-explicit structure in the dynamical analysis. This transformation to mathematical standard problems allows to use sophisticated, freely available numerical software that is based on well approved numerical methods like the Newton-Raphson iteration for nonlinear equations or Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods for ODE/DAE time integration. Substantial speed-ups of these numerical standard methods may be achieved exploiting some specific structure of the mathematical models in vehicle system dynamics. In the present paper, we follow this framework and start with some modelling aspects being relevant from the numerical viewpoint. The focus of the paper is on numerical methods for static and dynamic problems, including software issues and a discussion which method fits best for which class of problems. Adaptive components in state-of-the-art numerical software like stepsize and order control in time integration are

  6. Nanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reatul; Palazzo, Claudio; Evrard, Brigitte; Piel, Geraldine

    2016-04-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-the-art technologies, the median survival is about 14 months and 2 year survival rate is merely 3-5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood-brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief.

  7. Learning analytics fundaments, applications, and trends : a view of the current state of the art to enhance e-learning

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual and empirical perspective on learning analytics, its goal being to disseminate the core concepts, research, and outcomes of this emergent field. Divided into nine chapters, it offers reviews oriented on selected topics, recent advances, and innovative applications. It presents the broad learning analytics landscape and in-depth studies on higher education, adaptive assessment, teaching and learning. In addition, it discusses valuable approaches to coping with personalization and huge data, as well as conceptual topics and specialized applications that have shaped the current state of the art. By identifying fundamentals, highlighting applications, and pointing out current trends, the book offers an essential overview of learning analytics to enhance learning achievement in diverse educational settings. As such, it represents a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in updating their knowledge and finding inspirations for their future work.

  8. Hydrogen Storage Materials for Mobile and Stationary Applications: Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qiwen; Paskevicius, Mark; Sheppard, Drew A; Buckley, Craig E; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Matthew R; Gu, Qinfen; Mao, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhenguo; Liu, Hua Kun; Guo, Zaiping; Banerjee, Amitava; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois

    2015-09-07

    One of the limitations to the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is its storage in a safe and compact form. Herein, recent developments in effective high-capacity hydrogen storage materials are reviewed, with a special emphasis on light compounds, including those based on organic porous structures, boron, nitrogen, and aluminum. These elements and their related compounds hold the promise of high, reversible, and practical hydrogen storage capacity for mobile applications, including vehicles and portable power equipment, but also for the large scale and distributed storage of energy for stationary applications. Current understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the interaction of hydrogen with these light compounds is summarized, as well as basic strategies to meet practical targets of hydrogen uptake and release. The limitation of these strategies and current understanding is also discussed and new directions proposed.

  9. [The problems of education in otosurgery: the current state-of-the-art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, G F

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the current problems of education in ear surgery is presented. The methods used for the purpose including the classical dissection of the temporal bone, application of synthetic and natural (animal) temporal bones are described alongside with the 3D models of the temporal bone and virtual dissection. In addition, the review covers the problem of enhancing effectiveness of the teaching methods, considers their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. User-Computer Interface Technology: An Assessment of the Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    a model of the current state of the world. A similar effort is underway at the Computing Research Laboratory at New Mexico S-’ State University. One...process by validating or modifying requirements. Rapid prototyping techniques * such as storyboarding offer relatively low cost approaches to bringing the...Research Laboratory, New Mexico State University. Bannon, Liam J. (1986). Issues in design: some notes. In D. A. Norman and S. W. Draper (Eds.), User

  11. INSTITUTIONALISM AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: CURRENT STATE OF THE ART AND POSITION OF FRENCH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolande Marciniak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The various currents of institutionalism are used in management science, particularly in the area of information systems. Richard Scott's global model is a fertile framework for the analysis of institutional research. First, we will study the contributions of French research to institutionalism. Then, returning to the fundamentals of information systems (IS, we will show that the interaction between institutions and IS can be analysed via the notion of formal and informal rules. Research carried out at the University of Paris

  12. Virtual screening strategies in medicinal chemistry: the state of the art and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Silva, Arthur C; Nascimento, Marilia N; Silva, Flavia C; Liao, Luciano M; Andrade, Carolina H

    2014-01-01

    Virtual screening (VS) techniques are well-established tools in the modern drug discovery process, mainly used for hit finding in drug discovery. The availability of knowledge of structural information, which includes an increasing number of 3D protein structures and the readiness of free databases of commercially available smallmolecules, provides a broad platform for VS. This review summarizes the current developments in VS regarding chemical databases and highlights the achievements as well as the challenges with an emphasis on a recent example of the successful application for the identification of new hits for sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  13. Experimental diabetes induced by alloxan and streptozotocin: The current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenković, Miroslav; Stojanović, Marko; Prostran, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Animal models of diabetes represent an important tool in diabetes investigation that helps us to avoid unnecessary and ethically challenging studies in human subjects, as well as to obtain a comprehensive scientific viewpoint of this disease. Although there are several methods through which diabetes can be induced, chemical methods of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes represent the most important and highly preferable experimental models for this pathological condition. Therefore, the aim of this article was to review the current knowledge related to quoted models of diabetes, including to this point available information about mechanism of action, particular time- and dose-dependent protocols, frequent problems, as well as major limitations linked to laboratory application of alloxan and sterptozotocin in inducing diabetes. Given that diabetes is known to be closely associated with serious health consequences it is of fundamental importance that current animal models for induction of diabetes should be continuously upgraded in order to improve overall prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this pathological condition.

  14. Partitioning and transmutation (P and D) 1995. A review of the current state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaalberg, M.; Landgren, A.; Spjuth, L.; Liljenzin, J.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron and Reactor Physics

    1995-12-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P/T) is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D efforts are summarized. Nuclear transmutation with energy production is feasible in nuclear reactors where fast and thermal breeders are the most efficient for transmutation purposes. The operation of subcritical nuclear reactors by high current proton accelerators that generate neutrons in a spallation target is also an interesting option for transmutation and energy production, that has to be more carefully evaluated. These accelerator-driven systems are probably the only solution for the transmutation of long-lived fission products with small neutron capture cross sections and actinide isotopes with small fission cross sections. The requirements on the separation chemistry in the partitioning process depends on the transmutation strategy chosen. Recent developments in aqueous based separation chemistry opens some interesting possibilities to meet some of the requirements, such as separation of different actinides and some fission products and reduction of secondary waste streams. In the advanced accelerator-driven transmutation systems proposed, liquid fuels such as molten salts are considered. The partitioning processes that can be used for these types of fuel will, however, require a long term research program. The possibility to use centrifuge separation is an interesting partitioning option that recently has been proposed. 51 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Current state-of-the-art and future perspectives of robotic technology in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rodriguez, Abraham Hafiz; Sambhara, Deepak; Mendel, Ehud

    2014-07-01

    Neurosurgery is one of the most demanding surgical specialties in terms of precision requirements and surgical field limitations. Recent advancements in robotic technology have generated the possibility of incorporating advanced technological tools to the neurosurgical operating room. Although previous studies have addressed the specific details of new robotic systems, there is very little literature on the strengths and drawbacks of past attempts, currently available platforms and prototypes in development. In this review, the authors present a critical historical analysis of the development of robotic technology in neurosurgery as well as a comprehensive summary of the currently available systems that can be expected to be incorporated to the neurosurgical armamentarium in the near future. Finally, the authors present a critical analysis of the main technical challenges in robotic technology development at the present time (such as the design of improved systems for haptic feedback and the necessity of incorporating intraoperative imaging data) as well as the benefits which robotic technology is expected to bring to specific neurosurgical subspecialties in the near future.

  16. Metacognition fundaments, applications, and trends a profile of the current state-of-the-art

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the Metacognition arena. It highlights works that show relevant analysis, reviews, theoretical, and methodological proposals, as well as studies, approaches, applications, and tools that shape current state, define trends and inspire future research. As a result of the revision process fourteen manuscripts were accepted and organized into five parts as follows: ·     Conceptual: contains conceptual works oriented to: (1) review models of strategy instruction and tailor a hybrid strategy; (2) unveil second-order judgments and define a method to assess metacognitive judgments; (3) introduces a conceptual model to describe the metacognitive activity as an autopoietic system. ·     Framework: offers three works concerned with: (4) stimulate metacognitive skills and self-regulatory functions; (5) evaluate metacognitive skills and self-regulated learning at problem solving; (6) deal with executive management metacognition and strategic knowledge metacognition. ·     Studies: r...

  17. The LandScan Global Population Distribution Project: Current State of the Art and Prospective Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing, dasymetric mapping techniques, and the ever-increasing availability of spatial datasets have enhanced global human population distribution databases. These datasets demonstrate an enormous improvement over the conventional use of choropleth maps to represent population distribution and are vital for analysis and planning purposes including humanitarian response, disease mapping, risk analysis, and evacuation modeling. Dasymetric mapping techniques have been employed to address spatial mismatch, but also to develop finer resolution population distributions in areas of the world where subnational census data are coarse or non-existent. One such implementation is the LandScan Global model which provides a 30 arc-second global population distribution based on ancillary datasets such as land cover, slope, proximity to roads, and settlement locations. This work will review the current state of the LandScan model, future innovations aimed at increasing spatial and demographic resolution, and situate LandScan within the landscape of other global population distribution datasets.

  18. Industrial-Strength Model-Based Testing - State of the Art and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peleska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As of today, model-based testing (MBT is considered as leading-edge technology in industry. We sketch the different MBT variants that - according to our experience - are currently applied in practice, with special emphasis on the avionic, railway and automotive domains. The key factors for successful industrial-scale application of MBT are described, both from a scientific and a managerial point of view. With respect to the former view, we describe the techniques for automated test case, test data and test procedure generation for concurrent reactive real-time systems which are considered as the most important enablers for MBT in practice. With respect to the latter view, our experience with introducing MBT approaches in testing teams are sketched. Finally, the most challenging open scientific problems whose solutions are bound to improve the acceptance and effectiveness of MBT in industry are discussed.

  19. Emergence of liposome as targeted magic bullet for inflammatory disorders: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahfoozur; Kumar, Vikas; Beg, Sarwar; Sharma, Gajanand; Katare, Om Prakash; Anwar, Firoz

    2016-11-01

    Inflammatory diseases are considered to be highly dreadful ones responsible for higher mortality in the developed countries. This includes cancer, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The tremendous strides in the area of drug development to find newer molecules like non-steroidal and steroidal agents and immunosuppressant agents delivered by conventional formulation. These therapy have enhances the life expectancy of patient, but it provide the therapeutic benefits only to a limited extent. Recent advancement in liposomes based nanomedicines has led to the possibility of improves the efficacy and safety of the pharmacotherapy of inflammatory disorders. Of late, liposomes have been highly explored as one of the promising systems for delivering numerous anti-inflammatory drugs for attaining enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Over the conventional carriers, liposomal systems have numerous drug delivery merits including advantages in both passive and active targeting of drug molecules to the inflammatory lesions. The current review article, therefore, endeavors to provide a bird's eye view account on the success of liposome-based therapeutic systems in the management of dreadful inflammatory disorders along with updated knowledge to pharmaceutical scientists in the field.

  20. Current state-of-the-art of contouring techniques in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1990-10-01

    A manager with a major automobile manufacturer once made the comment that " the best thing we ever did to improve quality was give the guys on the floor a caliper to measure the parts" . As the tolerances on manufacturing become tighter the need for accurate measurement has also increased. Hand fitting of parts to each other does not work in modem automated factories. Gages in the past have been built to provide a fixed set of measurements of a known part. This practice too has been changing due to the trend toward flexible manufacturing. Now the gages themselves must be flexible to accommodate the variety of parts made on a single line. This need has spurred a flurry of activity in the development of new three-dimensional (3-D) measurement tools. This paper will review the current state of the new optical based 3-D tools and discuss some of the applications being addressed. Background The need for three dimensional contouring has arisen from two primary areas of application. The first area of application has been in the area of robot guidance. ''4 Robots are used for their flexibility of motion. Applications may include loading of parts into machine tools stuffing printed circuit boards welding and cutting metal or simple assembly operations. In the simple applications the motion of the robot can be preprogrammed to follow a set trajectory. If the part not in the right location then the operation fails. In the case of painting robots this preprogrammed route can generally taken. As the task gets more complex and the positions become more critical guidance of the robot becomes important. If a robot welder misses the seam it may not only not make the weld but may also damage the surrounding material. This area of robot guidance has been one of the primary areas of growing interest. 58 The requirements for this type of application do not demand a great deal of contour measurement but does require three dimensional information. The range to the seam being welded as

  1. State of the art of superconducting fault current limiters and their application to the electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet new needs. Nowadays a high power quality is mandatory and there is the need to integrate increasing amounts of on-site generation. All this translates in more sophisticated electric network with intrinsically high short circuit rate. This network is vulnerable in case of fault and special protection apparatus and procedures needs to be developed in order to avoid costly or even irreversible damage. A superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is a device with a negligible impedance in normal operating conditions that reliably switches to a high impedance state in case of extra-current. Such a device is able to increase the short circuit power of an electric network and to contemporarily eliminate the hazard during the fault. It can be regarded as a key component for future electric power systems. In this paper the state of the art of superconducting fault current limiters mature for applications is briefly resumed and the potential impact of this device on the paradigm of design and operation of power systems is analyzed. In particular the use of the FCL as a mean to allow more interconnection of MV bus-bars as well an increased immunity with respect to the voltage disturbances induced by critical customer is discussed. The possibility to integrate more distributed generation in the distribution grid is also considered.

  2. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    with Mars ISRU systems further substantiated the preliminary results from the Mars DRA 5.0 study. This paper will provide an overview of Mars ISRU consumable production options, the analyses, results, and conclusions from the Mars DRA 5.0 (2007), Mars Collaborative (2013), and Mars ISRU Payload for the Supersonic Retro Propulsion (2014) mission studies, and the current state-of-the-art of Mars ISRU technologies and systems. The paper will also briefly discuss the mission architectural implications associated with Mars resource and ISRU processing options.

  3. Building Integrated Photovoltaics: A Concise Description of the Current State of the Art and Possible Research Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV offer an aesthetical, economical and technical solution to integrate solar cells harvesting solar radiation to produce electricity within the climate envelopes of buildings. Photovoltaic (PV cells may be mounted above or onto the existing or traditional roofing or wall systems. However, BIPV systems replace the outer building envelope skin, i.e., the climate screen, hence serving simultanously as both a climate screen and a power source generating electricity. Thus, BIPV may provide savings in materials and labor, in addition to reducing the electricity costs. Hence, for the BIPV products, in addition to specific requirements put on the solar cell technology, it is of major importance to have satisfactory or strict requirements of rain tightness and durability, where building physical issues like e.g., heat and moisture transport in the building envelope also have to be considered and accounted for. This work, from both a technological and scientific point of view, summarizes briefly the current state-of-the-art of BIPV, including both BIPV foil, tiles, modules and solar cell glazing products, and addresses possible research pathways for BIPV in the years to come.

  4. State of the art of current 3-D scoliosis classifications: a systematic review from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Sabrina; Poma, Salvatore; Balzarini, Luca; Borboni, Alberto; Respizzi, Stefano; Villafane, Jorge Hugo; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-10-16

    Scoliosis is a complex three dimensional (3D) deformity: the current lack of a 3D classification could hide something fundamental for scoliosis prognosis and treatment. A clear picture of the actually existing 3D classifications lacks. The aim of this systematic review was to identify all the 3D classification systems proposed until now in the literature with the aim to identify similarities and differences mainly in a clinical perspective.After a MEDLINE Data Base review, done in November 2013 using the search terms "Scoliosis/classification" [Mesh] and "scoliosis/classification and Imaging, three dimensional" [Mesh], 8 papers were included with a total of 1164 scoliosis patients, 23 hyperkyphosis and 25 controls, aged between 8 and 20 years, with curves from 10° to 81° Cobb, and various curve patterns. Six studies looked at the whole 3D spine and found classificatory parameters according to planes, angles and rotations, including: Plane of Maximal Curvature (PMC), Best Fit Plane, Cobb angles in bodily plane and PMC, Axial rotation of the apical vertebra and of the PMC, and geometric 3D torsion. Two studies used the regional (spinal) Top View of the spine and found classificatory parameters according to its geometrical properties (area, direction and barycenter) including: Ratio of the frontal and the sagittal size, Phase, Directions (total, thoracic and lumbar), and Shift. It was possible to find similarities among 10 out of the 16 the sub-groups identified by different authors with different methods in different populations.In summation, the state of the art of 3D classification systems include 8 studies which showed some comparability, even though of low level. The most useful one in clinical everyday practice, is far from being defined. More than 20 years passed since the definition of the third dimension of the scoliosis deformity, now the time has come for clinicians and bioengineers to start some real clinical application, and develop means to make this

  5. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Robla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  6. Robot-assisted gait training for stroke patients: current state of the art and perspectives of robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano; Cherubini, Andrea; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Iosa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief outline of robot-mediated gait training for stroke patients, as an important emerging field in rehabilitation. Technological innovations are allowing rehabilitation to move toward more integrated processes, with improved efficiency and less long-term impairments. In particular, robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a rapidly advancing field, which uses robotic systems to define new methods for treating neurological injuries, especially stroke. The use of robots in gait training can enhance rehabilitation, but it needs to be used according to well-defined neuroscientific principles. The field of robot-mediated neurorehabilitation brings challenges to both bioengineering and clinical practice. This article reviews the state of the art (including commercially available systems) and perspectives of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation for walking recovery. A critical revision, including the problems at stake regarding robotic clinical use, is also presented. PMID:28553117

  7. Multivariate pattern recognition for diagnosis and prognosis in clinical neuroimaging: state of the art, current challenges and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Many diseases are associated with systematic modifications in brain morphometry and function. These alterations may be subtle, in particular at early stages of the disease progress, and thus not evident by visual inspection alone. Group-level statistical comparisons have dominated neuroimaging studies for many years, proving fascinating insight into brain regions involved in various diseases. However, such group-level results do not warrant diagnostic value for individual patients. Recently, pattern recognition approaches have led to a fundamental shift in paradigm, bringing multivariate analysis and predictive results, notably for the early diagnosis of individual patients. We review the state-of-the-art fundamentals of pattern recognition including feature selection, cross-validation and classification techniques, as well as limitations including inter-individual variation in normal brain anatomy and neurocognitive reserve. We conclude with the discussion of future trends including multi-modal pattern recognition, multi-center approaches with data-sharing and cloud-computing.

  8. [Shifting paradigm in skull base surgery: Roots, current state of the art and future trends of endonasal endoscopic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhouma, M; Messerer, M; Jouanneau, E

    2012-02-01

    During the last two decades, endoscopic endonasal approach has completed the minimally invasive skull base surgery armamentarium. Endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery (EESBS) was initially developed in the field of pituitary adenomas, and gained an increasing place for the treatment of a wide variety of skull base pathologies, extending on the midline from crista galli process to the occipitocervical junction and laterally to the parasellar areas and petroclival apex. Until now, most studies are retrospective and lack sufficient methodological quality to confirm whether the endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery has better results than the microsurgical trans-sphenoidal classical approach. The impressions of the expert teams show a trend toward better results for some pituitary adenomas with the endoscopic endonasal route, in terms of gross total resection rate and probably more comfortable postoperative course for the patient. Excepting intra- and suprasellar pituitary adenomas, EESBS seems useful for selected lesions extending onto the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave but also for clival pathologies. Nevertheless, this infatuation toward endoscopic endonasal approaches has to be balanced with the critical issue of cerebrospinal fluid leaks, which constitutes actually the main limit of this approach. Through their experience and a review of the literature, the authors aim to present the state of the art of this approach as well as its limits.

  9. Robot-assisted gait training for stroke patients: current state of the art and perspectives of robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morone G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Morone,1,2 Stefano Paolucci,1,2 Andrea Cherubini,3 Domenico De Angelis,1 Vincenzo Venturiero,1 Paola Coiro,1 Marco Iosa1,2 1Private Inpatient Unit, 2Clinical Laboratory of Experimental Neurorehabilitation, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Robotics, LIRMM UM-CNRS, Montpellier, France Abstract: In this review, we give a brief outline of robot-mediated gait training for stroke patients, as an important emerging field in rehabilitation. Technological innovations are allowing rehabilitation to move toward more integrated processes, with improved efficiency and less long-term impairments. In particular, robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a rapidly advancing field, which uses robotic systems to define new methods for treating neurological injuries, especially stroke. The use of robots in gait training can enhance rehabilitation, but it needs to be used according to well-defined neuroscientific principles. The field of robot-mediated neurorehabilitation brings challenges to both bioengineering and clinical practice. This article reviews the state of the art (including commercially available systems and perspectives of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation for walking recovery. A critical revision, including the problems at stake regarding robotic clinical use, is also presented. Keywords: exoskeleton, neurorehabilitation, robot-assisted walking training, wearable robot, activities of daily living, motor learning, plasticity

  10. Terrestrial Radar Interferometry: The current state-of-the-art demonstrated by real-world slope stability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Michael; Thomas, Adam; Holley, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Risk associated with natural terrain is typically mapped and monitored using established geodetic, geotechnical and remote sensing (satellite and airborne) techniques; however such techniques can pose challenges related to health and safety, cost and the density and frequency of measurements. Terrestrial Radar Interferometry (TRI) systems offer users new capabilities in the mapping and monitoring of ground displacements, and more specifically, slope stability. Use of portable radar systems that facilitate quick deployment and data acquisition, rapid and long distance scanning, and the ability to function and operate in most weather conditions, are revolutionising the terrestrial survey industry. This work presents a summary of the capabilities, limitations and applications of a state-of-the-art TRI system. The system is quick to deploy, allowing data acquisition within tens of minutes of arrival on site and requiring little or no permanent site infrastructure. Imaging scans are typically completed in less than 1 minute for a field of view of up to 360°, with repeat scans possible at up to 1-2 minute intervals. The system gives an azimuth resolution of around 8 m at distances of 1 km, with the capability to image slopes at distances of between 50 m and 10 km from the sensor with a deformation accuracy of less than 1 mm. These capabilities represent a significant advance over more traditional stability monitoring methods. The benefits of the TRI technology will be demonstrated through various natural and artificial slope stability case studies. Measurements on artificial slopes in environments such as quarries and open-cast mines allow benchmarking of capabilities across a variety of surface characteristics and failure mechanisms. These results allow an informed consideration of the applicability in various natural slope stability applications, and enable discussion on how TRI can meet the additional challenges encountered in natural environments.

  11. State of the art of cattle dehorning in the EU Member States. A quantitative survey of the current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzi, G.; Gottardo, F.; Brscic, M.; Contiero, B.; Irrgang, N.; Knierim, U.; Pentelescu, O.; Windig, J.J.; Mirabito, L.; Kling Eveillard, F.; Dockes, A.C.; Veissier, I.; Velarde, A.; Fuentes, C.; Dalmau, A.; Winckler, C.

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out to describe the extent and current practice of cattle disbudding/dehorning in the EU Member States. Disbudding was defined as removal of horns in calves of up to 2 months of age, whereas dehorning was defined as removal of horns in older animals. Specific questionnaires were

  12. Animal models of listeriosis: a comparative review of the current state of the art and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Pouillot, Régis; Dennis, Sherri

    2012-03-14

    Listeriosis is a leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illness in the industrialized world. Animal models have played fundamental roles in elucidating the pathophysiology and immunology of listeriosis, and will almost certainly continue to be integral components of the research on listeriosis. Data derived from animal studies helped for example characterize the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling infection, allowed evaluation of chemotherapeutic treatments for listeriosis, and contributed to quantitative assessments of the public health risk associated with L. monocytogenes contaminated food commodities. Nonetheless, a number of pivotal questions remain unresolved, including dose-response relationships, which represent essential components of risk assessments. Newly emerging data about species-specific differences have recently raised concern about the validity of most traditional animal models of listeriosis. However, considerable uncertainty about the best choice of animal model remains. Here we review the available data on traditional and potential new animal models to summarize currently recognized strengths and limitations of each model. This knowledge is instrumental for devising future studies and for interpreting current data. We deliberately chose a historical, comparative and cross-disciplinary approach, striving to reveal clues that may help predict the ultimate value of each animal model in spite of incomplete data.

  13. Evaluation of Semi-Automatic Metadata Generation Tools: A Survey of the Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-ran Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the current landscape of semi-automatic metadata generation tools is particularly important considering the rapid development of digital repositories and the recent explosion of big data. Utilization of (semiautomatic metadata generation is critical in addressing these environmental changes and may be unavoidable in the future considering the costly and complex operation of manual metadata creation. To address such needs, this study examines the range of semi-automatic metadata generation tools (n=39 while providing an analysis of their techniques, features, and functions. The study focuses on open-source tools that can be readily utilized in libraries and other memory institutions.  The challenges and current barriers to implementation of these tools were identified. The greatest area of difficulty lies in the fact that  the piecemeal development of most semi-automatic generation tools only addresses part of the issue of semi-automatic metadata generation, providing solutions to one or a few metadata elements but not the full range elements.  This indicates that significant local efforts will be required to integrate the various tools into a coherent set of a working whole.  Suggestions toward such efforts are presented for future developments that may assist information professionals with incorporation of semi-automatic tools within their daily workflows.

  14. Animal models of listeriosis: a comparative review of the current state of the art and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelzer Karin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Listeriosis is a leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illness in the industrialized world. Animal models have played fundamental roles in elucidating the pathophysiology and immunology of listeriosis, and will almost certainly continue to be integral components of the research on listeriosis. Data derived from animal studies helped for example characterize the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling infection, allowed evaluation of chemotherapeutic treatments for listeriosis, and contributed to quantitative assessments of the public health risk associated with L. monocytogenes contaminated food commodities. Nonetheless, a number of pivotal questions remain unresolved, including dose-response relationships, which represent essential components of risk assessments. Newly emerging data about species-specific differences have recently raised concern about the validity of most traditional animal models of listeriosis. However, considerable uncertainty about the best choice of animal model remains. Here we review the available data on traditional and potential new animal models to summarize currently recognized strengths and limitations of each model. This knowledge is instrumental for devising future studies and for interpreting current data. We deliberately chose a historical, comparative and cross-disciplinary approach, striving to reveal clues that may help predict the ultimate value of each animal model in spite of incomplete data.

  15. Freshwater Metaviromics and Bacteriophages: A Current Assessment of the State of the Art in Relation to Bioinformatic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Katherine; Malki, Kema; Cooper, Alexandria; Sible, Emily; Shapiro, Jason W; Watkins, Siobhan C; Putonti, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Advances in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have allowed for the analysis of complex microbial communities at an unprecedented rate. While much focus is often placed on the cellular members of these communities, viruses play a pivotal role, particularly bacteria-infecting viruses (bacteriophages); phages mediate global biogeochemical processes and drive microbial evolution through bacterial grazing and horizontal gene transfer. Despite their importance and ubiquity in nature, very little is known about the diversity and structure of viral communities. Though the need for culture-based methods for viral identification has been somewhat circumvented through metagenomic techniques, the analysis of metaviromic data is marred with many unique issues. In this review, we examine the current bioinformatic approaches for metavirome analyses and the inherent challenges facing the field as illustrated by the ongoing efforts in the exploration of freshwater phage populations.

  16. Integrating oncogeriatric tools into the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: current state of the art and challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Francesco; Mammi, Caterina; Ilariucci, Fiorella

    2015-07-01

    Although the achievement of deep and long lasting remissions is a realistic goal of therapy in the fit patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), this disease typically affects elderly patients who also show one or more concomitant pathological conditions or functional limitations that have an additive effects on the reduction of patient's life expectancy and represent major limitations in the adoption of standard therapies. In these unfit but typical patients with CLL, the goals of treatment may vary from achieving good remissions without severe toxicity to simple palliation. Differently from the past when the definition of patient medical status was mainly based on age and was left to the subjective assessment of the physician, today there are several tools to define in a standardized, reproducible, and multidimensional way the initial patient assessment and to plan treatment goals in an objective way. In this review, an overview of the current approaches to the definition of the medical fitness of the patient is provided along with some practical suggestions to integrate these tools in the clinical approach to elderly patients with CLL.

  17. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  18. Submerged Culture of Mushrooms in Bioreactors – Challenges, Current State-of-the-Art, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal mushrooms have profound health-promoting benefits. Recently, a number of substances of mushroom origin have been isolated, identified and shown to have physiological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulating, cardiovascular, antihypercholesterolemia, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Currently, commercial products from medicinal mushrooms are mostly obtained through the field-cultivation of the fruiting body. However, in this case it is difficult to control the quality of the final product. Submerged fermentation of the mycelial form of mushroom-producing fungi has received much attention as a promising alternative for efficient production of the biomass of medicinal mushrooms and their active metabolites. However, in order for the production to be successful at industrial scale, various technical problems need to be solved, including characterization of the variations that occur during the submerged cultivation of mushrooms in bioreactors and their effects on growth and product formation. This review outlines the major factors that affect the submerged cultivation of mushrooms in bioreactors, including oxygen supply, shear and mixing, morphology and rheology, as well as two-stage cultivation strategies and high-cell-density cultivation strategies such as fed-batch fermentation.

  19. Changes in glaciers in the Swiss Alps and impact on basin hydrology: current state of the art and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F; Carenzo, M; Bordoy, R; Stoffel, M

    2014-09-15

    Switzerland is one of the countries with some of the longest and best glaciological data sets. Its glaciers and their changes in response to climate have been extensively investigated, and the number and quality of related studies are notable. However, a comprehensive review of glacier changes and their impact on the hydrology of glacierised catchments for Switzerland is missing and we use the opportunity provided by the EU-FP7 ACQWA project to review the current state of knowledge about past changes and future projections. We examine the type of models that have been applied to infer glacier evolution and identify knowledge gaps that should be addressed in future research in addition to those indicated in previous publications. Common characteristics in long-term series of projected future glacier runoff are an initial peak followed by a decline, associated with shifts in seasonality, earlier melt onset and reduced summer runoff. However, the quantitative predictions are difficult to compare, as studies differ in terms of model structure, calibration strategies, input data, temporal and spatial resolution as well as future scenarios used for impact studies. We identify two sources of uncertainties among those emerging from recent research, and use simulations over four glaciers to: i) quantify the importance of the correct extrapolation of air temperature, and ii) point at the key role played by debris cover in modulating glacier response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis: A critical review of the state-of-the-art, current prospects, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Maryam; Mobasheri, Ali; Mozafari, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been defined as a prototypical non-inflammatory arthropathy, but today there is compelling evidence to suggest that it has an inflammatory component. Many recent studies have shown the presence of synovitis in a large number of patients with OA and demonstrated a direct association between joint inflammation and the progression of OA. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide, matrix degrading enzymes and biomechanical stress are major factors responsible for the progression of OA in synovial joints. The aim of this review is to discuss the significance of a wide range of implicated inflammatory mediators and their contribution to the progression of OA. We also discuss some of the currently available guidelines, practices, and prospects. In addition, this review argues for new innovation in methodologies and instrumentation for the non-invasive detection of inflammation in OA by modern imaging techniques. We propose that identifying early inflammatory events and targeting these alterations will help to ameliorate the major symptoms such as inflammation and pain in OA patients.

  1. Smart antennas: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Boche, Holger; Bourdoux, André; Rodríguez Fonollosa, Javier; Kaiser, Thomas; Molisch, Andreas F.; Utschick, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Aim of this contribution is to illustrate the state of the art of smart antenna research from several perspectives. The bow is drawn from transmitter issues via channel measurements and modeling, receiver signal processing, network aspects, technological challenges towards first smart antenna applications and current status of standardization. Moreover, some future prospects of different disciplines in smart antenna research are given. Peer Reviewed

  2. State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases are perfo...... are performed in non-controllable open sea conditions....

  3. Clinical supervision: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falender, Carol A; Shafranske, Edward P

    2014-11-01

    Since the recognition of clinical supervision as a distinct professional competence and a core competence, attention has turned to ensuring supervisor competence and effective supervision practice. In this article, we highlight recent developments and the state of the art in supervision, with particular emphasis on the competency-based approach. We present effective clinical supervision strategies, providing an integrated snapshot of the current status. We close with consideration of current training practices in supervision and challenges.

  4. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 2: An Assessment of the Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Results of a state-of-the-art assessment of technology areas which affect the Earth Resources Program are presented along with a functional description of the basic earth resources system. Major areas discussed include: spacecraft flight hardware, remote sensors, data processing techniques and hardware, user models, user interfaces, and operations technology.

  5. Assessment and applicability of evaluation tools: Current practice in a sample of European countries and steps towards a state-of-the-art approach. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverables No. 4 and 5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This report surveys current practice in a sample of European countries with respect to the use of ten different tools for safety management of road systems. The report also proposes steps that can be taken to bring the use of these management tools closer to their state-of-the-art versions. These to

  6. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applied to hepato-bilio-pancreatic and the digestive system—current state of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Michele; Schiraldi, Luigi; Liu, Yu-Yin; Memeo, Riccardo; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a valid minimally-invasive image-guided treatment of malignancies. We aimed to review to current state of the art of HIFU therapy applied to the digestive system and discuss some promising avenues of the technology. Methods Pertinent studies were identified through PubMed and Embase search engines using the following keywords, combined in different ways: HIFU, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, rectum, and cancer. Experimental proof of the concept of endoluminal HIFU mucosa/submucosa ablation using a custom-made transducer has been obtained in vivo in the porcine model. Results Forty-four studies reported on the clinical use of HIFU to treat liver lesions, while 19 series were found on HIFU treatment of pancreatic cancers and four studies included patients suffering from both liver and pancreatic cancers, reporting on a total of 1,682 and 823 cases for liver and pancreas, respectively. Only very limited comparative prospective studies have been reported. Conclusions Digestive system clinical applications of HIFU are limited to pancreatic and liver cancer. It is safe and well tolerated. The exact place in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) management algorithm remains to be defined. HIFU seems to add clear survival advantages over trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) alone and similar results when compared to radio frequency (RF). For pancreatic cancer, HIFU achieves consistent cancer-related pain relief. Further research is warranted to improve targeting accuracy and efficacy monitoring. Furthermore, additional work is required to transfer this technology on appealing treatments such as endoscopic HIFU-based therapies. PMID:27500145

  7. The Pursuit of K: Reflections on the Current State-of-the-Art in Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Practical Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CraigMcClung, R.; Lee, Yi-Der; Cardinal, Joseph W.; Guo, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stress intensity factor (SIF, commonly denoted as K) is the foundation of practical fracture mechanics (FM) analysis for aircraft structures. This single parameter describes the first-order effects of stress magnitude and distribution as well as the geometry of both structure/component and crack. Hence, the calculation of K is often the most significant step in fatigue analysis based on FM. This presentation will provide several reflections on the current state-of-the-art in SIF solution methods used for practical aerospace applications, including a brief historical perspective, descriptions of some recent and ongoing advances, and comments on some remaining challenges. Newman and Raju made significant early contributions to practical structural analysis by developing closed-form SIF equations for surface and corner cracks in simplified geometries, often based on empirical fits of finite element (FE) solutions. Those solutions (and others like them) were sometimes revised as new analyses were conducted or limitations discovered. The foundational solutions have exhibited striking longevity, despite the relatively "coarse" FE models employed many decades ago. However, in recent years, the accumulation of different generations of solutions for the same nominal geometry has led to some confusion (which solution is correct?), and steady increases in computational capabilities have facilitated the discovery of inaccuracies in some (not all!) of the legacy solutions. Some examples of problems and solutions are presented and discussed, including the challenge of maintaining consistency with legacy design applications. As computational power has increased, the prospect of calculating large numbers of SIF solutions for specific complex geometries with advanced numerical methods has grown more attractive. Fawaz and Andersson, for example, have been generating literally millions of new SIF solutions for different combinations of multiple cracks under simplified

  8. Pediatric appendicitis: state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Peter, Shawn D St; Snyder, Charles L

    2017-03-01

    Appendicitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in children. The diagnosis and treatment of the disease have undergone major changes in the past two decades, primarily as a result of the application of an evidence-based approach. Data from several randomized controlled trials, large database studies, and meta-analyses have fundamentally affected patient care. The best diagnostic approach is a standardized clinical pathway with a scoring system and selective imaging. Non-operative management of simple appendicitis is a reasonable option in selected cases, with the caveat that data in children remain limited. A minimally invasive (laparoscopic) appendectomy is the current standard in US and European children's hospitals. This article reviews the current 'state of the art' in the evaluation and management of pediatric appendicitis.

  9. Recent progress and challenges in population genetics of polyploid organisms: an overview of current state-of-the-art molecular and statistical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, France; Stift, Marc; Vergilino, Roland; Mable, Barbara K

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of polyploidy and the increasing availability of new genomic data, there remain important gaps in our knowledge of polyploid population genetics. These gaps arise from the complex nature of polyploid data (e.g. multiple alleles and loci, mixed inheritance patterns, association between ploidy and mating system variation). Furthermore, many of the standard tools for population genetics that have been developed for diploids are often not feasible for polyploids. This review aims to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in polyploid population genetics and to identify the main areas where further development of molecular techniques and statistical theory is required. We review commonly used molecular tools (amplified fragment length polymorphism, microsatellites, Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing and derived technologies) and their challenges associated with their use in polyploid populations: that is, allele dosage determination, null alleles, difficulty of distinguishing orthologues from paralogues and copy number variation. In addition, we review the approaches that have been used for population genetic analysis in polyploids and their specific problems. These problems are in most cases directly associated with dosage uncertainty and the problem of inferring allele frequencies and assumptions regarding inheritance. This leads us to conclude that for advancing the field of polyploid population genetics, most priority should be given to development of new molecular approaches that allow efficient dosage determination, and to further development of analytical approaches to circumvent dosage uncertainty and to accommodate 'flexible' modes of inheritance. In addition, there is a need for more simulation-based studies that test what kinds of biases could result from both existing and novel approaches. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  11. State of the art: alumina ceramics for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, W.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development.

  12. State of the art of palliative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregni, E; Padovano, B; Coliva, A; Zecca, E; Bombardieri, E

    2011-08-01

    Bone pain in advanced stages of cancer significantly decreases the patient's quality of life having a great impact on physical, physiological and social functioning. About 65% of patients with prostate or breast cancer will experience symptomatic skeletal metastases. Bone pain sustained by osseous metastases represents the most frequent kind of pain and its clinical presentation and characteristics differ from other type of neoplastic pain (i.e., neuropathic or visceral ones). Pathophysiology of bone pain is not yet completely understood but a general mechanism including infiltration of bone tissue associated with osteolysis and release of biological active molecules able to stimulate peripheral nervous terminals, seems to be principally involved. In oncological practice, painful skeletal metastases are managed by different multidisciplinary modalities which include the use of systemic analgesics (i.e., bisphosphonates), antineoplastic agents (i.e., hormones and chemotherapeutics), external beam radiotherapy, interventional radiology and radiopharmaceuticals. In this review we will discuss the state of the art of palliative therapy of bone pain with particular emphasis to the current approved radiopharmaceuticals, focusing on indications, patient selection, efficacy and toxicity. Some remarks on new or under developing strategies in systemic metabolic radiopharmaceutical therapy will be reported.

  13. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  14. Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of brain diseases in childhood and adolescence: state of the art, current limits and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades interest in application of non-invasive brain stimulation for enhancing neural functions is growing continuously. However, the use of such techniques in pediatric populations remains rather limited and mainly confined to the treatment of severe neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this article we provide a complete review of non-invasive brain stimulation studies conducted in pediatric populations. We also provide a brief discussion about the current limitations and future directions in a field of research still very young and full of issues to be explored.

  15. Management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: current state-of-the-art care for optimizing visual outcomes and therapies in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Rhoades, William R; Hanout, Mostafa; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Sarwar, Salman; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has evolved significantly over the last few years. The goal of treatment is shifting from merely salvaging vision to maintaining a high quality of life. There have been significant breakthroughs in the identification of viable drug targets and gene therapies. Imaging tools with near-histological precision have enhanced our knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms that play a role in vision loss due to AMD. Visual, social, and vocational rehabilitation are all important treatment goals. In this review, evidence from landmark clinical trials is summarized to elucidate the optimum modern-day management of neovascular AMD. Therapeutic strategies currently under development, such as gene therapy and personalized medicine, are also described.

  16. Management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: current state-of-the-art care for optimizing visual outcomes and therapies in development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aniruddha Agarwal, William R Rhoades, Mostafa Hanout, Mohamed Kamel Soliman, Salman Sarwar, Mohammad Ali Sadiq, Yasir Jamal Sepah, Diana V Do, Quan Dong Nguyen Stanley M Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Contemporary management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD has evolved significantly over the last few years. The goal of treatment is shifting from merely salvaging vision to maintaining a high quality of life. There have been significant breakthroughs in the identification of viable drug targets and gene therapies. Imaging tools with near-histological precision have enhanced our knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms that play a role in vision loss due to AMD. Visual, social, and vocational rehabilitation are all important treatment goals. In this review, evidence from landmark clinical trials is summarized to elucidate the optimum modern-day management of neovascular AMD. Therapeutic strategies currently under development, such as gene therapy and personalized medicine, are also described. Keywords: AMD, neovascular AMD, choroidal neovascular membrane, pharmacogenomics, VEGF, low-vision rehabilitation, gene therapy

  17. State of the art Open standaarden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Manderveld, J. (2004). State of the art Open standaarden. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 10-12). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  18. State of the art Open standaarden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Manderveld, J. (2004). State of the art Open standaarden. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 10-12). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  19. Multimodal Dialogue Management - State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.

    This report is about the state of the art in dialogue management. We first introduce an overview of a multimodal dialogue system and its components. Second, four main approaches to dialogue management are described (finite-state and frame-based, information-state based and probabilistic, plan-based,

  20. State-of-the-art inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present report provides a state-of-the-art inventory of relevant information and technical concepts for the ComCoast project, being the first phase of the research stages of Work Package 3 (WP3). This project was assigned to Royal Haskoning by CUR. The information scan was set-up in a systematic

  1. State-of-the-Art bewaarsysteem tulpenbollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Kok, M.; Kreuk, F.

    2007-01-01

    Het State-of-the-Art systeem voor het bewaren van tulpenbollen bestaat uit 4 componenten waarvan in eerder onderzoek is aangetoond dat deze ieder afzonderlijk veel energie kunnen besparen: 1) De moderne systeemwand met afgeronde uitblaasopeningen en een interne schuine wand en 2) de aangepaste kuubs

  2. Pharmacogenomics: Current State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Carr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome project 10 years ago was met with great optimism for improving drug therapy through personalized medicine approaches, with the anticipation that an era of genotype-guided patient prescribing was imminent. To some extent this has come to pass and a number of key pharmacogenomics markers of inter-individual drug response, for both safety and efficacy, have been identified and subsequently been adopted in clinical practice as pre-treatment genetic tests. However, the universal application of genetics in treatment guidance is still a long way off. This review will highlight important pharmacogenomic discoveries which have been facilitated by the human genome project and other milestone projects such as the International HapMap and 1000 genomes, and by the continued development of genotyping and sequencing technologies, including rapid point of care pre-treatment genetic testing. However, there are still many challenges to implementation for the many other reported biomarkers which continue to languish within the discovery phase. As technology advances over the next 10 years, and the costs fall, the field will see larger genetic data sets, including affordable whole genome sequences, which will, it is hoped, improve patient outcomes through better diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.

  3. [Fixed appliances current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droschl, H; Eskici, A; Bantleon, H P; Muchitsch, A P

    1989-11-01

    Recent advances in fixed appliances are reviewed and discussed. These include cosmetically more appealing brackets (ceramic, lingual); new wires (nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloys); new biomechanical approaches (accurate computation of forces and torques according to Burstone resulting in the use of new mechanical concepts); experiences in the treatment of transplanted teeth made in the past 15 years; new approaches to the orthodontic finish (implementation of Andrews' "six keys to normal occlusion" with straight wires, accurate positioning of brackets, and gnathological positioners). Cases will be demonstrated.

  4. State of the Art of Mechanical Circulatory Support

    OpenAIRE

    Mallidi, Hari R.; Anand, Jatin; Cohn, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support of the failing heart has become an important means of treating end-stage heart disease. This rapidly growing therapeutic field has produced impressive clinical outcomes and has great potential to help thousands of otherwise terminal patients worldwide. In this review, we examine the state of the art of mechanical circulatory support: current practice, totally implantable systems of the future, evolving biventricular support mechanisms, the potential for myocardi...

  5. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  6. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  7. Chyluria: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttilla, Andrea; Beltrami, Paolo; Bettin, Laura; Galantini, Andrea; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2017-03-27

    Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance. This communication is caused by the obstruction of lymphatic drainage proximal to intestinal lacteals, resulting in dilatation of distal lymphatics and the eventual rupture of lymphatic vessels into the urinary collecting system.This condition, if left untreated, leads to significant morbidity because of hematochyluria, recurrent renal colic, nutritional problems due to protein losses and immunosuppression resulting from lymphocyturia.In this review, we summarize the state of the art of this condition and the newest treatments available.

  8. Visual systems - The state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrock, David

    State-of-the-art, computer-generated image simulator visual systems typically encompass a data base which generates the model of the operating environment, an image generator, and a display system suitable for the applications envisaged. Two basic approaches to such systems are discernible: those employing hybrid raster/calligraphy and those using raster/continuous tone. Attention is presently given to such capabilities and elements of visual displays as texture effects, transparencies, fade level-of-detail management, animation effects, and image generator functions for daylight and night/dusk conditions, as well as prospective developments in this field.

  9. Analyst workbenches state of the art report

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, R

    1987-01-01

    Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can

  10. Solar sail technology-A state of the art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Sperber, Evan; Eke, Fidelis

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current state of the art of solar sail technology is reviewed. Solar sail research is quite broad and multi-disciplinary; this paper focuses mainly on areas such as solar sail dynamics, attitude control, design and deployment, and mission and trajectory analysis. Special attention is given to solar radiation pressure force modeling and attitude dynamics. Some basics of solar sailing which would be very useful for a new investigator in the area are also presented. Technological difficulties and current challenges in solar sail system design are identified, and possible ideas for future research in the field are also discussed.

  11. Cardiac tissue engineering: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Marc N; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2014-01-17

    The engineering of 3-dimensional (3D) heart muscles has undergone exciting progress for the past decade. Profound advances in human stem cell biology and technology, tissue engineering and material sciences, as well as prevascularization and in vitro assay technologies make the first clinical application of engineered cardiac tissues a realistic option and predict that cardiac tissue engineering techniques will find widespread use in the preclinical research and drug development in the near future. Tasks that need to be solved for this purpose include standardization of human myocyte production protocols, establishment of simple methods for the in vitro vascularization of 3D constructs and better maturation of myocytes, and, finally, thorough definition of the predictive value of these methods for preclinical safety pharmacology. The present article gives an overview of the present state of the art, bottlenecks, and perspectives of cardiac tissue engineering for cardiac repair and in vitro testing.

  12. A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures with emphasis towards the applications in aeronautics and space is presented. It is felt that since this technology area is growing at such a rapid pace in many different disciplines, it is not feasible to cover all of the current research but only the relevant work as relates to aeronautics and space. Research in smart actuation materials, smart sensors, and control of smart/intelligent structures is covered. In smart actuation materials, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, shape memory, electrorheological, and electrostrictive materials are covered. For sensory materials, fiber optics, dielectric loss, and piezoelectric sensors are examined. Applications of embedded sensors and smart sensors are discussed.

  13. Wind power forecasting : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    uncertainty in wind power and to more efficiently operate power systems with large wind power penetrations. Moreover, in a market environment, the wind power contribution to the generation portofolio becomes important in determining the daily and hourly prices, as variations in the estimated wind power will influence the clearing prices for both energy and operating reserves. With the increasing penetration of wind power, WPF is quickly becoming an important topic for the electric power industry. System operators (SOs), generating companies (GENCOs), and regulators all support efforts to develop better, more reliable and accurate forecasting models. Wind farm owners and operators also benefit from better wind power prediction to support competitive participation in electricity markets against more stable and dispatchable energy sources. In general, WPF can be used for a number of purposes, such as: generation and transmission maintenance planning, determination of operating reserve requirements, unit commitment, economic dispatch, energy storage optimization (e.g., pumped hydro storage), and energy trading. The objective of this report is to review and analyze state-of-the-art WPF models and their application to power systems operations. We first give a detailed description of the methodologies underlying state-of-the-art WPF models. We then look at how WPF can be integrated into power system operations, with specific focus on the unit commitment problem.

  14. Quality attributes of LED lighting. Current state-of-the-art , advantages, problem areas and potential for development - Final report; Qualitaetsmerkmale der LED-Beleuchtung. Aktueller Stand der Technik, Vorteile, Problempunkte und Entwicklungspotential - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, S.

    2009-09-15

    The present report describes the state-of-the-art of LED technology for room lighting in June 2009, based on internet research, expert interviews as well as a workshop with experts. Of the 20 attributes determined, three key quality characteristics crucial for the breakthrough of LED technology were identified: (i) Energy efficiency: with values of 50 - 70 lumen/watt when in usage, current LED lamps on the market are comparable to energy saving lamps. Experts expect the luminous efficiency to double within the next five years. Declaration is often poor: instead of efficiency in real-life usage many producers declare unrealistic lab measurement results; sometimes even fantasy values are declared. (ii) Light quality: Today's good LEDs reach colour rendering attributes which are comparable to those of halogen lamps and usually better than the CFL's (colour rendering index 80 to 90, with a continuous light spectrum). (iii) Lamp life: A lamp life of up to 50,000 hours can only be reached if the heat dissipation is secured and if the Control gears quality keeps up with the LED's life time. According to the experts, many of today's LED products on the market don't meet these two requirements. Strong uncertainty is caused by inconsistent declaration and partly missing standardisation. With the ANSI standard, the US is ahead of Europe in this matter. Today LED lighting is attractive and economic where its unique advantages can be applied: directional light, very long life-span, no heat in the luminous flux, UV-free light, colour modulation, dimming with little losses. Interesting applications today include: (i) Professional field: operating time > 3,000 hours per year, e.g. shop illumination or downlights in a hall (hotel, administration, etc.). Further spotlights in museums, working place table light fixtures, hybrid solutions (e.g. indirect fluorescent lamp, direct LED). (ii) Domestic field: working place and reading lamps (low luminance, no heat

  15. State of the Art SRF Cavity Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Lilje, L

    2004-01-01

    The paper will review superconducting RF cavity performance for β=1 cavities used in both linear and circular accelerators. These superconducting cavities are used in two kinds of applications: High current storage rings and efficient high duty cycle linacs. In recent years the performance of those cavities has been improving steadily. High accelerating gradients have been achieved using advanced surface preparation techniques like electropolishing and surface cleaning methods like high pressure water rinsing. High intensity beams can be handled with advanced higher-order-mode damping schemes.

  16. A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Keko, H.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    This document contains a summary of the main findings from our full report entitled 'Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009'. The aims of this document are to provide guidelines and a quick overview of the current state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting (WPF) and to point out lines of research in the future development of forecasting systems.

  17. Imaging Acute Appendicitis: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to present the state of the art in imaging tests for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Relevant publications regarding performance and advantages/disadvantages of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis in different clinical situations were reviewed. Articles were extracted from a computerized database (MEDLINE with the following activated limits: Humans, English, core clinical journals, and published in the last five years. Reference lists of relevant studies were checked manually to identify additional, related articles. Ultrasound (US examination should be the first imaging test performed, particularly among the pediatric and young adult populations, who represent the main targets for appendicitis, as well as in pregnant patients. A positive US examination for appendicitis or an alternative diagnosis of possible gastrointestinal or urological origin, or a negative US, either showing a normal appendix or presenting low clinical suspicion of appendicitis, should lead to a final diagnosis. A negative or indeterminate examination with a strong clinical suspicion of appendicitis should be followed by a computed tomography (CT scan or alternatively, a magnetic resonanace imaging (MRI scan in a pregnant patient. A second US examination in a patient with persistent symptoms, especially if the first one was performed by a less experienced imaging professional, is a valid alternative to a CT.

  18. State of the art: Oral antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbel, Paul A; Myat, Aung; Kubica, Jacek; Tantry, Udaya S

    2016-01-01

    Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are central to the propagation of coronary thrombosis following rupture, fissure, or erosion of an atherosclerotic plaque. This chain of deleterious events underlies the pathophysiological process leading to an acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, oral antiplatelet therapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for the management of acute coronary syndrome and the prevention of ischemic complications associated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Landmark trials have established aspirin, and the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin, as key therapeutic agents in the context of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention. Dual antiplatelet therapy has been the guideline-mandated standard of care in acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite the proven efficacy of dual antiplatelet therapy, adverse ischemic events continue to occur and this has stimulated the development of novel, more potent antiplatelet agents. We focus this state-of-the-art review on the most recent advances in oral antiplatelet therapy, treading the tightrope of potency versus bleeding risk, the quest to determine the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy and future of personalized antiplatelet therapy.

  19. Políticas públicas vigentes de salud mental en Suramérica: un estado del arte / Current public policies on mental health in South America: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Henao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: presentar un Estado del Arte sobre el contenido de las políticas públicas de salud mental vigentes en Suramérica, con el propósito de establecer un panorama de los alcances y limitaciones de la normatividad sobre el tema en la región. Metodología: Estudio documental de enfoque hermenéutico mediante el cual se interpretó y explicó las relaciones entre los contenidos de las políticas públicas de salud mental y el contexto de los países suramericanos. Para el análisis se incluyeron documentos normativos de los países, tales como Acuerdos, Resoluciones y Leyes. Igualmente, se utilizaron publicaciones académicas en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 a 2013, que posibilitaron la descripción y el análisis del tema de investigación. Resultados: países como Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Uruguay cuentan con disposiciones normativas vigentes (acuerdos, resoluciones y leyes que sustentan el contenido de las políticas públicas en materia de salud mental. Por otra parte, Chile, Bolivia y Venezuela fundamentan sus políticas en mecanismos administrativos (programas, planes y proyectos sin apelar a la norma de obligatorio cumplimiento. Conclusión: la noción de salud mental que subyace a cada Política Nacional hace énfasis en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, desde una concepción positiva del bienestar que resalta el papel activo de los sujetos y poblaciones, las capacidades y libertades disponibles; sin embargo, los recursos, estrategias, acciones y metas están orientados sobre la base de un modelo biomédico que prioriza el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de trastornos mentales. / Abstract Objective: to present the state of the art regarding the content of the public mental health policies currently in force in South America in order to establish an overview of the scope and limitations of the regulations on the subject in the region. Methodology: a documentary study

  20. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in greenho

  1. State of the art: therapeutic controversies in severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M A; Camargo, C A; Rowe, B H; Silverman, R A

    2000-07-01

    This is a transcript of the 1999 SAEM State-of-the-Art session on "Therapeutic Controversies in Severe Acute Asthma," presented at the 1999 SAEM annual meeting in Boston. The aim of this session was to address some of the current controversies in the management of acute asthma exacerbations, a major issue in emergency medicine. Despite many recent advances in asthma management, morbidity and mortality remain high. While many of us have strong feelings on how asthma patients should be treated, many of our assertions are not based on good science, and there are numerous areas of controversy. This discussion focuses on the controversy over beta agonist treatment for acute asthma, the physiology of corticosteroids in asthma, and the emergency use of leukotriene-modifying agents.

  2. State of the Art: Signature Biometrics Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourddine Guersi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of three estimation algorithms: Expectation Maximization (EM, Greedy EM Algorithm (GEM and Figueiredo-Jain Algorithm (FJ - based on the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs for signature biometrics verification. The simulation results have shown significant performance achievements. The test performance of EER=5.49 % for "EM", EER=5.04 % for "GEM" and EER=5.00 % for "FJ", shows that the behavioral information scheme of signature biometrics is robust and has a discriminating power, which can be explored for identity authentication.

  3. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    . Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

  4. Regenerative endodontics: A state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Bansal; Rajesh Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex) and apexification (for immature root apex), or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp t...

  5. Processing emotional body expressions: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, Violeta; Iancu, Sorina

    2016-10-01

    Processing emotional body expressions has become recently an important topic in affective and social neuroscience along with the investigation of facial expressions. The objective of the study is to review the literature on emotional body expressions in order to discuss the current state of knowledge on this topic and identify directions for future research. The following electronic databases were searched: PsychINFO, Ebsco, ERIC, ProQuest, Sagepub, and SCOPUS using terms such as "body," "bodily expression," "body perception," "emotions," "posture," "body recognition" and combinations of them. The synthesis revealed several research questions that were addressed in neuroimaging, electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Among them, one important question targeted the neural mechanisms of emotional processing of body expressions to specific subsections regarding the time course for the integration of emotional signals from face and body, as well as the role of context in the perception of emotional signals. Processing bodily expression of emotion is similar to processing facial expressions, and the holistic processing is extended to the whole person. The current state-of-the-art in processing emotional body expressions may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of social behavior. At the end of the review, suggestions for future research directions are presented.

  6. Micro- and Nano-Air Vehicles: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Petricca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano air vehicles are defined as “extremely small and ultra-lightweight air vehicle systems” with a maximum wingspan length of 15 cm and a weight less than 20 grams. Here, we provide a review of the current state of the art and identify the challenges of design and fabrication. Different configurations are evaluated, such as fixed wings, rotary wings, and flapping wings. The main advantages and drawbacks for each typology are identified and discussed. Special attention is given to rotary-wing vehicles (helicopter concept; including a review of their main structures, such as the airframe, energy storage, controls, and communications systems. In addition, a review of relevant sensors is also included. Examples of existing and future systems are also included. Micro- and nano-vehicles with rotary wings and rechargeable batteries are dominating. The flight times of current systems are typically around 1 hour or less due to the limited energy storage capabilities of the used rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells and ultra capacitors are promising alternative energy supply technologies for the future. Technology improvements, mainly based on micro- and nanotechnologies, are expected to continue in an evolutionary way to improve the capabilities of future micro- and nano air vehicles, giving improved flight times and payload capabilities.

  7. Pathway Analysis: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campos, Miguel A.; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Pathway analysis is a set of widely used tools for research in life sciences intended to give meaning to high-throughput biological data. The methodology of these tools settles in the gathering and usage of knowledge that comprise biomolecular functioning, coupled with statistical testing and other algorithms. Despite their wide employment, pathway analysis foundations and overall background may not be fully understood, leading to misinterpretation of analysis results. This review attempts to comprise the fundamental knowledge to take into consideration when using pathway analysis as a hypothesis generation tool. We discuss the key elements that are part of these methodologies, their capabilities and current deficiencies. We also present an overview of current and all-time popular methods, highlighting different classes across them. In doing so, we show the exploding diversity of methods that pathway analysis encompasses, point out commonly overlooked caveats, and direct attention to a potential new class of methods that attempt to zoom the analysis scope to the sample scale. PMID:26733877

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  9. State of the art of ICD programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, M H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Versteeg, H

    2014-01-01

    The lifesaving benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy are more and more weighted against possible harm (e.g. unnecessary device therapy, procedural complications, device malfunction etc.) which might have adverse effects on patients' perceived health status and quality...... of life. Hence, there has been an increasing interest in the optimisation of ICD programming to prevent inappropriate and appropriate but unnecessary device therapy. The purpose of the current report is to give an overview of research into the optimisation of ICD programming and present the design......, were eligible to participate. In all patients a prolonged detection of 60/80 intervals was programmed. The primary objective of the study is to investigate whether enhanced programming to further reduce ICD therapies is safe. The secondary objective is to examine the impact of enhanced programming...

  10. Regenerative endodontics: a state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rashmi; Bansal, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex) and apexification (for immature root apex), or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  11. Regenerative endodontics: A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex and apexification (for immature root apex, or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  12. Daily hemodialysis 2006. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierratos, A; McFarlane, P; Chan, C T; Kwok, S; Nesrallah, G

    2006-06-01

    The need to improve the dialysis outcomes, the negative results from the HEMO and ADEMEX studies as well reports of clinical benefits have rekindled the interest in daily hemodialysis. Although no randomized controlled studies have been published, a large number of manuscripts have described significant benefits from both the short or nocturnal forms of daily (quotidian) dialysis or hemo(dia)filtration. They include improved quality of life, hemodynamic stability, blood pressure control with minimal number of medications, anemia control, regression of cardiac hypertrophy and improved nutrition. Furthermore, quotidian nocturnal hemodialysis provides higher dialysis dose, and has been described to improve endothelial as well as endothelial progenitor cell function, heart rate variability, sleep and phosphate control while it offers unrestricted diet. Several studies have pointed to a lower overall cost and improved cost utility when treating patients using quotidian hemodialysis at home. The obstacles to widespread use are the reimbursement structure in most countries, the willingness and ability of the patients to do home hemodialysis and the availability of user-friendly machines. A prospective randomized controlled study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services (CMS) currently underway will be pivotal in confirming these benefits and convincing the stakeholders to promote the use of daily hemodialysis.

  13. Autoimmune prostatitis: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrich, R D; Maccioni, M; Riera, C M; Rivero, V E

    2007-01-01

    The prostate is one of the main male sex accessory glands and the target of many pathological conditions affecting men of all ages. Pathological conditions of the prostate gland range from infections, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) of a still unknown aetiology to benign hyperplasia and cancer. CP/CPPS is one of the most prevalent diseases in the urologic clinic and affects men younger than 50 years old. A significant advance in the understanding of CP/CPPS was made when an autoimmune response against prostate antigens was revealed in a considerable number of patients. During the last 30 years, extensive work has been done regarding the development and characterization of different rodent models of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). It has been demonstrated that tolerance to prostate antigens can be disrupted in some strains of rats and mice and cellular and humoral responses to prostate antigens are elicited. A Th1 pattern has been described and the cellular response seems to be the major pathogenic mechanism involved. Immune cells infiltrate the gland and induce prostate lesions. The genetic background and hormonal imbalance are factors that could contribute to the onset of the disease in susceptible young males. Moreover, spontaneous autoimmune prostatitis could also occur with advanced age in susceptible strains. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding rodent models of EAP and the immunological alterations present in CP/CPPS patients. We also discuss the reliability of these experimental approaches as genuine tools for the study of human disease.

  14. [Surgical robotics, short state of the art and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravez, P

    2003-11-01

    State-of-the-art robotized systems developed for surgery are either remotely controlled manipulators that duplicate gestures made by the surgeon (endoscopic surgery applications), or automated robots that execute trajectories defined relatively to pre-operative medical imaging (neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery). This generation of systems primarily applies existing robotics technologies (the remote handling systems and the so-called "industrial robots") to current surgical practices. It has contributed to validate the huge potential of surgical robotics, but it suffers from several drawbacks, mainly high costs, excessive dimensions and some lack of user-friendliness. Nevertheless, technological progress let us anticipate the appearance in the near future of miniaturised surgical robots able to assist the gesture of the surgeon and to enhance his perception of the operation at hand. Due to many in-the-body articulated links, these systems will have the capability to perform complex minimally invasive gestures without obstructing the operating theatre. They will also combine the facility of manual piloting with the accuracy and increased safety of computer control, guiding the gestures of the human without offending to his freedom of action. Lastly, they will allow the surgeon to feel the mechanical properties of the tissues he is operating through a genuine "remote palpation" function. Most probably, such technological evolutions will lead the way to redesigned surgical procedures taking place inside new operating rooms featuring a better integration of all equipments and favouring cooperative work from multidisciplinary and sometimes geographically distributed medical staff.

  15. STATE OF THE ART: INTEGRATING SERVICES FOR MEGA EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. B. Garay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state of the art of a simplified model for integration of services in mega events. The project context, which was financed by the National Research Council – CNPq, is divided into six major areas or functional groups: Urban Mobility, Tourism, Airports, Security, Energy and Telecommunications. The proposal is described in layers, as an infrastructure model of integration and services evaluation, describing its main layers and interaction processes. The proposal described in this paper is restricted to the telecommunication subproject, however, in the modeling of the scenario for the study case, it was necessary to considerate requirements and variables that are common to all subprojects. In the specification process of these requirements, we noticed important processes that interact with some sectors in the city of São Paulo, however, in the mean time, we noticed some failures regarding the integration and collaboration performed by administrators elements of stadiums as main focus in the mega event and part of our case study. Currently, the proposal is in its first version as open software for the evaluation of the services quality and the mega event infrastructure through the use of performance indicators.

  16. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteijn, J M; White, B C; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; McCarron, P A; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment in medicine has been a valuable tool in the regulation of medicines since the 1960s. Benefit-risk assessment takes place in multiple stages during a medicine's life-cycle and can be conducted in a variety of ways, using methods ranging from qualitative to quantitative. Each benefit-risk assessment method is subject to its own specific strengths and limitations. Despite its widespread and long-time use, benefit-risk assessment in medicine is subject to debate and suffers from a number of limitations and is currently still under development. This state of the art review paper will discuss the various aspects and approaches to benefit-risk assessment in medicine in a chronological pathway. The review will discuss all types of benefit-risk assessment a medicinal product will undergo during its lifecycle, from Phase I clinical trials to post-marketing surveillance and health technology assessment for inclusion in public formularies. The benefit-risk profile of a drug is dynamic and differs for different indications and patient groups. In the end of this review we conclude benefit-risk analysis in medicine is a developed practice that is subject to continuous improvement and modernisation. Improvement not only in methodology, but also in cooperation between organizations can improve benefit-risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabricating biomedical origami: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meredith; Chen, Yue; Hovet, Sierra; Xu, Sheng; Wood, Bradford; Ren, Hongliang; Tokuda, Junichi; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-03-04

    Origami-based biomedical device design is an emerging technology due to its ability to be deployed from a minimal foldable pattern to a larger volume. This paper aims to review state-of-the-art origami structures applied in the medical device field. Publications and reports of origami structure related to medical device design from the past 10 years are reviewed and categorized according to engineering specifications, including the application field, fabrication material, size/volume, deployment method, manufacturability, and advantages. This paper presents an overview of the biomedical applications of devices based on origami structures, including disposable sterilization covers, cardiac catheterization, stent grafts, encapsulation and microsurgery, gastrointestinal microsurgery, laparoscopic surgical grippers, microgrippers, microfluidic devices, and drug delivery. Challenges in terms of materials and fabrication, assembly, modeling and computation design, and clinical adoptability are discussed at the end of this paper to provide guidance for future origami-based design in the medical device field. Concepts from origami can be used to design and develop novel medical devices. Origami-based medical device design is currently progressing, with researchers improving design methods, materials, fabrication techniques, and folding efficiency.

  18. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  19. State of the art undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    1998-01-01

    Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem......Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem...

  20. Patient-centric healthcare supply chains in sub-Saharan Africa : state of the art and possible implications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Overview \\ud This paper addresses the following questions: \\ud \\ud 1. What is the current State of the Art in terms of research into patient-centric healthcare supply chains? \\ud 2. Based on the State of the Art and thought leadership in this area, what are some possible implications for the future in terms of drug product design, drug supply chain, ICT enablement and business models in the context of \\ud sub-Saharan Africa?

  1. The LIFE Laser Design in Context: A Comparison to the State-of-the-Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R J; Bayramian, A J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-03-21

    The current point design for the LIFE laser leverages decades of solid-state laser development in order to achieve the performance and attributes required for inertial fusion energy. This document provides a brief comparison of the LIFE laser point design to other state-of-the-art solid-state lasers. Table I compares the attributes of the current LIFE laser point design to other systems. the state-of-the-art for single-shot performance at fusion-relevant beamline energies is exemplified by performance observed on the National Ignition Facility. The state-of-the-art for high average power is exemplified by the Northrup Grumman JHPSSL laser. Several items in Table I deal with the laser efficiency; a more detailed discussion of efficiency can be found in reference 5. The electrical-to-optical efficiency of the LIFE design exceeds that of reference 4 due to the availability of higher efficiency laser diode pumps (70% vs. {approx}50% used in reference 4). LIFE diode pumps are discussed in greater detail in reference 6. The 'beam steering' state of the art is represented by the deflection device that will be used in the LIFE laser, not a laser system. Inspection of Table I shows that most LIFE laser attributes have already been experimentally demonstrated. The two cases where the LIFE design is somewhat better than prior experimental work do not involve the development of new concepts: beamline power is increased simply by increasing aperture (as demonstrated by the power/aperture comparison in Table I), and efficiency increases are achieved by employing state-of-the-art diode pumps. In conclusion, the attributes anticipated for the LIFE laser are consistent with the demonstrated performance of existing solid-state lasers.

  2. Random Vibrations: Assessment of the State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, T.L.

    1999-02-23

    Random vibration is the phenomenon wherein random excitation applied to a mechanical system induces random response. We summarize the state of the art in random vibration analysis and testing, commenting on history, linear and nonlinear analysis, the analysis of large-scale systems, and probabilistic structural testing.

  3. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  4. State of the art rapport "verkeersstroommodellen". Deel III: het basisdiagram.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1977-01-01

    In the third part of the state of the art report "traffic flow models" the basic diagram is discussed. It is a representation of the relation which consists in balance between intensity, density and average speed. Balance is considered in such a way that the magnitudes are constant for some time. A

  5. State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    Mossink, W. (2004). State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 13-15). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.hand

  6. State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2004). State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 16-18). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  7. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  8. Three State-of-the-Art Methods for Condition Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelius, H.T.; Meiler, P.P.; Maas, H.L.M.M.; Bonnier, B.; Grevink, J.S.; Kuilenburg, R.F. van

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different state-of-the-art condition monitoring techniques: first principles, feature extraction, and neural networks. The focus of the paper is on the application of the techniques, not on the underlying theory. Each technique is described briefly and is acco

  9. State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2004). State of the art in e-Learning toepassingen. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 16-18). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/212

  10. State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    Mossink, W. (2004). State of the art met betrekking tot het intellectueel eigendomsrecht. In: Van Geloven, M., Koper, R. & Van der Veen, J., E-learning trends (pp. 13-15). Utrecht, Stichting Digitale Universiteit.
    Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.hand

  11. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A state of the art incubator for studies of the biological effect of controlled atmosphere was designed. Working conditions are all combinations of: Temperature (5 to 40°C), Humidity (25 to 98%), oxygen (0.1 to 30%) and nitrogen (0.1 to 50%). Several points were given specific considerations...

  12. State of the art report on design for X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Andersen, Poul; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2009-01-01

    The present State of the Art report aims at defining and reviewing the curent state of the ship design process in the frame of a holistic approach, accounting for various objectives and constraints. The report addresses mainly the design of transportation carriers, though some covered aspects...

  13. PARA'04, State-of-the-art in scientific computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    This meeting in the series, the PARA'04 Workshop with the title ``State of the Art in Scientific Computing'', was held in Lyngby, Denmark, June 20-23, 2004. The PARA'04 Workshop was organized by Jack Dongarra from the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Kaj Madsen and J...

  14. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  15. State-of-the-Art bewaarsysteem tulpenbollen : Resultaten 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J.; Putten, van der K.; Dam, van M.F.N.; Sapounas, A.; Gulik, van der T.; Diepen, van G.

    2011-01-01

    Het project State-of-the-Art bewaren van tulpenbollen is in 2007 opgestart om te demonstreren wat er met behoud of verbetering van productkwaliteit, met de huidige stand der techniek aan energiebesparing mogelijk is. En om met aanvullend onderzoek op de deelnemende bloembollenbedrijven in de toekoms

  16. State-of-the-art in Heterogeneous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Brodtkorb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Node level heterogeneous architectures have become attractive during the last decade for several reasons: compared to traditional symmetric CPUs, they offer high peak performance and are energy and/or cost efficient. With the increase of fine-grained parallelism in high-performance computing, as well as the introduction of parallelism in workstations, there is an acute need for a good overview and understanding of these architectures. We give an overview of the state-of-the-art in heterogeneous computing, focusing on three commonly found architectures: the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture, graphics processing units (GPUs, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. We present a review of hardware, available software tools, and an overview of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the architectures, and give our view on the future of heterogeneous computing.

  17. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla; Youssef Iraqi; Andrew Jones

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included th...

  18. [3D in laparoscopy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, W; Storz, P; Müller, S; Axt, S; Kirschniak, A

    2013-03-01

    High definition stereoscopic (3D) vision has been introduced into the operation theatre. This review exposes the optical and physiological background as well as the state of the art of 3D in laparoscopy. The distinguishing marks of 3D laparoscopes and monitors are listed and characteristics of stereoscopy, such as comfort zones and ghosting are explained. Suggestions for the practical use in the clinical routine should help to extract the best benefit possible from the new technology.

  19. Modelling and simulation SSM: latest state of the art technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jahajeeah, N

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available during filling stage Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness ? Shear rate history important factor in design and casting processes ? Viscosity decreases over time after applied shear rate ? Ideally... and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness Modelling and Simulation SSM Latest state of the art technology N Jahajeeah Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness BEHAVIOUR OF THIXOTROPIC...

  20. The state of the art in medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiklin, Harris

    2011-08-01

    This is a review of the state of the art in Medical Sociology. Three approaches are used. One is looking at the work of the pioneers. Another approach involves examining textbooks, books of reading, and handbooks. The third approach is reporting on the 50th anniversary of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. Special attention is given to the way medical sociologists examine issues in psychiatric diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Acute ischemic stroke treatment: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajan Ag; White, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and serious disability in the United States. Treatment of the acute ischemic stroke patient requires a multidisciplinary approach involving first-responders, emergency department personnel, neurologists, advanced imaging experts and endovascular specialists with neurosurgical support. Contemporary stroke treatment is a rapidly advancing field. New developments in pharmacologic and endovascular stroke therapy require thoughtful trial design and expeditious trial implementation to assess clinical outcomes. This manuscript reviews the state of the art in acute stroke therapy.

  2. State-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymers in additive manufacturing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have received a lot of attention in recent years for their use in multiple materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers. The aim of this review article is to analyze the technology of fiber-reinforced polymers and its implementation with additive...... manufacturing. This article reviews recent developments, ideas, and state-of-the-art technologies in this field. Moreover, it gives an overview of the materials currently available for fiber-reinforced material technology....

  3. State of the Art Review for Applying Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques to Portfolio Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Computational techniques have shown much promise in the field of Finance, owing to their ability to extract sense out of dauntingly complex systems. This paper reviews the most promising of these techniques, from traditional computational intelligence methods to their machine learning siblings, with particular view to their application in optimising the management of a portfolio of financial instruments. The current state of the art is assessed, and prospective further work is assessed and recommended

  4. Numerical radiative transfer with state-of-the-art iterative methods made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, J; Josselin, E; Glorian, J -M

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an on-line tool (rttools.irap.omp.eu) and its accompanying software ressources for the numerical solution of basic radiation transfer out of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). State-of-the-art stationary iterative methods such as Accelerated $\\Lambda$-Iteration and Gauss-Seidel schemes, using a short characteristics-based formal solver are used. We also comment on typical numerical experiments associated to the basic non-LTE radiation problem. These ressources are intended for the largest use and benefit, in support to more classical radiation transfer lectures usually given at the Master level.

  5. Generators for Wind Energy Conversion Systems: State of the Art and Coming Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amirat*

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS have become a focal point in the research of renewable energy sources. This paper provides then a comparative study of past and present generator technologies used in WECS. This study is based on an exhaustive review of the state of the art and on an effective comparison of the performances of the four main topologies that are permanent magnet generators, synchronous generators, induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators. The different generator-WECS schemes are compared on the basis of topology, cost, efficiency, power consumption and control complexity. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  6. Teaching PR Campaigns: The Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Vincent L.; Cameron, Glen T.

    1999-01-01

    Reports results from a national survey regarding courses on public-relations campaigns. Examines predominant pedagogical strategies and course-management text techniques used; intentions for the course; theory/research elements; the role of management skill and/or interpersonal dynamics in the student campaign both internally and externally, and…

  7. Current state of the art brachytherapy treatment planning dosimetry algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, P; Pantelis, E; Karaiskos, P

    2014-09-01

    Following literature contributions delineating the deficiencies introduced by the approximations of conventional brachytherapy dosimetry, different model-based dosimetry algorithms have been incorporated into commercial systems for (192)Ir brachytherapy treatment planning. The calculation settings of these algorithms are pre-configured according to criteria established by their developers for optimizing computation speed vs accuracy. Their clinical use is hence straightforward. A basic understanding of these algorithms and their limitations is essential, however, for commissioning; detecting differences from conventional algorithms; explaining their origin; assessing their impact; and maintaining global uniformity of clinical practice.

  8. Treatment of osteoporosis: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Irene; Schrager, Sarina; Nye, Ann Marie

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis can be treated with medications and lifestyle changes, including avoiding a sedentary lifestyle, alcohol, and smoking. We will identify medications that protect against hip fractures in addition to vertebral fractures, and explore new evidence of adverse effects and risks. Bisphosphonates are used as first-line treatment. We will discuss the latest osteoporosis medications, drug interactions, potential bone protective effects of other drug classes, and the evidence of exercise and kyphoplasty.

  9. The truth on current peritoneal dialysis: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, R T; Abrahams, A C; de Fijter, C W H; Betjes, M G H; Boer, W H; van Jaarsveld, B C; Konings, C J A M; Dekker, F W

    2017-06-01

    The share of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the spectrum of chronic dialysis has decreased markedly in the Netherlands in the last 15 years. Consequently, the knowledge of nephrologists and nursing staff on PD has declined leading to a negative spiral in which loss of experience resulted in loss of enthusiasm to offer PD to patients and also in less interest in the new PD developments. All these changes took place while the results of PD improved and patient survival was at least similar to that on haemodialysis. The aim of this review is first to give a summary of the principles and practice of patient and staff education and to describe the role of the medical contribution in decision-making. On this basis, the second aim is to update internist-nephrologists on a number of issues that have been underexposed in the past. Recent patient and technique survival data of PD patients is reviewed, and also the new insights into dialysis adequacy. The presence of residual renal function is the main determinant of patient survival together with prevention of overhydration. Urea and creatinine removal are not important at all when patients are still passing urine. Many early problems with PD are due to the peritoneal catheter and suggestions are made for improvement of its function. The prevention and management of infections is reviewed, and also the regular assessment of peritoneal function. Free water transport is a predictor of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), which should be assessed regularly. The pathogenesis of EPS, treatment and the decreasing incidence are discussed.

  10. Cardiovascular Bio-Engineering: Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Yarza, Teresa; Bataille, Isabelle; Letourneur, Didier

    2017-04-01

    Despite the introduction of new drugs and innovative devices contributing in the last years to improve patients' quality of life, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases remain high. There is an urgent need for addressing the underlying problem of the loss of cardiac or vascular tissues and therefore developing new therapies. Autologous vascular transplants are often limited by poor quality of donor sites and heart organ transplantation by donor shortage. Vascular and cardiac tissue engineering, whose aim is to repair or replace cardiovascular tissues by the use of cells, engineering and materials, as well as biochemical and physicochemical factors, appears in this scenario as a promising tool to repair the damaged hearts and vessels. We will present a general overview on the fundamentals in the area of cardiac and vascular tissue engineering as well as on the latest progresses and challenges.

  11. [Focal surgery in testis cancer: current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Giuseppe; Antonucci, Michele; Recupero, Salvatore Marco; Fiorillo, Alessandro; Vittori, Matteo; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Gulino, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Radical orchiectomy is the standard treatment of testicular neoplasia causing androgen insufficiency, infertility and psychological stress. Focal surgery allows the preservation of fertility, endocrine function and integrity of the genital anatomy, with preservation of the image of the male body. The EAU guidelines suggest focal surgery in case of synchronous bilateral tumors, metachronous contralateral tumours, tumour in solitary testis with normal pre-operative testosterone levels, when the tumor volume less than 30% of the testicular volume. There are two focal surgical techniques: tumorectomy and polar resection, followed by biopsies and frozen section of the resection bed. In case of benign tumours, the treatment is often curative. In case of malignancy, carcinoma in situ is frequently found in the surrounding tissues. Adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy is performed with a fair success rate. These adjuvant treatments reduce or delete the functional benefits achieved by conservative surgery. The evidence of the literature suggests that focal surgery is a valid option for all patients with testicular tumours that are not palpable and small sized, with the advantage of avoiding unnecessary radical orchiectomy in most cases. Therefore, the selection criteria for focal surgery are the mass size (less than 25 mm) and a safety distance of the tumor from the rete testis, in order to preserve testicular vascularization. A close follow-up with ultrasound, testicular markers and radiological examinations is mandatory in case of germ cell neoplasia treated conservatively in patients with indications for conservative surgery.

  12. Magnetocaloric refrigeration concepts: current state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2014-01-01

    Refrigeration devices based on the magnetocaloric effect have been prototyped in great numbers during the past decade. The search for the optimal combination of magnetic field source, regenerator geometry, magnetocaloric material composition and flow system design has resulted in a variety...... of designs and concepts. In this paper key parts constituting a magnetocaloric refrigeration device are reviewed in terms of how they have been implemented in actual machines. Some of the major design choices are then evaluated and, based on numerical modeling tools, recommendations on how to optimize...

  13. Clinical management of achalasia: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krill JT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Joseph T Krill, Rishi D Naik, Michael F Vaezi Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Center for Swallowing and Esophageal Disorders, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Achalasia is a primary disorder of esophageal motility. It classically presents with dysphagia to both solids and liquids but may be accompanied by regurgitation and chest pain. The gold standard for the diagnosis of achalasia is esophageal motility testing with manometry, which often reveals aperistalsis of the esophageal body and incomplete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. The diagnosis is aided by complimentary tests, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and contrast radiography. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is indicated to rule out mimickers of the disease known as “pseudoachalasia” (eg, malignancy. Endoscopic appearance of a dilated esophagus with retained food or saliva and a puckered lower esophageal sphincter should raise suspicion for achalasia. Additionally, barium esophagography may reveal a dilated esophagus with a distal tapering giving it a “bird’s beak” appearance. Multiple therapeutic modalities aid in the management of achalasia, the decision of which depends on operative risk factors. Conventional treatments include medical therapy, botulinum toxin injection, pneumatic dilation, and Heller myotomy. The last two are defined as the most definitive treatment options. New emerging therapies include peroral endoscopic myotomy, placement of self-expanding metallic stents, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Keywords: achalasia, pseudoachalasia, pneumatic dilation, Heller myotomy, botulinum toxin injection, peroral endoscopic myotomy

  14. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mohammad-Ali; Vuddanda, Venkat; Parikh, Valay; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R

    2017-01-01

    The authors reviewed the seminal and more recent literature surrounding the major modalities for percutaneous left atrial appendage closure used in contemporary practice, with particular emphasis on safety and efficacy, technical challenges, and future developments. Along with the continued practice of surgical left atrial appendage closure, which has evolved substantially with the advent of clipping techniques, a number of percutaneous methods have been developed to close the left atrial appendage with endocardial, epicardial, and hybrid approaches. The last 18 months has seen the Food and Drug Administration approval of the WATCHMAN device for stroke prevention in the United States, the initiation of a randomized controlled trial to further examine the LARIAT device, and an increasing body of literature surrounding use of the AMPLATZER Amulet in Europe. Left atrial appendage closure is a promising alternative to systemic anticoagulation for stroke prevention in appropriate atrial fibrillation patients. The wealth of available data for the various modalities sheds light on the strengths and limitations of each, postprocedural complications and their management, and new areas for exploration. With a plethora of new devices on the horizon, it is a very exciting time in the field of 'appendage-ology' as we pursue new avenues to optimize care for atrial fibrillation patients.

  15. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Suryyani Deb; Kanjaksha Ghosh; Shrimati Dharmapal Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as sur...

  16. Management of venous ulcers: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marola, Silvia; Ferrarese, Alessia; Solej, Mario; Enrico, Stefano; Nano, Mario; Martino, Valter

    2016-09-01

    Venous ulceration is a complex and serious problem that affects 1-2% of the global elderly population (>65 years), and its incidence is constantly increasing. The population group with higher risk of development of venous ulceration is the elderly. These lesions have a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. Our aim was to analyze the state of the art, starting with the medical literature review. The evidence supports that managing chronic wounds with a multidisciplinary wound care team significantly increases wound healing and reduces the severity of wound-associated pain and the required daily wound treatments compared with persons who are not managed by such a team.

  17. STATE OF THE ART - MODERN SEQUENTIAL RULE MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Paliwal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is state of the art of existing sequential rule mining algorithms. Extracting sequential rule is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of sequential rule mining. We describe today’s approaches for sequential rule mining. From the broad variety of efficient algorithms that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the algorithms and analyze their performance based on both their run t ime performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated.

  18. State of The Art - Modern Sequential Rule Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Anjali Paliwal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is state of the art of existing sequential rule mining algorithms. Extracting sequential rule is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of sequential rule mining. We describe today’s approaches for sequential rule mining. From the broad variety of efficient algorithms that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the algorithms and analyze their performance based on both their run time performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated.

  19. State of the Art Priciples in Shoulder Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward R. Laskowski

    2003-01-01

    @@ The primary goal of shoulder rehabilitation is to restore optimal pain-free shoulder function. In general terms, shoulder rehabilitation involves control of pain and inflammation,early non-traumatic motion, muscle reactivation, strengthening of shoulder group muscles, and restoration of normal shoulder function within the kinetic-kinematic chain. Finally, sports and activity-specific rehabilitative exercise are essential to maximize function and return the patient to their prior sport or activity without deficit. This discussion will review recent research findings that have expanded our knowledge and understanding of shoulder function and which will serve as guidelines for a state-of-the-art shoulder rehabilitation program.

  20. Iodine chemistry at severe accidents. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in the field. APRI 5 report. Part I: Iodine chemistry at hypothetical severe accidents. A review of the state-of-the-art 2003. Part II: A comparison of our knowledge on iodine chemistry and fission products with the current models used in MAAP 4.0.5; Jodkemi under svaara haverier. En sammanstaellnig och vaerdering av kunskapslaeget inom omraadet. APRI 5 rapport. Del I: Jodkemi vid hypotetiska svaara haverier. En genomgaang av kunskapslaeget aar 2003. Del II: Jaemfoerelse av kunskapslaeget om jodkemi och fissionsprodukter med aktuella modeller i MAAP 4.0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov [Liljenzins data och kemikonsult, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The current report tries to summarize and analyze the state-of-the-art on Iodine chemistry relevant to the conditions expected during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This has made it necessary to compare a considerable amount of data, new as well as old, in order to try to find the reasons behind some changes in the expected chemical behaviour of Iodine. In a few cases this has been far from simple. Many numerical values are given in this report. However, me numbers given should not be used in a non-critical way because they are often deduced from measurements whose interpretation depends on various kinds of systematic differences and assumptions with regard to technique, 'known' constants, and models applied. The most important observation today is that one can no longer uncritically assume that iodine is only released and transported as cesium iodide. The considerable effect that control rod material (including other construction materials) can have on the way in which an accident develops and on its iodine chemistry is clearly seen from the results of the experiments performed within the PHEBUS FP project. The second part of the report evaluates new knowledge on Iodine chemistry and Iodine behaviour of importance in severe nuclear reactor accidents. Also some new information regarding the behaviour and chemistry of other fission products has been collected. In the light of this information, the current modelling of Iodine behaviour in the MAAP code version 4.0.5 has been investigated. No modelling errors have been found. However, some of the equations used to calculate the vapour pressure of the components in the AlC-alloy used in PWR control rods give questionable results. An error in the MAAP manual was found which should be corrected. Finally, some suggestions are given for future improvements in the modelling of severe accidents used in MAAP for both BWRs and PWRs.

  1. The State-of-the-art in Space Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Pontuschka, Maurício N.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the space robotics and associate space applications. An overview of the space era and the robotic space probes is presented to contextualize the space robotics in the space exploration scenario. Concepts, classification and key-questions associated with robotics for space applications are presented and discussed. Safety-critical aspects of the space robotics are discussed as well the human limitation to operate in the hostile space environment and long time duration missions. The paper also focuses on the state-of-the- art of robotics for the International Space Station EVA operations, for the planetary exploration such as the ongoing Mars exploration, Hayabusa rendezvous and landing in asteroids and the robotic probe Rosetta landed in a comet recently. The paper also includes a discussion of the applications of new concepts like the robonauts, the space tugs applications and robots for future planetary exploration.

  2. State of the art of robotic pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Luca; Daskalaki, Despoina; Wang, Xiaoying; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo

    2013-12-01

    More than a decade has passed since robotic technology was adopted for abdominal surgery, and virtually every gastrointestinal operation has since been shown to be feasible, safe, and reproducible using the robotic approach. Robotic pancreatic surgery had been left behind at the beginning, because they were technically challenging, requiring not only being very familiar with the robotic technology but also having a perfect knowledge of the anatomical variations, very frequent in this area. Nonetheless in the last few years many authors have approached the robot for pancreatic surgery with very promising results in terms of surgical and oncological outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the literature on robotic pancreatic surgery and to define the state of the art use of the robotic approach for pancreatic disease.

  3. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard M.; Eriksen, Bo;

    . Nevertheless, over the past 25 years organizational reality has changed dramatically with the advent of all sorts of communication systems, AI agents, information technology, knowledge management systems, and more. Therefore leading researchers in Organization Design who understand the situation have......The design of organizations has been a prime characteristic of management theory and practice over the past several decades. However, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design since the introduction of contingency theory in the 1970s...... undertaken to address the problem. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art will be organized in four sections: (1) Theoretical and Practical Issues, (2) Fit, Contingency and Configuration, (3) Design and Performance, and (4) The Dynamics of Adaptation and Change. The book will be a broad...

  4. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  5. Functionalized Polymers from Lignocellulosic Biomass: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Vermerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the realization that global sustainability depends on renewable sources of materials and energy, there has been an ever-increasing need to develop bio-based polymers that are able to replace petroleum-based polymers. Research in this field has shown strong potential in generating high-performance functionalized polymers from plant biomass. With the anticipated large-scale production of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulosic polysaccharides will be abundantly available renewable feedstocks for biopolymers and biocomposites with physico-chemical properties that match or exceed those of petroleum-based compounds. This review examines the state of the art regarding advances and challenges in synthesis and applications of specialty polymers and composites derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, ending with a brief assessment of genetic modification as a route to tailor crop plants for specific applications.

  6. [State of the art diagnostic criteria of severe periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, X Y

    2017-02-09

    Periodontitis could be categorized as mild, moderate, and severe according to the severity of the disease. This categorizing system could also be used together with other classification systems. The present article introduced the status about the case definition of severe periodontitis, including the standard of case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the consensus report on the definition of periodontitis case for use in risk factor research by Europe workshop. A consensus on the state of the art definition of severe periodontitis for use in clinical work was gained base on the expertise of Chinese Society of Periodontology, Chinese Association of Stomatology. The background of this consensus and the significance of the criteria for the case definition were discussed.

  7. Face Expression Recognition and Analysis: The State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Bettadapura, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    The automatic recognition of facial expressions has been an active research topic since the early nineties. There have been several advances in the past few years in terms of face detection and tracking, feature extraction mechanisms and the techniques used for expression classification. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2001 till date. The paper presents a time-line view of the advances made in this field, the applications of automatic face expression recognizers, the characteristics of an ideal system, the databases that have been used and the advances made in terms of their standardization and a detailed summary of the state of the art. The paper also discusses facial parameterization using FACS Action Units (AUs) and MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) and the recent advances in face detection, tracking and feature extraction methods. Notes have also been presented on emotions, expressions and facial features, discussion on the six prototypic expressions and the recent studies on e...

  8. A State of the Art Survey of Fraud Detection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ulrich; Vayssière, Julien; Bitz, Gunter

    With the introduction of IT to conductbusiness we accepted the loss of a human control step.For this reason, the introductionof newIT systemswas accompanied by the development of the authorization concept. But since, in reality, there is no such thing as 100 per cent security; auditors are commissioned to examine all transactions for misconduct. Since the data exists in digital form already, it makes sense to use computer-based processes to analyse it. Such processes allow the auditor to carry out extensive checks within an acceptable timeframe and with reasonable effort. Once the algorithm has been defined, it only takes sufficient computing power to evaluate larger quantities of data. This contribution presents the state of the art for IT-based data analysis processes that can be used to identify fraudulent activities.

  9. Cryocoolers: the state of the art and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2009-04-22

    Cryocooler performance and reliability are continually improving. Consequently, they are more and more frequently implemented by physicists in their laboratory experiments or for commercial and space applications. The five kinds of cryocoolers most commonly used to provide cryogenic temperatures for various applications are the Joule-Thomson, Brayton, Stirling, Gifford-McMahon, and pulse tube cryocoolers. Many advances in all types have occurred in the past 20 years that have allowed all of them to be used for a wide variety of applications. The present state of the art and on-going developments of these cryocoolers are reviewed in this paper. In the past five years new research on these cryocoolers has offered the potential to significantly improve them and make them suitable for even more applications. The general trend of this new cryocooler research is also presented.

  10. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  11. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  12. State-of-the-art imaging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Jamie; Gould, C Frank; Bonavia, Grant H; Wolfman, Darcy J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Modern medical imaging is intimately involved in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Ultrasound is primarily used to guide prostate biopsy to establish the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging uses a multiparametric approach, including anatomic and functional imaging sequences. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can be used for detection and localization of prostate cancer and to evaluate for disease recurrence. Computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging are primarily used to detect regional lymph node spread and distant metastases. Recent advancements in ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic imaging have the potential to change the way prostate cancer is diagnosed and managed. This article addresses the major imaging modalities involved in the evaluation of prostate cancer and updates the reader on the state of the art for each modality.

  13. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: State of the Art and Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades DNA has emerged as an exceptional molecular building block for nanoconstruction due to its predictable conformation and programmable intra- and intermolecular Watson–Crick base-pairing interactions. A variety of convenient design rules and reliable assembly methods have been developed to engineer DNA nanostructures of increasing complexity. The ability to create designer DNA architectures with accurate spatial control has allowed researchers to explore novel applications in many directions, such as directed material assembly, structural biology, biocatalysis, DNA computing, nanorobotics, disease diagnosis, and drug delivery. This Perspective discusses the state of the art in the field of structural DNA nanotechnology and presents some of the challenges and opportunities that exist in DNA-based molecular design and programming. PMID:25029570

  14. State-of-the-art analytical methods for assessing dynamic bonding soft matter materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Josef; Oehlenschlaeger, Kim K; Schmidt, Friedrich Georg; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Lederer, Albena

    2014-09-03

    Dynamic bonding materials are of high interest in a variety of fields in material science. The reversible nature of certain reaction classes is frequently employed for introducing key material properties such as the capability to self-heal. In addition to the synthetic effort required for designing such materials, their analysis is a highly complex--yet important--endeavor. Herein, we critically review the current state of the art analytical methods and their application in the context of reversible bonding on demand soft matter material characterization for an in-depth performance assessment. The main analytical focus lies on the characterization at the molecular level.

  15. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: state of the art in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Singh, Sanjay; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a painful shoulder disorder characterised by either single or multiple deposits in the rotator cuff tendon. Although the disease subsides spontaneously in most cases, a subpopulation of patients continue to complain of pain and shoulder dysfunction and the deposits do not show any signs of resolution. Although several treatment options have been proposed, clinical results are controversial and often the indication for a given therapy remains a matter of clinician choice. Herein, we report on the current state of the art in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

  16. The Merits of Cold Gas Micropropulsion in State-of-the-Art Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Köhler, J.; Stenmark, L.

    2002-01-01

    Cold gas micropropulsion is a sound choice for space missions that require extreme stabilisation, pointing precision or contamination-free operation. The use of forces in the micronewton range for spacecraft operations have been identified as a mission-critical item in several demanding space systems currently under development. The required micropropulsion systems are emerging, using various principles, e.g. field emission, colloid acceleration, solid combustion, and cold gas expulsion. Cold gas micropropulsion systems share merits with traditional cold gas systems in being of simple design, clean, safe, and robust. They do not generate net charge to the spacecraft, and typically operate on low-power. The necessary extreme miniaturisation of system parts furthermore works well to increasing other merits of these systems, making them truly competitive for state-of-the-art spacecraft: e.g. DARWIN, LISA, or high-performance nanosatellites. Silicon microsystems technology can be used for the cold gas micropropulsion system manufacture. Here, the decrease of dimensions is not restricted to fit standard components or tools. This allows for an astonishing mass reduction, e.g. 80 g for a unit comprising four independent nozzles, proportional valves, particle filters, control electronics, and housing. The minute size is also suitable for inclusion on nanosatellites. The dynamic range of a cold gas micropropulsion system can be quite wide (e.g. 1 μN - 10 mN) by using differently sized nozzles in parallel systems. Again, the microsystems technology makes this scheme possible without compromising the mass budget. The micropropulsion system benefits greatly from using a continuously proportional control on the thrust. In this system, the impulse is obtained as the difference of two opposite thrusters in the same unit. Here, the minimum impulse bit is reduced to virtually zero, while simultaneously avoiding any troubles emerging from extremely low flows at near-zero thrust

  17. Current terminology and diagnostic classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, J P

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the current terminology and classification schemes available for temporomandibular disorders. The origin of each term is presented, and the classification schemes that have been offered for temporomandibular disorders are briefly reviewed. Several important classifications are presented in more detail, with mention of advantages and disadvantages. Final recommendations are provided for future direction in the area of classification schemes.

  18. State of the art in robotic hepatobiliary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Luca; Daskalaki, Despoina; Fernandes, Eduardo; Damoli, Isacco; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo

    2013-12-01

    Hepatobiliary (HB) surgery is a challenging surgical subspecialty that requires highly specialized training and an adequate level of experience in order to be performed safely. As a result, minimally invasive HB surgery has been met with slower acceptance as compared to other subspecialties, with many surgeons in the field still reluctant to adopt the approach. Recently development of the robotic platform has provided a tool that can overcome many of the limitations of conventional laparoscopic HB surgery. Augmented dexterity enabled by the endowristed movements, software filtration of the surgeon's movements, and high-definition three-dimensional vision provided by the stereoscopic camera combine to allow steady and careful dissection of the liver hilum structures, as well as prompt and precise endosuturing in cases of intraoperative bleeding. These advantages have fostered many centers to widen the indications for minimally invasive HB and gastric surgery, with encouraging initial results. As one of the surgical groups that has performed the largest number of robot-assisted procedures worldwide, we provide a review of the state of the art in minimally invasive robot-assisted HB surgery.

  19. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weimerskirch

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  20. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimerskirch André

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  1. Modular robotics overview of the `state of the art`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development.

  2. State-of-the-art: low vision rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Samuel N

    2016-04-01

    The State of the Art is strong - to paraphrase another famous saying. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is today a recognized discipline in Ophthalmology, expanding and improving the quality of life of numerous visually impaired patients. It was not so about a century ago when it all started. Then, charity work aimed at helping blind children was all that LVR was. With advances in science, medicine and public health policy, help for the blind expanded its reach to all who were visually impaired. Devices and re-training of skills have been added to complement diagnosis and charity work. Modern LVR, which took hold in the last few decades, was propelled to new heights by relentless advances in basic and clinical sciences. Today we can provide significant and meaningful help to visually impaired patients in most situations. It could be as simple as a hand magnifier or as intricate as a retinal prosthesis. In many instances it seems to be just a beginning for things still to come.

  3. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery Mondays "State-of-the-art technologies for precision"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic plate drilled with high precision in CERN’s workshop. The diameter of each hole is only 0.02 millimetres, comparable to the diameter of a hair.Scientists have to be infinitely precise to study the infinitely small. Thus, even though the LHC is the world’s largest accelerator, it has to be aligned to within a tenth of a millimetre. The detectors weigh several thousand tonnes but are capable of detecting the tiniest vibration of the Earth. Join us at the next Discovery Monday to find out about CERN’s state-of-the-art tools for achieving the degrees of resolution required in the field of particle physics. Don’t miss this opportunity to discover the world of precision! The event will be conducted in FrenchCome along to the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 5 November from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDecouverte/

  5. Technology in precision viticulture: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matese A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Matese,1 Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro1,2 1Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots. Keywords: remote sensing, proximal sensing, variable-rate technology, robot 

  6. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica VLADOIU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses, and include course planning materials, evaluation tools, and thematic content, under a Creative Commons license. OCW is free and open, accessible to anyone, anywhere, and anytime via the Internet. The OCW initiative started in 2002, and it has been followed by many more programs that offer open access to courseware: Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative, Harvard Medical School's MyCourses, Webcast.Berkeley, Rice University's Connexions, OpenCourseWare Consortium, Open Education Resources Commons, and The Saylor Foundation's Free Education Initiative, along with other major open courseware projects worldwide. The prospects for futur development of open courseware are taken into consideration, while its potential to provide for both social construction of knowledge and for development of open educational models, and therefore for E-Learning 2.0 and Web 2.0 is emphasized.

  7. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  8. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  9. State of the art in CFD pre- and postprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vembe, B. E.; Hansen, E. W. M.

    1994-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a generic name for a wide range of numerical techniques that are used for obtaining solutions to the governing equations of thermo-fluid dynamics with or without chemical reactions. The report presents to the state of the art in pre- and postprocessing for CFD codes, both commercial and in-house SINTEF-NTH codes. The objectives of advanced CFD systems are discussed and the techniques for pre- and postprocessing are reviewed. The user friendliness of CFD codes, in general, are highlighted. A common definition of a user friendly computer program is one that is easy to learn, efficient, easy to remember, and satisfactory to use. Most of today's commercial CFD codes could benefit from an enhanced interface. It is desirable to develop standard data formats for input and output of CFD codes and direct-manipulation user interfaces are desirable in CFD applications. Largest potential for improvements of CFD codes and for users is in geometry modeling and grid generation.

  10. State of the Art in the Research of Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna-M. Edgar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years research in formal verification of hardware and software has reached important progresses in the development of methodologies and tools to meet the increasing complexity of systems. The explicit role of Formal Verification is to find errors and to improve the reliability on the accuracy of system design, which implies a challenge for software engineering of this century. The purpose of this research is to perform a systematic review of the literature to establish the state of the art of research in formal verification during the last 10 years and to identify the approaches, methods, techniques and methodologies used, as well as the intensity of those research activities. During the process it was found that research in this field has doubled since 2005, and that the mean value of researches conducted year after year remains the same and that prevail the application in control and interaction systems. Additionally it was found that, the case study is the most used method and that empirical research is the most applied type.

  11. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.

  12. State of the art of pressurized fluidized bed combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to clarify the development status of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) and to place in perspective the problems which are yet to be solved before commercialization of the concept is practical. This report, in essence, supersedes the interim report published in 1979, Assessment of the State of the Art of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems. A brief overview of the PFBC concept is included citing potential advantages and disadvantages relative to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) and conventional pulverized coal plants. A survey of existing and developing PFBC experimental facilities is presented in some detail which includes the major accomplishments at the respective facilities. Recent data on plant emissions, turbine/gas cleanup systems, and overall efficiency are provided. Findings of several design studies are also discussed. The results of recent gas turbine and cascade tests have been encouraging although the full assessment of the accomplishments have not been made. The delay in construction of the Grimethorpe plant causes further delay in proof-testing full-size, rotating turbomachinery. Several parameters are recommended for further assessment in design studies including: (1) effect of turbine life on cost of power; and (2) effect of reduced gas turbine inlet temperature and pressure on cost of power.

  13. State-of-the-art report on piping fracture mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report is an in-depth summary of the state-of-the-art in nuclear piping fracture mechanics. It represents the culmination of 20 years of work done primarily in the US, but also attempts to include important aspects from other international efforts. Although the focus of this work was for the nuclear industry, the technology is also applicable in many cases to fossil plants, petrochemical/refinery plants, and the oil and gas industry. In compiling this detailed summary report, all of the equations and details of the analysis procedure or experimental results are not necessarily included. Rather, the report describes the important aspects and limitations, tells the reader where he can go for further information, and more importantly, describes the accuracy of the models. Nevertheless, the report still contains over 150 equations and over 400 references. The main sections of this report describe: (1) the evolution of piping fracture mechanics history relative to the developments of the nuclear industry, (2) technical developments in stress analyses, material property aspects, and fracture mechanics analyses, (3) unresolved issues and technically evolving areas, and (4) a summary of conclusions of major developments to date.

  14. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  15. Comparative study of state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers for multigrasp prosthetic hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Segil, MS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A myoelectric controller should provide an intuitive and effective human-machine interface that deciphers user intent in real-time and is robust enough to operate in daily life. Many myoelectric control architectures have been developed, including pattern recognition systems, finite state machines, and more recently, postural control schemes. Here, we present a comparative study of two types of finite state machines and a postural control scheme using both virtual and physical assessment procedures with seven nondisabled subjects. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP was used in order to compare the effectiveness of the controllers during activities of daily living using a multigrasp artificial hand. Also, a virtual hand posture matching task was used to compare the controllers when reproducing six target postures. The performance when using the postural control scheme was significantly better (p < 0.05 than when using the finite state machines during the physical assessment when comparing within-subject averages using the SHAP percent difference metric. The virtual assessment results described significantly greater completion rates (97% and 99% for the finite state machines, but the movement time tended to be faster (2.7 s for the postural control scheme. Our results substantiate that postural control schemes rival other state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers.

  16. Myoelectric forearm prostheses: State of the art from a user-centered perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Peerdeman, MSc

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available User acceptance of myoelectric forearm prostheses is currently low. Awkward control, lack of feedback, and difficult training are cited as primary reasons. Recently, researchers have focused on exploiting the new possibilities offered by advancements in prosthetic technology. Alternatively, researchers could focus on prosthesis acceptance by developing functional requirements based on activities users are likely to perform. In this article, we describe the process of determining such requirements and then the application of these requirements to evaluating the state of the art in myoelectric forearm prosthesis research. As part of a needs assessment, a workshop was organized involving clinicians (representing end users, academics, and engineers. The resulting needs included an increased number of functions, lower reaction and execution times, and intuitiveness of both control and feedback systems. Reviewing the state of the art of research in the main prosthetic subsystems (electromyographic [EMG] sensing, control, and feedback showed that modern research prototypes only partly fulfill the requirements. We found that focus should be on validating EMG-sensing results with patients, improving simultaneous control of wrist movements and grasps, deriving optimal parameters for force and position feedback, and taking into account the psychophysical aspects of feedback, such as intensity perception and spatial acuity.

  17. Biopesticides: state of the art and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Coats, Joel; Duke, Stephen O; Gross, Aaron D

    2014-12-03

    The use of biopesticides and related alternative management products is increasing. New tools, including semiochemicals and plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs), as well as botanical and microbially derived chemicals, are playing an increasing role in pest management, along with plant and animal genetics, biological control, cultural methods, and newer synthetics. The goal of this Perspective is to highlight promising new biopesticide research and development (R&D), based upon recently published work and that presented in the American Chemical Society (ACS) symposium "Biopesticides: State of the Art and Future Opportunities," as well as the authors' own perspectives. Although the focus is on biopesticides, included in this Perspective is progress with products exhibiting similar characteristics, namely those naturally occurring or derived from natural products. These are target specific, of low toxicity to nontarget organisms, reduced in persistence in the environment, and potentially usable in organic agriculture. Progress is being made, illustrated by the number of biopesticides and related products in the registration pipeline, yet major commercial opportunities exist for new bioherbicides and bionematicides, in part occasioned by the emergence of weeds resistant to glyphosate and the phase-out of methyl bromide. The emergence of entrepreneurial start-up companies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fast track for biopesticides, and the availability of funding for registration-related R&D for biorational pesticides through the U.S. IR-4 program provide incentives for biopesticide development, but an expanded effort is warranted both in the United States and worldwide to support this relatively nascent industry.

  18. EEG artifact removal—state-of-the-art and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urigüen, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an extensive review on the artifact removal algorithms used to remove the main sources of interference encountered in the electroencephalogram (EEG), specifically ocular, muscular and cardiac artifacts. We first introduce background knowledge on the characteristics of EEG activity, of the artifacts and of the EEG measurement model. Then, we present algorithms commonly employed in the literature and describe their key features. Lastly, principally on the basis of the results provided by various researchers, but also supported by our own experience, we compare the state-of-the-art methods in terms of reported performance, and provide guidelines on how to choose a suitable artifact removal algorithm for a given scenario. With this review we have concluded that, without prior knowledge of the recorded EEG signal or the contaminants, the safest approach is to correct the measured EEG using independent component analysis—to be precise, an algorithm based on second-order statistics such as second-order blind identification (SOBI). Other effective alternatives include extended information maximization (InfoMax) and an adaptive mixture of independent component analyzers (AMICA), based on higher order statistics. All of these algorithms have proved particularly effective with simulations and, more importantly, with data collected in controlled recording conditions. Moreover, whenever prior knowledge is available, then a constrained form of the chosen method should be used in order to incorporate such additional information. Finally, since which algorithm is the best performing is highly dependent on the type of the EEG signal, the artifacts and the signal to contaminant ratio, we believe that the optimal method for removing artifacts from the EEG consists in combining more than one algorithm to correct the signal using multiple processing stages, even though this is an option largely unexplored by researchers in the area.

  19. Moving target defense:state of the art and characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-lin CAI; Bao-sheng WANG; Wei HU; Tian-zuo WANG

    2016-01-01

    Moving target defense (MTD) has emerged as one of the game-changing themes to alter the asymmetric situation between attacks and defenses in cyber-security. Numerous related works involving several facets of MTD have been published. However, comprehensive analyses and research on MTD are still absent. In this paper, we present a survey on MTD technologies to scientifi cally and systematically introduce, categorize, and summarize the existing research works in this fi eld. First, a new security model is introduced to describe the changes in the traditional defense paradigm and security model caused by the introduction of MTD. A function-and-movement model is provided to give a panoramic overview on different perspectives for understanding the existing MTD research works. Then a systematic interpretation of published literature is presented to describe the state of the art of the three main areas in the MTD fi eld, namely, MTD theory, MTD strategy, and MTD evaluation. Specifi cally, in the area of MTD strategy, the common characteristics shared by the MTD strategies to improve system security and effectiveness are identifi ed and extrapolated. Thereafter, the methods to implement these characteristics are concluded. Moreover, the MTD strategies are classifi ed into three types according to their specifi c goals, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of each type to create effective MTD strategies are then summarized, which are typically one or more of the aforementioned characteristics. Finally, we provide a number of observations for the future direction in this fi eld, which can be helpful for subsequent researchers.

  20. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  1. Deep Learning for Brain MRI Segmentation: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Galimzianova, Alfiia; Hoogi, Assaf; Rubin, Daniel L; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI is routine for many neurological diseases and conditions and relies on accurate segmentation of structures of interest. Deep learning-based segmentation approaches for brain MRI are gaining interest due to their self-learning and generalization ability over large amounts of data. As the deep learning architectures are becoming more mature, they gradually outperform previous state-of-the-art classical machine learning algorithms. This review aims to provide an overview of current deep learning-based segmentation approaches for quantitative brain MRI. First we review the current deep learning architectures used for segmentation of anatomical brain structures and brain lesions. Next, the performance, speed, and properties of deep learning approaches are summarized and discussed. Finally, we provide a critical assessment of the current state and identify likely future developments and trends.

  2. Fatigue crack growth under remote and local compression – a state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chahardehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need for accurate understanding of the fatigue crack growth behaviour in major engineering materials and components. With the move towards more complex, probabilistic assessments, the traditional ‘safe’ or conservative approach for prediction of fatigue crack growth rate may no longer be attractive. Current codes and standards tend to be ambiguous about the treatment of compressive stress cycles: on the one hand code guidance on fatigue crack initiation may be non-conservative, while assessment of crack propagation may be inconsistently conservative. Where codes are non-conservative they could lead to dangerous assessments. The current paper provides a critical review of state-of-the-art in literature and a study of current code implications.

  3. Nanoribbons: From fundamentals to state-of-the-art applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurcukardes, M.; Peeters, F. M.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Atomically thin nanoribbons (NRs) have been at the forefront of materials science and nanoelectronics in recent years. State-of-the-art research on nanoscale materials has revealed that electronic, magnetic, phononic, and optical properties may differ dramatically when their one-dimensional forms are synthesized. The present article aims to review the recent advances in synthesis techniques and theoretical studies on NRs. The structure of the review is organized as follows: After a brief introduction to low dimensional materials, we review different experimental techniques for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, theoretical investigations on width and edge-shape-dependent electronic and magnetic properties, functionalization effects, and quantum transport properties of GNRs are reviewed. We then devote time to the NRs of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family. First, various synthesis techniques, E-field-tunable electronic and magnetic properties, and edge-dependent thermoelectric performance of NRs of MoS2 and WS2 are discussed. Then, strongly anisotropic properties, growth-dependent morphology, and the weakly width-dependent bandgap of ReS2 NRs are summarized. Next we discuss TMDs having a T-phase morphology such as TiSe2 and stable single layer NRs of mono-chalcogenides. Strong edge-type dependence on characteristics of GaS NRs, width-dependent Seebeck coefficient of SnSe NRs, and experimental analysis on the stability of ZnSe NRs are reviewed. We then focus on the most recently emerging NRs belonging to the class of transition metal trichalcogenides which provide ultra-high electron mobility and highly anisotropic quasi-1D properties. In addition, width-, edge-shape-, and functionalization-dependent electronic and mechanical properties of blackphosphorus, a monoatomic anisotropic material, and studies on NRs of group IV elements (silicene, germanene, and stanene) are reviewed

  4. State of the art review and future directions in oil spill modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L

    2017-02-15

    A review of the state of the art in oil spill modeling, focused on the period from 2000 to present is provided. The review begins with an overview of the current structure of spill models and some lessons learned from model development and application and then provides guiding principles that govern the development of the current generation of spill models. A review of the basic structure of spill models, and new developments in specific transport and fate processes; including surface and subsurface transport, spreading, evaporation, dissolution, entrainment and oil droplet size distributions, emulsification, degradation, and sediment oil interaction are presented. The paper concludes with thoughts on future directions in the field with a primary focus on advancements in handling interactions between Lagrangian elements.

  5. Tuberculosis vaccines--state of the art, and novel approaches to vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Christopher; Walker, Barry; Bonavia, Aurelio

    2015-03-01

    The quest for a vaccine that could have a major impact in reducing the current global burden of TB disease in humans continues to be extremely challenging. Significant gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis and immunology of tuberculosis continue to undermine efforts to break new ground, and traditional approaches to vaccine development have thus far met with limited success. Existing and novel candidate vaccines are being assessed in the context of their ability to impact the various stages that culminate in disease transmission and an increase in the global burden of disease. Innovative methods of vaccine administration and delivery have provided a fresh stimulus to the search for the elusive vaccine. Here we discuss the current status of preclinical vaccine development, providing insights into alternative approaches to vaccine delivery and promising candidate vaccines. The state of the art of clinical development also is reviewed.

  6. Tuberculosis Vaccines – state of the art, and novel approaches to vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher da Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for a vaccine that could have a major impact in reducing the current global burden of TB disease in humans continues to be extremely challenging. Significant gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis and immunology of tuberculosis continue to undermine efforts to break new ground, and traditional approaches to vaccine development have thus far met with limited success. Existing and novel candidate vaccines are being assessed in the context of their ability to impact the various stages that culminate in disease transmission and an increase in the global burden of disease. Innovative methods of vaccine administration and delivery have provided a fresh stimulus to the search for the elusive vaccine. Here we discuss the current status of preclinical vaccine development, providing insights into alternative approaches to vaccine delivery and promising candidate vaccines. The state of the art of clinical development also is reviewed.

  7. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative me

  8. 14 CFR 1203.403 - State-of-the-art and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-of-the-art and intelligence. 1203.403... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.403 State-of-the-art and intelligence. A logical... available from intelligence sources is known or is available to others. It is also important to...

  9. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    KRUL Cyrille; Ashton, Rachel; Roggen, Erwin; Fuchs, Horst; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Poth, Albrecht; Wever, De, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry...

  10. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  11. Trends in Mobile Computing: State-of-the-Art and Next Steps

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Computing is moving to the edge of the network. It is becoming increasingly personal and allowing people to enjoy and express themselves in unprecedented ways. The same development allows professionals and enterprises to increase quality and productivity through improved mobility. The seminar discusses the underlying technical and societal trends and the state-of-the-art of mobile computing. Examples of current developments include the transformation of mobile devices into servers, augmented reality in mobile devices and the opportunities offered by wireless sensor networks. The fusion of the physical and digital worlds enabled by mobile computing is driving industry and society to adopt new uses of digital technologies and causing the focus of development to shift from hardware products to new services. Bio:Since 2004 Prof. Jan Bosch is working as Vice President and Head of the Software and Application Technology Laboratory of Nokia Research Centre in Helsinki, Finland. The Software & Application Tec...

  12. Neurofeedback Therapy for Enhancing Visual Attention: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2016-01-01

    function. Although progress has been made in the studies of neural mechanisms of attention, extraction of attention-related neural signals needed for BCI operations is a difficult problem. To attain good BCI performance, it is important to select the features of neural activity that represent attentional......We have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) linking the brain to external devices. BCIs can be utilized to treat neurological conditions and even to augment brain functions. BCIs offer a promising treatment for mental disorders, including disorders of attention. Here...... we review the current state of the art and challenges of attention-based BCIs, with a focus on visual attention. Attention-based BCIs utilize electroencephalograms (EEGs) or other recording techniques to generate neurofeedback, which patients use to improve their attention, a complex cognitive...

  13. Asset Management The State of the Art in Europe from a Life Cycle Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Herder, Paulien; Wijnia, Ype

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades asset intensive companies have witnessed a number of regulatory changes and especially industry is facing ever increasing competitiveness. To overcome these challenges different asset management methods have been developed aimed to improve the asset life cycle. Especially the design phase and operation and maintenance phase have seen a rise in tools and methods. Smarter design can lead to improved operation. Likewise, improved operation and maintenance leads to lower replacement costs and may provide the basis for better design.   This book brings together and coherently presents the current state of the art in asset management research and practice in Europe from a life cycle perspective. Each chapter  focuses on specific parts of this life cycle and explains how the methods and techniques described are connected and how they improve the asset life cycle, thus treating this important subject from a unique perspective.

  14. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors from basis to state-of-the-art applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Candid; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in 1988, spintronics has been presented as a new technology paradigm, awarded by the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2007. Initially used in read heads of hard disk drives, and while disputing a piece of the market to the flash memories, GMR devices have broadened their range of usage by growing towards magnetic field sensing applications in a huge range of scenarios. Potential applications at the time of the discovery have become real in the last two decades. Definitively, GMR was born to stand. In this sense, selected successful approaches of GMR based sensors in different applications: space, automotive, microelectronics, biotechnology … are collected in the present book. While keeping a practical orientation, the fundamentals as well as the current trends and challenges of this technology are also analyzed. In this sense, state of the art contributions from academy and industry can be found through the contents. This book can be used by starting ...

  15. Community health clinical education in Canada: part 1--"state of the art".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benita E; Gregory, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a survey of community health clinical education in twenty-four Canadian pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing programs. A qualitative research design was used, involving a content analysis of Canadian course syllabi and supporting documents for community health courses. This study afforded a cross-sectional understanding of the "state of the art" of community health clinical education in Canadian schools of nursing. Clinical course conceptual approaches, course objectives, types of clinical sites, format and number of clinical hours, and methods of student evaluation are identified. The findings suggest the need for a national dialogue or consensus building exercise regarding curriculum content for community health nursing. Informing this dialogue are several strengths including the current focus on community health (as opposed to community-based) nursing education, and a solid socio-environmental perspective informing clinical learning and practice. The national data set generated by this study may have relevance to nursing programs globally.

  16. Blast Protection of Unreinforced Masonry Walls: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lantz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent rise of terrorist attacks has reinforced the need for mitigation of damage caused by blast loading on unreinforced masonry walls. The primary goal of the techniques is to prevent the loss of life while simultaneously preserving the integrity of the structure. This paper presents a compilation of recently available literature on blast protection of unreinforced masonry walls. It seeks to present the state of the art in this field, including mitigation techniques considered as well as testing methods selected. Fiber reinforced polymers and polyurea are the two dominant retrofitting techniques being assessed in the field. Other techniques include but are not limited to polyurethane, steel sheets, and aluminum foam. Since there is no widely implemented standard for blast loading test procedures, direct comparisons between the efficiencies of the mitigation techniques proposed are not always feasible. Although fragmentation is an indicator of the efficiency of retrofits, it is currently measured by subjective observation of postblast debris.

  17. State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2008-06-01

    Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.

  18. Analyzing wet weather flow management using state of the art tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denny S; Merlo, Rion P; Jimenez, Jose A; Wahlberg, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Optimal secondary clarifier performance is crucial to meet treatment requirements, especially when treating peak wet weather flows (PWWFs), to prevent high effluent suspended solids (ESS) concentrations and elevated sludge blankets. A state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was successfully used as a design and diagnostic tool to optimize performance for municipal wastewater treatment plants subject to significant PWWFs. Two case studies are presented. For Case Study 1, the model was used to determine the number of secondary clarifiers that will be necessary to treat future PWWF conditions for a plant under design. For Case Study 2, the model was used to identify modifications that are currently being made to increase the clarifier capacity for handling PWWF. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. Automatic control systems for submerged membrane bioreactors: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has become relatively widespread as an advanced treatment for both industrial and municipal wastewater, especially in areas prone to water scarcity. Although operational cost is a key issue in MBRs, currently only a few crucial papers and inventions aimed to optimise and enhance MBR efficiency have been published. The present review summarises the available solutions in the area of automatic control systems and widely explores the advances in automation and control for MBRs. In this review of state of the art, different control systems are evaluated comparatively, distinguishing between control systems used for the filtration process and those used for the biological process of MBRs and describing the challenge faced by integrated control systems. The existing knowledge is classified according to the manipulated variables, the operational mode (open-loop or closed-loop) and the controlled variables used.

  20. State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2008-06-01

    Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.

  1. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  2. Numerical Simulations of the Dark Universe: State of the Art and the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlen, Michael; Angulo, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of the current state of the art of cosmological dark matter simulations, with particular emphasis on the implications for dark matter detection efforts and studies of dark energy. This review is intended both for particle physicists, who may find the cosmological simulation literature opaque or confusing, and for astro-physicists, who may not be familiar with the role of simulations for observational and experimental probes of dark matter and dark energy. Truly massive dark matter-only simulations are being conducted on national supercomputing centers, employing from several billion to over half a trillion particles to simulate the formation and evolution of cosmologically representative volumes (cosmic scale) or to zoom in on individual halos (cluster and galactic scale). These simulations cost millions of core-hours, require tens to hundreds of terabytes of memory, and use up to petabytes of disk storage. The field is quite internationally diverse, with top simulations having been run in...

  3. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  4. Asbesto (amianto e doença: revisão do conhecimento científico e fundamentação para uma urgente mudança da atual política brasileira sobre a questão Asbestos and disease: state-of-the-art review and a rationale for urgent change in current Brazilian policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Mendes

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo revê-se o estado do conhecimento científico quanto aos efeitos da inalação de fibras de asbesto (amianto na saúde humana e sua prevenção. Propõe-se a fundamentação científica do debate que se faz no Brasil, visando alterar a política governamental sobre a questão, de modo a priorizar a defesa da vida, da saúde e do meio-ambiente. No início, são discutidos aspectos tecnológicos e econômicos acerca do asbesto e, em especial, da crisotila. A seguir, explana-se a evolução do conhecimento científico internacional sobre os efeitos da inalação de fibras de asbesto na saúde. Após isso, descreve-se o conhecimento nacional acerca dos danos oriundos do amianto, concluindo-se que as doenças descritas no exterior constam de nossa literatura médica há tempos. Na seqüência, enfoca-se o debate sobre a nocividade do asbesto-crisotila, o qual aponta para a sua confirmação. Depois, expõem-se as respostas da comunidade internacional à questão e a mobilização pela proibição do asbesto. Por fim, estuda-se a inadequação da posição brasileira e explicita-se a necessidade de revisão urgente.This paper is a state-of-the-art review of scientific knowledge on both the health effects of asbestos fiber inhalation and possibilities for safe and sustainable prevention, from an ethical, political, and technological point of view. The author provides scientific background and arguments from the ongoing discussion in Brazil concerning the need to redefine current asbestos policy, in order to establish a more advanced and appropriate policy whose priority is the protection of life, human health, and the environment. The first part deals with several technological and economic aspects of asbestos-chrysotile. In the second part, the author presents and discusses a bibliographic review of the construction of scientific knowledge on the health effects of asbestos fibers, first within an international perspective, and then (in

  5. Inter-comparison of state-of-the-art MSS and geoid models in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinead; Hendricks, Stefan

    State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) and geoid models are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, and for oceanographic studies. However, errors in a given model in the high frequency domain, e.g. due to unresolved gravity features, can result...... in errors in the estimated freeboard heights, especially in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice conditions. Additionally these errors can impact ocean geostrophic current estimates and remaining biases in the models may impact longer-term, multi-sensor oceanographic time-series of sea...... level change.This study, part of the ESA CryoVal Sea Ice project, focuses on an inter-comparison of various state-of-the-art Arctic MSS models (UCL13/DTU13/ICEn) and commonly-used geoid models (EGM08). We show improved definition of gravity features, such as the Gakkel ridge, in the latest MSS models...

  6. Selected examples of intelligent (micro) sensor systems: state-of-the-art and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2006-03-01

    The capability of intelligent sensors to have more intelligence built into them continues to drive their application in areas including automotive, aerospace and defense, industrial, intelligent house and wear, medical and homeland security. In principle it is difficult to overestimate the importance of intelligent (micro) sensors or sensor systems within advanced societies but one characteristic feature is the global market for sensors, which is now about 20 billion annually. Therefore sensors or sensor systems play a dominant role in many fields from the macro sensor in manufacturing industry down to the miniaturized sensor for medical applications. The diversity of sensors precludes a complete description of the state-of-the-art; selected examples will illustrate the current situation. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices are of special interest in the context of micro sensor systems. In past the main requirements of a sensor were in terms of metrological performance. The electrical (or optical) signal produced by the sensor needed to match the measure relatively accurately. Such basic functionality is no longer sufficient. Data processing near the sensor, the extraction of more information than just the direct sensor information by signal analysis, system aspects and multi-sensor information are the new demands. A shifting can be observed away from aiming to design perfect single-function transducers and towards the utilization of system-based sensors as system components. In the ideal case such systems contain sensors, actuators and electronics. They can be realized in monolithic, hybrid or discrete form—which kind is used depends on the application. In this article the state-of-the-art of intelligent sensors or sensor systems is reviewed using selected examples. Future trends are deduced.

  7. ARIA: Delivering state-of-the-art InSAR products to end users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agram, P. S.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Manipon, G.; Sacco, G. F.; Bue, B. D.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Center for Natural Hazards aims to bring state-of-the-art geodetic imaging capabilities to an operational level in support of local, national, and international hazard response communities. ARIA project's first foray into operational generation of InSAR products was with Calimap Project, in collaboration with ASI-CIDOT, using X-band data from the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation. Over the last year, ARIA's processing infrastructure has been significantly upgraded to exploit the free stream of high quality C-band SAR data from ESA's Sentinel-1 mission and related algorithmic improvements to the ISCE software. ARIA's data system can now operationally generate geocoded unwrapped phase and coherence products in GIS-friendly formats from Sentinel-1 TOPS mode data in an automated fashion, and this capability is currently being exercised various study sites across the United States including Hawaii, Central California, Iceland and South America. The ARIA team, building on the experience gained from handling X-band data and C-band data, has also built an automated machine learning-based classifier to label the auto-generated interferograms based on phase unwrapping quality. These high quality "time-series ready" InSAR products generated using state-of-the-art processing algorithms can be accessed by end users using two different mechanisms - 1) a Faceted-search interface that includes browse imagery for quick visualization and 2) an ElasticSearch-based API to enable bulk automated download, post-processing and time-series analysis. In this talk, we will present InSAR results from various global events that ARIA system has responded to. We will also discuss the set of geospatial big data tools including GIS libraries and API tools, that end users will need to familiarize themselves with in order to maximize the utilization of continuous stream of InSAR products from the Sentinel-1 and NISAR missions that the ARIA project will generate.

  8. State of the Art in the Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives are sheltering of harbour basins and entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets and protection of water intakes...

  9. State of the Art in the Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives are sheltering of harbour basins and entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection of water intakes...

  10. State of the Art in the Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives are sheltering of harbour basins and entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection of water intakes...

  11. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  12. Introduction to the Special Issue on "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2016-08-23

    This Special Issue, "State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2015", collected papers on different kinds of sensing technology: fundamental technology for intelligent sensors, information processing for monitoring humans, and information processing for adaptive and survivable sensor systems.[...].

  13. Basics and state-of-the-art of modal testing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, the current status of the technology of modal testing is reviewed with particular reference to the application of these methodsto the task of ensuring the optimum design of mechanical structures. Existing methods are summarised and new techniques which are currently under development are described. Some of the current limitations and problem areas are also identified.

  14. Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estríngana, Pablo; Dunkerley, David; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art Arid and semiarid regions occupy two-fifth of the continents (Reynolds et al., 2007). These regions are characterized by dry climatic conditions, recurrent droughts and a scant rainfall pattern with a marked seasonality and a high inter-annual variability which makes water to be a scant resource and vegetation to follow a high variability spatial distribution pattern (Breshears et al., 1998; Cecchi et al., 2006; Dunkerley, 2008). These conditions make these areas more sensitive to climate change (Rowell, 2005) and to land use change as a consequence of land abandonment (Poyatos et al., 2003; Delgado et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010), increasing the risk of desertification (Puigdefábregas and Mendizabal, 1998; Geeson et al., 2002), in such a way that 65-70% of arid and semiarid areas are vulnerable to this degradation process (UNEP, 1991). Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensity or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant cover is the main factor that controls the soil erosion, controlling the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012; Haregeweyn, 2013). Soil erosion show non-sustainable rates under these regions, such as under Mediterranean conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010) and on agriculture land (Cerdà et al; 2007; 2009) due to climatic conditions, to parent material and to the roughed terrain (Romero Díaz et al., 2010). The traditional impact of grazing, of extremely intense fires, of ploughing and the widespread use of herbicides on agriculture, the increase of the road and railway embankments and the agricultural land abandonment cause vegetation removal. Canopy cover partitions rainfall reducing the amount of water reaching the soil and the kinetic energy of rainfall drops, protecting the soil against the impact of rainfall drops. Vegetation

  15. Genetic Bases of Stuttering: The State of the Art, 2011

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Yairi, Ehud

    Objective: The literature on the genetics of stuttering is reviewed with special reference to the historical development from psychosocial explanations leading up to current biological research of gene identification. Summary...

  16. Transit apps for people with brain injury and other cognitive disabilities: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone-Lee, Sharon A; Skelton, Ronald W; Livingston, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with cognitive disability have difficulty using public transit, but little research is directed toward this issue. Recent studies suggest that smartphones may be useful assistive devices in this context. Current objectives were to (1) survey research into difficulties people with cognitive disabilities experience when using public transit, (2) survey the current state of the art of transit and personal navigation applications (apps) and features, (3) recommend best existing transit apps for people with cognitive disability, and (4) recommend the best designs and features of these apps to developers of future transit apps. Potentially useful features were found in four categories: Transit apps for (1) individuals with cognitive disabilities and (2) healthy individuals, and personal navigation apps for (3) individuals with cognitive disabilities and (4) healthy individuals. A total of 159 apps were examined, but only seven were found specific to public transit for cognitive disability. By comparing research recommendations and currently available features, we identified several unmet needs. We note that there appears to be a shortage of apps for this population-function but that there is good research in the area and it is well suited to inform app development.

  17. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, E.A.M., E-mail: lizoflynn@doctors.org.u [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Wilson, A.R.M.; Michell, M.J. [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues.

  18. Diagnosis of prostate cancer. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, M; Scattoni, V; Bertini, R; Pasta, A; Montorsi, F; Rigatti, P

    2004-06-01

    The widespread acceptance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement as an early detection method for prostate cancer (Pca), coupled with the recent heightened public awareness of Pca as a common disease, has led to an increase in the detection of Pca. It has been established that digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA are the most useful front-line methods for assessing an individual's risk of Pca. In addition to an elevated PSA above 4 ng/mL and an abnormal DRE, the decision to proceed with TRUS-guided biopsy may also be supported by other factors. Determining the presence of a significant rise in PSA between tests, whether the degree of PSA is concordant with the size of the prostate, and age appropriate PSA may aid in the interpretation of this risk. Grayscale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has been established as the first choice imaging technique making it possible to take biopsies, measure the volume and obtain a general overview of the prostate. To improve, however, the TRUS detection rate of Pca, many ultrasonographic technique improvements have been introduced and continuously evaluated. As for prostate biopsy, in the prostate with visible lesions, lesion-guided biopsies only play a role in combination with systematic biopsies, while the systematic prostate biopsy scheme should at the present time include 10 or 12 cores according to prostatic weight. The other imaging techniques actually play a marginal role in Pca detection, but may be useful for staging newly diagnosed Pca or in patient re-staging in case of biochemical failure after radical treatment.

  19. Immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karussis, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the main common pathogenetic pathway in multiple sclerosis (MS) involves an immune-mediated cascade initiated in the peripheral immune system and targeting CNS myelin. Logically, therefore, the therapeutic approaches to the disease include modalities aiming at downregulation of the various immune elements that are involved in this immunologic cascade. Since the introduction of interferons in 1993, which were the first registered treatments for MS, huge steps have been made in the field of MS immunotherapy. More efficious and specific immunoactive drugs have been introduced and it appears that the increased specificity for MS of these new treatments is paralleled by greater efficacy. Unfortunately, this seemingly increased efficacy has been accompanied by more safety issues. The immunotherapeutic modalities can be divided into two main groups: those affecting the acute stages (relapses) of the disease and the long-term treatments that are aimed at preventing the appearance of relapses and the progression in disability. Immunomodulating treatments may also be classified according to the level of the 'immune axis' where they exert their main effect. Since, in MS, a neurodegenerative process runs in parallel and as a consequence of inflammation, early immune intervention is warranted to prevent progression of relapses of MS and the accumulation of disability. The use of neuroimaging (MRI) techniques that allow the detection of silent inflammatory activity of MS and neurodegeneration has provided an important tool for the substantiation of the clinical efficacy of treatments and the early diagnosis of MS. This review summarizes in detail the existing information on all the available immunotherapies for MS, old and new, classifies them according to their immunologic mechanisms of action and proposes a structured algorithm/therapeutic scheme for the management of the disease.

  20. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  1. Text Generation: The State of the Art and the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    decisively articulated by Noam Chomsky starting in 1958. 3. The Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar tradition, currently associated with Gerald Gazdar. 4. The...J. Lyons (ed.), New Horizons in Linguistics, Penguin, 1970. [Halliday 76a] Halliday, M. A. K., and R. Hasan, Cohesion in English, Longman, London

  2. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  3. Report on enhanced publications state-of-the-art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen-Windhouwer, S.; Brandsma, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the current status of enhanced publications in publishing and repository environments. We define an enhanced publication as a publication that is enhanced with three categories of information: (1) research data (evidence of the research), (2) extra materials (to i

  4. Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1996-03-01

    Models of the performance of primary Li/SOCl{sub 2} cells can provide for realistic comparisons between technical information from different sources, and set standards that electronic circuit designers may refer to in the generation of high-quality products. Data from various investigators were used to derive mathematical- statistical relationships with physical design features (e.g. size and materials), operating parameters (e.g. current and temperature) and storage conditions (time and temperature). These efforts were substantially promoted by normalization procedures. For example, current loads were converted into current densities, or if appropriate, into current per unit cathode volume. Similarly, cell capacities were standardized with the maximum values observed at low current and also with respect to the cathode volume. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluations of voltage-delay, cell capacity and self-discharge, for which several equations were established. In spite of a considerable expenditure in time to find high-quality datasets, the reality is that all of the reviewed studies are flawed in one way or another. Specifically, all datasets are afflicted with sizable experimental errors and the precision of the regression equations is much lower than is deemed necessary for a universal model of the lithium thionyl chloride cell. Each of the equations has some definite truth content, but is generally incapable of bridging the gap between different studies. The basic failure to come up with a unifying model for Li/SOCl{sub 2} batteries leaves only one benefit of the present analysis, namely to provide guidance for future investigations. Several recommendations are made based on the insight gained during the search for good data in the relevant literature.

  5. STATE OF THE ART IN PROTEOMICS FOR CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrizayanti Syafrizayanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The earliest stages of cancer detection determine the successful of cancer treatment andtherapy. The existing cancer test or detection methods have been routinely used, but they arelack of sensitivity and specificity that are needed to avoid false positive or negative results. Thegenomic basedtechniques have been applied, although molecular understandings of cancerfar from complete, but few genomic platforms are becoming routine. Application of proteomicsbasedtechniques provide intriguing outcome, which is cancer detection at their earliest stages.Proteomics have exposed a new perspective into the phases of tumorigenesis and depictedmore detailed molecular network scheme, which made important contributions in the discoveryof biomarker of early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction outcome of cancer therapies.The noticeable proteomic platforms to achieve these goals are protein microarray, tissuemicroarray, mass spectrometry-based proteomic, and two-dimensionalgel electrophoresis (2-DE. The application of these techniques will be overviewed, providing a general review ofcurrent proteomic methods in cancer detection and subsequently improvement in prognosisand prediction of cancer therapies.Keywords: proteomics, protein microarrays, mass spectrometry, cancer biomarkerAbstrakDeteksi dini kanker sangat menentukan keberhasilan penanganan dan terapi kanker. Hinggasaat ini, telah banyak jenis metoda deteksi dan uji kanker yang sudah rutin digunakan, akantetapi metoda-metoda tersebut memiliki tingkat sensitifitas dan spesifikasi yang rendah,sehingga sering menyebabkan terjadi kesalahan hasil uji baik secara positif ataupun negatif.Bidang genomik telah banyak digunakan untuk lebih memahami kanker pada level molekuler,meskipun hasil yang diperoleh belum mendalam, akan tetapi beberapa metoda berbasiskangenomik telah mulai rutin digunakan. Bidang pioteomik mulai banyak diaplikasikan untukkeperluan deteksi kankersedini mungkin. Proteomik memberikan perspektif

  6. Radiofrequency energy in surgery: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnát, Peter; Ihnát Rudinská, Lucia; Zonča, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Over a period of more than 100 years, radiofrequency energy has been introduced in many fields and applications in medicine. At present, radiofrequency constitutes the basis of numerous medical devices employed in almost all medical specialties. It is particularly applicable and valuable in various minimally invasive procedures for its locally focused effects. Radiofrequency energy is a technical term established to describe high-frequency alternating electrical currents (with a frequency ranging from 300 kHz to 3 MHz) and their impact on biological tissue. The application of RF energy causes controlled tissue heating with consequent cell protein denaturation and desiccation, which leads to cell death and tissue destruction. The primary principle of radiofrequency is that the generated heat can be used to cut, coagulate or induce metabolic processes in the target tissue. The authors of this paper offer a comprehensive and compact review of the definition, history, physics, biological principles and applications of radiofrequency energy in current surgery.

  7. State-of-the-art of superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, M. S.

    1972-09-01

    A survey of the most recent developments in superconducting magnet materials is presented, and complete data on the upper critical field and transition temperature for the NbTi alloy system are given. The overall critical current density of compound conductors is shown for both low and high field commercial superconductors. A tabulation is given of high field and large bore solenoids, comparing design and test data. Comparative data are also given for some nonsolenoidal coils, and details are listed for the systems under construction or design. A criterion is derived for the stable current density attainable in extremely large magnet systems such as those envisioned for fusion reactors: j ∝ (stored energy)-1/6 . The review concludes with summaries concerning the structural materials useful in large magnets and the effects of radiation on superconducting magnets.

  8. Retroperitoneal fibrosis - the state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runowska, Marta; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease, hallmarked by inflammation and deposition of fibrous tissue around the abdominal aorta. This process may spread contiguously and involve adjacent structures, leading to many complications, among which the most frequent and most severe is ureteral obstruction. The condition usually has idiopathic origin (idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis - IRF), but can also develop secondarily to a number of factors. The etiology of the disease remains unclear. Current research suggests that about half of the cases of IRF may be a symptom of a recently discovered, clinically heterogeneous immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Corticosteroids are the first-line treatment for IRF, but effective attempts to use immunosuppressants are also made. This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic possibilities in different forms of RPF. Based on the latest research, an analysis of the relationship between IRF and IgG4-RD was performed.

  9. Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Ludivine; Racin, Adelaïde; Brousse, Susie; Beltjens, Françoise; Cauchois, Aurélie; Levêque, Jean; Coutant, Charles; Lavoué, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) of the breast is considered benign histological lesions with breast cancer risk. This review focuses on clinical signification and management of AEH that remains controversial. A review of published studies was performed using medline database. In this review, we fully describe the current evidence available. In particular, we describe 1) data from immunohistochemistry and molecular studies that suggest AEH is a precursor of breast cancer; 2) epidemiological studies demonstrate low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH; 3) surgical excision is necessary after diagnosis of AEH, such as lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical ductal hyperplasia, on core needle biopsy; 4) although current recommendations are evolving to fewer (if not no) excisions for flat epithelial with atypia and classic lobular neoplasia found on percutaneous biopsy (without radiologic indications for excision). Expert commentary: HEA management steel need prospective evidences, but recent retrospective data give some clue for less invasive management for some of HEA.

  10. State of the Art on Different Types of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, F. J.; Almeida, P.M. Rocha Almeida; Lopes, J.A. Pecas

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents the main drivers and challenges for the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EV). The most important issues related with EV technology are also analyzed, namely, the charging infrastructures’ power levels, the type of plugs, the most common powertrain architectures, an......, and the energy storage solutions currently available. The EV charging controllability is briefly discussed, as well as its benefits for the distribution grids operation and its contribution for the renewable energy sources expansion....

  11. Illustrative Flow Visualization: State of the Art, Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, Andrea; Carnecky, Robert; Peikert, Robert; Viola, Ivan; Hauser, Helwig

    2012-01-01

    The definitive version is available at http://diglib.eg.org/ Flow visualization is a well established branch of scientific visualization and it currently represents an invaluable resource to many fields, like automotive design, meteorology and medical imaging. Thanks to the capabilities of modern hardware, flow datasets are increasing in size and complexity, and traditional flow visualization techniques need to be updated and improved in order to deal with the upcoming ch...

  12. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Ho; Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Tang, Xiao; McCrary, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The goal of digital preservation is to ensure long-term access to digitally stored information. In this paper, we present a survey of techniques used in digital preservation. We also introduce representative digital preservation projects and case studies that provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of different preservation strategies. Finally, the pros and cons of current strategies, critical issues for digital preservation, and future directions are discussed.

  13. State-of-the-Art for Prediction of Pavement Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exhibit a significant nonlinearity, e.g., saturated granular soils, cohesive soils, and asphaltic cements. Consequently, it does not appear that time...current total level of stress and strain). The variable modulus models represent mate- rials of the hypoelastic classification; that is, the...development of this model is given in Reference 36. Base course layers are almost exclusively composed of various gradations of granular materials

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, R B

    2000-01-01

    We review the current status of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, including a revision of some basic theoretical aspects, a summary of anisotropy detections and CMB experiments, and a description of some relevant characteristics of the microwave foregrounds. We also discuss the different estimators proposed in the literature to detect non-Gaussianity and outline the basis of some reconstruction methods that have been applied to the CMB.

  15. Glaucoma -state of the art and perspectives on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Gryciuk, Anna; Skup, Małgorzata; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by progressive damage to the optic nerve, death of retinal ganglion cells and ultimately visual field loss. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible loss of vision worldwide. The most important trigger of glaucomatous damage is elevated eye pressure, and the current standard approach in glaucoma therapy is reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). However, despite the use of effective medications or surgical treatment leading to lowering of IOP, progression of glaucomatous changes and loss of vision among patients with glaucoma is common. Therefore, it is critical to prevent vision loss through additional treatment. To implement such treatment(s), it is imperative to identify pathophysiological changes in glaucoma and develop therapeutic methods taking into account neuroprotection. Currently, there is no method of neuroprotection with long-term proven effectiveness in the treatment of glaucoma. Among the most promising molecules shown to protect the retina and optic nerve are neurotrophic factors. Thus, the current focus is on the development of safe and non-invasive methods for the long-term elevation of the intraocular level of neurotrophins through advanced gene therapy and topical eye treatment and on the search for selective agonists of neurotrophin receptors affording more efficient neuroprotection.

  16. Comparison of State-of-the-Art Digital Control and Analogue Control for High Bandwidth Point of Load Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of state-of-the-art digital and analogue control for a Buck converter with synchronous rectification. The digital control scheme is based on a digital self-oscillating modulator that allows the sampling frequency to be higher than the switching...... frequency of the converter. Voltage mode control is used in both the analogue and digital control schemes. The experimental results show that it is possible to design a digitally controlled Buck converter that has the same performance as can be achieved using commercially available analogue control ICs....... The performance of the analogue system can however be increased by using a separate operational amplifier as error amplifier. Thus analogue control is still the best option if high control bandwidth and fast transient response to load steps are important design parameters....

  17. Implementation and Use of State-of-the-Art, Cell-Based In Vitro Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    The impressive advances in the generation and interpretation of functional omics data have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the (patho-)physiology of many biological systems and led to a massive increase in the number of specific targets and phenotypes to investigate in both basic and applied research. The obvious complexity revealed by these studies represents a major challenge to the research community and asks for improved target characterisation strategies with the help of reliable, high-quality assays. Thus, the use of living cells has become an integral part of many research activities because the cellular context more closely represents target-specific interrelations and activity patterns. Although still predominant, the use of traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture models has been gradually complemented by studies based on three-dimensional (3D) spheroid (Sutherland 1988) and other 3D tissue culture systems (Santos et al. 2012; Matsusaki et al. 2014) in an attempt to employ model systems more closely representing the microenvironment of cells in the body. Hence, quite a variety of state-of-the-art cell culture models are available for the generation of novel chemical probes or the identification of starting points for drug development in translational research and pharma drug discovery. In order to cope with these information-rich formats and their increasing technical complexity, cell-based assay development has become a scientific research topic in its own right and is used to ensure the provision of significant, reliable and high-quality data outlasting any discussions related to the current "irreproducibility epidemic" (Dolgin 2014; Prinz et al. 2011; Schatz 2014). At the same time the use of cells in microplate assay formats has become state of the art and greatly facilitates rigorous cell-based assay development by providing the researcher with the opportunity to address the multitude of factors affecting the actual

  18. Liver magnetic resonance imaging: State of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; E; Sijens

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now been used for about three decades to characterize the human liver in a non-invasive way, that is without the need of using ionizing radiation or removing tissue samples. During the past few years, technical progress has been considerable and novel applications of MRI have been implemented in the clinic. The beginning of a new decade offers an excellent opportunity for having fi ve experts to present their view on the current status of MRI (and magnetic resonance spec...

  19. Dysphagia after radiotherapy: state of the art and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Ali, D; Roubieu, C; Durdux, C; Laccourreye, O; Giraud, P

    2015-02-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery or exclusive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy is a valuable treatment option in the great majority of patients with head and neck cancer. Recent technical progress in radiotherapy has resulted in a decreased incidence of xerostomia. Another common toxicity of radiotherapy is dysphagia, which alters the nutritional status and quality of life of patients in remission. The objective of this review is to describe the physiology of swallowing function, the pathophysiology of radiation-induced dysphagia and the various strategies currently available to prevent this complication.

  20. State of the art of electronic personal dosimeters for neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Luszik-Bhadra, Marlies; Lahaye, Thierry

    2003-06-01

    Despite a widely recognised need, electronic devices for personal dosimetry of neutrons or mixed neutron-photon fields are still far less established than systems for photon or beta radiations. A large research project is in progress to evaluate different methods currently used or under development for electronic personal dosimetry in mixed neutron-photon fields. The study includes testing in calibration fields as well as in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry. This paper describes the commercial and laboratory systems under investigation and their response characteristics. These were determined so far with measurements using ISO standard monoenergetic beams up to 19 MeV at the PTB in Braunschweig, Germany.

  1. FerryBox systems: State-of-the-art in Europe and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    The current state-of-the-art of FerryBox systems are presented, and their usage as part of European observing systems such as Alg@line in the Baltic Sea or the coastal observatory COSYNA in the North Sea is discussed as well as data management systems. An overview of diverse FerryBox measurement activities is provided, covering the wide and varied potential for utilizing FerryBox data. One innovative technical component is the application of newly developed sensors suitable for FerryBox systems that focus on biogeochemical processes. This component could fill currently existing gaps of robust biogeochemical observations in the oceans and may create, together with the high spatial and temporal resolution of FerryBox systems, the possibility for new insights into physical and biogeochemical processes that were impossible to study before. Such new insights could contribute to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and include observations of the coastal carbonate system and its interaction with climate change or eutrophication and productivity.

  2. A State-of-the-Art Experimental Laboratory for Cloud and Cloud-Aerosol Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremaux, Charles M.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    The state of the art for predicting climate changes due to increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere with high accuracy is problematic. Confidence intervals on current long-term predictions (on the order of 100 years) are so large that the ability to make informed decisions with regard to optimum strategies for mitigating both the causes of climate change and its effects is in doubt. There is ample evidence in the literature that large sources of uncertainty in current climate models are various aerosol effects. One approach to furthering discovery as well as modeling, and verification and validation (V&V) for cloud-aerosol interactions is use of a large "cloud chamber" in a complimentary role to in-situ and remote sensing measurement approaches. Reproducing all of the complex interactions is not feasible, but it is suggested that the physics of certain key processes can be established in a laboratory setting so that relevant fluid-dynamic and cloud-aerosol phenomena can be experimentally simulated and studied in a controlled environment. This report presents a high-level argument for significantly improved laboratory capability, and is meant to serve as a starting point for stimulating discussion within the climate science and other interested communities.

  3. Surveillance strategies for colitis-associated cancer: state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Rath, Timo; Pastorelli, Luca; Vecchi, Maurizio; Neumann, Helmut

    2017-05-01

    Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) represents a concrete risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with long lasting inflammatory bowel diseases. Surveillance colonoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field with profound changes from the traditional approach based on scheduled controls and random biopsy protocols. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using PubMed/Embase to review the latest evidence supporting the need for surveillance colonoscopy. By focusing on the most promising recent advances in this field, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the current gold standards for the diagnosis and management of colitis-associated dysplasia. Expert commentary: Evidence-based and emerging data have questioned the efficacy and effectiveness of both standard surveillance colonoscopy and random biopsy protocols. The latest guidelines endorse early initiation of surveillance programs, risk-profiling assessment of colonoscopy intervals and standardized use of advanced imaging modalities to detect early dysplasia. Current trends clearly reveal increased attention to direct visualization and endoscopic management of visible dysplastic lesions, even in patients with longstanding colitis. Emerging technological advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy are expected to change the endoscopic surveillance protocols in the near future.

  4. Proton Therapy At Siteman Cancer Center: The State Of The Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Charles

    2011-06-01

    Barnes-Jewish Hospital is on the verge of offering proton radiation therapy to its patients. Those treatments will be delivered from the first Monarch 250, a state-of-the-art cyclotron produced by Still River Systems, Inc., Littleton, MA. The accelerator is the world's first superconducting synchrocyclotron, with a field-strength of 10 tesla, providing the smallest accelerator for high-energy protons currently available. On May 14, 2010 it was announced that the first production unit had successfully extracted 250 MeV protons. That unit is scheduled for delivery to the Siteman Cancer Center, an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center at Washington University School of Medicine. At a weight of 20 tons and with a diameter of less than 2 meters the compact cyclotron will be mounted on a gantry, another first for proton therapy systems. The single-energy system includes 3 contoured scatterers and 14 different range modulators to provide 24 distinct beam delivery configurations. This allows proton fields up to 25 cm in diameter, with a maximum range from 5.5 to 32 cm and spread-out-Bragg-peak extent up to 20 cm. Monte Carlo simulations have been run using MCNPX to simulate the clinical beam properties. Those calculations have been used to commission a commercial treatment planning system prior to final clinical measurements. MCNPX was also used to calculate the neutron background generated by protons in the scattering system and patient. Additional details of the facility and current status will be presented.

  5. Nanoscale surface modifications of medically relevant metals: state-of-the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variola, Fabio; Brunski, John B.; Orsini, Giovanna; Tambasco de Oliveira, Paulo; Wazen, Rima; Nanci, Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Evidence that nanoscale surface properties stimulate and guide various molecular and biological processes at the implant/tissue interface is fostering a new trend in designing implantable metals. Cutting-edge expertise and techniques drawn from widely separated fields, such as nanotechnology, materials engineering and biology, have been advantageously exploited to nanoengineer surfaces in ways that control and direct these processes in predictable manners. In this review, we present and discuss the state-of-the-art of nanotechnology-based approaches currently adopted to modify the surface of metals used for orthopedic and dental applications, and also briefly consider their use in the cardiovascular field. The effects of nanoengineered surfaces on various in vitro molecular and cellular events are firstly discussed. This review also provides an overview of in vivo and clinical studies with nanostructured metallic implants, and addresses the potential influence of nanotopography on biomechanical events at interfaces. Ultimately, the objective of this work is to give the readership a comprehensive picture of the current advances, future developments and challenges in the application of the infinitesimally small to biomedical surface science. We believe that an integrated understanding of the in vitro and particularly of the in vivo behavior is mandatory for the proper exploitation of nanostructured implantable metals and, indeed, of all biomaterials.

  6. State-of-the-art in Manufacturing Pyrochemical Processing Crucibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, David Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-03

    Engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been purifying plutonium through pyrochemical processing for many years. The harsh environments involved with the pyrochemical processes include high temperatures (700-900 °C), molten salts and reactive metals (MgCl2, PuCl3, NaCl-KCl, CaCl2, Pu, Ca), and chlorine gas. Because of these corrosive conditions, designing and developing the pyrochemical processing equipment has always been an intriguing technical challenge. In this article I focus on the design and development of the pyrochemical processing crucible for the electrorefining (ER) process, applying design for manufacturability principles throughout the process. I review the current crucible design and electrorefining process and explore possibilities of making the crucible as one part, building the anode and cathode into the crucible, and various material of construction improvements. Materials of construction that should be reviewed further include alumina, silicon nitride, and a tantalum carbon alloy. I briefly review the application of three-dimensional (3D) printing to the process of producing the ER crucible, including thermoplastic 3D printing and mechanical property concerns. I finish by summarizing current plans and possibilities of improving the ER crucible.

  7. Retroperitoneal fibrosis – the state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease, hallmarked by inflammation and deposition of fibrous tissue around the abdominal aorta. This process may spread contiguously and involve adjacent structures, leading to many complications, among which the most frequent and most severe is ureteral obstruction. The condition usually has idiopathic origin (idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis – IRF), but can also develop secondarily to a number of factors. The etiology of the disease remains unclear. Current research suggests that about half of the cases of IRF may be a symptom of a recently discovered, clinically heterogeneous immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Corticosteroids are the first-line treatment for IRF, but effective attempts to use immunosuppressants are also made. This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic possibilities in different forms of RPF. Based on the latest research, an analysis of the relationship between IRF and IgG4-RD was performed. PMID:27994271

  8. Pediatric Pes Planus: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James B; Yang, Scott; Lather, Leigh Ann

    2016-03-01

    Flatfoot (pes planus) is common in infants and children and often resolves by adolescence. Thus, flatfoot is described as physiologic because it is usually flexible, painless, and of no functional consequence. In rare instances, flatfoot can become painful or rigid, which may be a sign of underlying foot pathology, including arthritis or tarsal coalition. Despite its prevalence, there is no standard definition for pediatric flatfoot. Furthermore, there are no large, prospective studies that compare the natural history of idiopathic, flexible flat feet throughout development in response to various treatments. The available literature does not elucidate which patients are at risk for developing pain and disability as young adults. Current evidence suggests that it is safe and appropriate to simply observe an asymptomatic child with flat feet. Painful flexible flatfoot may benefit from orthopedic intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or even a surgical procedure. Orthotics, although generally unproven to alter the course of flexible flatfoot, may provide relief of pain when present. Surgical procedures include Achilles tendon lengthening, bone-cutting procedures that rearrange the alignment of the foot (osteotomies), fusion of joints (arthrodesis), or insertion of a silicone or metal cap into the sinus tarsi to establish a medial foot arch (arthroereisis). It is important for a general pediatrician to know when a referral to an orthopedic specialist is indicated and which treatments may be offered to the patient. Updated awareness of the current evidence regarding pediatric flatfoot helps the provider confidently and appropriately counsel patients and families.

  9. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Wyngaert, Hans van den [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Love, Charito [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Welling, M.M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Scientist Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Section of Nuclear Medicine C2-203, Leiden (Netherlands); Gemmel, Paul [Ghent University, The Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Hempstead, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  10. Smart City Analytics: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovannella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with a 'people centred' vision, this paper critically examines current approaches to smart cities benchmarking. In particular, by means of correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA we put in evidence present limitations of city rankings and, as well, the emergence of different perspectives for data interpretations. To follow, a possible redesign of the 'Smart Cities Analytics' grounded on the traces left by individuals, is suggested. In particular, as an example, we focus on the potentiality offered by automatic text analysis to extract people perceptions and expectations that, in turns, demonstrate the need to integrate bottom-up and top-down approaches to city benchmarking. Finally a novel definition of smart city based on the territorial state of flow is proposed and, as a consequence, a novel path toward smart city benchmarking suggested.

  11. Accelerator Control and Global Networks State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Gurd, D P

    2004-01-01

    As accelerators increase in size and complexity, demands upon their control systems increase correspondingly. Machine complexity is reflected in complexity of control system hardware and software and careful configuration management is essential. Model-based procedures and fast feedback based upon even faster beam instrumentation are often required. Managing machine protection systems with tens of thousands of inputs is another significant challenge. Increased use of commodity hardware and software introduces new issues of security and control. Large new facilities will increasingly be built by national (e.g. SNS) or international (e.g. a linear collider) collaborations. Building an integrated control system for an accelerator whose development is geographically widespread presents particular problems, not all of them technical. Recent discussions of a “Global Accelerator Network” include the possibility of multiple remote control rooms and no more night shifts. Based upon current experien...

  12. [INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS OF PREGNANCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, I V; Andreev, D N; Dicheva, D T; Kaznacheeva, T V

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a relatively benign cholestatic pathology of the liver developing in II or III trimester of pregnancy and characterized by itchy skin and enhanced serum bile acid levels. The cause of ICP is unknown; it may have a multifactor nature involving genetic (ABCB4, EXR, ABCC2 genes), hormonal (estrogens, progesterone), and environmental factors. As a rule, ICP first manifests itself on weeks 28-30 of pregnancy in the form of pruritus especially pronounced at night time. Almost half of the patients develop jaundice, usually within 1-4 weeks after appearance of pruritus. The enhanced serum bile acid level is sometimes the first or the sole laboratory sign of the disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of ICP due to its confirmed effectiveness and safety.

  13. [Irradiation of internal mammary nodes: State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, Y M; de Almeida, C E; Fournier-Bidoz, N

    2015-06-01

    In the adjuvant breast cancer treatment, postoperative radiotherapy plays a principal part with an action against the microscopic residual disease in the lymph nodes after mastectomy as well as after breast conserving surgery. This positive effect is observed also in the case of small inner lesions in patients without lymph node involvement. At the same time, there is a recognized risk of cardiac toxicity directly related to the irradiation of internal mammary nodes. This paper is a report on the current available techniques to irradiate the internal mammary nodes, including promising new technology that may help limiting the risk of cardiac toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prosthetic joint infection: state-of-the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Belov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In current clinical practice, joint replacement is one of the progressive and permanently developed surgical treatments in patients with locomotor injury of any genesis. However, the upward trend in the number of replacements is inevitably accompanied by the rising number of patients with periprosthetic joint infection. The polymorphism of its clinical picture and the nonspecificity of diagnostic tests lead to a frequent delay in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI and thus late treatment. This paper gives an update on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of PJI. Emphasis is laid on the value of a multimodal approach to PJI treatment Р a combination of surgery and etiotropic antibiotic therapy. The choice of a treatment modality is determined by patient status, comorbidity, and the magnitude and duration of the infectious process.

  15. Heparin based polyurethanes: A state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Fatima; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Rehman, Saima

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) are considered currently as one of the established bio compatible and blood compatible biomaterials offering tremendous structure-property relationship. But few limitations such as low resistance to micro-emboli and thrombi are still associated with these biomaterials that restricted their applications and hence need to be modified. Heparin, a highly sulfonated and negatively charged member of glycosaminoglycan family is well established for their anti-thrombin, anticoagulant and many biological activities that make it a highly attractive candidate capable of modifying or tailoring polymer properties. Incorporation of heparin for the improvement of biocompatibility of PUs is an interesting approach and enabling emerging technology. This review focuses on the methods used for modification of PUs via heparin with their pros and cons. The major PU-heparin systems with the recent developments and their possible biomedical applications are discussed.

  16. Transitional discharge based on therapeutic relationships: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Reynolds, William; Sharkey, Siobhan; Martin, Mary-Lou; Jensen, Elsabeth

    2007-04-01

    The Transitional Discharge Model (TDM) has been used to facilitate effective discharge from psychiatric hospital to community. A summary of the research to date on TDM is given. The model is based on the provision of therapeutic relationships to provide a safety net throughout the discharge and community reintegration processes. These relationships include both staff and peer involvement; hospital inpatient staff continue to remain involved with the client until a therapeutic relationship is established with a community care provider, and peer support is offered from a former consumer of mental health services who is currently living in the community. Studies found that the TDM facilitates increased discharge rates, lower readmission rates, and cost savings--making it a collaborative, cost-effective method of providing quality patient care and positive health care outcomes. The TDM Plan of Research is presented and reflects the collaboration between stakeholders and the integration of consumer advocacy, clinical practice, education, policy, and research in various countries.

  17. Pheochromocytoma: state-of-the-art and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Emmanuel L; Tagle, Rodrigo

    2003-08-01

    This review provides current understanding of the pathophysiology of pheochromocytoma and the wide range of associated clinical manifestations that have led to earlier recognition of the disease. In addition, it reviews optimal screening methods and localization techniques that have enhanced the clinician's ability to make the diagnosis with greater certainty. This article will also discuss alternative antihypertensive regimens and innovative anesthetic and surgical procedures that have made successful management more promising than ever before. Areas requiring further development include additional clinical experience with the measurement of plasma metanephrines that have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of sporadic and familial pheochromocytoma, optimizing cost effectiveness of diagnostic imaging, improving the ability to predict and treat malignant pheochromocytoma, and elucidating not only the surgical approach but, perhaps with rapid advances in molecular genetics, ways of preventing familial pheochromocytoma.

  18. Positron Emission Tomography: state of the art and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichemi, M.

    2016-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) plays a fundamental role in medical imaging, with a wide range of applications covering, among the others, oncology, neurology and cardiology. PET has undergone a steady technological evolution since its introduction in mid 20th century, from the development of 3D PET in the late 1980s, to the invention of PET/CT in the 1990s and more recently with the introduction of PET/MR scanners. The current research topics aiming to develop the next generation of PET scanners are summarized in this paper, focusing on the efforts to increase the sensitivity of the detectors, as long as improving their timing, spatial and energy resolutions, with the final goal of reducing the amount of radioactive dose received by the patients and the duration of the exams while improving at the same time the detectability of lesions.

  19. Dangerousness and risk assessment: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Arie; Rosca, Paula; Khawalled, Razak; Gruzniewski, Adrian; Grinshpoon, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Risk or dangerousness is an issue which burdens the minds of all mental health and law enforcement professionals. Researchers have attempted to define its extent and constituent elements and to predict and assess it. Risk assessment is a complex task, influenced by the interaction of many variables, such as previous pattern of violence, biological, sociological and psychological factors, divided into facilitating and inhibiting factors. In our paper we discuss the theoretical concepts linked with dangerousness prediction and assessment, and then review the "first" and "second" generations of literature on dangerousness and risk assessment, including the actuarial instruments. We then present the current trends in the field, concentrating on the correlation between dangerousness and mental disorders, dangerousness analysis and risk management, a wider concept including prevention, treatment and communication of risk. Although great progress has been made in this field, there are still many unresolved issues, among them the development of valid instruments for the assessment of risk.

  20. Mouse models of ciliopathies: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic P. Norris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ciliopathies are an apparently disparate group of human diseases that all result from defects in the formation and/or function of cilia. They include disorders such as Meckel-Grüber syndrome (MKS, Joubert syndrome (JBTS, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS and Alström syndrome (ALS. Reflecting the manifold requirements for cilia in signalling, sensation and motility, different ciliopathies exhibit common elements. The mouse has been used widely as a model organism for the study of ciliopathies. Although many mutant alleles have proved lethal, continued investigations have led to the development of better models. Here, we review current mouse models of a core set of ciliopathies, their utility and future prospects.

  1. Safe and Sustainable Tall Buildings - State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendis P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings are becoming very popular around the world. Asia will have most of the tall buildings in this century. Both safety and sustainability aspects are important in planning and designing these buildings. The design and construction of tall buildings present many challenges for the design team, from engineers, architect through to the builder. Although structural systems could be developed and construction solutions could be found to design and construct very tall buildings in excess of 1 km (even 1 mile, other aspects such as fire and egress, long-term movements, environmental wind and perception of motion (including damping for dynamic effects, transportation (lifts issues, sustainability, durability and maintenance will govern and may even restrict the heights. Current practices and important issues related to design of safe and sustainable design of tall buildings are discussed in this paper.

  2. Vertex detectors: The state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerell, C.J.S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    We review the current status of vertex detectors (tracking microscopes for the recognition of charm and bottom particle decays). The reasons why silicon has become the dominant detector medium are explained. Energy loss mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the physics and technology of semiconductor devices, emphasizing the areas of most relevance for detectors. The main design options (microstrips and pixel devices, both CCD`s and APS`s) are discussed, as well as the issue of radiation damage, which probably implies the need to change to detector media beyond silicon for some vertexing applications. Finally, the evolution of key performance parameters over the past 15 years is reviewed, and an attempt is made to extrapolate to the likely performance of detectors working at the energy frontier ten years from now.

  3. Stem cells and chronic wound healing: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavitt T

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tripp Leavitt, Michael S Hu, Clement D Marshall, Leandra A Barnes, Michael T Longaker, H Peter Lorenz Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Currently available treatments for chronic wounds are inadequate. A clearly effective therapy does not exist, and treatment is often supportive. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes underlying failure of wound repair are still poorly understood. With an increase in comorbidities, such as diabetes and vascular disease, as well as an aging population, the incidence of these intractable wounds is expected to rise. As such, chronic wounds, which are already costly, are rapidly growing as a tremendous burden to the health-care system. Stem cells have garnered much interest as a therapy for chronic wounds due to their inherent ability to differentiate into multiple lineages and promote regeneration. Herein, we discuss the types of stem cells used for chronic wound therapy, as well as the proposed means by which they do so. In particular, we highlight mesenchymal stem cells (including adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. We include the results of recent in vitro and in vivo studies in both animal models and human clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the current studies to improve stem cell therapies and the limitations of stem cell-based therapeutics. Stem cells promise improved therapies for healing chronic wounds, but further studies that are well-designed with standardized protocols are necessary for fruition. Keywords: stem cells, chronic wounds, cell therapy, wound healing

  4. State of the Art: Novel Applications for Cortical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Perera, Sanjaya; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Electrical stimulation via implanted electrodes that overlie the cortex of the brain is an upcoming neurosurgical technique that was hindered for a long time by insufficient knowledge of how the brain functions in a dynamic, physiological, and pathological way, as well as by technological limitations of the implantable stimulation devices. This paper provides an overview of cortex stimulation via implantable devices and introduces future possibilities to improve cortex stimulation. Cortex stimulation was initially used preoperatively as a technique to localize functions in the brain and only later evolved into a treatment technique. It was first used for pain, but more recently a multitude of pathologies are being targeted by cortex stimulation. These disorders are being treated by stimulating different cortical areas of the brain. Risks and complications are essentially similar to those related to deep brain stimulation and predominantly include haemorrhage, seizures, infection, and hardware failures. For cortex stimulation to fully mature, further technological development is required to predict its outcomes and improve stimulation designs. This includes the development of network science-based functional connectivity approaches, genetic analyses, development of navigated high definition transcranial alternating current stimulation, and development of pseudorandom stimulation designs for preventing habituation. In conclusion, cortex stimulation is a nascent but very promising approach to treating a variety of diseases, but requires further technological development for predicting outcomes, such as network science based functional connectivity approaches, genetic analyses, development of navigated transcranial electrical stimulation, and development of pseudorandom stimulation designs for preventing habituation. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. Calcium orthophosphates as bioceramics: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2010-11-30

    In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30-40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics-which is able to promote regeneration of bones-was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  6. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  7. The State of the Art of Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2015-06-08

    The study of neutrino interactions has recently experienced a renaissance, motivated by the fact that neutrino oscillation experiments depend critically on an accurate models of neutrino interactions. These models have to predict not only the signal and background populations that oscillation experiments see at near and far detectors, but they must also predict how the neutrino's energy which enters a nucleus gets transferred to energies of the particles that leave the nucleus after the neutrino interacts. Over the past year there have been a number of new results on many different neutrino (and antineutrino) interaction channels using several different target nuclei. These results are often not in agreement with predictions extraolated from charged lepton scattering measurements, or even from predictions anchored to neutrino measurements on deuterium. These new measurements are starting to give the community the handles needed to improve the theoretical description of neutrino interactions, which ultimately pave the way for precision oscillation measurements. This report briefly summarizes recent results and points out where those results differ from the predictions based on current models.

  8. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy--state of the art in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Silvia; Costa, Susana; Monteiro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Lino; Providência, Luís A

    2008-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disease of the sarcomere, with considerable genetic heterogeneity and variability in phenotypic expression, whose main complication is sudden cardiac death (SCD). Genetic aspects of HCM, its molecular pathophysiology and genotype-phenotype relationships are the subject of this review, which is aimed at better understanding of practical management in this patient population. As HCM is a genetic disease whose initial manifestation can be sudden death, it is essential to establish the diagnosis at an early stage, to proceed with risk stratification and implementation of SCD prevention strategies, and to promote genetic counseling of patients and screening of their families. Detection of pathological mutations through progressive sequencing of the genes most commonly involved is the most efficient way to diagnose HCM, even in the absence of clinical evidence of the disease. Identification of individuals at high risk of SCD is a major challenge in the management of this population, since SCD can be prevented by use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The selection of patients for prophylactic implantation of these devices, particularly those who have only one major risk factor, is currently the subject of controversy.

  9. Seed priming: state of the art and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, S; Araújo, S S; Rossi, G; Wijayasinghe, M; Carbonera, D; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2015-08-01

    Priming applied to commercial seed lots is widely used by seed technologists to enhance seed vigour in terms of germination potential and increased stress tolerance. Priming can be also valuable to seed bank operators who need improved protocols of ex situ conservation of germplasm collections (crop and native species). Depending on plant species, seed morphology and physiology, different priming treatments can be applied, all of them triggering the so-called 'pre-germinative metabolism'. This physiological process takes place during early seed imbibition and includes the seed repair response (activation of DNA repair pathways and antioxidant mechanisms), essential to preserve genome integrity, ensuring proper germination and seedling development. The review provides an overview of priming technology, describing the range of physical-chemical and biological treatments currently available. Optimised priming protocols can be designed using the 'hydrotime concept' analysis which provides the theoretical bases for assessing the relationship between water potential and germination rate. Despite the efforts so far reported to further improve seed priming, novel ideas and cutting-edge investigations need to be brought into this technological sector of agri-seed industry. Multidisciplinary translational research combining digital, bioinformatic and molecular tools will significantly contribute to expand the range of priming applications to other relevant commercial sectors, e.g. the native seed market.

  10. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhukar; Nicol, Mark P; Boehme, Catharina C

    2016-10-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement. However, new diagnostics are yet to reach scale, and there needs to be greater convergence between diagnostics development and the development of shorter TB drug regimens. Another concern is the relative absence of non-sputum-based diagnostics in the pipeline for children, and of biomarker tests for triage, cure, and latent TB progression. Increased investments are necessary to support biomarker discovery, validation, and translation into clinical tools. While transformative tools are being developed, high-burden countries will need to improve the efficiency of their health care delivery systems, ensure better uptake of new technologies, and achieve greater linkages across the TB and HIV care continuum. While we wait for next-generation technologies, national TB programs must scale up the best diagnostics currently available, and use implementation science to get the maximum impact.

  11. The Backstroke Swimming Start: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesus Karla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the ‘state of the art’ literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers’ proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ~5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances

  12. State of the art: gene therapy of haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, H T; Riley, B E; Doering, C B

    2016-07-01

    Clinical gene therapy has been practiced for more than a quarter century and the first products are finally gaining regulatory/marketing approval. As of 2016, there have been 11 haemophilia gene therapy clinical trials of which six are currently open. Each of the ongoing phase 1/2 trials is testing a variation of a liver-directed adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector encoding either factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX) . As summarized herein, the clinical results to date have been mixed with some perceived success and a clear recognition of the immune response to AAV as an obstacle to therapeutic success. We also attempt to highlight promising late-stage preclinical activities for AAV-FVIII where, due to inherent challenges with manufacture, delivery and transgene product biosynthesis, more technological development has been necessary to achieve results comparable to what has been observed previously for AAV-FIX. Finally, we describe the development of a stem cell-based lentiviral vector gene therapy product that has the potential to provide lifelong production of FVIII and provide a functional 'cure' for haemophilia A. Integral to this program has been the incorporation of a blood cell-specific gene expression element driving the production of a bioengineered FVIII designed for optimal efficiency. As clearly outlined herein, haemophilia remains at the forefront of the rapidly advancing clinical gene therapy field where there exists a shared expectation that transformational advances are on the horizon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Big-hole drilling - the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackey, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The art of big-hole drilling has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site since the start of underground testing in 1961. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary-drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. The current design of bits, cutters, and other big-hole-drilling hardware results from contributions of manufacturers and Test Site personnel. The dual-string, air-lift, reverse-circulation system was developed at the Test Site. Necessity was really the Mother of this invention, but this circulation system is worthy of consideration under almost any condition. Drill rigs for big-hole drilling are usually adaptations of large oil-well drill rigs with minor modifications required to handle the big bits and drilling assemblies. Steel remains the favorite shaft lining material, but a lot of thought is being given to concrete linings, especially precast concrete.

  14. Urban wind energy. State of the Art 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, C.

    2009-10-15

    Wind energy in urban areas is a new area and a rather blank page concerning design criteria, aesthetics, concepts, minimizing costs etc. Even though the potential energy in the flow is much higher on the country side or off-shore, the erection of wind turbines in urban areas is carried out and also shows perspectives regarding e. g. direct use of the energy instead of redirecting the energy to the grid and reduction of transmission loss. Within the area of urban wind energy, different applications are to be distinguished. The main groups are turbines integrated in buildings, small turbines on already existing buildings and free standing turbines in public areas. In this report, a look is taken on the mentioned applications, a short introduction to urban climate is given, followed by a list of already existing small turbines which are compared. Examples in between, field tests and experiments support the understanding. An overview of current projects set the application of wind turbines in the urban environment in a relevant perspective. (author)

  15. State of the Art in Parallel Computing with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmidberger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available R is a mature open-source programming language for statistical computing and graphics. Many areas of statistical research are experiencing rapid growth in the size of data sets. Methodological advances drive increased use of simulations. A common approach is to use parallel computing.This paper presents an overview of techniques for parallel computing with R on computer clusters, on multi-core systems, and in grid computing. It reviews sixteen different packages, comparing them on their state of development, the parallel technology used, as well as on usability, acceptance, and performance.Two packages (snow, Rmpi stand out as particularly suited to general use on computer clusters. Packages for grid computing are still in development, with only one package currently available to the end user. For multi-core systems five different packages exist, but a number of issues pose challenges to early adopters. The paper concludes with ideas for further developments in high performance computing with R. Example code is available in the appendix.

  16. Genetic Bases of Stuttering: The State of the Art, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Yairi, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Objective The literature on the genetics of stuttering is reviewed with special reference to the historical development from psychosocial explanations leading up to current biological research of gene identification. Summary A gradual progression has been made from the early crude methods of counting percentages of stuttering probands who have relatives who stutter to recent studies using entire genomes of DNA collected from each participant. Despite the shortcomings of some early studies, investigators have accumulated a substantial body of data showing a large presence of familial stuttering. This encouraged more refined research in the form of twin studies. Concordance rates among twins were sufficiently high to lend additional support to the genetic perspective of stuttering. More sophisticated aggregation studies and segregation analyses followed, producing data that matched recognized genetic models, providing the final ‘go ahead’ to proceed from the behavior/statistical genetics into the sphere of biological genetics. Recent linkage and association studies have begun to reveal contributing genes to the disorder. Conclusion No definitive findings have been made regarding which transmission model, chromosomes, genes, or sex factors are involved in the expression of stuttering in the population at large. Future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22067705

  17. Turbidite systems: State of the art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normark, W.R.; Posamentier, H.; Mutti, E.

    1993-01-01

    The study of turbidite systems covering a wide range of physical scales has led to confus ion regarding the use of certain key terms and hence a breakdown in communication between workers involved in turbidite research. There are three fundamentally different scales and types of observations derived from the study of outcrop data (ancient systems), high-resolution seismic reflection and side scan sonar data (modern systems), and multichannel seismic reflection data (modern and older buried systems). Despite the variability of scale the same terms are used to describe features that may have little in common. Consequently, turbidite system terminology has become imprecise and even misleading in some cases, thus providing impediments to developing useful predictive models for processes, depositional environments, and lateral and vertical distribution of sand bodies within turbidite systems. To address this concern, we review the principal elements critical to deepwater systems: slump scars, submarine canyons, channels, channel fill deposits, overbank deposits, and lobes and discuss some of their recognition criteria with each different type of data base. Local and regional tectonic setting, relative sea level variations, and bottom current activity are probably the main factors that control size, external geometry, internal stratal configuration, and facies characteristics of both modern and ancient turbidite systems. These factors ultimately control the timing and bounding characteristics between stages of growth of deepwater systems. If comparison of elements from different turbidite deposits using various data types is carried out at similar physical and temporal scales, predictive models eventually may be improved.

  18. Glioblastoma multiforme: State of the art and future therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common and lethal primary malignancy of the central nervous system (CNS. Despite the proven benefit of surgical resection and aggressive treatment with chemo- and radiotherapy, the prognosis remains very poor. Recent advances of our understanding of the biology and pathophysiology of GBM have allowed the development of a wide array of novel therapeutic approaches, which have been developed. These novel approaches include molecularly targeted therapies, immunotherapies, and gene therapy. Methods: We offer a brief review of the current standard of care, and a survey of novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of GBM. Results: Despite promising results in preclinical trials, many of these therapies have demonstrated limited therapeutic efficacy in human clinical trials. Thus, although survival of patients with GBM continues to slowly improve, treatment of GBM remains extremely challenging. Conclusion: Continued research and development of targeted therapies, based on a detailed understanding of molecular pathogenesis can reasonably be expected to yield improved outcomes for patients with GBM.

  19. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

  20. Glucocorticoids and the cardiovascular system: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Udi; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Pereira, Rosa Maria R; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are drugs commonly used, by approximately 1% of the total adult population as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies for asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatological, ophthalmic, neurological, and rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Supporting evidence exists of GC use in both immune mediated and non-immune mediated heart disease. The molecular mechanisms by which GC induces immune-modulation and direct cardioprotection, are complex and not fully understood. We review herein, the current knowledge of GC use in various immune-mediated or non-immune mediated cardiovascular conditions. GC have been investigated in autoimmune, inflammatory and idiopathic heart diseases such as atrio-ventricular conduction abnormalities, rheumatic fever, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Kawasaki disease and sarcoidosis. GC therapy has been studied in non-autoimmune and non-inflammatory indications such as acute myocardial infarction, angina, postpericardiotomy syndrome and other pericardial diseases, endocarditis and cardiac amyloidosis, as well as in invasive cardiology, coronary interventions, and cardiopulmonary-bypass surgery. Despite GC's role as natural, physiologic regulators of the immune system, cardiovascular adverse outcomes may occur. Some of the well-known side effects of GC therapy involve bone, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems and include osteoporosis, fractures, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension.

  1. Vibration Testing - Reviewing the State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, N.F.

    1999-06-23

    Vibration testing has advanced significantly over the past several decades. Comparatively speaking, enormous volumes of acceleration data are now available for virtually every vibration test. This data is readily compressed into frequency response functions and modal models. The modal models are compared with corresponding analytical models. Model updating techniques are used to adjust analytical model parameters to minimize the differences between model and test frequencies and mode shapes. These are very positive developments. Model and testing limitations lie in areas other than the direct recording and translation of acceleration data to modal models. Two major limitations of models are the inability to model damping and the limited degree to which nonlinear behavior is incorporated into model construction and model validation. Much more thorough understanding of damping mechanisms in real structures is required. Currently we know enough to bound the range of damping values for some typical structures. A much more thorough understanding of mechanical joints is required to accurately model structural joints. Some studies now underway offer a beginning to such understanding.

  2. State of the Art Review: Poverty and the Developing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Riis, Jenna L; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, >40% of children are either poor or near-poor. As a group, children in poverty are more likely to experience worse health and more developmental delay, lower achievement, and more behavioral and emotional problems than their more advantaged peers; however, there is broad variability in outcomes among children exposed to similar conditions. Building on a robust literature from animal models showing that environmental deprivation or enrichment shapes the brain, there has been increasing interest in understanding how the experience of poverty may shape the brain in humans. In this review, we summarize research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and brain development, focusing on studies published in the last 5 years. Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by animal models, we highlight neural plasticity, epigenetics, material deprivation (eg, cognitive stimulation, nutrient deficiencies), stress (eg, negative parenting behaviors), and environmental toxins as factors that may shape the developing brain. We then summarize the existing evidence for the relationship between child poverty and brain structure and function, focusing on brain areas that support memory, emotion regulation, and higher-order cognitive functioning (ie, hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex) and regions that support language and literacy (ie, cortical areas of the left hemisphere). We then consider some limitations of the current literature and discuss the implications of neuroscience concepts and methods for interventions in the pediatric medical home.

  3. Soil ecotoxicology: state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2012-01-01

    Developments in soil ecotoxicology started with observations on pesticide effects on soil invertebrates in the 1960s. To support the risk assessment of chemicals, in the 1980s and 1990s development of toxicity tests was the main issue, including single species tests and also more realistic test systems like model ecosystems and field tests focusing on structural and functional endpoints. In the mean time, awareness grew about issues like bioavailability and routes of exposure, while biochemical endpoints (biomarkers) were proposed as sensitive and potential early-warning tools. In recent years, interactions between different chemicals (mixture toxicity) and between chemical and other stressors attracted scientific interest. With the development of molecular biology, omics tools are gaining increasing interest, while the ecological relevance of exposure and effects is translating into concepts like (chemical) stress ecology, ecological vulnerability and trait-based approaches. This contribution addresses historical developments and focuses on current issues in soil ecotoxicology. It is concluded that soil ecotoxicological risk assessment would benefit from extending the available battery of toxicity tests by including e.g. isopods, by paying more attention to exposure, bioavailability and toxicokinetics, and by developing more insight into the ecology of soil organisms to support better understanding of exposure and long-term consequences of chemical exposure at the individual, population and community level. Ecotoxicogenomics tools may also be helpful in this, but will require considerable further research before they can be applied in the practice of soil ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  4. Soil ecotoxicology: state of the art and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis A.M. van Gestel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in soil ecotoxicology started with observations on pesticide effects on soil invertebrates in the 1960s. To support the risk assessment of chemicals, in the 1980s and 1990s development of toxicity tests was the main issue, including single species tests and also more realistic test systems like model ecosystems and field tests focusing on structural and functional endpoints. In the mean time, awareness grew about issues like bioavailability and routes of exposure, while biochemical endpoints (biomarkers were proposed as sensitive and potential early-warning tools. In recent years, interactions between different chemicals (mixture toxicity and between chemical and other stressors attracted scientific interest. With the development of molecular biology, omics tools are gaining increasing interest, while the ecological relevance of exposure and effects is translating into concepts like (chemical stress ecology, ecological vulnerability and trait-based approaches. This contribution addresses historical developments and focuses on current issues in soil ecotoxicology. It is concluded that soil ecotoxicological risk assessment would benefit from extending the available battery of toxicity tests by including e.g. isopods, by paying more attention to exposure, bioavailability and toxicokinetics, and by developing more insight into the ecology of soil organisms to support better understanding of exposure and long-term consequences of chemical exposure at the individual, population and community level. Ecotoxicogenomics tools may also be helpful in this, but will require considerable further research before they can be applied in the practice of soil ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  5. Inter-comparison of state-of-the-art MSS and geoid models in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinead; Hendricks, Stefan

    in errors in the estimated freeboard heights, especially in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice conditions. Additionally these errors can impact ocean geostrophic current estimates and remaining biases in the models may impact longer-term, multi-sensor oceanographic time-series of sea......State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) and geoid models are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, and for oceanographic studies. However, errors in a given model in the high frequency domain, e.g. due to unresolved gravity features, can result...

  6. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.

    2002-01-01

    This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion

  7. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiena I

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Izak Faiena, Christopher Sejong Han, Ephrem O Olweny Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Introduction: The surgical management of small renal masses (<4 cm has greatly evolved over the last few decades, with the paradigm shifting from radical to partial nephrectomy. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN is increasingly utilized, and has achieved similar outcomes to open partial nephrectomy with decreased patient morbidity in experienced hands. The aim of this review was to examine the current status and future direction of LPN. Materials and methods: We performed a nonsystematic review of the literature using a free-text protocol in the PubMed database, using the terms “laparoscopic partial nephrectomy”, “robot-assisted partial nephrectomy”, “robotic partial nephrectomy”, and “laparoscopic partial nephrectomy oncologic and functional outcomes”. Only English language articles were selected. Evidence synthesis: Our search results yielded 1,136. Three authors reviewed the results, and articles with information on patient and tumor selection, surgical techniques, and oncologic and functional outcomes were included. With regard to outcomes, only series with the largest cohorts and longest follow-up were selected. Conclusion: LPN has evolved rapidly over the past 2 decades, and advances in technique as well as innovations in surgical technologies have facilitated its increased adoption in urologic practice. However, limitations remain, such as inadequacy of techniques to achieve cold ischemia laparoscopically, high technical demands of intracorporeal suturing, and limited ability to assess surgical anatomy beyond the field of view. These comprise goals of research aimed at improving future surgical precision and outcomes, while further decreasing the invasiveness of LPN. Keywords: nephrectomy, robotics, kidney

  8. Alternatives to overcoming bacterial resistances: State-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Alessandra C; Moutinho, Carla G; Pinto, Flávio C; Del Fiol, Fernando S; Jozala, Angela; Chaud, Marco V; Vila, Marta M D C; Teixeira, José A; Balcão, Victor M

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, bacterial resistance to chemical antibiotics has reached such a high level that endangers public health. Presently, the adoption of alternative strategies that promote the elimination of resistant microbial strains from the environment is of utmost importance. This review discusses and analyses several (potential) alternative strategies to current chemical antibiotics. Bacteriophage (or phage) therapy, although not new, makes use of strictly lytic phage particles as an alternative, or a complement, in the antimicrobial treatment of bacterial infections. It is being rediscovered as a safe method, because these biological entities devoid of any metabolic machinery do not possess any affinity whatsoever to eukaryotic cells. Lysin therapy is also recognized as an innovative antimicrobial therapeutic option, since the topical administration of preparations containing purified recombinant lysins with amounts in the order of nanograms, in infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, demonstrated a high therapeutic potential by causing immediate lysis of the target bacterial cells. Additionally, this therapy exhibits the potential to act synergistically when combined with certain chemical antibiotics already available on the market. Another potential alternative antimicrobial therapy is based on the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), amphiphilic polypeptides that cause disruption of the bacterial membrane and can be used in the treatment of bacterial, fungal and viral infections, in the prevention of biofilm formation, and as antitumoral agents. Interestingly, bacteriocins are a common strategy of bacterial defense against other bacterial agents, eliminating the potential opponents of the former and increasing the number of available nutrients in the environment for their own growth. They can be applied in the food industry as biopreservatives and as probiotics, and also in fighting multi-resistant bacterial strains. The use of antibacterial antibodies

  9. Thermosensitive liposomal drug delivery systems: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kneidl B

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Kneidl,1,2 Michael Peller,3 Gerhard Winter,2 Lars H Lindner,1 Martin Hossann11Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Munich, 2Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, 3Institute for Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Thermosensitive liposomes are a promising tool for external targeting of drugs to solid tumors when used in combination with local hyperthermia or high intensity focused ultrasound. In vivo results have demonstrated strong evidence that external targeting is superior over passive targeting achieved by highly stable long-circulating drug formulations like PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Up to March 2014, the Web of Science listed 371 original papers in this field, with 45 in 2013 alone. Several formulations have been developed since 1978, with lysolipid-containing, low temperature-sensitive liposomes currently under clinical investigation. This review summarizes the historical development and effects of particular phospholipids and surfactants on the biophysical properties and in vivo efficacy of thermosensitive liposome formulations. Further, treatment strategies for solid tumors are discussed. Here we focus on temperature-triggered intravascular and interstitial drug release. Drug delivery guided by magnetic resonance imaging further adds the possibility of performing online monitoring of a heating focus to calculate locally released drug concentrations and to externally control drug release by steering the heating volume and power. The combination of external targeting with thermosensitive liposomes and magnetic resonance-guided drug delivery will be the unique characteristic of this nanotechnology approach in medicine.Keywords: thermosensitive liposomes, phosphatidyloligoglycerol, hyperthermia, high intensity focused ultrasound, drug delivery, drug targeting

  10. Sepsis biomarkers and pathogen detection methods: State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Roland P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based blood culture testing is of utmost importance for ICU patients with suspected sepsis or organ infection. Knowledge of the etiologic agent (bacteria or fungi and their susceptibility against antimicrobials enables the clinician to initiate an appropriate antimicrobial therapy and guides diagnostic procedures. This has been shown to reduce mortality, ICU-stay and antibiotic overuse. Whereas microbiological laboratory practice has been highly standardized, short­falls in the preanalytic procedures in the ICU (indication, timing, volume, numbers, collection of blood cultures have a significant effect on the diagnostic yield. Due to system-related drawbacks of molecular diagnostics, i.e. PCR-based pathogen detection, which are arguable sensitivities, the failing of the 'fast time-to-result argument', no solution to establish a comprising antibiogram, still ongoing discussions on the coverage of the tar­get panel, high overall costs, and the lacking of resilient data on clinical utility, non-culture-based NATs do currently not represent an alternative to blood culture testing. Inflammatory markers are recognized to play an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of sepsis. This is partly due to low specificity of clinical symptoms and conventional inflammatory signs for the diagnosis of sepsis but also to a lack of correlation with the severity of the inflammatory response. Elevated serum PCT levels indicate systemic inflammation reliably. PCT is the only sepsis marker that is helpful in the differentiation between infectious and non-infectious causes of organ dysfunction and shock and might support antibiotic therapy.

  11. Landform Geodiversity - State of the Art and future Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of understanding of geodiversity in general terms and with regard to the relief forms of the earth. It will be pointed the key factors and elements for investigation of the landform geodiversity. A subject area of landform geodiversity encompasses among others the couple relationships between geology/lithology and landforms, the couple connections between landforms and water as well as the climate, the multi-directional connections/relationships/feedbacks between landforms and other/all components of the natural environment, the linkage between landform geodiversity and morphoclimatic zones, the role of anthropopression (anthropogenetic factors) within landform geodiversity, landform geodiversity in man-made environment, classification and typology of landform geodiversity, and the location and nature of past and present unique landforms. Geodiversity research is carried out in many countries and by different authors. Each research approaches represented by these authors differentiate a bit. An overview of these research approaches will be one part of this presentation. After the review of the methodological assumptions will be a brief overview of the research methods used by different authors. On the one hand the variety of research methods is justified because they correspond to the characteristics of the investigated areas and indicate the best way to describe the landform geodiversity. On the other hand the variety of research methods should also be seen as common, universal methodic solutions for investigation of geodiversity to comparative studies in the glocal scale, i.e. from local through regional to global scales. At the end of the presentation will be presented the selected future aspects of the landform geodiversity in the context, inter alia, the relationship to biodiversity, the role of the anthropopression in geodiversity, ecosystem services, sustainable development, and geoconservation.

  12. Cancer prevention: state of the art and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, I; Tramalloni, D; Bragazzi, N L

    2015-06-10

    Cancer imposes a heavy societal burden worldwide, in terms of both epidemiology and costs. The introduction of more sophisticated imaging and diagnostic techniques and advanced drugs that specifically target tumor cells is leading to increasingly expensive treatments, which may be affordable only for few patients. Prevention, and particularly primary prevention, is an effective way of addressing the challenging issue of cancer, since between a third and a half of cancers could be prevented on the basis of our current knowledge of risk factors. Moreover, prevention is cost-effective, its effects are not limited to high-risk subjects but extend to the entire population, and it is not dependent on socioeconomic status. Regulatory measures can have a broad impact, even on future generations; by empowering and educating subjects, promoting healthy behaviours and teaching self-care, they can trigger a virtuous cycle. In recent decades, oncology has shifted from being merely reactive to being proactive; this shift has led to the development of so-called "P4 medicine", where the 4 Ps stand for "preventive", "predictive", "personalized" and "participatory". Prevention programs are an important part of the effort to control cancer, as they are able to reduce both the incidence of cancer and mortality. For instance, screening for colorectal, breast and cervical cancer is reducing the burden of these common tumors. Anti-cancer vaccines, both prophylactic and therapeutic, constitute another important preventive tool. Although progress has been made in these areas, much remains to be done. With regard to screening programs, coverage could be increased by introducing new, more acceptable, less invasive tests, stratifying screening through correlation with anamnestic, clinical, radiological and genomic data (so-called "populationbased personalized cancer screening"), and exploiting new information and communication technologies, such as smartphone applications or personalized text

  13. HIGH DENSITY AERIAL IMAGE MATCHING: STATE-OF-THE-ART AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Haala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing innovations in matching algorithms are continuously improving the quality of geometric surface representations generated automatically from aerial images. This development motivated the launch of the joint ISPRS/EuroSDR project “Benchmark on High Density Aerial Image Matching”, which aims on the evaluation of photogrammetric 3D data capture in view of the current developments in dense multi-view stereo-image matching. Originally, the test aimed on image based DSM computation from conventional aerial image flights for different landuse and image block configurations. The second phase then put an additional focus on high quality, high resolution 3D geometric data capture in complex urban areas. This includes both the extension of the test scenario to oblique aerial image flights as well as the generation of filtered point clouds as additional output of the respective multi-view reconstruction. The paper uses the preliminary outcomes of the benchmark to demonstrate the state-of-the-art in airborne image matching with a special focus of high quality geometric data capture in urban scenarios.

  14. Neurofeedback Therapy for Enhancing Visual Attention: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Sorensen, Helge B. D.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2016-01-01

    We have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) linking the brain to external devices. BCIs can be utilized to treat neurological conditions and even to augment brain functions. BCIs offer a promising treatment for mental disorders, including disorders of attention. Here we review the current state of the art and challenges of attention-based BCIs, with a focus on visual attention. Attention-based BCIs utilize electroencephalograms (EEGs) or other recording techniques to generate neurofeedback, which patients use to improve their attention, a complex cognitive function. Although progress has been made in the studies of neural mechanisms of attention, extraction of attention-related neural signals needed for BCI operations is a difficult problem. To attain good BCI performance, it is important to select the features of neural activity that represent attentional signals. BCI decoding of attention-related activity may be hindered by the presence of different neural signals. Therefore, BCI accuracy can be improved by signal processing algorithms that dissociate signals of interest from irrelevant activities. Notwithstanding recent progress, optimal processing of attentional neural signals remains a fundamental challenge for the development of efficient therapies for disorders of attention. PMID:27536212

  15. State-of-the-Art Electron Guns and Injector Designs for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M.M. Todd; A. Ambrosio; H. Bluem; V. Christina; M.D. Cole; M. Falletta; D. Holmes; E. Peterson; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; R. Wong; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; H. Hahn; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; V. Litvinenko; G.T. McIntyre; T. Nicoletti; J. Rank; T. Rao; J. Scaduto; K.-C. Wu; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; S.V. Benson; E. Daly; D. Douglas; H.F.D. Dylla; L. W. Funk; C. Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hogan; P. Kneisel; J. Mammosser; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble; R.A. Rimmer; C.H. Rode; T. Siggins; T. Whitlach; M. Wiseman; I.E. Campisi; P. Colestock; J.P. Kelley; S.S. Kurennoy; D.C. Nguyen; W. Reass; D. Rees; S.J. Russell; D.L. Schrage; R.L. Wood; D. Janssen; J.W. Lewellen; J.S. Sekutowicz; L.M. Young

    2005-05-01

    A key technology issue of ERL devices for high-power free-electron laser (FEL) and 4th generation light sources is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. Ongoing programs that target up to 1 Ampere injector performance at emittance values consistent with the requirements of these applications are described. We consider that there are three possible approaches that could deliver the required performance. The first is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. Such a 750 MHz device is being integrated and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility beginning in 2007. The second approach is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun will undergo thermal test in 2006 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which, if successful, when equipped with a suitable cathode, would be capable of 1 Ampere operation. The last option is an SRF gun. A half-cell 703 MHz SRF gun capable of delivering 1.0 Ampere will be tested to 0.5 Ampere at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2006. The fabrication status, schedule and projected performance for each of these state-of-the-art injector programs will be presented.

  16. Bivalve Omics: State of the Art and Potential Applications for the Biomonitoring of Harmful Marine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Venier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.

  17. English Language Teaching Methods: State of the Art in Grammar Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdiana Junaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of grammar has fluctuated and shifted over years. This paper addresses issues such as different ways of teaching grammar, changes in ideas, and practices at the present stage of its development as well as the current state of the art in grammar instruction. Several grammar textbooks which were published in different years also are looked at in order to discover the extent of change in terms of the materials used to teach grammar from time to time. A considerable array of English language teaching methods is available for teacher to utilize since 1980s. Before deciding to employ a particular method, however, educational practitioners need to take several things into consideration such as the objectives of the instruction, the needs, the interests, the expectation, the age, and the level of the learners, and the available supporting facilities. Equally important, the possible constraints such as the environment where the students are learning, the time, and the expectation of the institution are also needed to be considered.

  18. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. State-of-the-art review of the applications of nanotechnology in pavement materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luis, Jr.

    The use of nanotechnology in pavement materials is one main area that shows great promise and has the potential to change commonly used materials. This will develop more effective solutions to achieve the desired performance. The overall objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review of nano-science-based principles to improve the performance and, ultimately, the life cycle of transportation construction materials. This work will be organized into two different parts. The first part will consist of six sections: applications of nanotechnology in concrete pavements, applications of nanotechnology in asphalt pavement, application of nanotechnology in general soils, cost-benefit analysis, challenges, and trends to the future. In addition, a current practice review was performed from a literature review that included a questionnaire of the knowledge and opinion about nanotechnology, which included students, general contractors, teachers, engineers, and architects. The second part will deal with the advancement of the application of nanotechnology in pavement materials for different developed countries. Because nanotechnology is relatively a young field in pavement materials, limited research has been conducted in North America, Europe, and Asia. A comparison of the advancement of nano-science-based principles, as applied to the performance and life cycle of transportation materials, for the three continents will be carried out in a summarized manner.

  20. State-of-the-Art Pediatric Hypnosis Training: Remodeling Curriculum and Refining Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Daniel P; Kaiser, Pamela; Olness, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Training in pediatric hypnosis has been part of clinical hypnosis education in the United States since 1976. Workshops expanded over time and are now taught by highly experienced pediatric clinicians across the globe. In 1987, a small vanguard of North American faculty, academic pediatricians, and pediatric psychologists taught a 3-day pediatric hypnosis workshop at the national meeting of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (SDBP). This model of annual tri-level concurrent workshops (introductory, intermediate, and advanced) was sponsored by the SDBP for 24 years. In 2009, the National Pediatric Hypnosis Training Institute (NPHTI) assembled, and in 2010, offered its first annual workshops. This article documents this history of pediatric hypnosis education and describes NPHTI's remodeling and ongoing refinement toward a state-of-the-art curriculum with innovative methodology based upon (1) current research about adult experiential and small group learning; (2) design principles for presentations that maximize adult learning and memory; and (3) evaluations by participants and faculty. These underpinnings-including clinical training videos, individualized learning choices, emphasis on personalized, goal-oriented sessions, and advances in faculty selection, and ongoing development-are applicable to adult training models. Integration of developmental and self-regulation strategies may be more unique to pediatric hypnosis skills training programs. The conclusion proposes expansion of pediatric hypnosis education and elimination of related barriers toward goals that all children learn self-hypnosis (SH) for mind-body health.

  1. Neurofeedback therapy for enhancing visual attention: state-of-the-art and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs linking the brain to external devices. BCIs can be utilized to treat neurological conditions and even to augment brain functions. BCIs offer a promising treatment for mental disorders, including disorders of attention. Here we review the current state of the art and challenges of attention-based BCIs, with a focus on visual attention. Attention-based BCIs utilize electroencephalograms (EEGs or other recording techniques to generate neurofeedback, which patients use to improve their attention, a complex cognitive function. Although progress has been made in the studies of neural mechanisms of attention, extraction of attention-related neural signals needed for BCI operations is a difficult problem. To attain good BCI performance, it is important to select the features of neural activity that represent attentional signals. BCI decoding of attention-related activity may be hindered by the presence of different neural signals. Therefore, BCI accuracy can be improved by signal processing algorithms that dissociate signals of interest from irrelevant activities. Notwithstanding recent progress, optimal processing of attentional neural signals remains a fundamental challenge for the development of efficient therapies for disorders of attention.

  2. Combining Brain-Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José del R. Millán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new research has brought the field of EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT. In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely,“Communication & Control”, “Motor Substitution”, “Entertainment”, and “Motor Recovery”. We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user-machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users’ mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human-computer interaction (HCI to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices.

  3. Retinal imaging in the twenty-first century: state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Pearse A; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of chorioretinal disease is dependent on the ability to visualize pathologic changes occurring in the posterior segment of the eye using optical instruments, termed ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmoscopy, in turn, has been enhanced greatly by the development of techniques that allow recording of these changes, termed retinal imaging. As well as documenting pathologic features, retinal and fundal imaging facilitates the identification of morphologic features not visible to the clinician on biomicroscopy. As such, advances in retinal imaging have proven fundamental to many paradigm shifts in our understanding and treatment of ocular disease. In the 1950s, with the advent of electronic flashes and 35-mm cameras, the field of modern fundus photography was born. Similarly, in the 1960s and 1970s, the introduction of fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revolutionized our ability to assess the integrity of the chorioretinal vasculature. More recently, in the 1990s, the introduction of a wholly new form of noninvasive cross-sectional imaging, optical coherence tomography, has greatly facilitated use of emerging pharmacotherapies in diagnosing and monitoring chorioretinal disease. In this translational science review, we provide an overview of current, state-of-the-art retinal imaging technologies, as well as highlight many emerging imaging technologies that we believe are likely to transform the provision of eye care in the 21st century.

  4. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Marka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last three years Greece is experiencing the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV epidemics. Within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (MALWEST project with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. One out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the State of the Art report for WNV. Three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched together with websites: e.g., WHO, CDC, ECDC. In total, 1,092 relevant articles were initially identified and 258 of them were finally included as references regarding the current knowledge about WNV, along with 36 additional sources (conference papers, reports, book chapters. The review is divided in three sections according to the fields of interest: (1 WNV in humans (epidemiology, molecular characteristics, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, surveillance; (2 WNV in animals (epidemiological and transmission characteristics concerning birds, horses, reptiles and other animal species and (3 WNV in mosquitoes (control, surveillance. Finally, some examples of integrated surveillance programmes are presented. The introduction and establishment of the disease in Greece and other European countries further emphasizes the need for thorough research and broadening of our knowledge on this viral pathogen.

  5. Combining Brain-Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J D R; Rupp, R; Müller-Putz, G R; Murray-Smith, R; Giugliemma, C; Tangermann, M; Vidaurre, C; Cincotti, F; Kübler, A; Leeb, R; Neuper, C; Müller, K-R; Mattia, D

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, new research has brought the field of electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfacing (BCI) out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT). In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely, "Communication and Control", "Motor Substitution", "Entertainment", and "Motor Recovery". We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user-machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users' mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human-computer interaction (HCI) to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices.

  6. Accuracy of State-of-the-Art Actuator-Line Modeling for Wind Turbine Wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Pankaj; Churchfield, Matthew; Moriarty, Patrick; Schmitz, Sven

    2013-01-14

    The current actuator line method (ALM) within an OpenFOAM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to perform simulations of the NREL Phase VI rotor under rotating and parked conditions, two fixed-wing designs both with an elliptic spanwise loading, and the NREL 5-MW turbine. The objective of this work is to assess and improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art ALM in predicting rotor blade loads, particularly by focusing on the method used to project the actuator forces onto the flow field as body forces. Results obtained for sectional normal and tangential force coefficients were compared to available experimental data and to the in-house performance code XTurb-PSU. It was observed that the ALM results agree well with measured data and results obtained from XTurb-PSU except in the root and tip regions if a three-dimensional Gaussian of width, ε, constant along the blade span is used to project the actuator force onto the flow field. A new method is proposed where the Gaussian width, ε, varies along the blade span following an elliptic distribution. A general criterion is derived that applies to any planform shape. It is found that the new criterion for ε leads to improved prediction of blade tip loads for a variety of blade planforms and rotor conditions considered.

  7. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marka, Andriani; Diamantidis, Alexandros; Papa, Anna; Valiakos, George; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C.; Doukas, Dimitrios; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Patsoula, Eleni; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Baka, Agoritsa; Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Koliopoulos, George; Tontis, Dimitrios; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Billinis, Charalambos; Tsakris, Athanassios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    During the last three years Greece is experiencing the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics. Within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (MALWEST project) with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. One out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the State of the Art report for WNV. Three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus) were searched together with websites: e.g., WHO, CDC, ECDC. In total, 1,092 relevant articles were initially identified and 258 of them were finally included as references regarding the current knowledge about WNV, along with 36 additional sources (conference papers, reports, book chapters). The review is divided in three sections according to the fields of interest: (1) WNV in humans (epidemiology, molecular characteristics, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, surveillance); (2) WNV in animals (epidemiological and transmission characteristics concerning birds, horses, reptiles and other animal species) and (3) WNV in mosquitoes (control, surveillance). Finally, some examples of integrated surveillance programmes are presented. The introduction and establishment of the disease in Greece and other European countries further emphasizes the need for thorough research and broadening of our knowledge on this viral pathogen. PMID:24317379

  8. Laser-accelerated high-energy ions: state of-the-art and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghesi, M [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fuchs, J [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Willi, O [Institut fuer Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    The acceleration of high-energy ion beams (up to several tens of MeV per nucleon) following the interaction of short (t < 1ps) and intense (I{lambda}{sup 2}> 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2} {mu}m{sup -2}) laser pulses with solid targets has been one of the most important results of recent laser-plasma research. The acceleration is driven by relativistic electrons, which acquire energy directly from the laser pulse and set up extremely large ({approx}TV/m) space charge fields at the target interfaces. In view of a number of advantageous properties, laser-driven ion beams can be employed in a number of innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. Among these, their possible use in hadrontherapy, with potential reduction of facility costs, has been proposed recently. This paper will briefly review the current state-of-the-art in laser-driven proton/ion source development, and will discuss the progress needed in order to implement some of the above applications. Recent results relating to the optimization of beam energy, spectrum and collimation will be presented.

  9. Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Sharoare Hossain; Anders Johannisson; Margareta Wallgren; Szabolcs Nagy; Amanda Pimenta Siqueira; Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of 'bench-top' flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa.

  10. Non-invasive brain stimulation of the aging brain: State of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Elisa; Rossi, Simone; Innocenti, Iglis; Rossi, Alessandro; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Favored by increased life expectancy and reduced birth rate, worldwide demography is rapidly shifting to older ages. The golden age of aging is not only an achievement but also a big challenge because of the load of the elderly on social and medical health care systems. Moreover, the impact of age-related decline of attention, memory, reasoning and executive functions on self-sufficiency emphasizes the need of interventions to maintain cognitive abilities at a useful degree in old age. Recently, neuroscientific research explored the chance to apply Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NiBS) techniques (as transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation) to healthy aging population to preserve or enhance physiologically-declining cognitive functions. The present review will update and address the current state of the art on NiBS in healthy aging. Feasibility of NiBS techniques will be discussed in light of recent neuroimaging (either structural or functional) and neurophysiological models proposed to explain neural substrates of the physiologically aging brain. Further, the chance to design multidisciplinary interventions to maximize the efficacy of NiBS techniques will be introduced as a necessary future direction.

  11. State-of-the-art lab chip sensors for environmental water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Am; Zou, Zhiwei; Kug Lee, Kang; Ahn, Chong H.; Bishop, Paul L.

    2011-03-01

    As a result of increased water demand and water pollution, both surface water and groundwater quantity and quality are of major concern worldwide. In particular, the presence of nutrients and heavy metals in water is a serious threat to human health. The initial step for the effective management of surface waters and groundwater requires regular, continuous monitoring of water quality in terms of contaminant distribution and source identification. Because of this, there is a need for screening and monitoring measurements of these compounds at contaminated areas. However, traditional monitoring techniques are typically still based on laboratory analyses of representative field-collected samples; this necessitates considerable effort and expense, and the sample may change before analysis. Furthermore, currently available equipment is so large that it cannot usually be made portable. Alternatively, lab chip and electrochemical sensing-based portable monitoring systems appear well suited to complement standard analytical methods for a number of environmental monitoring applications. In addition, this type of portable system could save tremendous amounts of time, reagent, and sample if it is installed at contaminated sites such as Superfund sites (the USA's worst toxic waste sites) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facilities or in rivers and lakes. Accordingly, state-of-the-art monitoring equipment is necessary for accurate assessments of water quality. This article reviews details on our development of these lab-on-a-chip (LOC) sensors.

  12. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole;

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active...... mounted with a reduction gear. This paper presents state-of-the art within; hydraulic yaw system design and control of yaw systems in general. Primary focus on the advantages and disadvantages of using a hydraulic system for controlling the yaw of a wind turbine with a soft yaw concept....

  13. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. \\'output-sensitive\\' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are \\'ray-guided\\', \\'visualization-driven\\' or \\'display-aware\\'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each.

  15. Thermochemical and biochemical routes to biofuels: state of the art, opportunities and challenges for Brazil; Rotas termoquimica e bioquimica para biocombustiveis: estado-da-arte, oportunidades e desafios para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Coral, Doris del Socorro Obando; Rocha, Mateus Henrique [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    In this work are defined the fundamentals of thermochemical and biochemical platforms for the production of biofuels and electricity. The environmental advantages and the land use for both technological options are discussed. For each case, the process scheme and relevant products are presented, as well as, the technological challenges. In addition, it will be presented the products yields according to the current state of the art for both platforms, as well as, a description of the principal demonstrative and commercial projects that are currently either in construction or in operation. Finally, it will be present the results of recent economical studies in order to summarize the production cost of the most promising biofuels. R and D opportunities for Brazil in both platforms are evaluated also. (author)

  16. Fetal cells in maternal blood: state of the art for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S S; O'Donoghue, K; Choolani, M

    2003-09-01

    In Singapore, 1 in 5 pregnancies occur in mothers > 35 years old and genetic diseases, such as thalassaemia, are common. Current methods for the diagnosis of aneuploidy and monogenic disorders require invasive testing by amniocentesis, chorion villus biopsy or fetal blood sampling. These tests carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage that is unacceptable to many couples. Development of non-invasive methods for obtaining intact fetal cells would allow accurate prenatal diagnosis for aneuploidy and single gene disorders, without the attendant risks associated with invasive testing, and would increase the uptake of prenatal diagnosis by women at risk. Isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood should allow accurate non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of both aneuploidies and monogenic disorders. Expression of gamma-globin in maternal erythroblasts and the inability to locate fetal erythroblasts reliably in all pregnancies have prevented its clinical application. In the absence of a highly specific fetal cell marker, enrichment, identification and diagnosis--the 3 components of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis--have clearly defined objectives. Since fetal cells are rare in maternal blood, the sole purpose of enrichment is yield--to recover as many fetal cells as possible--even if purity is compromised at this stage. In contrast, the primary goal of identification is specificity; absolute certainty of fetal origin is required at this stage if the ultimate objective of diagnosis, accuracy, is to be achieved. This review summarises the current state of the art of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood.

  17. O&M Modeling of Offshore Wind Farms - State of the Art and Future Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgarpour, Masoud; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the state of the art in O&M models for O&M cost estimation of offshore wind farms is discussed and then, a case study for O&M cost estimation of an 800 MW reference offshore wind farm is given. Moreover, a framework for an ideal O&M strategy optimizer to achieve the maximum possible O...

  18. State-of-the-art of automated generalisation in commercial software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Baella, B.; Blok, C.; Burghardt, D.; Duchêne, C.; Pla, M.; Regnauld, N.; Touya, G.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the EuroSDR research project that studied the state-of-the-art of automated generalisation in commercial software in a collaboration between National Mapping Agencies (NMAs), research institutes and vendors. The aims of the study were to learn more about generic and specific map

  19. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  20. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...

  1. IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D. (2006). IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization. Presentation at the 8th International Simposio of Educational Computer Science. October, 24-27, 2006, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology.

  2. State-of-the-art reviews and bibliographies on energy. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-07-01

    Citations to bibliographies, state-of-the-art reviews, and literature surveys on various aspects of fossil fuels, wind, solar energy, hydrogen, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and batteries are presented. A few citations pertain to electric power. This updated bibliography contains 107 citations, 77 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  3. Library Services for the Handicapped in Maine; A State-of-the-Art Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick A.

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art report is to describe how handicapped readers in Maine receive their special library services as part of the national network. Handicapped readers are defined as those persons who are unable to read conventional print or handle conventionally printed materials because of some visual or physical impairment. The…

  4. State of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this article the state of the art research for online fault location on cross-bonded transmission level cables is presented. The article is focused on the difficulties in using the algorithms developed for OHL-systems and distribution cables directly on cross-bonded transmission cables. Impeda...

  5. Geneesmiddelengebruik en verkeersveiligheid : covernota bij het state-of-the-art onderzoek Geneesmiddelen en drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. Twisk, D.A.M. & Vis, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A state of the art report on the use of medicines and drugs and traffic safety (based on three other reports see B 26479, 29954 and 29960) is presented. Policy recommendations are discussed. It is argued that a large scale epidemiological study to determine the relative risk is not indicated. Instea

  6. 77 FR 5281 - State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    .... ACTION: Draft NUREG; public meeting and request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is holding public meetings concerning the release of Draft NUREG-1935, ``State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) Report,'' for public comment. The purpose of Draft NUREG-1935 is...

  7. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the ...

  8. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...

  9. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Axelsson, M.; Chabot, D.; Van der Meer, J.; Metcalfe, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of howit can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiologicalknowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limit

  10. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, De Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E.; Peck, Myron A.; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Shiels, Holly A.; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Jon C.; Svendsen, Morten B.S.; Teal, Lorna R.; Meer, Van Der Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Wilson, Rod W.; Metcalfe, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental p

  11. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Axelsson, M.; Chabot, D.; Claireaux, G.; Cooke, S.J.; Corner, R.A.; De Boeck, G.; Domenici, P.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Hamer, B.; Jørgensen, C.; Killen, S.S.; Lefevre, S.; Marras, S.; Michaelidis, B.; Nilsson, G.E.; Peck, M.A.; Perez-Ruzafa, A.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Shiels, H.A.; Steffensen, J.F.; Svendsen, J.C.; Svendsen, M.B.S.; Teal, L.R.; Van der Meer, J.; Wang, T.; Wilson, J.M.; Wilson, R.W.; Metcalfe, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the lim

  12. PRELIDA D3.1 State of the art assessment on Linked Data and Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batsakis, Sotiris; Giaretta, David; Gueret, Christophe; van Horik, M.P.M.; Hoogerwerf, Maarten; Isaac, Antoine; Meghini, Carlo; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The state of the art of Linked Data technologies and standards and of Digital Preservation solutions, standards and technologies is presented, along with an analysis of the characteristics of Linked Data that make their preservation different from that of other digital resources (A consolidated vers

  13. Literature Survey Concerning State of the Art and Surface Generation in High Speed Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    This report constitutes a short description of a literature survey concerning the state of the art and latest achievements on the rather new and powerful technology of high speed milling and its modelling, particularly looking at modelling of the generated surfaces. This task has been conducted i...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  15. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  16. Electrocatalysis and electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells: fundamentals, state of the art, research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with electrocatalysis and electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells and also with established means and methods in electrocatalyst research, development and characterization. The intention is to inform about the fundamentals, state of the art, research and development of noble metal electrocatalysts for fuel cells operating at low temperatures.

  17. IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D. (2006). IMS Learning Design: State of the art and research hot topics on eLearning standardization. Presentation at the 8th International Simposio of Educational Computer Science. October, 24-27, 2006, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology.

  18. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Axelsson, M.; Chabot, D.; Van der Meer, J.; Metcalfe, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of howit can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiologicalknowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limit

  19. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, De Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E.; Peck, Myron A.; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Shiels, Holly A.; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Jon C.; Svendsen, Morten B.S.; Teal, Lorna R.; Meer, Van Der Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Wilson, Rod W.; Metcalfe, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental p

  20. State of the art rapport "verkeersstroommodellen". Deel IV: Macroscopische dynamische verkeersstroommodellen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1977-01-01

    In the fourth part of the state of the art report "traffic flow models" the behaviour of macroscopic traffic flow characteristics in dynamic situations is discussed. The models are mostly formulated here as one, or as a system of, partial differential equations. First the so called input-output mo

  1. Pragmatics: The State of the Art: An Online Interview with Keith Allan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Keith; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This interview was conducted with Professor Keith Allan with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the state of the art of pragmatics. In providing answers to the interview questions, Professor Allan begins with a definition of pragmatics as it is practiced today, i.e., the study of the meanings of utterances with attention to…

  2. Establishment of database and network for research of stream generator and state of the art technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Bong; Hur, Nam Su; Moon, Seong In; Seo, Hyeong Won; Park, Bo Kyu; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyung Geun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired world widely. This wide spread damage has been caused by diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. Regarding domestic nuclear power plants, also, the increase of number of operating nuclear power plants and operating periods may result in the increase of steam generator tube failure. So, it is important to carry out the integrity evaluation process to prevent the steam generator tube damage. There are two objectives of this research. The one is to make database for the research of steam generator at domestic research institution. It will increase the efficiency and capability of limited domestic research resources by sharing data and information through network organization. Also, it will enhance the current standard of integrity evaluation procedure that is considerably conservative but can be more reasonable. The second objective is to establish the standard integrity evaluation procedure for steam generator tube by reviewing state of the art technology. The research resources related to steam generator tubes are managed by the established web-based database system. The following topics are covered in this project: development of web-based network for research on steam generator tubes review of state of the art technology.

  3. Mine Burial Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-30

    Mine Burial Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program Richard H. Bennett SEAPROBE, Inc 501...Assessment State-of the Art in Prediction and Modeling Workshop and Initiation of Technical Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... Technical Program , Agenda, Background, and References, Bennett and Wilkens, 2000. d. Completed Reviews of the state-of-the-art practices in Mine Burial

  4. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  5. State of the art on bioethanol production; Stato dell'arte della produzione di bioetanolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Policoro, Matera (Italy); Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali

    2001-07-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way. [Italian] Questo lavoro tratta della produzione di etanolo da diverse biomasse, compreso i materiali lignocellulosici. Sono riportati cenni al mercato mondiale ed europeo dell'etanolo insieme ad una breve rassegna dei processi impiegati correntemente; si tratta per lo piu' di tecnologie ormai mature basate sull'utilizzo di piante ad alto contenuto di zucchero o di amido. Per quanto riguarda la produzione di etanolo da biomasse lignocellulosiche, sono riportati i risultati di un'indagine statistica sulla disponibilita' in Europa di questi materiali in termini di coltivazini dedicate, residui agro-forestali e rifiuti domestici. E' riportata altresi una ricerca bibliografica sui recenti sviluppi dei processi di conversione a etanolo su scala banco e pilota. Infine, una breve discussione sugli aspetti economici connessi all'utilizzo di materiali lignocellulosici per la produzione di etanolo mostra come questi processi si stiano avvicinando alla completa fattibilita'.

  6. Geoelectrical Tomography for landslide monitoring: state-of-the-art and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, V.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, novel algorithms for tomographic data inversion, robust models for describing the hydrogeophysical processes and new sensor networks for the field data acquisition have rapidly transformed the geoelectrical methods in a powerful and cost-effective tool for geo-hazard monitoring. These technological and methodological improvements disclose the way for a wide spectra of interesting and challenging applications in geo-hazards monitoring: reconstruction of landslide geometry; identification of fluid and gas uprising in volcanic areas; electrical imaging of seismic faults etc.. We briefly resume the current state-of-the-art of the geoelectrical methods in landslide monitoring and introduce new and emerging applications of the geoelectrical tomographic methods. An overview of the more interesting results obtained in different areas of Italian territory affected by wide and diffuse hydrogeological instability phenomena will be presented and discussed. We will focus the attention to some recent results obtained in the frame of national and international projects (Morfeo, Eurorisk/Preview, DORIS). One of the key challenges for the future will be the integration of active (Resistivity) and passive (Self-Potential) measurements for obtaining 2D, 3D and 4D (time-lapse) electrical tomographies able to follow the spatial and temporal dynamics of electrical parameters (i.e. resistivity, self-potential) inside the landslide body. The resistivity imaging can be applied for illuminating the sliding surfaces and for mapping the time-dependent changes of water content in vadose zones, while the Self Potential imaging could give a significant contribute for delineating the groundwater circulation patterns and to the early identification of triggering factors.

  7. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

    2011-01-01

    Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Open-Source Sequence Clustering Methods Improve the State Of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Evguenia; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Mercier, Céline; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Mahé, Frédéric; He, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Rognes, Torbjørn; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH's most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE. All the latest open-source tools showed promising results, reporting up to 60% fewer spurious OTUs than UCLUST, indicating that the underlying clustering algorithm can vastly reduce the number of these derived OTUs. Furthermore, we observed that stringent quality filtering, such as is done in UPARSE, can cause a significant underestimation of species abundance and diversity, leading to incorrect biological results. Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA have been included in the QIIME 1.9.0 release. IMPORTANCE Massive collections of next-generation sequencing data call for fast, accurate, and easily accessible bioinformatics algorithms to perform sequence clustering. A comprehensive benchmark is presented, including open-source tools and the popular USEARCH suite. Simulated, mock, and environmental communities were used to analyze sensitivity, selectivity, species diversity (alpha and beta), and taxonomic composition. The results demonstrate that recent clustering algorithms can significantly improve accuracy and preserve estimated diversity without the application of aggressive filtering. Moreover, these tools are all open source, apply multiple levels of multithreading, and scale to the demands of modern next-generation sequencing data, which is essential for the analysis of massive multidisciplinary studies such as the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) (J. A. Gilbert, J. K. Jansson, and R. Knight, BMC Biol 12:69, 2014, http

  9. Coenzyme Q10 and Heart Failure: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhinav; Fonarow, Gregg C; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Felker, G Michael

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based therapies are often limited by tolerability, hypotension, electrolyte disturbances, and renal dysfunction. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may represent a safe therapeutic option for patients with HF. CoQ10 is a highly lipophilic molecule with a chemical structure similar to vitamin K. Although being a common component of cellular membranes, CoQ10's most prominent role is to facilitate the production of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria by participating in redox reactions within the electron transport chain. Numerous trials during the past 30 years examining CoQ10 in patients with HF have been limited by small numbers and lack of contemporary HF therapies. The recent publication of the Q-SYMBIO randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events with CoQ10 supplementation in a contemporary HF population. Although having limitations, this study has renewed interest in evaluating CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF. Current literature suggests that CoQ10 is relatively safe with few drug interactions and side effects. Furthermore, it is already widely available as an over-the-counter supplement. These findings warrant future adequately powered randomized controlled trials of CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF. This state-of-the-art review summarizes the literature about the mechanisms, clinical data, and safety profile of CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF.

  10. Hurricane Loss Estimation Models: Opportunities for Improving the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles C., Jr.; Johnson, Mark E.

    2004-11-01

    The results of hurricane loss models are used regularly for multibillion dollar decisions in the insurance and financial services industries. These models are proprietary, and this “black box” nature hinders analysis. The proprietary models produce a wide range of results, often producing loss costs that differ by a ratio of three to one or more. In a study for the state of North Carolina, 324 combinations of loss models were analyzed, based on a combination of nine wind models, four surface friction models, and nine damage models drawn from the published literature in insurance, engineering, and meteorology. These combinations were tested against reported losses from Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew as reported by a major insurance company, as well as storm total losses for additional storms. Annual loss costs were then computed using these 324 combinations of models for both North Carolina and Florida, and compared with publicly available proprietary model results in Florida. The wide range of resulting loss costs for open, scientifically defensible models that perform well against observed losses mirrors the wide range of loss costs computed by the proprietary models currently in use. This outcome may be discouraging for governmental and corporate decision makers relying on this data for policy and investment guidance (due to the high variability across model results), but it also provides guidance for the efforts of future investigations to improve loss models. Although hurricane loss models are true multidisciplinary efforts, involving meteorology, engineering, statistics, and actuarial sciences, the field of meteorology offers the most promising opportunities for improvement of the state of the art.

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to produce biofuels: state of the art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, M. S.; Chernova, N. I.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Popel', O. S.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The article presents a review of the state of the art and lines of research on hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae (MA). The main advantages of this technology for production of biofuel are that it does not require predrying of the feedstock and ensures a relatively high product yield—the ratio of the end product weight to the feedstock weight—owing to the fact that all the microalgal components, viz., lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, are converted into biofuel. MA hydrothermal liquefaction is considered to be a promising technology for conversion of biomass and is a subject of a series of research studies and, judging by the available publications, the scope of research in this field is expanding currently. However, many significant problems remain unsolved. In particular, an active searched is being conducted for suitable strains that will ensure not only a high lipid yield—necessary to convert microalgae into biodiesel—but also higher biomass productivity and a higher biofuel yield; the chemical reactions that occur during the hydrothermal treatment are being studied; and the effect of significant process variables, such as temperature, heating rate, holdup time at the maximum temperature, biomass concentration in the water suspension, biochemical and elemental compositions of the microalgae, use of catalysts, etc., on the liquefaction processes is being studied. One of the urgent tasks is also the reduction of the nitrogen content in the resulting biofuel. Studies aimed at the development of a continuous process and rational heat-processing plants for thermal microalgal conversion are being conducted to increase the energy efficiency of the HTL process, in particular, to provide the heat recovery and separation of the end product.

  12. Software process improvement: a systematic mapping study on the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Kuhrmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Software process improvement (SPI has been around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out there? Are there new trends and emerging approaches? What are open issues? Still, we struggle to answer these questions about the current state of SPI and related research. In this article, we present results from an updated systematic mapping study to shed light on the field of SPI, to develop a big picture of the state of the art, and to draw conclusions for future research directions. An analysis of 769 publications draws a big picture of SPI-related research of the past quarter-century. Our study shows a high number of solution proposals, experience reports, and secondary studies, but only few theories and models on SPI in general. In particular, standard SPI models like CMMI and ISO/IEC 15,504 are analyzed, enhanced, and evaluated for applicability in practice, but these standards are also critically discussed, e.g., from the perspective of SPI in small-to-medium-sized companies, which leads to new specialized frameworks. New and specialized frameworks account for the majority of the contributions found (approx. 38%. Furthermore, we find a growing interest in success factors (approx. 16% to aid companies in conducting SPI and in adapting agile principles and practices for SPI (approx. 10%. Beyond these specific topics, the study results also show an increasing interest into secondary studies with the purpose of aggregating and structuring SPI-related knowledge. Finally, the present study helps directing future research by identifying under-researched topics awaiting further investigation.

  13. STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN NATURAL GAS ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, M

    2003-08-24

    Current, state of the art natural gas engines provide the lowest emission commercial technology for use in medium heavy duty vehicles. NOx emission levels are 25 to 50% lower than state of the art diesel engines and PM levels are 90% lower than non-filter equipped diesels. Yet, in common with diesel engines, natural gas engines are challenged to become even cleaner and more efficient to meet environmental and end-user demands. Cummins Westport is developing two streams of technologies to achieve these goals for medium-heavy and heavy-heavy duty applications. For medium-heavy duty applications, lowest possible emissions are sought on SI engines without significant increase in complexity and with improvements in efficiency and BMEP. The selected path builds on the capabilities of the CWI Plus technology and recent diesel engine advances in NOx controls, providing potential to reduce emissions to 2010 values in an accelerated manner and without the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction or NOx Storage and Reduction technology. For heavy-heavy duty applications where high torque and fuel economy are of prime concern, the Westport-Cycle{trademark} technology is in field trial. This technology incorporates High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI{trademark}) of natural gas with a diesel pilot ignition source. Both fuels are delivered through a single, dual common rail injector. The operating cycle is entirely unthrottled and maintains the high compression ratio of a diesel engine. As a result of burning 95% natural gas rather than diesel fuel, NOx emissions are halved and PM is reduced by around 70%. High levels of EGR can be applied while maintaining high combustion efficiency, resulting in extremely low NOx potential. Some recent studies have indicated that DPF-equipped diesels emit less nanoparticles than some natural gas vehicles [1]. It must be understood that the ultrafine particles emitted from SI natural gas engines are generally accepted to consist predominantly of

  14. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Brewer, Ann C; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of 'apps as a medical device' and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of 'apps as a medical device'. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers' general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. 'Happtique Health App Certification Program' (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many "similar" quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web, when people

  15. State-of-the-art report on the theoretical modeling of interfacial area concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Euh, Dong Jin

    1998-03-01

    Classical approaches based on experimental correlations and the mechanistic approaches based on the interfacial area concentration were reviewed. The study focuses on the state-of-the-art researches based on the mechanistic modeling of the interfacial area concentration. The investigation is performed by classifying the mechanistic modeling approaches into those using the number density transport equations supported with a simple algebraic relation for obtaining interfacial area concentration and those using the direct interfacial area transport equations. The modeling approaches are subdivided into one group and multi-group models. The state-of-the-art source terms of transport equations are also investigated for their applicability and limitations. (author). 62 refs., 6 tabs., 49 figs

  16. Analytical clinical chemistry precision. State of the art for fourteen analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J W; Fraser, M D

    1977-07-01

    Relationships of concentration and coefficient of variation for 14 clinical chemistry analytes are described. Estimated mean regression curves and standard deviations of individual laboratory coefficients of variation about the mean regression are calculated. Two analytes, calcium and sodium, showed no relationship of concentration to precision. Twelve analytes showed significant relations between concentration and coefficient of variation. State-of-the-art precision is compared with medical goals. The average coefficient of variation for one analyte, calcium, fails to meet medical goals for automated or manual methods. Average precisions for 13 analytes meet medical goals. The distribution of individual laboratory precision above average state-of-the-art figures is discussed. The proportions of laboratories failing to meet medical goals are large for sodium, chloride and glucose, in addition to calcium.

  17. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  18. Conclusion: Reflections on the State of the Art of Sustainability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2015-01-01

    In this concluding chapter we offer some of our reflections on the state of the art of sustainability assessment based upon the contributions to this Handbook. We do not claim that this is a definitive summary of global sustainability assessment theory and practice, as this is not possible based solely on the 17 preceding chapters, varied and interesting though they are. The focus of this Handbook is sustainability assessment research, and the chapters reflect both applied research and more c...

  19. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings....... Historic buildings in RIBuild represent all types of protected1 and non-protected buildings built before 1945. The survey is limited to buildings with heavy walls (stone, brick, timber framing), thus excluding wooden buildings....

  20. Alkali activated materials state-of-the-art report, RILEM TC 224-AAM

    CERN Document Server

    Deventer, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    This is a State of the Art Report resulting from the work of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM in the period 2007-2013. The Report summarises research to date in the area of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a particular focus on the following areas: binder design and characterisation, durability testing, commercialisation, standardisation, and providing a historical context for this rapidly-growing research field.

  1. Introduction to the Special Issue on “State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The combination of sensing technology with information and communication technology (ICT could serve both as global eyes that monitor the environment for environmental issues, and as local eyes that monitor humans for aging society issues. System technology is also required to form such global and local eyes. This special issue, “State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan”, contains articles and reviews related to the monitoring of humans and the environment, and the integration of sensor systems. [...

  2. Selection of suppliers. An approach to the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the search for better competitive performance, there is a world trend towards the management of supply chains. As part of this trend, the selection of suppliers has become a strategic decision with a high impact on organisational performance. For this reason, this article makes an approach to the state of the art in supplier selection, taking major international specialised magazines as the point of reference. The objective of this document is to offer support as a point of reference for f...

  3. The reversibility of sea ice loss in a state-of-the-art climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, K. C.; Eisenman, I; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E.; McCusker, K. E.; Bitz, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid Arctic sea ice retreat has fueled speculation about the possibility of threshold (or ‘tipping point’) behavior and irreversible loss of the sea ice cover. We test sea ice reversibility within a state-of-the-art atmosphere–ocean global climate model by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide until the Arctic Ocean becomes ice-free throughout the year and subsequently decreasing it until the initial ice cover returns. Evidence for irreversibility in the form of hysteresis outside the envelo...

  4. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging. (JSR)

  5. Enterprise Modeling in the context of Enterprise Engineering: State of the art and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    François Vernadat

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Modeling is a central activity in Enterprise Engineering and can facilitate Production Management activities. This state-of-the-art paper first recalls definitions and fundamental principles of enterprise modelling, which goes far beyond process modeling. The CIMOSA modeling framework, which is based on an event-driven process-based modeling language suitable for enterprise system analysis and model enactment, is used as a reference conceptual framework because of its generality. N...

  6. Biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Seligman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP exhibits mortality rates, between 20% and 50% in severe cases. Biomarkers are useful tools for searching for antibiotic therapy modifications and for CAP diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up treatment. This non-systematic state-of-the-art review presents the biological and clinical features of biomarkers in CAP patients, including procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, copeptin, pro-ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, cortisol and D-dimers.

  7. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  8. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, de, H.J.; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise ...

  9. State-of-the-art in photovoltaic research and application (except for use in concentrators)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeer, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the state-of-the-art of single and polycrystalline solar cells, which includes a short theoretical review, laboratory achievements, and production methods. The Si single and polycrystalline cell and the amorphous Si cell are described, including material preparation, crystal and sheet growth, and cell and panel production. Promising second generation thin film solar cells including GaAs, CdS(CuInSe/sub 2/), and CdTe are briefly described. Economical aspects are discussed.

  10. Homogeneous catalytic systems for selective oxidation of methane: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balcer Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous catalysts for methane oxidation are of a particular interest from scientific and economic points of view. The results show a great potential for activation and functionalization of CH bonds of unreactive methane. There are still gaps in the knowledge of how to rationally design catalysts for this process. In this paper state-of-the-art. in methane oxidation homogenous catalysis is presented.

  11. Science and technology of farm animal cloning: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor; Gjerris, Mickey

    2006-05-01

    Details of the first mammal born after nuclear transfer cloning were published by Steen Malte Willadsen in 1986. In spite of its enormous scientific significance, this discovery failed to trigger much public concern, possibly because the donor cells were derived from pre-implantation stage embryos. The major breakthrough in terms of public recognition has happened when Ian Wilmut et al. [Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A.E., McWhir, J., Kind, A.J., Campbell, K.H., 1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal és adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810-813] described the successful application of almost exactly the same method, but using the nuclei of somatic cells from an adult mammal, to create Dolly the sheep. It has become theoretically possible to produce an unlimited number of genetic replicates from an adult animal or a post-implantation foetus. Since 1997 a number of different species including pigs, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research and the biomedical sector. The next step seems to be to implement cloning in the agricultural production system and several animals have been developed in this direction. This article reviews the current state of the art of farm animal cloning from a scientific and technological perspective, describes the animal welfare problems and critically assess different applications of farm animal cloning. The scope is confined to animal biotechnologies in which the use of cell nuclear transfer is an essential part and extends to both biomedical and agricultural applications of farm animal cloning. These applications include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a

  12. Dose assessment in environmental radiological protection: State of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Goméz-Ros, José M; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Kapustka, Lawrence A; Wood, Michael D; Bradshaw, Clare; Real, Almudena; McGuire, Corynne; Hinton, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry. Therefore, a workshop on environmental dosimetry was organized by the STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) Network of Excellence to review the state of the art in environmental dosimetry and prioritize areas of methodological and guidance development. Herein, we report the key findings from that international workshop, summarise parameters that affect the dose animals and plants receive when exposed to radiation, and identify further research needs. Current dosimetry practices for determining environmental protection are based on simple screening dose assessments using knowledge of fundamental radiation physics, source-target geometry relationships, the influence of organism shape and size, and knowledge of how radionuclide distributions in the body and in the soil profile alter dose. In screening model calculations that estimate whole-body dose to biota the shapes of organisms are simply represented as ellipsoids, while recently developed complex voxel phantom models allow organ-specific dose estimates. We identified several research and guidance development priorities for dosimetry. For external exposures, the uncertainty in dose estimates due to spatially heterogeneous distributions of radionuclide contamination is currently being evaluated. Guidance is needed on the level of dosimetry that is required when screening benchmarks are exceeded and how to report exposure in dose-effect studies, including quantification of uncertainties. Further

  13. State of the art: Advanced techniques for prostatic urethral lift for the relief of prostate obstruction under local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lance Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) affects an estimated 60% of men over the age of 50 and 90% of men over the age of 80. The prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a safe and effective office-based procedure that is used worldwide for the treatment of BPH in men who are dissatisfied with medications due to side effects or lack of efficacy or don't want to have a transurethral resection of the prostate due to the side effects and invasiveness of the procedure. In 2012 Barkin et al, published the standard technique for the delivery of the Urolift implant. The objective of this article is to describe the current state of the art advanced techniques for the delivery of the UroLift implant.

  14. A state-of-the-art report on the off-gas treatment technology generated from the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Hoo Geun; Park, Geun Il; Choi, Byung Seon; Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Il Hoon; Kim, Jung Kook; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-10-01

    This state-of-the-art report describes various technologies for offgas treatment. It provides comprehensive treatment technologies of the extensive subject such as particulates, radioactive iodine, carbon dioxide, Kr/Xe and Cs/Ru. This report also incorporates the wastes generation and its characteristics as well as the historical and current management practices. A number of review articles by experts in various area of concern and some of the removal systems that have been designed for power plants and, particularly, for spent fuel reusing plants are also involved. As a result, it can be drawn that the drying processes for offgas treatment have much benefits in standpoints of simplicity, economy, disposal safety and resource reuse rather than the wet processes. (author). 226 refs., 38 tabs., 44 figs

  15. Direct Numerical Simulation of Boiling Multiphase Flows: State-of-the-Art, Modeling, Algorithmic and Computer Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourgaliev R.; Knoll D.; Mousseau V.; Berry R.

    2007-04-01

    The state-of-the-art for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of boiling multiphase flows is reviewed, focussing on potential of available computational techniques, the level of current success for their applications to model several basic flow regimes (film, pool-nucleate and wall-nucleate boiling -- FB, PNB and WNB, respectively). Then, we discuss multiphysics and multiscale nature of practical boiling flows in LWR reactors, requiring high-fidelity treatment of interfacial dynamics, phase-change, hydrodynamics, compressibility, heat transfer, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry of liquid/vapor and fluid/solid-wall interfaces. Finally, we outline the framework for the {\\sf Fervent} code, being developed at INL for DNS of reactor-relevant boiling multiphase flows, with the purpose of gaining insight into the physics of multiphase flow regimes, and generating a basis for effective-field modeling in terms of its formulation and closure laws.

  16. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Pippa (Durham Univ., Dept. of Geography, Durham (United Kingdom))

    2009-04-15

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the

  17. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  18. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Amir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W and the ankles (20 W. Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is

  19. Natural language processing: state of the art and prospects for significant progress, a workshop sponsored by the National Library of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Corn, Milton

    2013-10-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for advancing healthcare because it is needed to transform relevant information locked in text into structured data that can be used by computer processes aimed at improving patient care and advancing medicine. In light of the importance of NLP to health, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently sponsored a workshop to review the state of the art in NLP focusing on text in English, both in biomedicine and in the general language domain. Specific goals of the NLM-sponsored workshop were to identify the current state of the art, grand challenges and specific roadblocks, and to identify effective use and best practices. This paper reports on the main outcomes of the workshop, including an overview of the state of the art, strategies for advancing the field, and obstacles that need to be addressed, resulting in recommendations for a research agenda intended to advance the field. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintenance of NASTRAN (R) as a state-of-the-art computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The maintenance requirements for a large, general purpose, finite element computer program are presented. The program is maintained as state-of-the-art on three computer systems (IBM, CDC, and UNIVAC) with respect to both finite element and computer technology. There are four primary areas involved in the maintenance effort: (1) error correction; (2) incorporation of advances in technology; (3) documentation; and (4) new level generation. The complexity of the maintenance effort is compounded by the sizes of the program (400,000 lines of code) and the documentation (7000 pages divided into seven manuals).

  1. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Ioan Curiac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  2. State-of-the-art steam generator on-line chemistry monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Koul, L.J.; Mc Clendon, M.E.; Richards, J.E.; Wozniak, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    Recent understanding of corrosion mechanisms has changed the industry's approach to one of establishing and maintaining proper water chemistry conditions to increase steam generator life and availability. A rigorous sampling and analysis program, along with management's commitment to proper water chemistry, are integral to the success of this approach. This paper describes Virginia Power's recent commitment to better maintenance of secondary side water chemistry conditions at its nuclear power stations through an on-line, comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring system.

  3. Building Energy Benchmarking in India: an Action Plan for Advancing the State-of-the-Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarraf, Saket [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Anand, Shilpi [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Shukla, Yash [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This document describes an action plan for advancing the state of the art of commercial building energy benchmarking in the Indian context. The document is primarily intended for two audiences: (a) Research and development (R&D) sponsors and researchers can use the action plan to frame, plan, prioritize and scope new energy benchmarking R&D in order to ensure that their research is market relevant; (b) Policy makers and program implementers engaged in the deployment of benchmarking and building efficiency rating programmes can use the action plan for policy formulation and enforcement .

  4. The state-of-the-art of power electronics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akagi, Hirofumi

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, power electronics has been developing by leaps and bounds without saturation to become the key technology essential to modern society and human life as well as to electrical engineering. This paper mainly focuses on the state-of-the-art of power electronics technology and its medium to high-power applications because the author cannot survey the whole spectrum of power electronics ranging from a 5 W switching regulator to a 2.8 GW high-voltage DC transmission system now ...

  5. STATE OF THE ART OF SEISMIC DESIGN OF RC PRECAST FARM BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tassinari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural design of rural buildings deals with several requirements, among which seismic resistance. In this study the state of the art of Italian seismic zoning and its possible consequences over the design of rural buildings are analyzed. Study cases are proposed referring to a municipality of Emilia-Romagna region, regarding precast concrete structures, that are widely employed in farms. Linear and non linear criteria are adopted for modelling seismic-resistant elements. Pushover analyses are performed to verify the designed structures. Results are expressed in terms of parameters quantifying structural reliability and construction costs.

  6. Metacognition: state-of-the-art learning theory implications for clinical nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, J M

    1996-04-01

    Clinical nursing education represents one of the most challenging aspects of the faculty role because nursing educators are being required to teach crucial aspects of comprehensive clinical practice to students in limited time periods and in increasingly demanding, high-acuity affiliation sites. State-of-the-art research in metacognition provides a stimulating array of instructional strategies that can assist in this process and provide an impetus for further cognitive inquiry in nursing. The article analyzes metacognition, explores its historical roots, delineates its relationship to memory theory, and describes a range of metacognitive strategies that are useful to faculty and students in nursing.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-10-15

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities.

  8. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C

    2015-07-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  9. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  10. State of the Art Assessment of Simulation in Advanced Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher E.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in both the underlying theory and in the practical implementation of molecular modeling techniques have increased their value in the advanced materials development process. The objective is to accelerate the maturation of emerging materials by tightly integrating modeling with the other critical processes: synthesis, processing, and characterization. The aims of this report are to summarize the state of the art of existing modeling tools and to highlight a number of areas in which additional development is required. In an effort to maintain focus and limit length, this survey is restricted to classical simulation techniques including molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. The fifth generation computer project state of the art report 111

    CERN Document Server

    Scarrott

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth Generation Computer Project is a two-part book consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The invited papers examine various aspects of The Fifth Generation Computer Project. The analysis part assesses the major advances of the Fifth Generation Computer Project and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in The Fifth Generation. This part provides a balanced and comprehensive view of the development in Fifth Generation Computer technology. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of The Fifth Generation.

  12. State of the art: Mechanical behavior of soil-structure interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ga Zhang; Jianmin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The monotonic and cyclic behavior of a soil-structure interface has a significant effect on the mechanical response of a soil-structure interaction system. Thus, the behavior of the interface should be investigated with focusing on the individual characters different from other geomaterials. A brief introduction and critical review are presented on the state of the art of monotonic and cyclic behavior of soil-structure interface, including the test device and measurement techniques, fundamental rules and deformation mechanism, constitutive models and their applications in the numerical simulations. The tendencies of the investigation on the interface are also predicted in this paper.

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-04-07

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  14. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment

  15. State-of-the-art, Multi-Fidelity Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Tool for Nonlinear Aeroelasticity Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed for the development of a state-of-the-art computational aeroelastic tool. This tool will include various levels of fidelity and the ability to...

  16. State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (Presented by Dr. Marilyn J. Aardema, Chief Scientific Advisor, Toxicology, Dr. Leon Stankowski, et. al. (6/28/2012)

  17. Global and Mexican analytical review of the state of the art on Ecosystem and Environmental services: A geographical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perevochtchikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The term Ecosystem Services (ES was introduced in the Rio Declaration in 1992, within a strong international movement for sustainable natural resource management. Back then, the innovative principle concerned the environmental functions that maintain life support systems. To illustrate this further, pollination, oxygen production, temperature regulation, water storage, filtering and distribution, among others, were listed and previously taken for granted until human action contested them. The first compensation schemes for Environmental Services were proposed in 1997 as one of the tools of the new environmental policy directed towards the principles of sustainable development. Since then, the topic of ES has received remarkable global response, which is reflected by the implementation of payment programs and by the development of research in many countries worldwide. This paper analyses the state of the art of the research carried out so far on ES and Environmental Services from the global and the Mexican perspectives. It is based upon the review of 1,781 scientific papers published in international peer reviewed journals between 1992 and 2012. Furthermore, the present study provides a sound geographical overview of the main ES topics studied and of the relative emission of papers per region, country or state. Results are finally presented and discussed in the light of their deficits and of the challenges ahead.

  18. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner [Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  19. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Magalie; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Delattre, Benedicte; Merlini, Laura; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging.

  20. Mazingira Centre: A state-of-the-art environmental research infrastructure in Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Goopy, John; Mutuo, Paul; Korir, Daniel; Pelster, David; Wanyama, George

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs), performed in various terrestrial and marine ecosystems have led to a fundamental understanding of the Earth System during the last century. While there are numerous extant long-term measurements of GHGs across the globe, these are mainly located in developed countries of the northern hemisphere, leaving large regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) without a consolidated observational network. Moreover, in SSA also infrastructures capable of measuring GHGs following best scientific practice are lacking. The Mazingira Centre - a state-of-the-art environmental laboratory - hosted by the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya has been established in 2013. The laboratory is equipped with state-of-the-art GHG measurement technology (gas chromatographs, animal respiration chambers, laser absorption spectrometers) and aims at providing fundamental environmental data (e.g. GHGs and auxiliary information) from the most common land-cover types in Eastern Africa and beyond. Thereby a special focus is given to mixed crop-livestock systems managed by smallholders. The first results from the activities of the Mazingira Centre show much lower GHG emissions from manure management and arable systems as commonly assumed using emission factor approaches (EFs). This highlights the need of direct, in-situ measurements from all land-cover types and agricultural systems in Eastern Africa. The Mazingira Centre is furthermore a core training facility for undergraduate and graduate students, technicians as well policy makers that report GHG emissions to the UNFCCC with reliable and accurate emissions factors.

  1. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallon, Magalie [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, UMR CNRS 5220 - INSERM U1044, INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon-Saint-Etienne, Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint Etienne (France); Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Delattre, Benedicte; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Merlini, Laura [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging. (orig.)

  2. The state of the art report on the development of advanced nuclear fuel cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Myung Ho; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Nam, Cheol; Choi, Byung Kwon

    2001-04-01

    Since the operating conditions of modern PWR trend toward long-term operation, high burn-up, high coolant temperature and high pH, the need to develop a new advanced nuclear fuel cladding as an alternative to Zircaloy-4 increased. To overcome this problem, a number of researches to develop a advanced nuclear fuel cladding tube with superior corrosion resistance and creep resistance have been performed in many advanced nations in the field of nuclear power. Especially, some advanced cladding tubes are already confirmed to have an excellent in-pile properties from the test results in commercial reactor. Also in Korea, KAERI has been researching extensively to develop a high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding Zr alloy since 1990. To design new alloys, it is necessary to study the state of the art on the development of advanced alloys in other countries. In this report, as a part of development of advanced Zr alloy, we studied the state of the art on the development of ZIRLO in U.S.A., E635 in Russia, M5 in France, and MDA and NDA in Japan, which will be applied as basic data to develop an advanced Zr alloy.

  3. Historical Account to the State of the Art in Debris Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2013-04-01

    In this contribution, I present a historical account of debris flow modelling leading to the state of the art in simulations and applications. A generalized two-phase model is presented that unifies existing avalanche and debris flow theories. The new model (Pudasaini, 2012) covers both the single-phase and two-phase scenarios and includes many essential and observable physical phenomena. In this model, the solid-phase stress is closed by Mohr-Coulomb plasticity, while the fluid stress is modeled as a non-Newtonian viscous stress that is enhanced by the solid-volume-fraction gradient. A generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes viscous drag, buoyancy and virtual mass forces, and a new generalized drag force is introduced to cover both solid-like and fluid-like drags. Strong couplings between solid and fluid momentum transfer are observed. The two-phase model is further extended to describe the dynamics of rock-ice avalanches with new mechanical models. This model explains dynamic strength weakening and includes internal fluidization, basal lubrication, and exchanges of mass and momentum. The advantages of the two-phase model over classical (effectively single-phase) models are discussed. Advection and diffusion of the fluid through the solid are associated with non-linear fluxes. Several exact solutions are constructed, including the non-linear advection-diffusion of fluid, kinematic waves of debris flow front and deposition, phase-wave speeds, and velocity distribution through the flow depth and through the channel length. The new model is employed to study two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows, the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes/oceans, and rock-ice avalanches. Simulation results show that buoyancy enhances flow mobility. The virtual mass force alters flow dynamics by increasing the kinetic energy of the fluid. Newtonian viscous stress substantially reduces flow deformation, whereas non-Newtonian viscous stress may change the

  4. Current State of the Art: Management of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-08-01

    The higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) as intermediate-2 or high-risk groups, compromise a third of MDS patients who have an expected survival of less than 1.5 years. Our ability to better define higher risk MDS improved with the proposal of new clinical risk models such as the revised IPSS and by integration of molecular data, including somatic gene mutations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) remains the only curative option. In higher risk MDS patients, proceeding early with AHSCT is associated with maximum survival gain. The decision to pursue AHSCT is individualized according to disease risk, comorbidities, and functional status. The role of therapy before AHSCT remains controversial, and the role of post-AHSCT maintenance is evolving. Hypomethylating agents are the only medications that alter the natural history of the disease. Azacitidine is the only drug reported to improve overall survival in higher risk MDS patients. Appropriate use and assessment of response is key for assuring patients benefit of such limited options. Treatment after failure of hypomethylating agents is an unmet need. The role of detectable somatic gene mutations in prognosis and tailoring therapy continue to emerge.

  5. Sulfur - Containing Amino Acids Homocysteine And Taurine In Seizures: Current State Of The Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncic, Dragan; Rasic-Markovic, Aleksandra; Macut, Duro; Mladenovic, Dusan; Susic, Veselinka; Djuric, Dragan; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2017-06-08

    Homocysteine and taurine are non-proteinogenic sulfur-containing amino acids with numerous important physiological roles. Homocysteine and taurine are considered to be neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, the first showing clear hyperexcitability role, while the second is known by its inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this article we addressed the role of homocysteine and its related metabolite homocysteine thiolactone in the development of seizures, focusing on its experimental models in vivo, potential mechanisms of proepileptogenic activity via interactions with glutamatergic neurotransmission, sodium pump activity, oxidative stress, cholinergic system and NO-mediated neuronal signaling, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to modulate its proconvulsive activity. Additionally, herein we will focus on taurine neuroprotective effects linked with its anticonvulsive properties and mediated by taurine interactions with GABA-ergic and glutamatergic system and oxidative stress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Penile rehabilitation following treatment for prostate cancer: an analysis of the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiji, Tariq Al; Domes, Trustin; Brock, Gerald

    2009-02-01

    Despite recent advances in surgical technique using laparoscopic and robotic approaches for the management of early organ-confined prostate cancer, most contemporary reports demonstrate significant rates of erectile dysfunction comparable to standard open approaches. Controversy remains related to many of the pre-and postoperative management strategies, including agents to enhance nerve recovery, erectogenic drugs, antioxidants, vasoactive injectables, vacuum erection devices and nerve grafting procedures. Additionally, the optimal timing of these interventions and their duration, dose, frequency and outcome thresholds remain ill-defined. In our paper, we provide a comprehensive literature review involving both the basic and clinical data surrounding rehabilitative approaches.

  7. Current state-of-the-art molecular dynamics methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Bencurova, Elena; Papangelopoulos, Nikitas; Kossida, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to describe the patterns, strength, and properties of protein behavior, drug-receptor interactions, the solvation of molecules, the conformational changes that a protein or molecule may undergo under various conditions, and other events that require the systematic evaluation of molecular properties in dynamic molecular systems. Only few years ago proteins were considered to be rigid body structures with very limited conformational flexibility. However, it is now clear that proteins are highly dynamic structures, the internal organization of which is the key to their 3D spatial arrangement and hence biological function. The study of protein dynamics in the lab is a very complicated, expensive, and time-consuming process. Therefore, a lot of effort and hope lies with the computers and the in silico study of protein structure and molecular dynamics. Herein, an effort has been made to describe the ever-evolving field of molecular dynamics, the different algorithms, and force fields that are being used as well as to provide some insight on what the near future holds for this auspicious field of computational structural biology.

  8. Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal--State of the Art and Current Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abrar; Laaser, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent report given to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education on "Reforming Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal" (Hasan et. al. 2009). The report was grounded on on-site visits of leading Portuguese Universities, Polytechnics and Business Schools as well as on written…

  9. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Houston, TX (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  10. Therapeutic Approach in the Improvement of Endothelial Dysfunction: The Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radenković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium has a central role in the regulation of blood flow through continuous modulation of vascular tone. This is primarily accomplished by balanced release of endothelial relaxing and contractile factors. The healthy endothelial cells are essential for maintenance of vascular homeostasis involving antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-fibrinolytic, anti-adhesive, or anticoagulant effects. Oppositely, endothelial dysfunction is primarily characterized by impaired regulation of vascular tone as a result of reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase activity, lack of cofactors for NO synthesis, attenuated NO release, or increased NO degradation. So far, the pharmacological approach in improving/reversal of endothelial dysfunction was shown to be beneficial in clinical trials that have investigated actions of different cardiovascular drugs. The aim of this paper was to summarize some of the latest clinical findings related to therapeutic possibilities for improving endothelial dysfunction in different pathological conditions. In the majority of presented clinical investigations, the assessment of improvement or reversal of endothelial dysfunction was performed through the flow-mediated dilatation measurement, and in some of those endothelial progenitor cells’ count was used for the same purpose. Still, given the fast and continuous development of this field, the evidence acquisition included the MEDLINE data base screening and the selection of articles published between 2010 and 2012.

  11. A critical evaluation of the current state-of-the-art in quantitative imaging mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.R.; Bruinen, A.L.; Heeren, R.M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105188476

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has evolved into a valuable tool across many fields of chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, arguably its greatest disadvantage is the difficulty in acquiring quantitative data regarding the surface concentration of the analyte(s) of interest. These difficulties

  12. RNA Visualization: Relevance and the Current State-of-the-Art Focusing on Pseudoknots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabash, Boris; Wiese, Kay C

    2017-01-01

    RNA visualization is crucial in order to understand the relationship that exists between RNA structure and its function, as well as the development of better RNA structure prediction algorithms. However, in the context of RNA visualization, one key structure remains difficult to visualize: Pseudoknots. Pseudoknots occur in RNA folding when two secondary structural components form base-pairs between them. The three-dimensional nature of these components makes them challenging to visualize in two-dimensional media, such as print media or screens. In this review, we focus on the advancements that have been made in the field of RNA visualization in two-dimensional media in the past two decades. The review aims at presenting all relevant aspects of pseudoknot visualization. We start with an overview of several pseudoknotted structures and their relevance in RNA function. Next, we discuss the theoretical basis for RNA structural topology classification and present RNA classification systems for both pseudoknotted and non-pseudoknotted RNAs. Each description of RNA classification system is followed by a discussion of the software tools and algorithms developed to date to visualize RNA, comparing the different tools' strengths and shortcomings.

  13. Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kontis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable.

  14. No Reflow-phenomenon: from Current State of the Art to Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Paradies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early and successful myocardial reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI is the optimal therapy for patients presenting with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Despite successful epicardial reopening of the infarct related artery, myocardial perfusion may not be restored in up to 40-50% of patients. This phenomenon, referred to as no-reflow (NR, recognizes several pathogenetic components including distal atherothrombotic embolization, ischaemic injury, reperfusion damage, intramyocardial hemorrhage and individual susceptibility of coronary microcirculation. However the complexity of pathogenesis remains still unclear. Moreover, cause NR plays a crucial role in patients prognosis, accurate detection is critical and multiple novel diagnostic modalities has been recently assessed.The NR phenomenon represents a challenge in the management of STEMI patients and has recently captured a growing interest of both basic scientists and interventional cardiologists. Although relevant efforts to transfer into real world practice new therapeutic strategies, to date there is still weak evidence of clinical improvement in this setting. Several strategies of prevention and treatment of NR have been proposed in the clinical arena including pharmacological and mechanical interventions. Nevertheless, the complexity of the phenomenon makes extremely unlikely for a single therapy to be effective. Understanding the interaction between the components of this pathway, along with exploring newer and more effective agents may enable patients to be treated with the most appropriate therapy.

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0T: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Ahmed M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are advantages to conducting cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR studies at a field strength of 3.0 Telsa, including the increase in bulk magnetization, the increase in frequency separation of off-resonance spins, and the increase in T1 of many tissues. However, there are significant challenges to routinely performing CMR at 3.0T, including the reduction in main magnetic field homogeneity, the increase in RF power deposition, and the increase in susceptibility-based artifacts. In this review, we outline the underlying physical effects that occur when imaging at higher fields, examine the practical results these effects have on the CMR applications, and examine methods used to compensate for these effects. Specifically, we will review cine imaging, MR coronary angiography, myocardial perfusion imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and vascular wall imaging.

  16. Modeling the prospects for climatic change: current state-of-the-art and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, W. M.

    1980-04-04

    It has been increasingly suggested that the world's climate is going to change in the next several decades, primarily as a result of anthropogenic perturbations to the global carbon cycle brought about by fossil fuel burning and large-scale deforestation. In order to cope with these future climatic changes, it is necessary that tools be developed to predict how complex systems respond to a given change of conditions. This report summarizes the status of our ability to model the planetary system that determines the climate. (ACR)

  17. Mathematical Models for Immunology: Current State of the Art and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca EFTIMIE; Gillard, Joseph J.; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2016-01-01

    The advances in genetics and biochemistry that have taken place over the last 10 years led to significant advances in experimental and clinical immunology. In turn, this has led to the development of new mathematical models to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively various open questions in immunology. In this study we present a review of some research areas in mathematical immunology that evolved over the last 10 years. To this end, we take a step-by-step approach in discussing a range...

  18. Electrical stimulation for gastroesophageal reflux disease: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sharon E Kim, Edy Soffer Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD who are not satisfied with acid suppression therapy can benefit primarily from fundoplication, a surgical intervention. Fundoplication has been the standard surgical procedure for GERD. It is effective but is associated with adverse effects, resulting in a declining number of interventions, creating a need for alternative interventions that are effective, yet have a better adverse effect profile. One such alternative involves the application of electrical stimulation to the lower esophageal sphincter. A number of animal studies showed that such stimulation can increase resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure. An acute human study confirmed this effect, and was followed by two open-label studies, with a follow-up of up to 3 years. Results thus far show that the therapy is associated with a significant improvement in symptoms, a significant reduction in esophageal acid exposure, and a very good safety profile. This review will describe the evolution of electrical stimulation therapy for GERD, as well as the safety and efficacy of this intervention. Keywords: gastroesophageal reflux disease, lower esophageal sphincter, health-related quality of life

  19. Advanced High Temperature Coating Systems Beyond Current State of the Art Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-15

    1010 cm - 2 in a NiCrAl alloy, both with and without yttrium, just beneath the oxide/alloy interface. This, they concluded, was due to the plastic...as a complete layer instead of as an internal oxide(31,32). The sequence of steps leading to the development of a continuous A12 0 3 scale on a NiCrAl ...diffusivity of oxygen, were fou ,d consistent with the experimental parabolic rate constant for NiCrAl and CoCrAl ai oys with and without active elements

  20. Current state of the art for statistical modeling of species distributions [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy M. Hegel; Samuel A. Cushman; Jeffrey Evans; Falk Huettmann

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade the number of statistical modelling tools available to ecologists to model species' distributions has increased at a rapid pace (e.g. Elith et al. 2006; Austin 2007), as have the number of species distribution models (SDM) published in the literature (e.g. Scott et al. 2002). Ten years ago, basic logistic regression (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000)...

  1. Intrusion Detection and Countermeasure of Virtual Cloud Systems - State of the Art and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Carlin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clouds are distributed Internet-based platforms that provide highly resilient and scalable environments to be used by enterprises in a multitude of ways. Cloud computing offers enterprises technology innovation that business leaders and IT infrastructure managers can choose to apply based on how and to what extent it helps them fulfil their business requirements. It is crucial that all technical consultants have a rigorous understanding of the ramifications of cloud computing as its influence is likely to spread the complete IT landscape. Security is one of the major concerns that is of practical interest to decision makers when they are making critical strategic operational decisions. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks are becoming more frequent and effective over the past few years, since the widely publicised DDoS attacks on the financial services industry that came to light in September and October 2012 and resurfaced in the past two years. In this paper, we introduce advanced cloud security technologies and practices as a series of concepts and technology architectures, from an industry-centric point of view. This is followed by classification of intrusion detection and prevention mechanisms that can be part of an overall strategy to help understand, identify and mitigate potential DDoS attacks on business networks. The paper establishes solid coverage of security issues related to DDoS and virtualisation with a focus on structure, clarity, and well-defined blocks for mainstream cloud computing security solutions and platforms. In doing so, we aim to provide industry technologists, who may not be necessarily cloud or security experts, with an effective tool to help them understand the security implications associated with cloud adoption in their transition towards more knowledge-based systems.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: current state of the art and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, M; Lapa, A Tamires; Reis, F; Rittner, L; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 0.1% of the general population. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus have been more frequently recognized and reported in recent years, occurring in up to 75% of patients during the disease course. Magnetic resonance imaging is known to be a useful tool for the detection of structural brain abnormalities in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients because of the excellent soft-tissue contrast observed with MRI and the ability to acquire multiplanar images. In addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to evaluate the presence of atrophy and white matter lesions, several different magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been used to identify microstructural or functional abnormalities. This review will highlight different magnetic resonance imaging techniques, including the advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods used to determine central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  3. Gold nanoparticles in theranostic oncology: current state-of-the-art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, S.; Ahmad, M.Z.; Ahmad, F.J.; Storm, G.; Kok, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In recent years, extensive multidisciplinary investigations have been carried out in the area of cancer nanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have emerged as promising carrier for delivery of various pay-loads into their target. In view of their unique physicochemical and optical

  4. Digital cytology: current state of the art and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, David C

    2011-01-01

    The growth of digital methods in pathology is accelerating. Digital images can be used for a variety of applications in cytology, including rapid interpretations, primary diagnosis and second opinions, continuing education and proficiency testing. All of these functions can be performed using small static digital images, real-time dynamic digital microscopy, or whole-slide images. This review will discuss the general principles of digital pathology, its methods and applications to cytologic specimens. As cytologic specimens have unique features compared to histopathology specimens, the key differences will be discussed. Technical and administrative issues in digital pathology applications and the outlook for the future of the field will be presented. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A critical evaluation of the current state-of-the-art in quantitative imaging mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.R.; Bruinen, A.L.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has evolved into a valuable tool across many fields of chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, arguably its greatest disadvantage is the difficulty in acquiring quantitative data regarding the surface concentration of the analyte(s) of interest. These difficulties

  6. Solid lipid nanoparticles as vehicles of drugs to the brain: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Lucia; Battaglia, Luigi; Peira, Elena; Chirio, Daniela; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Solazzi, Ilaria; Gallarate, Marina; Dosio, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Central nervous system disorders are already prevalent and steadily increasing among populations worldwide. However, most of the pharmaceuticals present on world markets are ineffective in treating cerebral diseases, because they cannot effectively cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are nanospheres made from biocompatible solid lipids, with unique advantages among drug carriers: they can be used as vehicles to cross the BBB. This review examines the main aspects surrounding brain delivery with SLN, and illustrates the principal mechanisms used to enhance brain uptake of the delivered drug.

  7. β-adrenergic-blocking drugs and melanoma: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Grazzini, Marta; Gandini, Sara; Benemei, Silvia; Asbury, Curtis D; Marchionni, Niccolò; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the preclinical, epidemiological and clinical data relevant to the association between β-blockers and melanoma progression. Preclinical studies have shown that β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling can inhibit multiple cellular processes involved in melanoma progression and metastasis. These observations have suggested the possibility that drugs originally intended for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, the β-AR blockers, may provide new therapeutic opportunities for the control of tumor progression. A large number of observational studies demonstrated the protective effect of β-blockers in breast cancer but, more recently, similar findings were also reported in other cancers such as prostate cancer and melanoma. With regard to melanoma, two recently published studies demonstrated a great reduction in the risk of disease progression for each year of treatment with β-blockers. The results from these studies have suggested a potential role for targeting the β-AR pathway in melanoma patients. Questions regarding the type of β-blocker or tumor characteristics, appropriate treatment paradigms and, most importantly, efficacy must be answered in randomized clinical studies before β-blockers can be considered a therapeutic option for patients with melanoma.

  8. A Review of Smart Energy Projects & Smart Energy State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, Dave; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    The aim of this study was to investigate the research projects in Smart Energy over the past 10 years in Denmark, the Nordic region and the EU in order to find gaps and to inform the Smart Energy Network’s recommendations. The study also investigated the Smart Energy state-of-the-art research based...... on expert knowledge. Smart Energy is a cross-sectoral approach that makes use of synergies between the various energy sectors when identifying suitable and cost-effective renewable energy solutions. The three main energy sectors involved are electricity, thermal and gas. Different sub-sectors form parts...... of these sectors, for example electric vehicles in the electricity sector, and district heating in the thermal sector. In this study a database of Danish projects was made that labelled each project with their Smart Energy focus and other metadata such as funding body, and type of project. The database...

  9. State-of-the-art review of some artificial intelligence applications in pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Geotechnical engineering deals with materials (e.g. soil and rock) that, by their very nature, exhibit varied and uncertain behavior due to the imprecise physical processes associated with the formation of these materials. Modeling the behavior of such materials in geotechnical engineering applications is complex and sometimes beyond the ability of most traditional forms of physically-based engineering methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more popular and particularly amenable to modeling the complex behavior of most geotechnical engineering applications because it has demonstrated superior predictive ability compared to traditional methods. This paper provides state-of-the-art review of some selected AI techniques and their applications in pile foundations, and presents the salient features associated with the modeling development of these AI techniques. The paper also discusses the strength and limitations of the selected AI techniques compared to other available modeling approaches.

  10. Management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedzicha Jadwiga A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are important events in the natural history of this prevalent and devastating condition. This review provides a concise, state of the art summary on prevention and management of exacerbations. Considerable new data underpins evidence in support of many preventative interventions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological, that are now available. Challenges remain in developing new approaches, and delivering those that already exist to the right patient at the right time. Management of an exacerbation remains stepwise according to clinical severity, but there is now additional focus on addressing comorbidities and taking the opportunity at acute events to optimise preventative strategies for the future. Ultimately, exacerbations are heterogeneous events in a heterogeneous disease, and an individualised approach is paramount.

  11. Near-Infrared Sub-Bandgap All-Silicon Photodetectors: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sirleto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but the development of high-performance photodetectors on silicon CMOS platforms at wavelengths of interest for telecommunications has remained an imperative but unaccomplished task so far. In recent years, however, a number of near-infrared all-silicon photodetectors have been proposed and demonstrated for optical interconnect and power-monitoring applications. In this paper, a review of the state of the art is presented. Devices based on mid-bandgap absorption, surface-state absorption, internal photoemission absorption and two-photon absorption are reported, their working principles elucidated and their performance discussed and compared.

  12. Text mining for adverse drug events: the promise, challenges, and state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Rave; Callahan, Alison; Tamang, Suzanne; Low, Yen; Odgers, David; Finlayson, Sam; Jung, Kenneth; LePendu, Paea; Shah, Nigam H

    2014-10-01

    Text mining is the computational process of extracting meaningful information from large amounts of unstructured text. It is emerging as a tool to leverage underutilized data sources that can improve pharmacovigilance, including the objective of adverse drug event (ADE) detection and assessment. This article provides an overview of recent advances in pharmacovigilance driven by the application of text mining, and discusses several data sources-such as biomedical literature, clinical narratives, product labeling, social media, and Web search logs-that are amenable to text mining for pharmacovigilance. Given the state of the art, it appears text mining can be applied to extract useful ADE-related information from multiple textual sources. Nonetheless, further research is required to address remaining technical challenges associated with the text mining methodologies, and to conclusively determine the relative contribution of each textual source to improving pharmacovigilance.

  13. The new science of moral cognition: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivera La Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for multidisciplinary approaches to the scientific study of human nature is a widely supported academic claim. This assumption has proved to be especially successful in the field of moral psychology. Although studies of moral topics have been ubiquitous in both humanities and social sciences, it is not until the integration of different scientific disciplines in the convergent science of moral psychology that the study of morality seems to start its flourishing age. Thus, in the last ten years, a growing body of research from cognitive sciences, experimental philosophy, primatology, clinical and developmental psychology, economy and anthropology have made possible a "new era" on the study of morality. In this paper, we review the most striking findings that constitute the "state of the art' of moral psychology, with the aim to facilitate a better understanding of how the mind functions in the moral domain.

  14. A Review of Smart Energy Projects & Smart Energy State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, Dave; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    on expert knowledge. Smart Energy is a cross-sectoral approach that makes use of synergies between the various energy sectors when identifying suitable and cost-effective renewable energy solutions. The three main energy sectors involved are electricity, thermal and gas. Different sub-sectors form parts......The aim of this study was to investigate the research projects in Smart Energy over the past 10 years in Denmark, the Nordic region and the EU in order to find gaps and to inform the Smart Energy Network’s recommendations. The study also investigated the Smart Energy state-of-the-art research based...... of these sectors, for example electric vehicles in the electricity sector, and district heating in the thermal sector. In this study a database of Danish projects was made that labelled each project with their Smart Energy focus and other metadata such as funding body, and type of project. The database...

  15. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis;

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes...... is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status. The 'Fry paradigm' could have...... broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however...

  16. A General Simulation Framework for Supply Chain Modeling: State of the Art and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cimino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a large availability of discrete event simulation software that can be easily used in different domains: from industry to supply chain, from healthcare to business management, from training to complex systems design. Simulation engines of commercial discrete event simulation software use specific rules and logics for simulation time and events management. Difficulties and limitations come up when commercial discrete event simulation software are used for modeling complex real world-systems (i.e. supply chains, industrial plants. The objective of this paper is twofold: first a state of the art on commercial discrete event simulation software and an overview on discrete event simulation models development by using general purpose programming languages are presented; then a Supply Chain Order Performance Simulator (SCOPS, developed in C++ for investigating the inventory management problem along the supply chain under different supply chain scenarios is proposed to readers.

  17. Electric automation history and state of the art; Historia da automacao eletrica e estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, M.F. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Eletronica e Sistemas de Controle], E-mail: mendes@ieee.org; Jardini, J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PEA/EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mail: jardini@pea.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The article summarizes the history of electric systems automation, used in hydroelectric power plants, since the rise to the present day. Technologies are presented employed at various times, developments, the difference and the reasons for evolution. The emphasis is on today's modern systems technology, covering: communication, standardization, hardware, software, architecture, maintenance, operation and challenges. This work pretend to give subsidies for the design and implementation of automation systems electricity using state of the art. The scope are the new plants as well as those being modernized. Knowledge of history is important to investigate, to plan and evaluate the costs and benefits of automation systems for new electric plants and those that are undergoing processes technological upgrading.

  18. Additive manufacturing of titanium alloys state of the art, challenges and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys: State of the Art, Challenges and Opportunities provides alternative methods to the conventional approach for the fabrication of the majority of titanium components produced via the cast and wrought technique, a process which involves a considerable amount of expensive machining. In contrast, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) approach allows very close to final part configuration to be directly fabricated minimizing machining cost, while achieving mechanical properties at least at cast and wrought levels. In addition, the book offers the benefit of significant savings through better material utilization for parts with high buy-to-fly ratios (ratio of initial stock mass to final part mass before and after manufacturing). As titanium additive manufacturing has attracted considerable attention from both academicians and technologists, and has already led to many applications in aerospace and terrestrial systems, as well as in the medical industry, this book explores the un...

  19. Light, sound, chemistry… action: state of the art optical methods for animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Jorge; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, macroscopic optical methods have been promoted from backstage to main actors in biological imaging. Many possible forms of energy conservation have been explored that involve light, including fluorescence emission, sound generated through absorption and bioluminescence, that is light generated through a chemical reaction. These physicochemical approaches for contrast generation have resulted in optical imaging methods that come with potent performance characteristics over simple epi-illumination optical imaging approaches of the past, and can play a central role in imaging applications in vivo as it pertains to modern biological and drug discovery, pre-clinical imaging and clinical applications. This review focuses on state of the art optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) imaging methods and discusses key performance characteristics that convert optical imaging from a qualitative modality to a powerful high-resolution and quantitative volumetric interrogation tool for operation through several millimeters of tissue depth.: © 2011 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  20. Ionic Liquids Beyond Simple Solvents: Glimpses at the State of the Art in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Andrea; Giernoth, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Within the last 25 years ionic liquids have written a tremendous success story, which is documented in a nearly uncountable amount of original research papers, reviews, and numerous applications in research and industry. These days, ionic liquids can be considered as a mature class of compounds for many different applications. Frequently, they are used as neoteric solvents for chemical tansformations, and the number of reviews on this field of research is huge. In this focused review, though, we are trying to evaluate the state of the art of ionic liquid chemistry beyond using them simply as solvents for chemical transformations. It is not meant to be a comprehensive overview on the topic; the choice of emphasis and examples rather refects the authors' personal view on the field. We are especially highlighting fields in which we believe the most fundamental developments within the next five years will take place: biomass processing, (chiral) ionic liquids from natural sources, biotransformations, and organic synthesis.

  1. State of the art review of semi active control for magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes causes severe damage to badly designed structures or buildings to fail or collapse, and also have caused some damage to well-designed structures to malfunction due to the damage or failure of the equipment housed in the structure or building. The use magnetorheological dampers to mitigate the effect of external excitation is increased to resolve this. This article is a state of the art review of nonlinear analytical models to understand the efficacy of semi-active control theory for magnetorheological dampers. A nonlinear semi active control law is desired to be designed which atleast guarantees analytical closed loop stability in order to mitigate the effect of perturbations and drive the desired output to equilibrium.

  2. Improvement of EEG Signal Acquisition: An Electrical Aspect for State of the Art of Front End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bulent Usakli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present some practical state-of-the-art considerations in acquiring satisfactory signals for electroencephalographic signal acquisition. These considerations are important for users and system designers. Especially choosing correct electrode and design strategy of the initial electronic circuitry front end plays an important role in improving the system's measurement performance. Considering the pitfalls in the design of biopotential measurement system and recording session conditions creates better accuracy. In electroencephalogram (EEG recording electrodes, system electronics including filtering, amplifying, signal conversion, data storing, and environmental conditions affect the recording performance. In this paper, EEG electrode principles and main points of electronic noise reduction methods in EEG signal acquisition front end are discussed, and some suggestions for improving signal acquisition are presented.

  3. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2A. Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blümel, Ernst; Haghighat, Fariborz; Li, Yuguo

    . The publication is an internal Annex report. With a focus on innovative building elements that dynamically respond to changes in climate and user demands, the report describes materials, components and systems that have been tested in laboratories and buildings around the world. This report is aimed......This report resumes and presents the activity done in Subtask A of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 “Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings” concerning the state of the art review of Responsive Building Elements. It is based on the contributions from the participating countries...... at researchers in the field and gives an overview of how these elements work together with available performance data. It is hoped, that this report will be helpful for researchers in their search for new solutions to the problem of designing and constructing sustainable buildings....

  4. ZnO nanoforms: The state-of-the art of synthetic strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Devaramani, Basavaraj S; Manjasetty, Babu A; Nair, Gopalakrishna T R

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has already made indelible dents in the fields of communication, computation, electronics, photonics, gas sensors, diagnostic technologies, catalysis, drug delivery systems and imaging. In particular, ZnO nanostructures have attracted a lot of research interest due to their unique structure- and size-dependent electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. ZnO nanosystems are abundant with respect to a wide variety of morphologies whose syntheses are critically dependent on several experimental parameters. Cursory presentation of the immense potential of these tiny systems and the state-of-the-art of the synthetic methodologies along with our initial research on ZnO nanorods has been presented. ZnO nanorods in the size range 50-150nm have been synthesized by solid-state route by heating zinc acetate with caustic soda under specific growth conditions. X-ray diffraction pattern unequivocally establishes a wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscope images of ZnO nanorods display a random di...

  5. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  6. State of the art in trueness and interlaboratory harmonization for 10 analytes in general clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Myers, Gary L; Ashwood, Edward R; Killeen, Anthony A; Wang, Edward; Ehlers, Glenn W; Hassemer, David; Lo, Stanley F; Seccombe, David; Siekmann, Lothar; Thienpont, Linda M; Toth, Alan

    2008-05-01

    Harmonization and standardization of results among different clinical laboratories is necessary for clinical practice guidelines to be established. To evaluate the state of the art in measuring 10 routine chemistry analytes. A specimen prepared as off-the-clot pooled sera and 4 conventionally prepared specimens were sent to participants in the College of American Pathologists Chemistry Survey. Analyte concentrations were assigned by reference measurement procedures. Approximately 6000 clinical laboratories. For glucose, iron, potassium, and uric acid, more than 87.5% of peer groups meet the desirable bias goals based on biologic variability criteria. The remaining 6 analytes had less than 52% of peer groups that met the desirable bias criteria. Routine measurement procedures for some analytes had acceptable traceability to reference systems. Conventionally prepared proficiency testing specimens were not adequately commutable with a fresh frozen specimen to be used to evaluate trueness of methods compared with a reference measurement procedure.

  7. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge.

  8. Pressure Sensor: State of the Art, Design, and Application for Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Almassri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey the state of the art in a variety of force sensors for designing and application of robotic hand. Most of the force sensors are examined based on tactile sensing. For a decade, many papers have widely discussed various sensor technologies and transducer methods which are based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS and silicon used for improving the accuracy and performance measurement of tactile sensing capabilities especially for robotic hand applications. We found that transducers and materials such as piezoresistive and polymer, respectively, are used in order to improve the sensing sensitivity for grasping mechanisms in future. This predicted growth in such applications will explode into high risk tasks which requires very precise purposes. It shows considerable potential and significant levels of research attention.

  9. State-of-the-art technology in modern computer-aided drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkas, Georgios A; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Kastania, Anastasia; Kossida, Sophia

    2013-11-01

    The quest for small drug-like compounds that selectively inhibit the function of biological targets has always been a major focus in the pharmaceutical industry and in academia as well. High-throughput screening of compound libraries requires time, cost and resources. Therefore, the use of alternative methods is necessary for facilitating lead discovery. Computational techniques that dock small molecules into macromolecular targets and predict the affinity and activity of the small molecule are widely used in drug design and discovery, and have become an integral part of the industrial and academic research. In this review, we present an overview of some state-of-the-art technologies in modern drug design that have been developed for expediting the search for novel drug candidates.

  10. Solar cells: state of the art and trends; Solarzellen: Stand der Technik und Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The present article gives an overview of the state of the art of solar cell design. In this connection it deals with the following technologies: solar cells of crystalline silicon (serigraphic solar cells of Cs silicon and mc silicon, high-efficiency silicon solar cells), thin film solar cells (solar cells of amorphous silicon; solar cells of gallium arsenide, solar cells of copper indium (gallium) diselenide, solar cells of cadmium telluride), crystalline silicon film solar cells, and nanocrystalline dye-sensitised solar cells. (HW) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Technik bei Solarzellen. In diesem Zusammenhang wird auf folgende Technologien eingegangen: Solarzellen aus kristallinem Silizium (Siebdruck-Solarzellen aus Cs-Silicium und mc-Silicium, High-efficiency-Silicium-Solarzellen), Duennschicht-Solarzellen (Solarzellen aus amorphem Silicium, Solarzellen aus Galliumarsenid, Solarzellen aus Kupferindium(Gallium)diselenid, Solarzellen aus Cadmiumtellurid), kristalline Silicium-Film-Solarzellen, Nanokristalline farbstoffsensibilisierte Solarzellen. (HW)

  11. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....... Sonnenwald presents the "information horizon interview" (1999, 2005), the singular visual method native to the information behavior community. Second, Anna Lundh (2010) describes her techniques for capturing and analyzing primary school children's information activities utilizing video recordings. Third...

  12. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  13. State-of-the-art Space Weather Forecast with AFFECTS and HELCATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Affects Team; Helcats Team

    2016-04-01

    The space weather projects fostered through the European Union FP7 and Horizon 2020 programs have opened up new horizons in the field of space weather research and have facilitated state-of-the-art-forecasts. Here we present an overview on the services and space weather forecasts the EU FP7 project AFFECTS (Advanced Forecast For Ensuring Communications Through Space) is providing and how the precision of the forecast is qualitatively greatly enhanced by new results derived from the EU FP7 project HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis, and Techniques Services). The forecast techniques base on near-real time multipoint analysis of coronal mass ejections observed by SOHO and STEREO and simulations of their Sun to Earth evolution.

  14. The self-consistent multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing. Motivations, state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, N.; Robin, C.; Dupuis, M.; Hupin, G.; Berger, J.-F.

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the state of the art of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach which was proposed and implemented using the Gogny interaction ˜ 10 years ago. Various theoretical aspects are re-analyzed when a Hamiltonian description is chosen: the link with exact many-body theories, the impact of truncations in the multiconfigurational space, the importance of defining single-particle orbitals which are consistent with the correlations introduced in the many-body wave function, the role of the self-consistency, and more practically the numerical convergence algorithm. Several applications done with the phenomenological effective Gogny interaction are discussed. Finally, future directions to extend and generalize the method are discussed.

  15. Coupling Resistive Switching Devices with Neurons: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Chiappalone, Michela; Ariano, Paolo; Bocchini, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide the state-of-the-art of bioelectronic interfacing between biological neuronal systems and artificial components, focusing the attention on the potentiality offered by intrinsically neuromorphic synthetic devices based on Resistive Switching (RS). Neuromorphic engineering is outside the scopes of this Perspective. Instead, our focus is on those materials and devices featuring genuine physical effects that could be sought as non-linearity, plasticity, excitation, and extinction which could be directly and more naturally coupled with living biological systems. In view of important applications, such as prosthetics and future life augmentation, a cybernetic parallelism is traced, between biological and artificial systems. We will discuss how such intrinsic features could reduce the complexity of conditioning networks for a more natural direct connection between biological and synthetic worlds. Putting together living systems with RS devices could represent a feasible though innovative perspective for the future of bionics. PMID:28261048

  16. Ischemic heart disease in the emergency room: state of the art, innovation and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This opinion paper is aimed to provide an overview about the state of the art, innovation and research in ischemic heart disease in the emergency room, and is a synopsis of the lectures of the 3rd Italian GREAT Network Congress (Rome, 15-19 October 2012. The leading issues of a multidisciplinary risk stratification and diagnosis of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected ischemic heart disease will be discussed taking into consideration the variable onset of clinical signs and symptoms, the role of novel highly-sensitive troponin immunoassays, the promising use of an 80-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiography and risk stratification scores. Preliminary information will also be provided about the ongoing Italian multicentric registry on chest pain patients in emergency department, an observational prospective study aimed to collect data about patients presenting at the emergency department with typical chest pain suggesting an acute coronary syndrome.

  17. Quinoxaline, its derivatives and applications: A State of the Art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana A; Pessoa, Ana M; Cordeiro, M Natália D S; Fernandes, Rúben; Prudêncio, Cristina; Noronha, João Paulo; Vieira, Mónica

    2015-06-01

    Quinoxaline derivatives are an important class of heterocycle compounds, where N replaces some carbon atoms in the ring of naphthalene. Its molecular formula is C8H6N2, formed by the fusion of two aromatic rings, benzene and pyrazine. It is rare in natural state, but their synthesis is easy to perform. In this review the State of the Art will be presented, which includes a summary of the progress made over the past years in the knowledge of the structure and mechanism of the quinoxaline and quinoxaline derivatives, associated medical and biomedical value as well as industrial value. Modifying quinoxaline structure it is possible to obtain a wide variety of biomedical applications, namely antimicrobial activities and chronic and metabolic diseases treatment.

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal synapses using state-of-the-art nano-imaging techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlu Tao; Chenglong Xia; Xiaobing Chen; Z. Hong Zhou; Guoqiang Bi

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal synapses are functional nodes in neural circuits.Their organization and activity define an individual's level of intelligence,emotional state and mental health.Changes in the structure and efficacy of synapses are the biological basis of learning and memory.However,investigation of the molecular architecture of synapses has been impeded by the lack of efficient techniques with sufficient resolution.Recent developments in state-of-the-art nano-imaging techniques have opened up a new window for dissecting the molecular organization of neuronal synapses with unprecedented resolution.Here,we review recent technological advances in nano-imaging techniques as well as their applications to the study of synapses,emphasizing super-resolution light microscopy and 3-dimensional electron tomography.

  19. State of the Art of HVAC Technology in Europe and America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2015-01-01

    for increasing the energy efficiency of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) systems and for increasing the amount of renewable energy used. Especially these types of systems are getting increasing attention in Europe and North-America. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities...... mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, and active beams). The main differences between HVAC systems in Europe, North America and other parts of the world are often the indoor terminal units. Type...... of energy sources and energy generators are very much similar. This paper will present state-of the art-off energy efficient systems that will provide a good indoor environmental quality at a decreased energy use. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling systems are an important requirement...

  20. State of the art on defenses against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Giannetsos, T.; Dimitriou, T.

    2009-01-01

    describe the wormhole attack, a severe routing attack against sensor networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. We detail its characteristics and study its effects on the successful operation of a sensor network. We present state-of-the-art research for addressing wormhole related...... the possibility of using more sophisticated methods, like intrusion detection systems, to achieve a more complete and autonomic defense mechanism against wormhole attackers. We present our work on intrusion detection and introduce a lightweight IDS framework, called LIDeA, designed for wireless sensor networks....... LIDeA is based on a distributed architecture, in which nodes overhear their neighboring nodes and collaborate with each other in order to successfully detect an intrusion. We conclude by highlighting how such a system can be used for defending against wormhole attackers....

  1. Enterprise Modeling in the context of Enterprise Engineering: State of the art and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Vernadat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Modeling is a central activity in Enterprise Engineering and can facilitate Production Management activities. This state-of-the-art paper first recalls definitions and fundamental principles of enterprise modelling, which goes far beyond process modeling. The CIMOSA modeling framework, which is based on an event-driven process-based modeling language suitable for enterprise system analysis and model enactment, is used as a reference conceptual framework because of its generality. Next, the focus is on new features of enterprise modeling languages including risk, value, competency modeling and service orientation. Extensions for modeling collaborative aspects of networked organizations are suggested as research outlook. Major approaches used in enterprise modeling are recalled before concluding.

  2. A Webcast of Bird Nesting as a State-of-the-Art Citizen Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Sklenicka, Petr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The quality of people's knowledge of nature has always had a significant influence on their approach to wildlife and nature conservation. However, direct interactions of people with nature are greatly limited nowadays, especially because of urbanization and modern lifestyles. As a result, our isolation from the natural world has been growing. Here, we present an example of a state-of-the-art Citizen Science project with its educational, scientific, and popularizing benefits. We conclude that modern media and new forms of education offer an effective opportunity for inspiring children and others to have fun learning to act like scientists. This approach provides broad opportunities for developing the hitherto neglected educational potential of Citizen Science.

  3. Signal Processing in High-End Hearing Aids: State of the Art, Challenges, and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rass

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of hearing aids incorporates two aspects, namely, the audiological and the technical point of view. The former focuses on items like the recruitment phenomenon, the speech intelligibility of hearing-impaired persons, or just on the question of hearing comfort. Concerning these subjects, different algorithms intending to improve the hearing ability are presented in this paper. These are automatic gain controls, directional microphones, and noise reduction algorithms. Besides the audiological point of view, there are several purely technical problems which have to be solved. An important one is the acoustic feedback. Another instance is the proper automatic control of all hearing aid components by means of a classification unit. In addition to an overview of state-of-the-art algorithms, this paper focuses on future trends.

  4. State-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Haifan; GE Yaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the state-of-the-art of long-span bridge engineering in China with emphases on recent long-span bridge projects,bridge deck configuration and material,design codes of long-span bridges and improvement of aerodynamic performance.The recent long-span bridge projects include thirty-eight completed suspension bridges,cable-stayed and arch bridges with a main span over 400 m,and eighteen major bridges are under construction.The bridge deck configuration and material,with prestressed concrete decks,steel-concrete composite decks and steel box decks together with several popular cross-sections,are presented.The third part briefly outlines four design codes,including static and dynamic design for highway long-span bridges,and the recent engineering experiences gained from several aerodynamic vibration control projects of long-span bridges are shared in the last part.

  5. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions.

  6. Effect of nanofillers on the properties of a state of the art epoxy gelcoat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of the inclusion of electrically conductive and non-conductive nanofillers in a state of the art epoxy gelcoat was studied. The conductive fillers used were multi-wall carbon nanotubes and exfoliated nanographite. The non-conductive ones were nanoclay and nano-titanium dioxide. The content of the nanofillers was 0.65% per weight and their inclusion took place using high shear mixing devices. The conductive fillers showed an increase in tensile and fracture properties, as well as in the thermal properties whereas the non-conductive fillers did not show any improvement on the fracture properties. The glass transition temperature was practically unaffected by the presence of the nanofillers while conversly, the coefficient of thermal expansion was decreased for all the nanofillers for temperatures above the glass transition temperature. Finally, weatherometer tests showed that the nanofillers contribute into less weight losses in comparison with the reference epoxy gelcoat.

  7. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  8. A General Simulation Framework for Supply Chain Modeling: State of the Art and Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Cimino, Antonio; Mirabelli, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays there is a large availability of discrete event simulation software that can be easily used in different domains: from industry to supply chain, from healthcare to business management, from training to complex systems design. Simulation engines of commercial discrete event simulation software use specific rules and logics for simulation time and events management. Difficulties and limitations come up when commercial discrete event simulation software are used for modeling complex real world-systems (i.e. supply chains, industrial plants). The objective of this paper is twofold: first a state of the art on commercial discrete event simulation software and an overview on discrete event simulation models development by using general purpose programming languages are presented; then a Supply Chain Order Performance Simulator (SCOPS, developed in C++) for investigating the inventory management problem along the supply chain under different supply chain scenarios is proposed to readers.

  9. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State-of-the-art in vibration-based electrostatic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah Khan, Farid; Usman Qadir, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Recently, embedded systems and wireless sensor nodes have been gaining importance. For operating these devices several vibration-based energy harvesters have been successfully developed and reported, such as piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrostatic energy harvesters (EEHs). This paper presents the state-of-the-art in the field of vibration-based EEHs. Mainly, two types of EEHs, electret-free and electret-based, are reported in the literature. The developed EEHs are mostly of the centimeter scale. These energy harvesters, with resonant frequencies ranging from 2 Hz to 1.7 kHz, when subjected to excitation on the order of 0.25 g to 14.2 g, generate power that ranges from 0.46 nW to 2.1 mW.

  11. Fatigue of Nitinol: The state-of-the-art and ongoing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtabi, M J; Shamsaei, Nima; Mitchell, M R

    2015-10-01

    Nitinol, a nearly equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, has been considered for a wide range of applications including medical and dental devices and implants as well as aerospace and automotive components and structures. The realistic loading condition in many of these applications is cyclic; therefore, fatigue is often the main failure mode for such components and structures. The fatigue behavior of Nitinol involves many more complexities compared with traditional metal alloys arising from its uniqueness in material properties such as superelasticity and shape memory effects. In this paper, a review of the present state-of-the-art on the fatigue behavior of superelastic Nitinol is presented. Various aspects of fatigue of Nitinol are discussed and microstructural effects are explained. Effects of material preparation and testing conditions are also reviewed. Finally, several conclusions are made and recommendations for future works are offered.

  12. Proceedings of B Factories, the state of the art in accelerators, detectors and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitlin, D. (ed.) (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The conference B Factories, The State of the Art in Accelerators, Detectors and Physics was held at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on April 6-10, 1992. The guiding principle of the conference was to bring together accelerator physicists and high energy experimentalists and theorists at the same time, with the goal of encouraging communication in defining and solving problems in a way which cut across narrow areas of specialization. Thus the conference was, in large measure, two distinct conferences, one involving accelerator specialists, the other theorists and experimentalists. There were initial and closing plenary sessions, and three separate tracks of parallel sessions, called Accelerator, Detector/Physics and Joint Interest sessions. This report contains the papers of this conference, the general topics of these cover: vacuum system, lattice design, beam-beam interactions, rf systems, feedback systems, measuring instrumentation, the interaction region, radiation background, particle detectors, particle tracking and identification, data acquisition, and computing system, and particle theory.

  13. State of the Art. Work Stream 3 – the Danish Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Larsen, Jeppe Fuglsang; Meret, Susi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the State Of the Art (SOA) is to gain knowledge about the Danish Context of organisations, groups and movements in civil society countering hate speech, institutional racism and exclusionary practices and to identify gaps in national research on the issue that can be explored through...... field work, interviews and group discussions/dialogues, possibly to be debated at roundtable convening in the autumn of 2014. The SOA gives an overview of the role of the state, institutions, the political parties and social movements in combating racism, discrimination hate-speech and exclusionary...... behaviours. It will first give a brief overview of the historical context in Denmark before WWII and after Denmark joined the EU in 1972, focusing on the different referendum and on the implications of the four Danish opt-outs to the Maastricht Treaty in 1994. Then it will discuss the role of the State...

  14. Anatomical basis for carrying out a state-of-the-art radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Atsushi; Tewari, Ashutosh K

    2012-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy has consolidated the position of surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer in the USA. In a few years, it is expected to spread rapidly worldwide. However, surgical anatomy has trailed the advance in surgical techniques of robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Therefore, we reviewed the recent literature, which sometimes refutes the established consensus on pelvic anatomy, for the state-of-the-art technique. We also describe the anatomical findings for each basic step during robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, and show evidence-based surgical techniques. Of course, these findings will also be useful for radical retropubic, perineal and conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy. Surgical anatomy should always be developing and changing with advances in surgical approaches.

  15. Technology Integration around the Geographic Information: A State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Medellin, Rafael; Vargas, Rocio; Ruiz, Lirio

    2009-01-01

    One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instead it has been part of a development and technological integration process. This paper presents a state of the art review about the application of geographic information under different approaches: its use on location based services, the collaborative user participation on it, its contextual-awareness, its use in the Semantic Web and the challenges of its use in natural languge queries. Finally, a prototype that integrates most of these areas is presented.

  16. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment an operator is typically required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect defended assets against enemy threats by assigning available weapon systems to engage enemy craft. This environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making under severe stress conditions, and the associated responsibilities are usually divided between a number of operators and computerized decision support systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. The aim in this paper is to review the state of the art of this kind of threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support process as it stands within the context of a ground based air defence system (GBADS at the turn of the twenty first century. However, much of the contents of the paper may be generalized to military environments other than a GBADS one.

  17. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  18. Technology Integration around the Geographic Information: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Vargas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instead it has been part of a development and technological integration process. This paper presents a state of the art review about the application of geographic information under different approaches: its use on location based services, the collaborative user participation on it, its contextual-awareness, its use in the Semantic Web and the challenges of its use in natural language queries. Finally, a prototype that integrates most of these areas is presented.

  19. State-of-the-art research: optimal investment in market-based electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Einar; Skjeret, Frode

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art research paper is to surveying the literature on investment in market based electric power systems as a background for identifying and discussing some important issues in the optimal design and operation of such systems. A fundamental distinction has to be made between investment in the competitive part of the power system (generation and trading) on the one hand and the natural monopoly part (network infrastructure) on the other. The paper starts with a listing and discussion on market characteristics and properties of electric power and goes on to discussing performance criteria and potential sources of market failure for optimal electric power investment. After the literature survey there is a discussion of conditions under which optimal investment may occur. (author). 78 refs., figs

  20. State of the Art Review on Theoretical Tribology of Fluid Power Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerimagic, Remzija; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years an increasing focus on efficiency and reliability in fluid power displacement machines has provided an incentive to study loss and wear mechanisms. One example is the hydrostatic fluid power transmission systems for wind and wave energy applications. The loss and wear...... mechanisms are mainly attributed to the tribological interfaces in fluid power machines. Consequently, optimization of efficiency and reliability of fluid power machines imply considerations of tribological interface design. The majority of the work done by researchers and engineers on the study of loss...... and wear mechanisms in the lubricating gaps in fluid power machines is confined to simulation models, as experimental treatments of these mechanisms are very difficult. The aim of this paper is a state of the art review on the theoretical work for the design and optimization of fluid power displacement...