WorldWideScience

Sample records for current state-of-the-art methods

  1. Effusion method at age 69: current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cater, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    Historical notes are presented tracing the development of the effusion methods along with some fundamental equations to be used later. Theoretical and experimental limitations of the method, and of each variant of the effusion method are cited. How these problems have been dealt with and where our understanding of them now lies are discussed, and estimates of the accuracy with which derived results can be ascribed are given. Finally, some newer techniques are mentioned which give some of the same results that have traditionally been obtained by effusion studies, try to place them in perspective, and perhaps suggest some future directions for effusion studies

  2. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb E. Kunze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on a perforated domain.

  3. [Osteoporosis: Current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbovoy, A F; Pashentseva, A V; Sharonova, L A

    As of now, osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most important sociomedical problems because of its high prevalence and resultant disability, as well as significant mortality attributable to complications. The current strategy for providing care for patients of OP is its early diagnosis, by determining the high risk of fractures, and early pathogenetic treatment. The article gives an update on the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of OP.

  4. Assessment of current state of the art in modeling techniques and analysis methods for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in continuum modeling, progress in reduction methods, and analysis and modeling needs for large space structures are covered with specific attention given to repetitive lattice trusses. As far as continuum modeling is concerned, an effective and verified analysis capability exists for linear thermoelastic stress, birfurcation buckling, and free vibration problems of repetitive lattices. However, application of continuum modeling to nonlinear analysis needs more development. Reduction methods are very effective for bifurcation buckling and static (steady-state) nonlinear analysis. However, more work is needed to realize their full potential for nonlinear dynamic and time-dependent problems. As far as analysis and modeling needs are concerned, three areas are identified: loads determination, modeling and nonclassical behavior characteristics, and computational algorithms. The impact of new advances in computer hardware, software, integrated analysis, CAD/CAM stems, and materials technology is also discussed.

  5. Current State-of-the-Art MRI for Comprehensive Evaluation of Potential Living Liver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kartik S; Guo, Lijun; Guimarães, Luís

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the role of state-of-the-art MRI-based techniques for comprehensive evaluation of living donors providing single-visit assessment of the liver vasculature via MR angiography, of the biliary tract via conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography and T1-weighted gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography, and of hepatic steatosis via T2*-corrected multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation MRI and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho MR spectroscopy. By using current state-of-the-art techniques, MRI can provide a one-stop-shop method for evaluation of the potential living liver donors.

  6. Three State-of-the-Art Methods for Condition Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelius, H.T.; Meiler, P.P.; Maas, H.L.M.M.; Bonnier, B.; Grevink, J.S.; Kuilenburg, R.F. van

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different state-of-the-art condition monitoring techniques: first principles, feature extraction, and neural networks. The focus of the paper is on the application of the techniques, not on the underlying theory. Each technique is described briefly and is

  7. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  8. Current state of the art of HNF based composite propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciucci, A.; Frota, O.; Welland, W.H.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Leeming, B.; Bellerby, J.M.; Brotzu, A.

    2004-01-01

    The main activities currently performed for the development of HNF-based propellants are presented. The objectives and approach adopted are described. The results obtained on the HNF decomposition mechanism and on the re- and co-crystallisation of HNF with potential propellant ingredients are

  9. Current State of the Art Historic Building Information Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, C.; Murphy, M.

    2017-08-01

    In an extensive review of existing literature a number of observations were made in relation to the current approaches for recording and modelling existing buildings and environments: Data collection and pre-processing techniques are becoming increasingly automated to allow for near real-time data capture and fast processing of this data for later modelling applications. Current BIM software is almost completely focused on new buildings and has very limited tools and pre-defined libraries for modelling existing and historic buildings. The development of reusable parametric library objects for existing and historic buildings supports modelling with high levels of detail while decreasing the modelling time. Mapping these parametric objects to survey data, however, is still a time-consuming task that requires further research. Promising developments have been made towards automatic object recognition and feature extraction from point clouds for as-built BIM. However, results are currently limited to simple and planar features. Further work is required for automatic accurate and reliable reconstruction of complex geometries from point cloud data. Procedural modelling can provide an automated solution for generating 3D geometries but lacks the detail and accuracy required for most as-built applications in AEC and heritage fields.

  10. Current state of the art of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Gil, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An update on some recent developments in the area of blood cell labeling is provided. Specific topics covered include red cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc, platelet labeling using an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, and the labeling of leukocytes with /sup 99m/Tc. Mechanistic information, where available, is discussed. A critical evaluation of current techniques, their pitfalls as well as advantages, and the problems that remain to be resolved, is presented. The promise shown by recent results using the antibody approach for cell labeling is emphasized. An assessment of the progress made in these areas is presented. 38 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  11. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Litscher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all describe the method of injecting different kinds of drugs into a defined body acupuncture point, are used. This article presents the history of liquid acupuncture, as well as the current scientific state of the art, from the point of view of two European researchers. Some articles are discussed and a few practical examples are presented.

  12. Automatic liquid handling for life science: a critical review of the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanwei; Yuan, Liang; Zheng, Yuan F; Chen, Weidong

    2012-06-01

    Liquid handling plays a pivotal role in life science laboratories. In experiments such as gene sequencing, protein crystallization, antibody testing, and drug screening, liquid biosamples frequently must be transferred between containers of varying sizes and/or dispensed onto substrates of varying types. The sample volumes are usually small, at the micro- or nanoliter level, and the number of transferred samples can be huge when investigating large-scope combinatorial conditions. Under these conditions, liquid handling by hand is tedious, time-consuming, and impractical. Consequently, there is a strong demand for automated liquid-handling methods such as sensor-integrated robotic systems. In this article, we survey the current state of the art in automatic liquid handling, including technologies developed by both industry and research institutions. We focus on methods for dealing with small volumes at high throughput and point out challenges for future advancements.

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: Current state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Benedikt; Fingerle, Volker; Norris, Douglas E; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter

    2018-06-01

    This review is directed at physicians and laboratory personnel in private practice and clinics who treat and diagnose Lyme borreliosis (LB) in patients as part of their daily work. A major objective of this paper is to bring together background information on Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and basic clinical knowledge of LB, which is one of the most frequently reported vector-borne diseases in the Northern Hemisphere. The goal is to provide practical guidance for clinicians and for laboratory physicians, and scientists for a better understanding of current achievements and ongoing obstacles in the laboratory diagnosis of LB, an infectious disease that still remains one of the diagnostic chameleons of modern clinical medicine. Moreover, in bringing together current scientific information from guidelines, reviews, and original papers, this review provides recommendations for selecting the appropriate tests in relation to the patient's stage of disease to achieve effective, stage-related application of current direct and indirect laboratory methods for the detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. Additionally, the review aims to discuss the current state of the art concerning the diagnostic potential and limitations of the assays and test methods currently in use to optimize LB patient management and provide insight into the possible future prospects of this rapidly changing area of laboratory medicine.

  14. Localized excitations in nonlinear complex systems current state of the art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri; Karachalios, Nikos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Palmero-Acebedo, Faustino

    2014-01-01

    The study of nonlinear localized excitations is a long-standing challenge for research in basic and applied science, as well as engineering, due to their importance in understanding and predicting phenomena arising in nonlinear and complex systems, but also due to their potential for the development and design of novel applications. This volume is a compilation of chapters representing the current state-of-the-art on the field of localized excitations and their role in the dynamics of complex physical systems.

  15. Review: Semen sexing - current state of the art with emphasis on bovine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, R; Moreno, J F

    2018-06-01

    It is approaching three decades since the first public evidence of sex-sorting of semen. The technology has progressed considerably since then with a number of institutions and researchers collaborating to eventually bring this to application. The technical challenges have been quite substantial and in the early years the application was limited to only heifer inseminations. Comparable fertility of sex-sorted semen with conventional semen has been an aspirational benchmark for the industry for many years. Significant investment in research in the primary biology of sex-sorted sperm and associated sorting equipment ensured steady progress over the years and current methods particularly the new SexedULTRA-4M™ seems to have now mostly bridged this fertility gap. The dairy and beef industry have adopted this technology quite rapidly. Other animal industries are progressively testing it for application in their specific niches and environments. The current state of the art in the fundamentals of sex-sorting, the biology of the process as well as new developments in machinery are described in this review.

  16. Life cycle impacts and costs of photovoltaic systems: Current state of the art and future outlooks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raugei, Marco [Environmental Management Research Group, Escola Superior de Commerc Internacional-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Passeig Pujades 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Frankl, Paolo [Renewable Energy Unit, International Energy Agency, Rue de la Federation 9, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2009-03-15

    The photovoltaic energy sector is rapidly expanding and technological specification for PV has improved dramatically in the last two decades. This paper sketches the current state of the art and drafts three alternative scenarios for the future, in terms of costs, market penetration and environmental performance. According to these scenarios, if economic incentives are supported long enough into the next ten to twenty years, PV looks set for a rosy future, and is likely to play a significant role in the future energy mix, while at the same time contributing to reduce the environmental impact of electricity supply. (author)

  17. Life cycle impacts and costs of photovoltaic systems: Current state of the art and future outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Frankl, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The photovoltaic energy sector is rapidly expanding and technological specification for PV has improved dramatically in the last two decades. This paper sketches the current state of the art and drafts three alternative scenarios for the future, in terms of costs, market penetration and environmental performance. According to these scenarios, if economic incentives are supported long enough into the next ten to twenty years, PV looks set for a rosy future, and is likely to play a significant role in the future energy mix, while at the same time contributing to reduce the environmental impact of electricity supply. (author)

  18. MRI for solitary pulmonary nodule and mass assessment: Current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hatabu, Hiroto; Seo, Joon Beom; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2018-03-23

    Since the clinical introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the chest has been one of its most challenging applications, and many physicists and radiologists have tried since the 1980s to use MR for assessment of different lung diseases as well as mediastinal and pleural diseases. Since then, however, technical advances in sequencing, scanners, and coils, adaptation of parallel imaging techniques, utilization of contrast media, and development of postprocessing tools have been reported by many basic and clinical researchers. As a result, state-of-the-art thoracic MRI is now substituted for traditional imaging techniques and/or plays a complementary role in the management of patients with various chest diseases, and especially in the detection of pulmonary nodules and in thoracic oncology. In addition, MRI has continued to be developed to help overcome the limitations of computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine examinations. It can currently provide not only morphological, but also functional, physiological, pathophysiological, and molecular information at 1.5T with a gradual shift from 1.5T to 3T MR systems. In this review, we focus on these recent advances in MRI for pulmonary nodule detection and pulmonary nodule and mass evaluation by using noncontrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced techniques as well as new molecular imaging methods such as chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging for a comparison with other modalities such as single or multidetector row CT, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and/or PET/CT. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  20. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne Sonne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....

  1. State-of-the-Art Methods for Brain Tissue Segmentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Lingraj; Agrawal, Sanjay; Panda, Rutuparna; Abraham, Ajith

    2017-01-01

    Brain tissue segmentation is one of the most sought after research areas in medical image processing. It provides detailed quantitative brain analysis for accurate disease diagnosis, detection, and classification of abnormalities. It plays an essential role in discriminating healthy tissues from lesion tissues. Therefore, accurate disease diagnosis and treatment planning depend merely on the performance of the segmentation method used. In this review, we have studied the recent advances in brain tissue segmentation methods and their state-of-the-art in neuroscience research. The review also highlights the major challenges faced during tissue segmentation of the brain. An effective comparison is made among state-of-the-art brain tissue segmentation methods. Moreover, a study of some of the validation measures to evaluate different segmentation methods is also discussed. The brain tissue segmentation, content in terms of methodologies, and experiments presented in this review are encouraging enough to attract researchers working in this field.

  2. Curriculum vitae method in science policy and research evaluation: the state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Cañibano; Barry Bozeman

    2009-01-01

    This is a state-of-the-art assessment for a small but burgeoning research approach, use of curricula vitae in research evaluation. The accumulated research remains sufficiently modest for us to consider nearly all published studies and the full range of research purposes to which CV analysis has been applied. CV analysis has been theory-driven, and theory and tools have increasingly converged. Advances in method and technique have been abetted especially by the push for a scientific and techn...

  3. Advanced robotics for medical rehabilitation current state of the art and recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on the key technologies in developing robots for a wide range of medical rehabilitation activities – which will include robotics basics, modelling and control, biomechanics modelling, rehabilitation strategies, robot assistance, clinical setup/implementation as well as neural and muscular interfaces for rehabilitation robot control – this book is split into two parts; a review of the current state of the art, and recent advances in robotics for medical rehabilitation. Both parts will include five sections for the five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) the upper limb; (ii) lower limb for gait rehabilitation (iii) hand, finger and wrist; (iv) ankle for strains and sprains; and (v) the use of EEG and EMG to create interfaces between the neurological and muscular functions of the patients and the rehabilitation robots. Each chapter provides a description of the design of the device, the control system used, and the implementation and testing to show how it fulfils the needs of that specific ...

  4. State-of-the-art review of sodium fire analysis and current notions for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasi, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium releases from postulated pipe ruptures, as well as failures of sodium handling equipment in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, may lead to substantial pressure-temperature transients in the sodium system cells, as well as in the reactor containment building. Sodium fire analyses are currently performed with analytical tools, such as the SPRAY, SOMIX, SPOOL-FIRE and SOFIRE-II codes. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in sodium fire analysis is presented, and suggestions for further improvements are made. This work is based, in part, on studies made at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the past several years in the areas of model development and improvement associated with the accident analyses of LMFBRs

  5. Sonic Interactions in Virtual Reality: State of the Art, Current Challenges, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefania; Geronazzo, Michele; Erkut, Cumhur; Nilsson, Niels C; Nordahl, Rolf

    2018-03-01

    A high-fidelity but efficient sound simulation is an essential element of any VR experience. Many of the techniques used in virtual acoustics are graphical rendering techniques suitably modified to account for sound generation and propagation. In recent years, several advances in hardware and software technologies have been facilitating the development of immersive interactive sound-rendering experiences. In this article, we present a review of the state of the art of such simulations, with a focus on the different elements that, combined, provide a complete interactive sonic experience. This includes physics-based simulation of sound effects and their propagation in space together with binaural rendering to simulate the position of sound sources. We present how these different elements of the sound design pipeline have been addressed in the literature, trying to find the trade-off between accuracy and plausibility. Recent applications and current challenges are also presented.

  6. English Language Teaching Methods: State of the Art in Grammar Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdiana Junaid

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of grammar has fluctuated and shifted over years. This paper addresses issues such as different ways of teaching grammar, changes in ideas, and practices at the present stage of its development as well as the current state of the art in grammar instruction. Several grammar textbooks which were published in different years also are looked at in order to discover the extent of change in terms of the materials used to teach grammar from time to time. A considerable array of English language teaching methods is available for teacher to utilize since 1980s. Before deciding to employ a particular method, however, educational practitioners need to take several things into consideration such as the objectives of the instruction, the needs, the interests, the expectation, the age, and the level of the learners, and the available supporting facilities. Equally important, the possible constraints such as the environment where the students are learning, the time, and the expectation of the institution are also needed to be considered.

  7. Correlation methods in optical metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Centers, Gary; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Lacey, Ian; Smith, Brian V.

    2018-01-01

    The development of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited storage ring x-ray sources has brought to focus the need for higher performing x-ray optics with unprecedented tolerances for surface slope and height errors and roughness. For example, the proposed beamlines for the future upgraded Advance Light Source, ALS-U, require optical elements characterized by a residual slope error of optics with a length of up to one meter. However, the current performance of x-ray optical fabrication and metrology generally falls short of these requirements. The major limitation comes from the lack of reliable and efficient surface metrology with required accuracy and with reasonably high measurement rate, suitable for integration into the modern deterministic surface figuring processes. The major problems of current surface metrology relate to the inherent instrumental temporal drifts, systematic errors, and/or an unacceptably high cost, as in the case of interferometry with computer-generated holograms as a reference. In this paper, we discuss the experimental methods and approaches based on correlation analysis to the acquisition and processing of metrology data developed at the ALS X-Ray Optical Laboratory (XROL). Using an example of surface topography measurements of a state-of-the-art x-ray mirror performed at the XROL, we demonstrate the efficiency of combining the developed experimental correlation methods to the advanced optimal scanning strategy (AOSS) technique. This allows a significant improvement in the accuracy and capacity of the measurements via suppression of the instrumental low frequency noise, temporal drift, and systematic error in a single measurement run. Practically speaking, implementation of the AOSS technique leads to an increase of the measurement accuracy, as well as the capacity of ex situ metrology by a factor of about four. The developed method is general and applicable to a broad spectrum of high accuracy measurements.

  8. SSAT State-of-the-Art Conference: Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeffrey A; Kim, Teresa; Kim, Joseph; McCarter, Martin D; Kelly, Kaitlyn J; Wong, Joyce; Sicklick, Jason K

    2018-01-01

    The current era of gastric surgery is marked by low morbidity and mortality rates, innovative strategies to approach resections with a minimally invasive fashion or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), as well as improved understanding of the biology of sporadic and hereditary stromal, neuroendocrine, and epithelial malignancies. In 2017, the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract convened a State-of-the-Art Conference on Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors with both international experts and emerging leaders in the field of gastric surgery. Martin D. McCarter, MD of the University of Colorado discussed the current management of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Kaitlyn J. Kelly, MD of the University of California, San Diego discussed the management of gastric carcinoid tumors. Jeffrey A. Norton of Stanford University discussed recent advances in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma including a focus on hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Joseph Kim, MD of Stony Brook University discussed a systematic approach to minimally invasive gastrectomy for cancer. Joyce Wong, MD of Pennsylvania State University discussed the role for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC for gastric adenocarcinoma. This review provides gastrointestinal surgeons with a concise update on the current surgical management of gastric tumors.

  9. Hydrogen storage in clathrate hydrates: Current state of the art and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veluswamy, Hari Prakash; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is looked upon as the next generation clean energy carrier, search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been pursued relentlessly. Improving hydrogen storage capacity to meet DOE targets has been challenging and research efforts are continuously put forth to achieve the set targets and to make hydrogen storage a commercially realizable process. This review comprehensively summarizes the state of the art experimental work conducted on the storage of hydrogen as hydrogen clathrates both at the molecular level and macroscopic level. It identifies future directions and challenges for this exciting area of research. Hydrogen storage capacities of different clathrate structures – sI, sII, sH, sVI and semi clathrates have been compiled and presented. In addition, promising new approaches for increasing hydrogen storage capacity have been described. Future directions for achieving increased hydrogen storage and process scale up have been outlined. Despite few limitations in storing hydrogen in the form of clathrates, this domain receives prominent attention due to more environmental-friendly method of synthesis, easy recovery of molecular hydrogen with minimum energy requirement, and improved safety of the process

  10. Open-Source Sequence Clustering Methods Improve the State Of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Evguenia; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Mercier, Céline; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Mahé, Frédéric; He, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Rognes, Torbjørn; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH's most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE. All the latest open-source tools showed promising results, reporting up to 60% fewer spurious OTUs than UCLUST, indicating that the underlying clustering algorithm can vastly reduce the number of these derived OTUs. Furthermore, we observed that stringent quality filtering, such as is done in UPARSE, can cause a significant underestimation of species abundance and diversity, leading to incorrect biological results. Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA have been included in the QIIME 1.9.0 release. IMPORTANCE Massive collections of next-generation sequencing data call for fast, accurate, and easily accessible bioinformatics algorithms to perform sequence clustering. A comprehensive benchmark is presented, including open-source tools and the popular USEARCH suite. Simulated, mock, and environmental communities were used to analyze sensitivity, selectivity, species diversity (alpha and beta), and taxonomic composition. The results demonstrate that recent clustering algorithms can significantly improve accuracy and preserve estimated diversity without the application of aggressive filtering. Moreover, these tools are all open source, apply multiple levels of multithreading, and scale to the demands of modern next-generation sequencing data, which is essential for the analysis of massive multidisciplinary studies such as the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) (J. A. Gilbert, J. K. Jansson, and R. Knight, BMC Biol 12:69, 2014, http

  11. Fuel for ADS: State-of-the-art, requirements, current and future programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fuels are the cornerstone of research/development programs of accelerator-driven systems for transmuting minor actinides (MA). Compared with the fuels for critical reactors, fuels for ADS are generally U-free to improve the transmutation performance and contain high volumetric concentrations (about 50%) of MA and Pu compounds. Their specific fabrication, reprocessing, design and safety issues are being currently investigated. This paper provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art of the assessment of these innovative fuels. Emphasis has been placed on the main outcomes of the work performed within the Sixth FP EU EUROTRANS Programme, which provided a decisive step forward in improving knowledge on fabrication, properties, and behaviour under irradiation of these challenging fuels. In EUROTRANS, for the ADS application, the focus was on Ceramic-Ceramic (Pu,MA)O 2 + MgO and Ceramic-Metallic (Pu,MA)O 2 + 92 Mo composite fuels, which were recommended for the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). The fuels consist of particles of (Pu,MA)O 2 phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix. Solid nitride (Pu,MA,Zr)O 2 fuels have also been considered as a back-up solution. This paper presents the main experimental results from out-of-pile and in-pile experiments of the Ceramic-Ceramic and Ceramic-Metallic composite fuels as well as related safety assessments. Further, the on-going research and development activities on fuels loaded with large amount of MA will be presented. (author)

  12. State-of-the-art report on the current status of methodologies for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    unlikely to exist at any other plant, even another similar plant. Sometimes the issue is site-related, and sometimes it is design-related. Also, even in areas where earthquakes are very uncommon phenomena, these types of accident sequences often appear as important contributors to the residual risk, typically because in such areas the attention given to designing nuclear stations against earthquakes is much less than in earthquake-prone areas. Given this background, it is obvious that no full-scope PSA can be considered complete without an examination of earthquakes. This report is a review of the methodology for conducting a seismic-PSA at a nuclear power station. The objective of this review is as follows: To provide an up-to-date review of the state-of-the-art of the various sub-methodologies that comprise the overall seismic- PSA methodology for addressing the safety of nuclear power stations, plus an overview of the whole methodological picture. In preparing this review, the author has had in mind several categories of readers and users: policy-level decision-makers (such as managers of nuclear power stations and regulators of nuclear safety), seismic- PSA practitioners, and PSA practitioners more broadly. The review will concentrate on evaluating the extent to which today's seismic-PSA methodology produces reliable and useful results and insights, at its current state-of-the-art level, for assessing nuclear-power station safety. Also, this review paper will deal exclusively with seismic-PSA for addressing nuclear-power-station safety. Because the author is based in the U.S., it is natural that this review will contain more emphasis on U.S. experience than on experience in other countries. However, significant experience elsewhere is a major part of the basis for this evaluation. In summary, this report is an up-to-date review of the state-of-the-art of the methodologies for conducting a seismic- PSA at a nuclear power station, including the six sub-methodologies that

  13. The state-of-the-art of the LTAN method in the solution of the transport equation in a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Cardona, A.; Panta Pazos, R.; Tullio de Vilhena, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we report the state-of-the-art of the LTA N method, reporting the derivation of the LTA N homogeneous and particular solution in a slab for large N (N N method. We show that the LTA N method, consequently the Laplace transform technique, is a quite general approach to solve a wide class of transport problems in a slab mainly the ones requiring an arbitrary source and large N

  14. State of the art in protection of erosion-corrosion on vertical axis tidal current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabikha, Siti; Utama, I. Ketut Aria Pria; Mukhtasor

    2018-05-01

    Vertical axis tidal current turbine is main part of ocean energy devices which converts the tidal current energy into electricity. Its development is arising too due to increased interest research topic concerning climate change mitigation. Due to its rotating movement, it will be induced mechanical forces, such as shear stress and/or particle impact. Because of its natural operations, vertical axis turbine is also being exposed to harsh and corroding marine environment itself. In order to secure the vertical tidal turbine devices from mechanical wear and corrosion effects which is lead to a material loss, an appropriate erosion-corrosion protection needs to be defined. Its protection actionscan be derived such as design factors, material selections, inhibitors usage, cathodic protections, and coatings. This paper aims to analyze protection method which is necessary to control erosion-corrosion phenomenon that appears to the vertical axis tidal current turbine.

  15. Disease Management Evaluation: A Comprehensive Review of Current State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, Annalijn; Nolte, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Many countries across Europe and elsewhere have been experimenting with various structured approaches to manage patients with chronic illness as a way to improve quality of care, reduce costs and lead to better population health outcomes in the long run. Despite a body of studies of disease management interventions, uncertainty about the effects of these remains not least because current guidance on evaluation methods and metrics require further development to enhance scientific rigour while ...

  16. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Litscher; Gerhard Litscher

    2016-01-01

    This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear) acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all descri...

  17. Denoising of Microscopy Images: A Review of the State-of-the-Art, and a New Sparsity-Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiniel, William; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Angelini, Elsa D

    2018-08-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in denoising methods for biological microscopy images and introduces a new and original sparsity-based algorithm. The proposed method combines total variation (TV) spatial regularization, enhancement of low-frequency information, and aggregation of sparse estimators and is able to handle simple and complex types of noise (Gaussian, Poisson, and mixed), without any a priori model and with a single set of parameter values. An extended comparison is also presented, that evaluates the denoising performance of the thirteen (including ours) state-of-the-art denoising methods specifically designed to handle the different types of noises found in bioimaging. Quantitative and qualitative results on synthetic and real images show that the proposed method outperforms the other ones on the majority of the tested scenarios.

  18. Rapid methods for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feedingstuffs. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Hoogenboom, R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    The increasing number of local dioxin crises since 2002 becoming more and more apparent due to stricter controls of feed and food in the European Union and the globally increasing number of countries applying similar guidelines make it necessary to establish reliable, time and cost-effective screening methods for the dioxin intake through nutritional pathways. Five years after the last overview presentation about all kinds of different bio-analytical detection methods (BDMs) and the establishment of quality guidelines for screening methods, time has come to include as well the improvements in the chemical methods to speed up the analysis. This review gives an overview about the state-of-the-art improvements and gives a future outlook for both methods, chemical and bio-analytical approach for rapid analyses of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Now several new ways of improvement are currently in the pipeline of research and testing, such as PCR, proteomic biomarkers and in case of the clean-up ASE11, PowerPrep and different detection methods as well as different other ways of indicators for dioxins (e.g. correlations to fatty acids).

  19. Metacognition fundaments, applications, and trends a profile of the current state-of-the-art

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the Metacognition arena. It highlights works that show relevant analysis, reviews, theoretical, and methodological proposals, as well as studies, approaches, applications, and tools that shape current state, define trends and inspire future research. As a result of the revision process fourteen manuscripts were accepted and organized into five parts as follows: ·     Conceptual: contains conceptual works oriented to: (1) review models of strategy instruction and tailor a hybrid strategy; (2) unveil second-order judgments and define a method to assess metacognitive judgments; (3) introduces a conceptual model to describe the metacognitive activity as an autopoietic system. ·     Framework: offers three works concerned with: (4) stimulate metacognitive skills and self-regulatory functions; (5) evaluate metacognitive skills and self-regulated learning at problem solving; (6) deal with executive management metacognition and strategic knowledge metacognition. ·     Studies: r...

  20. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  1. Marine neurotoxins: state of the art, bottlenecks, and perspectives for mode of action based methods of detection in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Gerssen, Arjen; Bovee, Toine F H; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-01-01

    Marine biotoxins can accumulate in fish and shellfish, representing a possible threat for consumers. Many marine biotoxins affect neuronal function essentially through their interaction with ion channels or receptors, leading to different symptoms including paralysis and even death. The detection of marine biotoxins in seafood products is therefore a priority. Official methods for control are often still using in vivo assays, such as the mouse bioassay. This test is considered unethical and the development of alternative assays is urgently required. Chemical analyses as well as in vitro assays have been developed to detect marine biotoxins in seafood. However, most of the current in vitro alternatives to animal testing present disadvantages: low throughput and lack of sensitivity resulting in a high number of false-negative results. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new in vitro tests that would allow the detection of marine biotoxins in seafood products at a low cost, with high throughput combined with high sensitivity, reproducibility, and predictivity. Mode of action based in vitro bioassays may provide tools that fulfil these requirements. This review covers the current state of the art of such mode of action based alternative assays to detect neurotoxic marine biotoxins in seafood. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Archaeal S-Layers: Overview and Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues-Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to bacteria, all archaea possess cell walls lacking peptidoglycan and a number of different cell envelope components have also been described. A paracrystalline protein surface layer, commonly referred to as S-layer, is present in nearly all archaea described to date. S-layers are composed of only one or two proteins and form different lattice structures. In this review, we summarize current understanding of archaeal S-layer proteins, discussing topics such as structure, lattice type distribution among archaeal phyla and glycosylation. The hexagonal lattice type is dominant within the phylum Euryarchaeota, while in the Crenarchaeota this feature is mainly associated with specific orders. S-layers exclusive to the Crenarchaeota have also been described, which are composed of two proteins. Information regarding S-layers in the remaining archaeal phyla is limited, mainly due to organism description through only culture-independent methods. Despite the numerous applied studies using bacterial S-layers, few reports have employed archaea as a study model. As such, archaeal S-layers represent an area for exploration in both basic and applied research.

  3. Disease Management Evaluation: A Comprehensive Review of Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn; Nolte, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Many countries across Europe and elsewhere have been experimenting with various structured approaches to manage patients with chronic illness as a way to improve quality of care, reduce costs and lead to better population health outcomes in the long run. Despite a body of studies of disease management interventions, uncertainty about the effects of these remains not least because current guidance on evaluation methods and metrics require further development to enhance scientific rigour while also being practical in routine operations. This article provides details from a report that reviews the academic and grey literature to help advance the task of improving the science of assessing disease management initiatives in Europe. Challenges identified are methodological, analytical and conceptual in nature, with a key issue being the establishment of the counterfactual. An array of sophisticated statistical techniques and analytical frameworks can assist in the construction of a sound comparison strategy when a randomised controlled trial is not possible. Issues to consider include: a clear framework of the mechanisms of action and expected effects of disease management; an understanding of the characteristics of disease management (scope, content, dose, context), and of the intervention and target populations (disease type, severity, case-mix); a period of observation over multiple years; and a logical link between performance measures and the intervention's aims and underlying theory of behaviour change.

  4. Recent Advances in Boar Sperm Cryopreservation: State of the Art and Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M

    2015-07-01

    While sperm cryopreservation is the best technology to store boar semen for long-term periods, only 1% of all artificial inseminations (AI) conducted worldwide are made using frozen-thawed boar sperm. With the emergence of long-term extenders for liquid storage, the use of cryopreserved sperm in routine AI is less required. However, banks of boar semen contain cryopreserved sperm and planning inseminations in AI centres may benefit from the use of frozen-thawed semen. Therefore, there is an interest in the use of this technology to preserve boar sperm. In this regard, although the first attempts to cryopreserve boar semen date back to the seventies and this technology is still considered as optimal, some relevant improvements have been made in the last decade. After giving a general picture about boar sperm cryodamage, the present review seeks to shed light on these recent cryopreservation advances. These contributions regard to protein markers for predicting ejaculate freezability, sperm selection prior to start cryopreservation procedures, additives to freezing and thawing extenders, relevance of the AI-technique and insemination-to-ovulation interval. In conclusion, most of these progresses have allowed counteracting better boar sperm cryodamage and are thus considered as forward steps for this storage method. It is also worth noting that, despite being lower than fresh/extended semen, reproductive performance outcomes following AI with frozen-thawed boar sperm are currently acceptable. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Learning analytics fundaments, applications, and trends : a view of the current state of the art to enhance e-learning

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual and empirical perspective on learning analytics, its goal being to disseminate the core concepts, research, and outcomes of this emergent field. Divided into nine chapters, it offers reviews oriented on selected topics, recent advances, and innovative applications. It presents the broad learning analytics landscape and in-depth studies on higher education, adaptive assessment, teaching and learning. In addition, it discusses valuable approaches to coping with personalization and huge data, as well as conceptual topics and specialized applications that have shaped the current state of the art. By identifying fundamentals, highlighting applications, and pointing out current trends, the book offers an essential overview of learning analytics to enhance learning achievement in diverse educational settings. As such, it represents a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in updating their knowledge and finding inspirations for their future work.

  6. State of the art of superconducting fault current limiters and their application to the electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The state of the art of superconducting fault current limiters is reviewed. ► An innovative concept of FCL is discussed and the potential of MgB 2 is outlined. ► The use of FCL to allow more interconnection of MV bus-bar is discussed. ► The use of FCL to increase the immunity from voltage dips is discussed. ► The use of FCL to integrate more distributed generation is pointed out. -- Abstract: Modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet new needs. Nowadays a high power quality is mandatory and there is the need to integrate increasing amounts of on-site generation. All this translates in more sophisticated electric network with intrinsically high short circuit rate. This network is vulnerable in case of fault and special protection apparatus and procedures needs to be developed in order to avoid costly or even irreversible damage. A superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is a device with a negligible impedance in normal operating conditions that reliably switches to a high impedance state in case of extra-current. Such a device is able to increase the short circuit power of an electric network and to contemporarily eliminate the hazard during the fault. It can be regarded as a key component for future electric power systems. In this paper the state of the art of superconducting fault current limiters mature for applications is briefly resumed and the potential impact of this device on the paradigm of design and operation of power systems is analyzed. In particular the use of the FCL as a mean to allow more interconnection of MV bus-bars as well an increased immunity with respect to the voltage disturbances induced by critical customer is discussed. The possibility to integrate more distributed generation in the distribution grid is also considered

  7. Fractional resurfacing in the Asian patient: Current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Chan, Henry Hin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Fractionated photothermolysis (FP) has revolutionized modern laser technology. By creating selective columns of microthermal damage, fractionated devices allows for greater treatment depths to be achieved without the prolonged downtime and risk of complications seen in traditional fully ablative laser resurfacing. Fractional resurfacing is a proven method to treat a variety of cutaneous conditions. In the Caucasian patient, a wide range of devices and treatment settings can be utilized safely and effectively. However, ethnic skin requires special consideration due to its unique pigmentary characteristics and clinical presentations. In this review article, we detail the current indications and strategies to optimize results and mitigate complications when utilizing fractional resurfacing for the Asian patient. A review of the MEDLINE English literature was conducted on fractionated laser devices studied in the Asian population. Articles included describe non-ablative devices including fractionated erbium glass, thulium fiber, diode, and radiofrequency devices; and ablative devices including fractionated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser, erbium yttrium aluminum garnet and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (YSGG) laser. These data were integrated with the expert opinion of the authors. Taking into account the unique characteristics and cosmetic concerns of the Asian population, fractional resurfacing can be considered a safe and effective option for the treatment of atrophic and hypertrophic scarring, and photorejuvenation in ethnic skin types. Select cases of melasma may be treated with fractionated non-ablative devices, but utilized with caution. The predominant complication associated with fractional resurfacing for these conditions is post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and rebound worsening of melasma. A greater number of treatments at lower density settings and wider treatment intervals typically produce the lowest risks of PIH without compromising treatment

  8. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  9. Hydrogen Storage Materials for Mobile and Stationary Applications: Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qiwen; Paskevicius, Mark; Sheppard, Drew A; Buckley, Craig E; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Matthew R; Gu, Qinfen; Mao, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhenguo; Liu, Hua Kun; Guo, Zaiping; Banerjee, Amitava; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois

    2015-09-07

    One of the limitations to the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is its storage in a safe and compact form. Herein, recent developments in effective high-capacity hydrogen storage materials are reviewed, with a special emphasis on light compounds, including those based on organic porous structures, boron, nitrogen, and aluminum. These elements and their related compounds hold the promise of high, reversible, and practical hydrogen storage capacity for mobile applications, including vehicles and portable power equipment, but also for the large scale and distributed storage of energy for stationary applications. Current understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the interaction of hydrogen with these light compounds is summarized, as well as basic strategies to meet practical targets of hydrogen uptake and release. The limitation of these strategies and current understanding is also discussed and new directions proposed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Partitioning and transmutation. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Liljenzin, J.O.

    1992-10-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive waste nuclides from nuclear power production is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D plans are summarized. It is concluded that P-T is technically feasible but much R and D remains to be done before it is technically mature. At present there seems to be no economic gain from P-T as compared to direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. There seems only to be an insignificant reduction in future radiation doses by P-T when compared to current disposal plans. However, future long term research may perhaps change these conclusions. Therefore the further development in this area should be followed. Some areas where a limited research by Swedish scientists could be worthwhile are indicated. (255 refs.) (au)

  11. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or...reduction in crack propagation induces numerous micro cracks, which promote and increase in ductility versus a single large macro crack typically seen in...materials and thus provides the critical insight needed. This will also promote the ability to optimize current materials as well as select fibers based on

  12. Robot-assisted gait training for stroke patients: current state of the art and perspectives of robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano; Cherubini, Andrea; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Iosa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief outline of robot-mediated gait training for stroke patients, as an important emerging field in rehabilitation. Technological innovations are allowing rehabilitation to move toward more integrated processes, with improved efficiency and less long-term impairments. In particular, robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a rapidly advancing field, which uses robotic systems to define new methods for treating neurological injuries, especially stroke. The use of robots in gait training can enhance rehabilitation, but it needs to be used according to well-defined neuroscientific principles. The field of robot-mediated neurorehabilitation brings challenges to both bioengineering and clinical practice. This article reviews the state of the art (including commercially available systems) and perspectives of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation for walking recovery. A critical revision, including the problems at stake regarding robotic clinical use, is also presented.

  13. Partitioning and transmutation (P and D) 1995. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Landgren, A.; Spjuth, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Gudowski, W.

    1995-12-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P/T) is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D efforts are summarized. Nuclear transmutation with energy production is feasible in nuclear reactors where fast and thermal breeders are the most efficient for transmutation purposes. The operation of subcritical nuclear reactors by high current proton accelerators that generate neutrons in a spallation target is also an interesting option for transmutation and energy production, that has to be more carefully evaluated. These accelerator-driven systems are probably the only solution for the transmutation of long-lived fission products with small neutron capture cross sections and actinide isotopes with small fission cross sections. The requirements on the separation chemistry in the partitioning process depends on the transmutation strategy chosen. Recent developments in aqueous based separation chemistry opens some interesting possibilities to meet some of the requirements, such as separation of different actinides and some fission products and reduction of secondary waste streams. In the advanced accelerator-driven transmutation systems proposed, liquid fuels such as molten salts are considered. The partitioning processes that can be used for these types of fuel will, however, require a long term research program. The possibility to use centrifuge separation is an interesting partitioning option that recently has been proposed. 51 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Nanomedicine applications in the treatment of breast cancer: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu D

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Di Wu, Mengjie Si, Hui-Yi Xue, Ho-Lun Wong Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, but the current drug therapy is far from optimal as indicated by the high death rate of breast cancer patients. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. Nanomedicine products such as Doxil® and Abraxane® have already been extensively used for breast cancer adjuvant therapy with favorable clinical outcomes. However, these products were originally designed for generic anticancer purpose and not specifically for breast cancer treatment. With better understanding of the molecular biology of breast cancer, a number of novel promising nanotherapeutic strategies and devices have been developed in recent years. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current breast cancer treatment and the updated status of nanomedicine use in clinical setting, then discuss the latest important trends in designing breast cancer nanomedicine, including passive and active cancer cell targeting, breast cancer stem cell targeting, tumor microenvironment-based nanotherapy and combination nanotherapy of drug-resistant breast cancer. Researchers may get insight from these strategies to design and develop nanomedicine that is more tailored for breast cancer to achieve further improvements in cancer specificity, antitumorigenic effect, antimetastasis effect and drug resistance reversal effect. Keywords: nanomedicine, breast cancer, targeted delivery, drug therapy, drug resistance, tumor microenvironment 

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad Umar; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiomyopathy with a prevalence of 1:500 (0.2%) in the general population. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most feared presentation of HCM. Therefore, it is essential to identify individuals at high risk in order to prevent SCD. The absence of conventional risk factors does not nullify the risk of HCM related SCD. Although echocardiography is currently the most widely used imaging modality, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows detailed characterization of the HCM phenotype, which makes it possible to differentiate HCM from other causes of left ventricular hypertrophy. CMR has the potential to further refine risk stratification. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on CMR is a high-risk feature and there is emerging data to suggest that the presence of LGE should be employed as a marker for major adverse outcomes such as SCD, arrhythmias, systolic and diastolic heart failure. Hence, LGE on CMR may be considered an additional risk factor for SCD in HCM patients and should be incorporated in decision-making for implant-able cardioverter defibrillator implantation to aid primary prevention. Novel markers such as the extent of myocardial fibrosis on CMR must be accounted for comprehensive risk stratifica-tion of HCM patients. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current status and emerging role of CMR in HCM.

  16. Nanomedicine applications in the treatment of breast cancer: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Si, Mengjie; Xue, Hui-Yi; Wong, Ho-Lun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, but the current drug therapy is far from optimal as indicated by the high death rate of breast cancer patients. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. Nanomedicine products such as Doxil ® and Abraxane ® have already been extensively used for breast cancer adjuvant therapy with favorable clinical outcomes. However, these products were originally designed for generic anticancer purpose and not specifically for breast cancer treatment. With better understanding of the molecular biology of breast cancer, a number of novel promising nanotherapeutic strategies and devices have been developed in recent years. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current breast cancer treatment and the updated status of nanomedicine use in clinical setting, then discuss the latest important trends in designing breast cancer nanomedicine, including passive and active cancer cell targeting, breast cancer stem cell targeting, tumor microenvironment-based nanotherapy and combination nanotherapy of drug-resistant breast cancer. Researchers may get insight from these strategies to design and develop nanomedicine that is more tailored for breast cancer to achieve further improvements in cancer specificity, antitumorigenic effect, antimetastasis effect and drug resistance reversal effect.

  17. Industrial-Strength Model-Based Testing - State of the Art and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peleska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As of today, model-based testing (MBT is considered as leading-edge technology in industry. We sketch the different MBT variants that - according to our experience - are currently applied in practice, with special emphasis on the avionic, railway and automotive domains. The key factors for successful industrial-scale application of MBT are described, both from a scientific and a managerial point of view. With respect to the former view, we describe the techniques for automated test case, test data and test procedure generation for concurrent reactive real-time systems which are considered as the most important enablers for MBT in practice. With respect to the latter view, our experience with introducing MBT approaches in testing teams are sketched. Finally, the most challenging open scientific problems whose solutions are bound to improve the acceptance and effectiveness of MBT in industry are discussed.

  18. Digital cytology: current state of the art and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, David C

    2011-01-01

    The growth of digital methods in pathology is accelerating. Digital images can be used for a variety of applications in cytology, including rapid interpretations, primary diagnosis and second opinions, continuing education and proficiency testing. All of these functions can be performed using small static digital images, real-time dynamic digital microscopy, or whole-slide images. This review will discuss the general principles of digital pathology, its methods and applications to cytologic specimens. As cytologic specimens have unique features compared to histopathology specimens, the key differences will be discussed. Technical and administrative issues in digital pathology applications and the outlook for the future of the field will be presented. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kontis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable.

  20. Magnesium batteries: Current state of the art, issues and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Mohtadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available “...each metal has a certain power, which is different from metal to metal, of setting the electric fluid in motion...” Count Alessandro Volta. Inspired by the first rechargeable magnesium battery prototype at the dawn of the 21st century, several research groups have embarked on a quest to realize its full potential. Despite the technical accomplishments made thus far, challenges, on the material level, hamper the realization of a practical rechargeable magnesium battery. These are marked by the absence of practical cathodes, appropriate electrolytes and extremely sluggish reaction kinetics. Over the past few years, an increased interest in this technology has resulted in new promising materials and innovative approaches aiming to overcome the existing hurdles. Nonetheless, the current challenges call for further dedicated research efforts encompassing fundamental understanding of the core components and how they interact with each other to offering new innovative solutions. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent developments made and offer our perspectives on how to overcome some of the remaining challenges.

  1. Magnesium batteries: Current state of the art, issues and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Mizuno, Fuminori

    2014-01-01

    "...each metal has a certain power, which is different from metal to metal, of setting the electric fluid in motion..." Count Alessandro Volta. Inspired by the first rechargeable magnesium battery prototype at the dawn of the 21st century, several research groups have embarked on a quest to realize its full potential. Despite the technical accomplishments made thus far, challenges, on the material level, hamper the realization of a practical rechargeable magnesium battery. These are marked by the absence of practical cathodes, appropriate electrolytes and extremely sluggish reaction kinetics. Over the past few years, an increased interest in this technology has resulted in new promising materials and innovative approaches aiming to overcome the existing hurdles. Nonetheless, the current challenges call for further dedicated research efforts encompassing fundamental understanding of the core components and how they interact with each other to offering new innovative solutions. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent developments made and offer our perspectives on how to overcome some of the remaining challenges.

  2. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cells. Current state of the art. Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzmann, F.O.; Olson, C.L.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The first generation of dye-sensitized solar cell technology is based on a liquid electrolyte component. Today, this technology is on the verge of commercialization. The step towards the market and real applications is supported by the prospect of low manufacturing costs, good efficiency as well as the expectation that the current stability level of this technology is at least sufficient for applications in mobile electronics. These favorable developments may be reinforced and accelerated even further, if the corrosive liquid electrolyte could be replaced by a non-corrosive solid, since this would ease a number of stringent requirements in the production process. A successful exchange of the liquid electrolyte by a solid-state holeconductor requires to at least maintain, preferably improve, the most relevant technical parameters of the solar cell (efficiency, stability, cost). First pioneering work with solid-state hole conductors was carried out 10 years ago with an initial efficiency level below 1%. Until 2007, the record efficiency could be improved to 5%. This paper gives an overview of the solid-state concept as an early stage approach with good perspectives for the mid-term future (5-10 years)

  3. Current state-of-the-art manufacturing technology for He-cooled divertor finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norajitra, P.; Antusch, S.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.; Ritz, G.; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.-J.; Spatafora, L.

    2011-10-01

    A divertor concept for DEMO has been investigated at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) which has to withstand a heat flux of 10 MW/m 2. The design utilizes small finger module composed of a small tungsten tile brazed on a thimble made from tungsten alloy. The divertor finger is cooled by helium jet impingement at 10 MPa and 600 °C. The subject of this paper is technological studies on machining and braze joining the divertor components. Goal of this task, which is considered an important R&D issue, is to find out appropriate manufacturing methods to ensure high functionality and high reliability of the divertor as well as to meet the economic aspect. One of the major requirements for manufacturing is micro-crack-free surface of tungsten parts, since crack propagations in tungsten were observed in the previous high-heat-flux tests at Efremov. Different manufacturing methods and the corresponding results are discussed in the following report.

  4. Diagnosis and therapy of carcinoid tumors-current state of the art and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mazhar U.; Coleman, R. Edward

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors account for less than 1% of all malignancies and the majority arise in the gastrointestinal system. These tumors are slow growing compared with adenocarcinomas and they differ from the other neuroendocrine malignancies by their protean clinical presentation. Carcinoid tumors were previously considered indolent, but they can manifest malignant characteristics with metastatic spread which often results in a poor prognosis. Although there have been advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities, carcinoid tumors are still often diagnosed late, often when the tumor has metastasized and patients develop carcinoid syndrome. Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options are based on biochemical markers and imaging investigations. High concentration of urinary 5-HIAA, elevated plasma serotonin and chromogranin A levels help to establish the initial diagnosis of carcinoid tumors. In addition to the CT and MRI, molecular imaging modalities such as OctreoScan, MIBG imaging and more recently PET imaging are vital in detection of primary malignancy and metastatic involvement. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of nonmetastatic carcinoid tumors. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is not beneficial due to the chemoresistant nature of these tumors. Because carcinoid tumors express somatostatin receptors, somatostatin analogues, which inhibit the release of serotonin and other neuroendocrine peptides, are often used, but their use is limited to symptom control. Treatment using high doses of radionuclides such as radiolabeled somatostatin analogues and MIBG is a more recent option which offers a definite advantage in management. In this article, we review typical features of the carcinoid tumors, examine contemporary methods of detecting and assessing carcinoid tumors and discuss the role of various diagnostic and therapeutic options

  5. Radiation physics of high power spallation targets. State of the art simulation methods and experiments, the 'European Spallation Source' (ESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Cloth, P.; Neef, R.D.; Schaal, H.

    1998-01-01

    Particle transport and nuclear interactions of planned high power spallation targets with GeV proton beams can be simulated using widely developed Monte Carlo transport methods. This includes available high energy radiation transport codes and systems for low energy, earlier developed for reactor physics and fusion technology. Monte Carlo simulation codes and applied methods are discussed. The capabilities of the world-wide existing state-of-the-art computer code systems are demonstrated. Results of computational studies for the 'European Spallation Source' (ESS) mercury high power target station are given. The needs for spallation related data and planned experiments are shown. (author)

  6. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    with Mars ISRU systems further substantiated the preliminary results from the Mars DRA 5.0 study. This paper will provide an overview of Mars ISRU consumable production options, the analyses, results, and conclusions from the Mars DRA 5.0 (2007), Mars Collaborative (2013), and Mars ISRU Payload for the Supersonic Retro Propulsion (2014) mission studies, and the current state-of-the-art of Mars ISRU technologies and systems. The paper will also briefly discuss the mission architectural implications associated with Mars resource and ISRU processing options.

  7. Gas-steam combined cycles for power generation: Current state-of-the-art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, E.; Chiesa, P.; Consonni, S.; Lozza, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper points out the many factors which, after years of stagnation in the electric power industry, are giving rise to a true revolution in power generation engineering: the passing from closed cycles, using steam as the working fluid and energy sources external to the power cycle, to the use of open cycles, in which the primary energy source, in the form of a fuel, is directly immersed in the working fluid of the engine. Attention is given to the advantages in terms of energy and cost savings, greater flexibility in energy policy options and pollution abatement which are now being afforded through the use of gas turbines with combined gas-steam cycles. The second part of the paper deals with an assessment of the current state-of-the-art of the technology relative to these innovative power systems. The assessment is followed by a review of foreseen developments in combined cycle system design, choice of construction materials, type of cooling systems, operating temperatures and performance capabilities

  8. Building Integrated Photovoltaics: A Concise Description of the Current State of the Art and Possible Research Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV offer an aesthetical, economical and technical solution to integrate solar cells harvesting solar radiation to produce electricity within the climate envelopes of buildings. Photovoltaic (PV cells may be mounted above or onto the existing or traditional roofing or wall systems. However, BIPV systems replace the outer building envelope skin, i.e., the climate screen, hence serving simultanously as both a climate screen and a power source generating electricity. Thus, BIPV may provide savings in materials and labor, in addition to reducing the electricity costs. Hence, for the BIPV products, in addition to specific requirements put on the solar cell technology, it is of major importance to have satisfactory or strict requirements of rain tightness and durability, where building physical issues like e.g., heat and moisture transport in the building envelope also have to be considered and accounted for. This work, from both a technological and scientific point of view, summarizes briefly the current state-of-the-art of BIPV, including both BIPV foil, tiles, modules and solar cell glazing products, and addresses possible research pathways for BIPV in the years to come.

  9. Estimation of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy: state of the art methods and proposal of novel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buendia, R; Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, K; Bosaeus, I; Gil-Pita, R; Johannsson, G; Ellegård, L; Ward, L C

    2015-01-01

    Determination of body fluids is a useful common practice in determination of disease mechanisms and treatments. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) methods are non-invasive, inexpensive and rapid alternatives to reference methods such as tracer dilution. However, they are indirect and their robustness and validity are unclear. In this article, state of the art methods are reviewed, their drawbacks identified and new methods are proposed. All methods were tested on a clinical database of patients receiving growth hormone replacement therapy. Results indicated that most BIS methods are similarly accurate (e.g.  <  0.5   ±   3.0% mean percentage difference for total body water) for estimation of body fluids. A new model for calculation is proposed that performs equally well for all fluid compartments (total body water, extra- and intracellular water). It is suggested that the main source of error in extracellular water estimation is due to anisotropy, in total body water estimation to the uncertainty associated with intracellular resistivity and in determination of intracellular water a combination of both. (paper)

  10. Robot-assisted gait training for stroke patients: current state of the art and perspectives of robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morone G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Morone,1,2 Stefano Paolucci,1,2 Andrea Cherubini,3 Domenico De Angelis,1 Vincenzo Venturiero,1 Paola Coiro,1 Marco Iosa1,2 1Private Inpatient Unit, 2Clinical Laboratory of Experimental Neurorehabilitation, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Robotics, LIRMM UM-CNRS, Montpellier, France Abstract: In this review, we give a brief outline of robot-mediated gait training for stroke patients, as an important emerging field in rehabilitation. Technological innovations are allowing rehabilitation to move toward more integrated processes, with improved efficiency and less long-term impairments. In particular, robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a rapidly advancing field, which uses robotic systems to define new methods for treating neurological injuries, especially stroke. The use of robots in gait training can enhance rehabilitation, but it needs to be used according to well-defined neuroscientific principles. The field of robot-mediated neurorehabilitation brings challenges to both bioengineering and clinical practice. This article reviews the state of the art (including commercially available systems and perspectives of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation for walking recovery. A critical revision, including the problems at stake regarding robotic clinical use, is also presented. Keywords: exoskeleton, neurorehabilitation, robot-assisted walking training, wearable robot, activities of daily living, motor learning, plasticity

  11. Computational methods for metabolomic data analysis of ion mobility spectrometry data-reviewing the state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Schneider, Till; Pauling, Josch

    2012-01-01

    that MCC/IMS coupled with sophisticated computational methods has the potential to successfully address a broad range of biomedical questions. While we can solve most of the data pre-processing steps satisfactorily, some computational challenges with statistical learning and model validation remain.......Ion mobility spectrometry combined with multi-capillary columns (MCC/IMS) is a well known technology for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We may utilize MCC/IMS for scanning human exhaled air, bacterial colonies or cell lines, for example. Thereby we gain information about the human...... of computational approaches for analyzing the huge amount of emerging data sets. Here, we will review the state of the art and highlight existing challenges. First, we address methods for raw data handling, data storage and visualization. Afterwards we will introduce de-noising, peak picking and other pre...

  12. Benchmarking state-of-the-art optical simulation methods for analyzing large nanophotonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2018-01-01

    Five computational methods are benchmarked by computing quality factors and resonance wavelengths inphotonic crystal membrane L5 and L9 line defect cavities. Careful convergence studies reveal that some methods are more suitable than others for analyzing these cavities....

  13. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely

  14. State of the Art in Life Assessment for High Temperature Components Using Replication Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Duck Hee; Choi, Hyun Sun

    2010-01-01

    The power generation and chemical industry have been subjected to further material degradation with long term operations and need to predict the remaining service life of components, such as reformer tube and turbine rotor, that have operated at elevated temperatures. As a non-destructive technique, replication method with reliable metallurgical life and microstructural soundness assessment has been recognized with strongly useful method until now. Developments of this method have variously accomplished by new quantitative approach, such as carbide analysis, with A-parameter and grain deformation method. An overview of replication, some new techniques for material degradation and life assessment were introduced in this paper. Also, on-site applications and its reasonableness were described. As a result of having analyzed microstructure by replication method, carbide approach was quantitatively useful to life assessment

  15. System identification by methods from the statistical signal theory, history and state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Palle; Gundersen, Vidar B.

    1999-01-01

    Condition monitoring is an important area in which the OECD Halden Reactor Project has developed several tools. This paper presents a general overview of methods utilised in diagnosis systems, signal validation systems and process optimisation systems such as EFD, Mocom, Aladdin and PEANO. An overview of lessons learned on diagnosis of technical systems with special reference to system identification is reported. The analysis of input-output behaviour by special, suitable methods may be used as a tool for diagnosis. An overview of methods for empirical modelling and data analysis and their major differences is presented. It is explained how system identification methods and transforms may be used to build models based on observed data from a system. According to the Webster dictionary diagnosis is 'Investigation or analysis of the cause or nature of a condition, situation or a problem.' By examining data collected from a process the aim is to detect abnormal conditions and if possible understand what has been the cause of the observed problem. Section 1 gives a retrospective view at the development in the field of system identification. Section 2 presents a classification of the methods, while section 3 provides some practical advice on how diagnosis can be carried out by means of system identification methods (author) (ml)

  16. Methods of Control of the Leishmania infantum Dog Reservoir: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Podaliri Vulpiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is a protozoan parasite causing severe vector-borne visceral diseases both in humans and dogs. The latter are the most important natural reservoir and therefore should be the main target of control measures. The real efficacy of seropositive dogs culling as a direct control method is still debated, and the new sensitivity of large part of population considers ethically unacceptable this kind of approach. Treatment of infectious dogs with one of the available therapeutic protocols is recommendable as it allows to reduce parasite burdens and therefore the possibility of transmission of Leishmania infantum to vectors. Vaccination has been proven to be a very effective control tool, but the absence of a commonly recognized diagnostic method able to distinguish vaccinate from seropositive individuals is still an important limit. Concerning indirect control methods, a number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of topical insecticides treatment (collars, spot-on, and sprays in reducing incidence and prevalence of L. infantum. Also, the reduction of the odds of seroconversion in humans in endemic areas has been reported after the application of indirect control measures on dogs. The contemporary use of direct and indirect methods is even more effective in reducing seroprevalence in dogs.

  17. State-of-the-art report for the testing and formal verification methods for FBD program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jang Soo; Lee, Young Jun; Yoo, Jun Beom

    2011-10-01

    The importance of PLC testing has increased in the nuclear I and C domain. While regulation authorities require both functional and structural testing for safety system software, FBD testing relies only on functional testing and there has been little research on structural testing techniques for FBD programs. We aim to analyze current techniques related to FBD testing and develop a structural testing technique appropriate to FBD programs. We developed structural test coverage criteria applicable to FBD programs, focusing on data paths from input edges to output edges of FBD programs. A data path condition (DPC), under which input data can flow into the output edge, is defined for each data path. We defined basic coverage, input condition coverage and complex condition coverage criteria based on the formal definition of DPC. We also developed a measurement procedure for FBD testing adequacy and a supporting tool prototype

  18. Analytical methods in untargeted metabolomics: state of the art in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnald eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics comprises the methods and techniques that are used to measure the small molecule composition of biofluids and tissues, and is actually one of the most rapidly evolving research fields. The determination of the metabolomic profile –the metabolome- has multiple applications in many biological sciences, including the developing of new diagnostic tools in medicine. Recent technological advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS are significantly improving our capacity to obtain more data from each biological sample. Consequently, there is a need for fast and accurate statistical and bioinformatic tools that can deal with the complexity and volume of the data generated in metabolomic studies. In this review we provide an update of the most commonly used analytical methods in metabolomics, starting from raw data processing and ending with pathway analysis and biomarker identification. Finally, the integration of metabolomic profiles with molecular data from other high throughput biotechnologies is also reviewed.

  19. Are the classic diagnostic methods in mycology still state of the art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Bauer, Andrea; Brasch, Jochen; Nenoff, Pietro; Schaller, Martin; Mayser, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The diagnostic workup of cutaneous fungal infections is traditionally based on microscopic KOH preparations as well as culturing of the causative organism from sample material. Another possible option is the detection of fungal elements by dermatohistology. If performed correctly, these methods are generally suitable for the diagnosis of mycoses. However, the advent of personalized medicine and the tasks arising therefrom require new procedures marked by simplicity, specificity, and swiftness. The additional use of DNA-based molecular techniques further enhances sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, and reduces the diagnostic interval to 24-48 hours, compared to weeks required for conventional mycological methods. Given the steady evolution in the field of personalized medicine, simple analytical PCR-based systems are conceivable, which allow for instant diagnosis of dermatophytes in the dermatology office (point-of-care tests). © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Perturbative methods for sensitivity calculation in safety problems of nuclear reactors: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Fernando R.A.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Gandini, Augusto

    1995-01-01

    During the last two decades perturbative methods became an efficient tool to perform sensitivity analysis in nuclear reactor safety problems. In this paper, a comparative study taking into account perturbation formalisms (Diferential and Matricial Mthods and generalized Perturbation Theory - GPT) is considered. Then a few number of applications are described to analyze the sensitivity of some functions relavant to thermal hydraulics designs or safety analysis of nuclear reactor cores and steam generators. The behaviours of the nuclear reactor cores and steam generators are simulated, respectively, by the COBRA-IV-I and GEVAP codes. Results of sensitivity calculations have shown a good agreement when compared to those obtained directly by using the mentioned codes. So, a significative computational time safe can be obtained with perturbative methods performing sensitivity analysis in nuclear power plants. (author). 25 refs., 5 tabs

  1. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri- Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments a...

  2. CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods. State of the art and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Richter, G.M.; Roeren, T.; Kauffmann, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    We used 21G or 22G fine needles. All CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods require a proper blood coagulation. Most common CT scanners are suitable for neurolysis if there is enough room for maintaining sterile conditions. All neurolysis methods involve sterile puncture of the ganglia under local anesthesia, a test block with anesthetic and contrast agent to assess the clinical effect and the definitive block with a mixture of 96% ethanol and local anesthetic. This allows us to correct the position of the needle if we see improper distribution of the test block or unwanted side effects. Though inflammatory complications of the peritoneum due to puncture are rarely seen, we prefer the dorsal approach whenever possible. Results: Seven of 20 legs showed at least transient clinical improvement after CT-guided lumbar sympathectomies; 13 legs had to be amputated. Results of the methods in the literature differ. For lumbar sympathectomy, improved perfusion is reported in 39-89%, depending on the pre-selection of the patient group. Discussion: It was recently proved that sympathectomy not only improves perfusion of the skin but also of the muscle. The hypothesis of a steal effect after sympathectomy towards skin perfusion was disproved. Modern aggressive surgical and interventional treatment often leaves patients to sympathectomy whose reservers of collateralization are nearly exhausted. We presume this is the reason for the different results we found in our patient group. For thoracic sympathectomy the clinical treatment depends very much on the indications. Whereas palmar hyperhidrosis offers nearly 100% success, only 60-70% of patients with disturbance of perfusion have benefited. Results in celiac ganglia block also differ. Patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and other organs of the upper abdomen benefit in 80-100% of all cases, patients with chronic pancreatitis in 60-80%. (orig./VHE) [de

  3. State of the art and trends of radiometric methods for measuring the mass per unit area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the mass per unit area by means of transmission or backscattering methods is one of the traditional radioisotope applications. Microelectronics have essentially contributed to the noticeable progress achieved in the development of radiometric instruments for mass per unit area measurements. The use of microcomputers led to both a reliable solution of the main problem of processing the measured data - the correlation of the mass per unit area value with the detector signal under nonlinear calibration conditions - and a considerable increase in the efficiency of the measuring equipment

  4. Soil-structure interaction analysis by finite element methods state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, H.B.; Lysmer, J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of soil-structure interaction effects during earthquakes for nuclear power plant structures are usually made by one of two methods - either by means of an idealized complete interaction analysis involving consideration of a compatible variation of motions in the structure and the adjacent soil, or by means of an inertial interaction analysis in which the motions in the adjacent soil are assumed to be the same at all points above the foundation depth. For surface structures, the distribution of free-field motions with depth in the underlying soils has no influence on the structural response and thus, provided the analyses are made in accordance with good practice, good results may be obtained by either method of approach. For embedded structures, however, consideration of the variation of motions with depth is essential if adequate evaluations of soil and structural response are to be obtained without undue conservatism. The finite element analysis procedure is particularly well suited for evaluating the response of embedded structures since it can readily provide consideration of the variation of soil characteristics with depth, the different non-linear deformation and energy absorbing capacities of the various soil strata, the variation of motions with depth in accordance with the general principles of engineering mechanics, the three-dimensional nature of the problem and the effects of adjacent structures on each other

  5. State of the art seismic analysis for CANDU reactor structure components using condensation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, S A; Ibraham, A M; Hodgson, S [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The reactor structure assembly seismic analysis is a relatively complex process because of the intricate geometry with many different discontinuities, and due to the hydraulic attached mass which follows the structure during its vibration. In order to simulate reasonably accurate behaviour of the reactor structure assembly, detailed finite element models are generated and used for both modal and stress analysis. Guyan reduction condensation method was used in the analysis. The attached mass, which includes the fluid mass contained in the components plus the added mass which accounts for the inertia of the surrounding fluid entrained by the accelerating structure immersed in the fluid, was calculated and attached to the vibrating structures. The masses of the attached components, supported partly or totally by the assembly which includes piping, reactivity control units, end fittings, etc. are also considered in the analysis. (author). 4 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. State of the Art of Fuzzy Methods for Gene Regulatory Networks Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuqyah Abdullah Al Qazlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To address one of the most challenging issues at the cellular level, this paper surveys the fuzzy methods used in gene regulatory networks (GRNs inference. GRNs represent causal relationships between genes that have a direct influence, trough protein production, on the life and the development of living organisms and provide a useful contribution to the understanding of the cellular functions as well as the mechanisms of diseases. Fuzzy systems are based on handling imprecise knowledge, such as biological information. They provide viable computational tools for inferring GRNs from gene expression data, thus contributing to the discovery of gene interactions responsible for specific diseases and/or ad hoc correcting therapies. Increasing computational power and high throughput technologies have provided powerful means to manage these challenging digital ecosystems at different levels from cell to society globally. The main aim of this paper is to report, present, and discuss the main contributions of this multidisciplinary field in a coherent and structured framework.

  7. Soil-structure interaction analysis by finite element methods - state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, H.B.; Lysmer, J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of soil-structure interaction effects during earthquakes for nuclear power plant structures are usually made by one of two methods-either by means of an idealized complete interaction analysis involving consideration of a compatible variation of motion in the structure and the adjacent soil, or by means of an inertial interaction analysis in which the motions in the adjacent soil are assumed to be the same at all points above the foundation depth. For embedded structures, consideration of the variation of motions with depth is essential if adequate evaluations of soil and structural response are to be obtained without undue conservatism. The finite element analysis procedure is particularly well suited for evaluating the response of embedded structures since it can readily provide consideration of the variation of soil characteristics with depth, the different non-linear deformation and energy absorbing capacities of the various soil strata, the variation of motions with depth in accordance with the general principles of engineering mechanics, the three-dimensional nature of the problem and the effects of adjacent structures on each other. (Auth.)

  8. The State of the Art of the Decladding Method for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Hoo; Park, B. S.; Kim, K. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Lim, K. M.; Lee, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    Our country's energy consumption is increasing day after day even though it relies on imports for more than 95 percent of its energy needs. In this circumstances, the atomic energy is a promising alternative to solve the problem of an energy security and an environmental preservation simultaneously. However, nuclear power produces spent fuel which is a highly radioactive waste. For a reliable and effective management of the spent fuel, the ACP(Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process) is being developed at the KAERI. As a first state equipment of the ACP, a decladding machine is used to separate spent fuel rod into the UO 2 pellets and hulls. This technical report aims to analyze existing decladding methods, and then, find a suitable decladding mechanism for the ACP. Many studies on the decladding of spent fuel can be categorized two approaches: chemical approach and mechanical one. In this report, we concentrated on the mechanical decladding approach. We developed engineering scale decladding device(20 kgHM/batch) and evaluated the performance through the verification experiments. We expect that this technical report helps in developing a scale-up equipment and technology

  9. Innovative methods for the design of miniatured state of the art neutronic channels for future FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishna, M.; Shukla, Rahul; Nagaraj, C.P.; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron flux in fast reactor varies over 10 decades from shutdown to full power. This is monitored in all states of the reactor by Neutron flux monitoring systems. The system consists of several sets of detectors and instrument channels. For smooth transition from one set of instrument channel to other, interlocks with auto inhibition in safety logic are provided. In the present reactor, Fission counters are placed in control plug under vessel. The signals from these detectors are connected to preamplifiers near to the sensors. The signals from these preamplifiers are again connected to instrument channels in control building local control centres, which generate parameters such as logarithmic power, period, linear power and reactivity signals. Interlocks with auto inhibition are provided in safety logic for smooth transition from one detector-channel to other. With this arrangement, difficulties are faced such as, two sets of detectors are required at two different locations. Three different types of instrument channels are required. In each channel, there is a trade-off between response time and accuracy. Many interlocks with auto inhibitions are to be provided for transition from one system to another. Volume of electronics involved is very high. The pulses are also not periodical. Hence counting techniques do not result in accurate prediction of frequency and intern power. Either the accuracy of counting or the counting time has to be sacrificed. It can also be seen that as the frequency goes up the pulses over lap. Hence estimating the power using pulse counting can't predict the power correctly. In the Campbell method, which is used in the intermediate range also there is a trade-off between the accuracy and response time and linearity could be seen only for 3 decades. Hence the new approach viz. PCA (principle component analysis) is discussed in this paper. PCA is non-parametric method of extracting relevant information from mixed data by reducing a complex

  10. Classification methods of sonar signal. Part One: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colao, F.; Dell'Erba, R.

    2009-01-01

    STSS500 camera is an innovative instrument dedicated to submarine robot planned in order to increase human operator perception; the objectives include the possibility to operate in hostile atmospheres, the overcoming of the visible and/or infrared vision limits in turbid waters. STSS500 operates lighting by sound the scene with an array of acoustic rays with known electric characteristics. Later it listens to the reception antenna in order to record the reflected and/or diffuse acoustic echoes from the present obstacles in the scene. The camera is stereoscopic. An opportune analysis of signals receipted from the reception antenna renders the construction of synthetic data; the data fill in voxel a portion of the space place in front of the STS500. With simplifications of the physical phenomena the analysis of geometry of the lighted portion and the acoustic echoes is possible the localizations in the space and the physical dimensions of the voxel, and therefore to obtain the trend in the time of the reflected and/or diffused acoustic intensity from every given volume element. The main problem, that up to the present it is little studied, is dealing with the elaboration of the return echoes turns with the aim to extract those features related to the physical characteristics of the target, and whose visualization can help the process of understanding of the scene resumption from STS500. This the aspect is here inquired in detail, by means of the deepening and the study of the technical notes in literature that regard the identification and automatic classification and, the possible application to the case of acoustic data with typical characteristics dates from the camera that is to our disposition. Topic in this job is the use of well known techniques used in optical elaboration of satellite imaging, (methods PCA, SAM, SCM, etc). In this case we assuming that the specificities of the means and of the interaction has formally similar scale laws as in the event

  11. Benchmarking and application of the state-of-the-art uncertainty analysis methods XSUSA and SHARK-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, A.; Bostelmann, F.; Hursin, M.; Leray, O.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of the uncertainty analysis methods XSUSA and SHARK-X. • Propagation of nuclear data uncertainty through PWR pin cell depletion calculation. • Uncertainty quantification of eigenvalue, nuclide densities and Doppler coefficient. • Top contributor to overall output uncertainty by sensitivity analysis. • Comparison with SAMPLER and TSUNAMI of the SCALE code package. - Abstract: This study presents collaborative work performed between GRS and PSI on benchmarking and application of the state-of-the-art uncertainty analysis methods XSUSA and SHARK-X. Applied to a PWR pin cell depletion calculation, both methods propagate input uncertainty from nuclear data to output uncertainty. The uncertainty of the multiplication factors, nuclide densities, and fuel temperature coefficients derived by both methods are compared at various burnup steps. Comparisons of these quantities are furthermore performed with the SAMPLER module of SCALE 6.2. The perturbation theory based TSUNAMI module of both SCALE 6.1 and SCALE 6.2 is additionally applied for comparisons of the reactivity coefficient.

  12. A review and comparison of fault detection and diagnosis methods for squirrel-cage induction motors: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Bazzi, Ali M

    2017-09-01

    Preventing induction motors (IMs) from failure and shutdown is important to maintain functionality of many critical loads in industry and commerce. This paper provides a comprehensive review of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods targeting all the four major types of faults in IMs. Popular FDD methods published up to 2010 are briefly introduced, while the focus of the review is laid on the state-of-the-art FDD techniques after 2010, i.e. in 2011-2015 and some in 2016. Different FDD methods are introduced and classified into four categories depending on their application domains, instead of on fault types like in many other reviews, to better reveal hidden connections and similarities of different FDD methods. Detailed comparisons of the reviewed papers after 2010 are given in tables for fast referring. Finally, a dedicated discussion session is provided, which presents recent developments, trends and remaining difficulties regarding to FDD of IMs, to inspire novel research ideas and new research possibilities. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed. PMID:22408551

  14. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Robla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  15. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    There is a large body of experience in high luminosity data taking in fixed target research. We try to consider a wide variety of high rate experiments which were limited by the detector (not by available beam) to a preset number of collisions per second. We then attempt to translate these state-of-the-art experiments to effective collider experiments. To this end, we extend the chosen detector to a comparison 4π collider detector operating near 1 TeV. There are several issues: (1) effective solid angle must be translated to approx. = 4π, (2) environments may be quite different, e.g., beam dump near fixed target or beam halo muons vs. collider backgrounds, (3) the multiplicity varies over the experiments selected and (4) we have to treat open vs closed geometries. The large variety of experiments selected is designed to average over the causes for detector limitation. Finally we chose detectors which have produced physics in order to gauge the state of the art

  16. The state-of-the-art and prospects of the oxidation titration method for the determination of uranium in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiayan

    1986-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the oxidation titration method for the determination of uranium in geological samples is reviewed in some respects such as the prereduction of U(VI), oxidation of U(IV) and the detection of the end-point. Comments are also made on the prospects of further improvements of this method

  17. Current State-of-the-Art 3D Tissue Models and Their Compatibility with Live Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Katie; Deegan, Anthony J; El Haj, Alicia; Yang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cells grow within a complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment where multiple cells are organized and surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). The quantity and types of ECM components, alongside cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions dictate cellular differentiation, proliferation and function in vivo. To mimic natural cellular activities, various 3D tissue culture models have been established to replace conventional two dimensional (2D) culture environments. Allowing for both characterization and visualization of cellular activities within possibly bulky 3D tissue models presents considerable challenges due to the increased thickness and subsequent light scattering features of such 3D models. In this chapter, state-of-the-art methodologies used to establish 3D tissue models are discussed, first with a focus on both scaffold-free and scaffold-based 3D tissue model formation. Following on, multiple 3D live cell imaging systems, mainly optical imaging modalities, are introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed, with the aim of stimulating more research in this highly demanding research area.

  18. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 2 - EBW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, T.

    2014-05-01

    This report consist the results of the development of the electron beam welding (EBW) method for sealing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister. This report has been used as background material for selection of the sealing method for the SNF canister. Report contains the state of the art knowledge of the EBW method and research and development (R and D) results done by Posiva. Relevant R and D results of EB-welds done by SKB are also reviewed in this report. Requirements set for the welding and weld are present. These requirements are based on the long term safety and also some part of requirements are set by other processes like non-destructive testing (NDT) and manufacturing processes of components. Initial state of the weld is described in this report. Initial state has significant effect on the long term safety issues like corrosion resistance and creep ductility. Also short and long term mechanical properties as well as corrosion properties are described. Microstructure and residual stresses of the weld is represented in this report. Report consists also imperfections of the weld and statistical analysis of the evaluation of the probability of the largest defect size on the weld. Results of corrosion and creep tests of EB-welds are reviewed in this report. EBW process and machine are described. Preliminary designing of the EBW-machine has been done including component handling equipments. Preliminary welding procedure specification (pWPS) has drawn up and qualification of the personnel is described briefly. In-line process and quality control system including seam tracking system is implemented in modern EBW machine. Also NDT methods for inspection of the weld are described in this report. Concerning the results from the research and development work it can be concluded that EB welding method is suitable method for sealing SNF canister. Weld material fulfils requirements set by the long term safety. The welding system is robust and reliable and it is based

  19. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applied to hepato-bilio-pancreatic and the digestive system—current state of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Michele; Schiraldi, Luigi; Liu, Yu-Yin; Memeo, Riccardo; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a valid minimally-invasive image-guided treatment of malignancies. We aimed to review to current state of the art of HIFU therapy applied to the digestive system and discuss some promising avenues of the technology. Methods Pertinent studies were identified through PubMed and Embase search engines using the following keywords, combined in different ways: HIFU, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, rectum, and cancer. Experimental proof of the concept of endoluminal HIFU mucosa/submucosa ablation using a custom-made transducer has been obtained in vivo in the porcine model. Results Forty-four studies reported on the clinical use of HIFU to treat liver lesions, while 19 series were found on HIFU treatment of pancreatic cancers and four studies included patients suffering from both liver and pancreatic cancers, reporting on a total of 1,682 and 823 cases for liver and pancreas, respectively. Only very limited comparative prospective studies have been reported. Conclusions Digestive system clinical applications of HIFU are limited to pancreatic and liver cancer. It is safe and well tolerated. The exact place in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) management algorithm remains to be defined. HIFU seems to add clear survival advantages over trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) alone and similar results when compared to radio frequency (RF). For pancreatic cancer, HIFU achieves consistent cancer-related pain relief. Further research is warranted to improve targeting accuracy and efficacy monitoring. Furthermore, additional work is required to transfer this technology on appealing treatments such as endoscopic HIFU-based therapies. PMID:27500145

  20. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  1. Human Performance Modeling in Military Simulation: Current State of the Art and the Way Ahead (2002 TTCP HUM Group Meeting)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... This report examines the requirements for human performance modeling within the military, assesses the state of the practice in current operational models, documents ongoing human performance research and development (R and D...

  2. The state-of-the-art of the LTA{sub N} method in the solution of the transport equation in a slab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Cardona, A. [Faculty of Mathematics, PUCRS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil); Panta Pazos, R. [Nulcear Engineering Department, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil); Tullio de Vilhena, M. [Institute of Mathematics, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work we report the state-of-the-art of the LTA{sub N} method, reporting the derivation of the LTA{sub N} homogeneous and particular solution in a slab for large N (N < 650), as well its accelerated version, which reduces drastically the computational time. We also sketch the mathematical background for the error bound estimate and convergence analysis of the LTA{sub N} method. We show that the LTA{sub N} method, consequently the Laplace transform technique, is a quite general approach to solve a wide class of transport problems in a slab mainly the ones requiring an arbitrary source and large N.

  3. Evaluation of Semi-Automatic Metadata Generation Tools: A Survey of the Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-ran Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the current landscape of semi-automatic metadata generation tools is particularly important considering the rapid development of digital repositories and the recent explosion of big data. Utilization of (semiautomatic metadata generation is critical in addressing these environmental changes and may be unavoidable in the future considering the costly and complex operation of manual metadata creation. To address such needs, this study examines the range of semi-automatic metadata generation tools (n=39 while providing an analysis of their techniques, features, and functions. The study focuses on open-source tools that can be readily utilized in libraries and other memory institutions.  The challenges and current barriers to implementation of these tools were identified. The greatest area of difficulty lies in the fact that  the piecemeal development of most semi-automatic generation tools only addresses part of the issue of semi-automatic metadata generation, providing solutions to one or a few metadata elements but not the full range elements.  This indicates that significant local efforts will be required to integrate the various tools into a coherent set of a working whole.  Suggestions toward such efforts are presented for future developments that may assist information professionals with incorporation of semi-automatic tools within their daily workflows.

  4. State-of-the-art imaging of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis: A comprehensive review of current applications and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Huber

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MR elastography (MRE appears to be the most reliable method for grading liver fibrosis, although the CT fibrosis score derived from the combination of caudate-to-right-lobe ratio and the diameters of the liver veins significantly correlates with the stage of fibrosis.

  5. Inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis: A critical review of the state-of-the-art, current prospects, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Maryam; Mobasheri, Ali; Mozafari, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been defined as a prototypical non-inflammatory arthropathy, but today there is compelling evidence to suggest that it has an inflammatory component. Many recent studies have shown the presence of synovitis in a large number of patients with OA and demonstrated a direct association between joint inflammation and the progression of OA. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide, matrix degrading enzymes and biomechanical stress are major factors responsible for the progression of OA in synovial joints. The aim of this review is to discuss the significance of a wide range of implicated inflammatory mediators and their contribution to the progression of OA. We also discuss some of the currently available guidelines, practices, and prospects. In addition, this review argues for new innovation in methodologies and instrumentation for the non-invasive detection of inflammation in OA by modern imaging techniques. We propose that identifying early inflammatory events and targeting these alterations will help to ameliorate the major symptoms such as inflammation and pain in OA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in glaciers in the Swiss Alps and impact on basin hydrology: current state of the art and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F; Carenzo, M; Bordoy, R; Stoffel, M

    2014-09-15

    Switzerland is one of the countries with some of the longest and best glaciological data sets. Its glaciers and their changes in response to climate have been extensively investigated, and the number and quality of related studies are notable. However, a comprehensive review of glacier changes and their impact on the hydrology of glacierised catchments for Switzerland is missing and we use the opportunity provided by the EU-FP7 ACQWA project to review the current state of knowledge about past changes and future projections. We examine the type of models that have been applied to infer glacier evolution and identify knowledge gaps that should be addressed in future research in addition to those indicated in previous publications. Common characteristics in long-term series of projected future glacier runoff are an initial peak followed by a decline, associated with shifts in seasonality, earlier melt onset and reduced summer runoff. However, the quantitative predictions are difficult to compare, as studies differ in terms of model structure, calibration strategies, input data, temporal and spatial resolution as well as future scenarios used for impact studies. We identify two sources of uncertainties among those emerging from recent research, and use simulations over four glaciers to: i) quantify the importance of the correct extrapolation of air temperature, and ii) point at the key role played by debris cover in modulating glacier response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation as a Treatment for Refractory Epilepsy: Review of the Current State-of-the-Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Malika P; Upton, Adrian R M; Kamath, Markad V

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy affects ∼ 1% of the global population, and 33% of patients are nonresponsive to medication and must seek alternative treatment options. Alternative options such as surgery and ablation exist but are not appropriate treatment plans for some patients. Neurostimulation methods such as vagal nerve stimulation, responsive neural stimulation, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are viable alternatives for medically refractory patients. DBS stimulation has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and pain management. For the treatment of epilepsy, DBS has been found to be an effective treatment plan, with promising results of reduced seizure frequency and intensity. In this review, we discuss DBS surgery and equipment, mechanisms of DBS for epilepsy, and efficacy, technological specifications, and suggestions for future research. We also review a historical summary of experiments involving DBS for epilepsy. Our literature review suggests that further studies are warranted for medically refractory epilepsy using DBS.

  8. Multi-criteria decision-making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. A total of 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. A wide range of applications were identified, with most papers focusing on ranking alternatives for flood mitigation, followed by risk, hazard, and vulnerability assessment. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most popular method, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest in MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and was seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Therefore, addressing the uncertainties around stakeholders' judgments and endorsing an active participation in all steps of the decision-making process should be explored in future applications. This could help to increase the quality of decisions and the implementation of chosen measures.

  9. The State of the Art of Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Towards a Pedagogical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Claire; Garner, Mark; Kawulich, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    No formal pedagogical culture for research methods in the social sciences seems to exist and, as part of the authors' endeavour to establish such a culture, this article reviews current literature about teaching research methods and identifies the gaps in the research. Articles in academic journals spanning a 10-year period were collected by…

  10. Mixed Methods Research Prevalence Studies: Field-Specific Studies on the State of the Art of Mixed Methods Research

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Azorín, José F.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) has always welcomed two main kinds of manuscripts: original empirical articles and methodological/theoretical articles (Creswell & Tashakkori, 2007; Fetters & Freshwater, 2015a; Mertens, 2011). Both types of articles must clearly state methodological aims, review mixed methods literature relative to the methodological aim, and advance the field of mixed methods—empirical articles must address integration (Fetters & Freshwater, 2015b). In this edito...

  11. State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases are perfo......This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases...

  12. Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Natasha; Graham, William C; Gersoff, Wayne K

    2016-06-01

    Meniscal allograft transplantation has evolved over the years to provide a state-of-the-art technique for the sports medicine surgeon to utilize in preserving contact mechanics and function of the knee in irreparable meniscal pathology. However, this procedure continues to spark considerable debate on proper tissue processing techniques, acceptable indications, methods of implantation, and potential long-term outcomes.

  13. 3D-2D registration in endovascular image-guided surgery: evaluation of state-of-the-art methods on cerebral angiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Uroš; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Špiclin, Žiga

    2018-02-01

    Image guidance for minimally invasive surgery is based on spatial co-registration and fusion of 3D pre-interventional images and treatment plans with the 2D live intra-interventional images. The spatial co-registration or 3D-2D registration is the key enabling technology; however, the performance of state-of-the-art automated methods is rather unclear as they have not been assessed under the same test conditions. Herein we perform a quantitative and comparative evaluation of ten state-of-the-art methods for 3D-2D registration on a public dataset of clinical angiograms. Image database consisted of 3D and 2D angiograms of 25 patients undergoing treatment for cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. On each of the datasets, highly accurate "gold-standard" registrations of 3D and 2D images were established based on patient-attached fiducial markers. The database was used to rigorously evaluate ten state-of-the-art 3D-2D registration methods, namely two intensity-, two gradient-, three feature-based and three hybrid methods, both for registration of 3D pre-interventional image to monoplane or biplane 2D images. Intensity-based methods were most accurate in all tests (0.3 mm). One of the hybrid methods was most robust with 98.75% of successful registrations (SR) and capture range of 18 mm for registrations of 3D to biplane 2D angiograms. In general, registration accuracy was similar whether registration of 3D image was performed onto mono- or biplanar 2D images; however, the SR was substantially lower in case of 3D to monoplane 2D registration. Two feature-based and two hybrid methods had clinically feasible execution times in the order of a second. Performance of methods seems to fall below expectations in terms of robustness in case of registration of 3D to monoplane 2D images, while translation into clinical image guidance systems seems readily feasible for methods that perform registration of the 3D pre-interventional image onto biplanar intra

  14. State of the art on nuclear heating measurement methods and expected improvements in zero power research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guillou, M.; Gruel, A.; Destouches, C.; Blaise, P.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the recent methodological advances suitable for nuclear heating measurements in zero power research reactors. This bibliographical work is part of an experimental approach currently in progress at CEA Cadarache, aiming at optimizing photon heating measurements in low-power research reactors. It provides an overview of the application fields of the most widely used detectors, namely thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters. Starting from the methodology currently implemented at CEA, the expected improvements relate to the experimental determination of the neutron component, which is a key point conditioning the accuracy of photon heating measurements in mixed n-γ field. A recently developed methodology based on the use of "7Li and "6Li-enriched TLDs, pre-calibrated both in photon and neutron fields, is a promising approach to de-convolute the 2 components of nuclear heating. We also investigate the different methods of optical fiber dosimetry, with a view to assess the feasibility of online photon heating measurements, whose primary benefit is to overcome constraints related to the withdrawal of dosimeters from the reactor immediately after irradiation. Moreover, a fiber-using setup could allow measuring the instantaneous dose rate during irradiation, as well as the delayed photon dose after reactor shutdown. Some insights from potential further developments are given. Obviously, any improvement of the technique has to lead to a measurement uncertainty at least equal to that of the currently used methodology (∼5% at 1 σ). (authors)

  15. State of the art on nuclear heating measurement methods and expected improvements in zero power research reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Guillou Mael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the recent methodological advances suitable for nuclear heating measurements in zero power research reactors. This bibliographical work is part of an experimental approach currently in progress at CEA Cadarache, aiming at optimizing photon heating measurements in low-power research reactors. It provides an overview of the application fields of the most widely used detectors, namely thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters. Starting from the methodology currently implemented at CEA, the expected improvements relate to the experimental determination of the neutron component, which is a key point conditioning the accuracy of photon heating measurements in mixed n–γ field. A recently developed methodology based on the use of 7Li and 6Li-enriched TLDs, precalibrated both in photon and neutron fields, is a promising approach to deconvolute the two components of nuclear heating. We also investigate the different methods of optical fiber dosimetry, with a view to assess the feasibility of online photon heating measurements, whose primary benefit is to overcome constraints related to the withdrawal of dosimeters from the reactor immediately after irradiation. Moreover, a fibered setup could allow measuring the instantaneous dose rate during irradiation, as well as the delayed photon dose after reactor shutdown. Some insights from potential further developments are given. Obviously, any improvement of the technique has to lead to a measurement uncertainty at least equal to that of the currently used methodology (∼5% at 1σ.

  16. A State of the Art Review- Methods to Evaluate Electrical Performance of Composite Cross-arms and Composite-based Pylons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    A novel uni-body composite pylon has been proposed for 400 kV transmission lines with advantages of compacted size, friendly looking and cost competitiveness. As its configuration is quite different from the traditional lattice pylon, its electrical performance needs in-depth investigation...... and evaluation, for which electrical testing methods are essential. However, as research on composite-based pylons is still in initial stage, leaving international standards and theoretical analysis on this topic very limited, effective testing methods to evaluate the fully composite pylon’s electrical...... performance need to be studied. This paper sums up experience and key advances on testing methods to evaluate electrical performance of composite cross-arms and composite-based pylons. Based on state of the art review, several feasible testing methods that can be used to verify the feasibility of the novel...

  17. Characterization of the State-of-the-art and Identification of Main Trends for Ecodesign Tools and Methods: Classifying Three Decades of Research and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, T. C.; Rozenfeld, H.

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive management approach that integrates environmental considerations in product development and related processes (such as purchasing, marketing and research & development). Ecodesign aims to improve environmental performance of products throughout their life cycle, from raw...... material extraction and manufacturing to use and end-of-life. Over the last three decades, an intense development of new ecodesign methods and tools could be observed, but uptake by the industry remains a challenge. The purpose of this research is to perform a review of existing ecodesign tools and methods...... through a systematic literature review linked to bibliometric analyses, in order to explore the state of the art of ecodesign methods and tools and identify trends and opportunities in the field for the next decade....

  18. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 1 - FSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purhonen, T.

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to gather together comprehensive information concerning FSW as an optional welding method for welding the nuclear waste copper canister at the disposal facility. This report discusses the current situation, knowledge of the process and information concerning results of the development and research work related to welding thick copper and the special needs of the disposal environment. Most of the research work and development work has been done by Posiva's Swedish partner SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. SKB chose FSW as their reference welding method in 2005. FSW (friction stir welding) is a solid-state welding method, invented in 1991, in which frictional heat is generated between the tool and the weld metal, causing the metal to soften, normally without reaching the melting point, and allowing the tool to traverse the joint line. Friction stir welding can be used for joining many types of materials and material combinations, if the tool materials and designs can be found which operate at the forging temperature of the workpiece. The general requirements for the copper canister weld and base material are presented in Posiva's VAHA-system, which sets the most critical values or demands concerning the short- and long-term properties or other needs. The sections in this report are set out in a similar way as in the VAHA-system. Concerning the results from the research and development work, it can be said that FS weld material fulfils the values set by VAHA. The quality of the welds fulfils the set demands for intact weld material and the welding process is robust using an automatic control system. There still remains work concerning the acceptance procedure for the welding process and other open issues which are described in this report. (orig.)

  19. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 1 - FSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purhonen, T.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to gather together comprehensive information concerning FSW as an optional welding method for welding the nuclear waste copper canister at the disposal facility. This report discusses the current situation, knowledge of the process and information concerning results of the development and research work related to welding thick copper and the special needs of the disposal environment. Most of the research work and development work has been done by Posiva's Swedish partner SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. SKB chose FSW as their reference welding method in 2005. FSW (friction stir welding) is a solid-state welding method, invented in 1991, in which frictional heat is generated between the tool and the weld metal, causing the metal to soften, normally without reaching the melting point, and allowing the tool to traverse the joint line. Friction stir welding can be used for joining many types of materials and material combinations, if the tool materials and designs can be found which operate at the forging temperature of the workpiece. The general requirements for the copper canister weld and base material are presented in Posiva's VAHA-system, which sets the most critical values or demands concerning the short- and long-term properties or other needs. The sections in this report are set out in a similar way as in the VAHA-system. Concerning the results from the research and development work, it can be said that FS weld material fulfils the values set by VAHA. The quality of the welds fulfils the set demands for intact weld material and the welding process is robust using an automatic control system. There still remains work concerning the acceptance procedure for the welding process and other open issues which are described in this report. (orig.)

  20. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  1. Review of Current State of the Art and Key Design Issues With Potential Solutions for Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Storage Tank Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2006-01-01

    Due to its high specific energy content, liquid hydrogen (LH2) is emerging as an alternative fuel for future aircraft. As a result, there is a need for hydrogen tank storage systems, for these aircraft applications, that are expected to provide sufficient capacity for flight durations ranging from a few minutes to several days. It is understood that the development of a large, lightweight, reusable cryogenic liquid storage tank is crucial to meet the goals of and supply power to hydrogen-fueled aircraft, especially for long flight durations. This report provides an annotated review (including the results of an extensive literature review) of the current state of the art of cryogenic tank materials, structural designs, and insulation systems along with the identification of key challenges with the intent of developing a lightweight and long-term storage system for LH2. The broad classes of insulation systems reviewed include foams (including advanced aerogels) and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems with vacuum. The MLI systems show promise for long-term applications. Structural configurations evaluated include single- and double-wall constructions, including sandwich construction. Potential wall material candidates are monolithic metals as well as polymer matrix composites and discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. For short-duration flight applications, simple tank designs may suffice. Alternatively, for longer duration flight applications, a double-wall construction with a vacuum-based insulation system appears to be the most optimum design. The current trends in liner material development are reviewed in the case that a liner is required to minimize or eliminate the loss of hydrogen fuel through permeation.

  2. Nuclear Waste State-of-the-Art Report 2007 - responsibility of current generation, freedom of future generations. Main report from the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The state-of-the-art report presented by the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM) in 2007 is of a slightly different character than the state-of-the-art reports published previously. This year KASAM felt the need to provide an overall picture in relatively easily accessible form of all its assessments since the first state-of-the-art report in 1986. Some of it has of course been rendered obsolete by subsequent events, but surprisingly much is still relevant. The purpose of this main report to provide an overall picture in relatively easily accessible form of all our assessments since the first state-of-the-art report in 1986. Some of it has of course been rendered obsolete by subsequent events, but surprisingly much is still relevant. Another purpose is to describe in general terms the course of events within which these assessments were made in order to contribute to a fundamental understanding of the complexity of managing the nuclear waste issue

  3. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that

  4. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, R.; Wever, B. de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Hill, E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Poth, A.; Roggen, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of

  5. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2B. Methods and Tools for Designing Integrated Building Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa, Ad; Andresen, Inger; Asada, Hideo

    of integrated building concepts and responsive building elements. At last, the report gives a description of uncertainty modelling in building performance assessment. The descriptions of the design methods and tools include an explanation of how the methods may be applied, any experiences gained by using...

  6. Assessment and applicability of evaluation tools: Current practice in a sample of European countries and steps towards a state-of-the-art approach. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverables No. 4 and 5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This report surveys current practice in a sample of European countries with respect to the use of ten different tools for safety management of road systems. The report also proposes steps that can be taken to bring the use of these management tools closer to their state-of-the-art versions. These

  7. A State of the Art Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahangiri, Tohid; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The first EHV composite cross-arms have been used since late 1990's in Switzerland. It was the first step to the compaction of towers sizes. Since then, significant advances have been made in composite cross-arms technology while the lattice construction technique has not been seriously challenged...... of EHV composite cross-arms and lightning protection methods are reviewed based on the state of the art review and subsequently some solutions are presented to overcome the two main challenges....

  8. The Pursuit of K: Reflections on the Current State-of-the-Art in Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Practical Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    CraigMcClung, R.; Lee, Yi-Der; Cardinal, Joseph W.; Guo, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stress intensity factor (SIF, commonly denoted as K) is the foundation of practical fracture mechanics (FM) analysis for aircraft structures. This single parameter describes the first-order effects of stress magnitude and distribution as well as the geometry of both structure/component and crack. Hence, the calculation of K is often the most significant step in fatigue analysis based on FM. This presentation will provide several reflections on the current state-of-the-art in SIF solution methods used for practical aerospace applications, including a brief historical perspective, descriptions of some recent and ongoing advances, and comments on some remaining challenges. Newman and Raju made significant early contributions to practical structural analysis by developing closed-form SIF equations for surface and corner cracks in simplified geometries, often based on empirical fits of finite element (FE) solutions. Those solutions (and others like them) were sometimes revised as new analyses were conducted or limitations discovered. The foundational solutions have exhibited striking longevity, despite the relatively "coarse" FE models employed many decades ago. However, in recent years, the accumulation of different generations of solutions for the same nominal geometry has led to some confusion (which solution is correct?), and steady increases in computational capabilities have facilitated the discovery of inaccuracies in some (not all!) of the legacy solutions. Some examples of problems and solutions are presented and discussed, including the challenge of maintaining consistency with legacy design applications. As computational power has increased, the prospect of calculating large numbers of SIF solutions for specific complex geometries with advanced numerical methods has grown more attractive. Fawaz and Andersson, for example, have been generating literally millions of new SIF solutions for different combinations of multiple cracks under simplified

  9. Modeling methods for GenCo bidding strategy optimization in the liberalized electricity spot market-A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gong; Shi, Jing; Qu, Xiuli

    2011-01-01

    The electricity market has since 1980s been gradually evolving from a monopoly market into a liberalized one for encouraging competition and improving efficiency. This brings the opportunity for generation companies (GenCos) to make more profits while embracing more risks of not being dispatched. Therefore, it has become a core interest for the GenCos to develop optimal bidding strategies to maximize the profits and minimize the risks while participating in such a competitive market. The literature pertaining to this issue has grown rapidly in recent years, and many different modeling approaches, such as mathematical programming, game theory, and agent-based models, have been investigated under the liberalized market environment. Meanwhile, along with the increasing penetration of renewable energy, the electricity market is facing more complexity and stochasticity from both uncertain generation and dynamic demands. The intermittent and unsteady nature of these renewable power sources motivates the GenCos to further optimize their bidding strategy by considering the new constraints. This paper presents a comprehensive literature analysis on the state-of-the-art research of bidding strategy modeling methods. -- Highlights: → Publications on bidding in electricity spot markets are comprehensively reviewed. → Insights on the evolution of solution methodologies of recent 10 years are provided. → The pros and cons of these solution approaches are also discussed. → Future research directions, with renewable energy participations, are pointed out.

  10. Towards Optimal Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Real-Time: A Review on Methods, Challenges, and State-Of-The-Art Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of increasing alerts about limited energy sources and environment degradation, it has become essential to search for alternatives to thermal engine-based vehicles which are a major source of air pollution and fossil fuel depletion. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, encompassing multiple energy sources, are a short-term solution that meets the performance requirements and contributes to fuel saving and emission reduction aims. Power management methods such as regulating efficient energy flow to the vehicle propulsion, are core technologies of HEVs. Intelligent power management methods, capable of acquiring optimal power handling, accommodating system inaccuracies, and suiting real-time applications can significantly improve the powertrain efficiency at different operating conditions. Rule-based methods are simply structured and easily implementable in real-time; however, a limited optimality in power handling decisions can be achieved. Optimization-based methods are more capable of achieving this optimality at the price of augmented computational load. In the last few years, these optimization-based methods have been under development to suit real-time application using more predictive, recognitive, and artificial intelligence tools. This paper presents a review-based discussion about these new trends in real-time optimal power management methods. More focus is given to the adaptation tools used to boost methods optimality in real-time. The contribution of this work can be identified in two points: First, to provide researchers and scholars with an overview of different power management methods. Second, to point out the state-of-the-art trends in real-time optimal methods and to highlight promising approaches for future development.

  11. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    This topical review on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is provided with the intent of describing the state of the art in terms of technology, results from recent clinical studies, advanced applications, and ongoing efforts to develop multimodality imaging systems that include DBT. Particular emphasis is placed on clinical studies. The observations of increase in cancer detection rates, particularly for invasive cancers, and the reduction in false-positive rates with DBT in prospective trials indicate its benefit for breast cancer screening. Retrospective multireader multicase studies show either noninferiority or superiority of DBT compared with mammography. Methods to curtail radiation dose are of importance. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26599926

  12. State of the art magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    In less than a decade Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has evolved from a laboratory demonstration to a safe and effective technique for clinical diagnosis. This evolutionary process continues. At this time 2-D and 3-D imaging of the head and body is firmly established in clinical use. Surface coil imaging, two-component chemical shift imaging, in-vivo spectroscopy and flow imaging are currently in various stages of development. The present state of the art of MRI is a function of an array of technologies: magnet, Rf coil, Rf pulse amplifier, gradient coil and driver, pulse programmer, A/D converter, computer system architecture, array processors and mass storage (both magnetic and optical). The overall product design is the result of a complex process which balances the advantages and disadvantages of each component for optimal system performance and flexibility. The author discusses the organization of a state-of-the-art MRI system. Several examples of the kinds of system interactions affecting design choices are given. (Auth.)

  13. State of the art on bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A.

    2001-01-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way [it

  14. Iodine chemistry at severe accidents. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in the field. APRI 5 report. Part I: Iodine chemistry at hypothetical severe accidents. A review of the state-of-the-art 2003. Part II: A comparison of our knowledge on iodine chemistry and fission products with the current models used in MAAP 4.0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov

    2005-01-01

    The current report tries to summarize and analyze the state-of-the-art on Iodine chemistry relevant to the conditions expected during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This has made it necessary to compare a considerable amount of data, new as well as old, in order to try to find the reasons behind some changes in the expected chemical behaviour of Iodine. In a few cases this has been far from simple. Many numerical values are given in this report. However, me numbers given should not be used in a non-critical way because they are often deduced from measurements whose interpretation depends on various kinds of systematic differences and assumptions with regard to technique, 'known' constants, and models applied. The most important observation today is that one can no longer uncritically assume that iodine is only released and transported as cesium iodide. The considerable effect that control rod material (including other construction materials) can have on the way in which an accident develops and on its iodine chemistry is clearly seen from the results of the experiments performed within the PHEBUS FP project. The second part of the report evaluates new knowledge on Iodine chemistry and Iodine behaviour of importance in severe nuclear reactor accidents. Also some new information regarding the behaviour and chemistry of other fission products has been collected. In the light of this information, the current modelling of Iodine behaviour in the MAAP code version 4.0.5 has been investigated. No modelling errors have been found. However, some of the equations used to calculate the vapour pressure of the components in the AlC-alloy used in PWR control rods give questionable results. An error in the MAAP manual was found which should be corrected. Finally, some suggestions are given for future improvements in the modelling of severe accidents used in MAAP for both BWRs and PWRs

  15. State-of-the-art technologies, current opinions and developments, and novel findings: news from the field of histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther; Drenckhahn, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    Investigations of cell and tissue structure and function using innovative methods and approaches have again yielded numerous exciting findings in recent months and have added important data to current knowledge, inspiring new ideas and hypotheses in various fields of modern life sciences. Topics and contents of comprehensive expert reviews covering different aspects in methodological advances, cell biology, tissue function and morphology, and novel findings reported in original papers are summarized in the present review.

  16. Solar control: comparison of two new systems with the state of the art on the basis of a new general evaluation method for facades with venetian blinds or other solar control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, T.E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The author has developed two new sun-shading systems together with two different companies. These systems are compared with state of the art products on the basis of the new general evaluation method for facades with venetian blinds or other solar control systems that has been presented in detail in [T.E. Kuhn, Solar control: a general evaluation method for facades with venetian blinds or other solar control systems to be used 'stand-alone' or within building simulation programs, Energy Buildings, in press]. The main advantage is that the method can take into account realistic user behaviour (different utilisation modes). Without the new methodology, it would not have been possible to recognise the weaknesses of products which are currently on the market. This recognition was the basis for the design of the two new products: 1. The new stainless steel blind s-enn(Registered Trademark) selectively shields certain regions of the sky. This leads to a transparent appearance while direct insolation of the room and the associated glare is prevented in most cases. 2. The special shape of the 'Genius slats' of a new venetian blind ensures good sun-shading properties which are relatively independent of the actual setting of the slats over broad ranges, which ensures robust performance despite so-called 'faulty operation'. In other words: The performance of the new venetian blind is relatively insensitive to different utilisation modes. (author)

  17. Fuel cells: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Casalegno, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development [it

  18. Analysis of Respiratory Sounds: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reichert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This paper describes state of the art, scientific publications and ongoing research related to the methods of analysis of respiratory sounds. Methods and material Review of the current medical and technological literature using Pubmed and personal experience. Results The study includes a description of the various techniques that are being used to collect auscultation sounds, a physical description of known pathologic sounds for which automatic detection tools were developed. Modern tools are based on artificial intelligence and on technics such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, and genetic algorithms… Conclusion The next step will consist in finding new markers so as to increase the efficiency of decision aid algorithms and tools.

  19. Entrepreneurship Education: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sánchez García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Job uncertainty and ambiguity is a reality in many current societies, therefore, the idea of self-employment has taken a more active role, not only out of necessity, but also because it brings innovation and development to societies. In view of this situation, the following question arises: how can we strengthen the entrepreneurial spirit of our students? This article has the objective to collect theoretical information of the state of the art on entrepreneurship education: what it has been, what it is, and what can it be, in order to present the current condition of the topic, both in the psychological and pedagogical field. To achieve this objective, information from 108 research sources, mainly from scientific articles and books was collected, concluding that, although generally, entrepreneurship education has significantly contributed to the creation of businesses, developing countries, specifically, those in Latin America, still require extra effort to fully implement entrepreneurship topic in the curriculums, particularly because of challenges such as political instability, technology and international competition.

  20. The Impact of Building Occupant Behavior on Energy Efficiency and Methods to Influence It: A Review of the State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paone

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume a significant amount of energy, estimated at about one-third of total primary energy resources. Building energy efficiency has turned out to be a major issue in limiting the increasing energy demands of the sector. Literature shows that building user behavior can increase the efficiency of the energy used in the building and different strategies have been tested to address and support this issue. These strategies often combine the quantification of energy savings and qualitative interpretation of occupant behavior in order to foster energy efficiency. Strategies that influence building occupant behaviors include eco-feedback, social interaction, and gamification. This review paper presents a study conducted on the state of the art related to the impact of building user behavior on energy efficiency, in order to provide the research community with a better understanding and up-to-date knowledge of energy, comfort-related practices, and potential research opportunities. Achieving and maintaining energy-efficient behavior without decreasing the comfort of building occupants still represents a challenge, despite emerging technologies and strategies as well as general research progress made over the last decade. Conclusions highlight eco-feedback as an effective way to influence behavior, and gamification as a new opportunity to trigger behavioral change. The impact of user behavior is difficult to quantify for methodological reasons. Factors influencing human behavior are numerous and varied. Multi-disciplinary approaches are needed to provide new insights into the inner dynamic nature of occupant’s energy behavior.

  1. State of the art: alumina ceramics for energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, W.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development

  2. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  3. The state-of-the-art of HSR in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this section of the workshop we present an overview based on mapping the current state-of-the-art concerning various fields of health services research, addressing the different levels of analysis in HSR. (1) HSR at the level of health care systems, being national or sometimes regional entities,

  4. State of the art in perceptual design of hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brent W.; van Tasell, Dianne J.

    2002-05-01

    Hearing aid capabilities have increased dramatically over the past six years, in large part due to the development of small, low-power digital signal processing chips suitable for hearing aid applications. As hearing aid signal processing capabilities increase, there will be new opportunities to apply perceptually based knowledge to technological development. Most hearing loss compensation techniques in today's hearing aids are based on simple estimates of audibility and loudness. As our understanding of the psychoacoustical and physiological characteristics of sensorineural hearing loss improves, the result should be improved design of hearing aids and fitting methods. The state of the art in hearing aids will be reviewed, including form factors, user requirements, and technology that improves speech intelligibility, sound quality, and functionality. General areas of auditory perception that remain unaddressed by current hearing aid technology will be discussed.

  5. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  6. Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of brain diseases in childhood and adolescence: state of the art, current limits and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades interest in application of non-invasive brain stimulation for enhancing neural functions is growing continuously. However, the use of such techniques in pediatric populations remains rather limited and mainly confined to the treatment of severe neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this article we provide a complete review of non-invasive brain stimulation studies conducted in pediatric populations. We also provide a brief discussion about the current limitations and future directions in a field of research still very young and full of issues to be explored.

  7. State of the art in the insight into experimentally observed mesons and baryons predicted by current fundamental models of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, M.; Hron, J.

    2001-01-01

    Current insight into mesons and baryons is highlighted, their classification is given, and their arrangement into multiplets is described. A brief chronological overview of discoveries of the most important mesons and baryons is presented, followed by a description of the attempts to find fundamental particles between mesons and baryons, which could be composed of other mesons and baryons (Fermi-Yang model, Sakata model, Ikea-Ohnuki-Ogawa model). The attempts ultimately led to the formulation of the quark model. The quark structure of some mesons and baryons is presented. The quark model foresees the existence of mesons and baryons that have not yet been discovered. (Z.J.)

  8. Deporte, cultura y sociedad: un estado actual de la cuestión = Sport, culture and society: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manuel Pérez-Flores

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En el siguiente artículo realizamos un análisis de contenidos teóricos y empíricos referentes a la vinculación entre deporte, la cultura y la sociedad contemporánea con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre el estado actual de la cuestión. Para ello se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica de las  referencias publicadas en Web of Science y Scopus entre los años 2000 y 2017. Se realiza un meta análisis teórico de las diferentes categorías de estudio en las que se subdividen las referencias internacionales sobre el tema de estudio. También se realiza un análisis secundario de los datos aportados en las investigaciones que forman parte del monográfico. Como resultados principales se muestra el actual estado del desarrollo académico sobre el estudio del deporte la cultura y la sociedad, y  varias reflexiones sobre las actuales características del mundo del deporte en la sociedad contemporánea. Abstract: In the next article we set out to analyse the theoretical and empirical content of the link between sport, culture and contemporary society, so as to assess the current state of play. This involves reviewing the literature published on Web of Science and Scopus between 2000 and 2017. The categories of the study into which the international references on the theme of the study can be subdivided are subjected to theoretical meta-analysis, dividing them into classic and current themes. A secondary analysis is also carried out on the data contributed by the research that forms part of the paper. The main findings reveal the current state of academic development of the study of sport, culture and society, offering a range of reflections on the current characteristics of the world of sport in contemporary society.

  9. Text Generation: The State of the Art and the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; And Others

    This report comprises two documents which describe the state of the art of computer generation of natural language text. Both were prepared by a panel of individuals who are active in research on text generation. The first document assesses the techniques now available for use in systems design, covering all of the technical methods by which…

  10. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy......The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised...

  11. Management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: current state-of-the-art care for optimizing visual outcomes and therapies in development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Rhoades, William R; Hanout, Mostafa; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Sarwar, Salman; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has evolved significantly over the last few years. The goal of treatment is shifting from merely salvaging vision to maintaining a high quality of life. There have been significant breakthroughs in the identification of viable drug targets and gene therapies. Imaging tools with near-histological precision have enhanced our knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms that play a role in vision loss due to AMD. Visual, social, and vocational rehabilitation are all important treatment goals. In this review, evidence from landmark clinical trials is summarized to elucidate the optimum modern-day management of neovascular AMD. Therapeutic strategies currently under development, such as gene therapy and personalized medicine, are also described. PMID:26089632

  12. Current state-of-the-art industrial and research applications using room-temperature CdTe and CdZnTe solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of CdTe crystal quality and significant progress in the growth of large ingots of high resistivity CdZnTe material enable the fabrication of larger area detectors in single element form or monolithic arrays. These advances allow for the development of imaging devices of improved spatial resolution for industrial, research and medical applications. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors operate in single photon counting mode or in current mode (charge integrating mode). The paper presents advantages of CdTe and CdZnTe over common scintillator type detectors, but also presents the shortcomings of the former detectors with respect to charge collection which limit the yields of good spectrometers. The paper reviews industrial and research applications utilizing these detectors and in particular describes in detail two imaging systems for security screening and custom inspection. These systems are characterized by large dynamic range and good spatial resolution and are composed of large arrays of CdTe spectrometers and discriminator grade detectors. A wide energy range detector assembly, for astrophysical research of gamma ray bursts composed of CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe spectrometers in two dimensional arrays is also presented. (orig.)

  13. Management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: current state-of-the-art care for optimizing visual outcomes and therapies in development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aniruddha Agarwal, William R Rhoades, Mostafa Hanout, Mohamed Kamel Soliman, Salman Sarwar, Mohammad Ali Sadiq, Yasir Jamal Sepah, Diana V Do, Quan Dong Nguyen Stanley M Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Contemporary management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD has evolved significantly over the last few years. The goal of treatment is shifting from merely salvaging vision to maintaining a high quality of life. There have been significant breakthroughs in the identification of viable drug targets and gene therapies. Imaging tools with near-histological precision have enhanced our knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms that play a role in vision loss due to AMD. Visual, social, and vocational rehabilitation are all important treatment goals. In this review, evidence from landmark clinical trials is summarized to elucidate the optimum modern-day management of neovascular AMD. Therapeutic strategies currently under development, such as gene therapy and personalized medicine, are also described. Keywords: AMD, neovascular AMD, choroidal neovascular membrane, pharmacogenomics, VEGF, low-vision rehabilitation, gene therapy

  14. Review Article: Multi-criteria decision making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, M. M.; Evers, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a review of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. Totally, 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed and classified into the following application areas: (1) ranking of alternatives for flood mitigation, (2) reservoir flood control, (3) susceptibility, (4) hazard, (5) vulnerability, (6) risk, (7) coping capacity, and (8) emergency management. Additionally, the articles were categorized based on the publication year, MCDM method, whether they were or were not carried out in a participatory process, and if uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the most popular technique, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest on MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and is seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Based on the survey, some suggestions for further investigation are provided.

  15. A review of the current state-of-the-art methodology for handling bias and uncertainty in performing criticality safety evaluations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1994-10-01

    The methodology for handling bias and uncertainty when calculational methods are used in criticality safety evaluations (CSE's) is a rapidly evolving technology. The changes in the methodology are driven by a number of factors. One factor responsible for changes in the methodology for handling bias and uncertainty in CSE's within the overview of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is a shift in the overview function from a ''site'' perception to a more uniform or ''national'' perception. Other causes for change or improvement in the methodology for handling calculational bias and uncertainty are; (1) an increased demand for benchmark criticals data to expand the area (range) of applicability of existing data, (2) a demand for new data to supplement existing benchmark criticals data, (3) the increased reliance on (or need for) computational benchmarks which supplement (or replace) experimental measurements in critical assemblies, and (4) an increased demand for benchmark data applicable to the expanded range of conditions and configurations encountered in DOE site restoration and remediation

  16. The use of fixatives for response to a radiation dispersal devise attack - a review of the current (2009) state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, R.R.; Medina, V.F.; Conca, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation dispersal devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, are terrorist weapons designed to scatter radioactive materials in large urban areas. Although the main intent of a RDD is to produce general panic and chaos, other impacts such as health, environmental, property and economical damage may also occur. Although one certain method of reducing health risks from a RDD event is to remove the radioactive contaminants from the environment immediately, rapid cleanup after a RDD event may be impossible in many cases. However, preventing the migration of the radioactive contaminant is crucial. Although it may be necessary to allow the contaminant to remain in place, preventing its migration is still essential. Fixatives can reduce or eliminating migration potential of a contaminant introduced by a RDD. This paper reviews the significance of fixatives in response to a RDD event and some of the products which have been identified for such a purpose. Many of the products are promising for application. However, many reports lack quantitative information to allow for effective comparative evaluation. Further, key parameters, such as shelf life and product toxicity, are not typically evaluated. We recommend that standardized performance parameters be established to allow for better comparative evaluation.

  17. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and X-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. (orig.)

  18. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

  19. State of the art in microfabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper the state of the art in microfabrication is presented. The focus is on trends in integrated circuit fabrication by mainstream industrial players. The article starts with Moore’s Law, describing its inception as well as the evolution of Moore’s metric of the number of components

  20. Multimodal Dialogue Management - State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.

    This report is about the state of the art in dialogue management. We first introduce an overview of a multimodal dialogue system and its components. Second, four main approaches to dialogue management are described (finite-state and frame-based, information-state based and probabilistic, plan-based,

  1. Platelet kinetics: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A. duP

    1984-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the state of the art of platelet kinetics 1982 is presented. The subjects considered include a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of some of the many radionuclide platelet labels, viz 51 Cr, 111 In, focussing briefly on models for analysis of platelets survival. (Auth.)

  2. State-of-the-art inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present report provides a state-of-the-art inventory of relevant information and technical concepts for the ComCoast project, being the first phase of the research stages of Work Package 3 (WP3). This project was assigned to Royal Haskoning by CUR. The information scan was set-up in a systematic

  3. Where is your state of the art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Gaona, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Beyond the purposes of publishing, questioning and/or hypothesizing, every research has the noble aim to quench the constant human need of pushing farther away the boundaries of knowledge, may such frontier exist. The state of the art is the generic expression coined to limit the whereabouts of any particular knowledge. We use it just like a compass, it tells us how far we are, what has been done and where we should go. Take for instance quantum field theory, the state of the art in particle physics will tell you that everything that exists in this universe is made of bosons, quarks and leptons. What!?. Hold on, I was taught (and luckily maybe you weren't) that the fundamental particles were electrons, neutrons and protons, right?. Indeed, that is the state of the art but from almost one century ago. So, if I may ask... where is your state of the art? This is not about quantum physics; it is not even about hydrology; it is about everything. Today, everybody doing or not a PhD fiercely believes that their research is important, extremely unique, life changing (and help us God if we are wrong); but how can you be so sure that what you do, isn't already done?. We live in a modern world, cool environmental scientists now have tagged this era as the Anthropocene; globalization is everywhere and of course knowledge has not escaped to it. Not only knowledge is now global but is totally diversified, any crazy idea you can think of (or actually you can't) it is very likely that somebody already has his/hers hands on it. Nevertheless, this is a good thing, isn't it?. Well, that is the whole point. Every time I should write my research's state of the art, I always get overwhelmed because it actually is pretty difficult to establish, and later when I think I get it, it seems that I am solving issues that somebody already bothered to solve 30 years ago. Therefore, does it really have some purpose to be swimming in a huge pool of knowledge, not knowing where exactly I am? or

  4. State of the art survey of network operating systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the State-of-the-Art Survey of Network Operating Systems (NOS) performed for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. NOS functional characteristics are presented in terms of user communication data migration, job migration, network control, and common functional categories. Products (current or future) as well as research and prototyping efforts are summarized. The NOS products which are revelant to the space station and its activities are evaluated.

  5. State of the art in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of the art in cosmology is under discussion. The general picture of the Universe evolution is presented, and its main stages are outlined. The prooess of formation of the large scale Universe structure is considered. The possibility of investigation into the ''inflation'' period of the ''very-very early Universe'' from the view point of theoretical physics is sown. It is noted that cosmology will become a complete science only when physics gives an exhaustive answer to all issues raised by cosmology

  6. Analyst workbenches state of the art report

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, R

    1987-01-01

    Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can

  7. Teaching Social Science Research Methods to Undergraduate Medical Students: The State of the Art and Opportunities for Practice and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Simon

    2017-01-01

    There is an expectation that medical students in the UK will be able to demonstrate conversancy with social science relevant to medicine and health, including the means by which the relevant bodies of knowledge are generated through the use of social science research methods. This paper explores the structural and pedagogical challenges and…

  8. Matrix removal in state of the art sample preparation methods for serum by charged aerosol detection and metabolomics-based LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Denise; Francesconi, Kevin A; Mautner, Anton; Libiseller, Gunnar; Raml, Reingard; Magnes, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    Investigations into sample preparation procedures usually focus on analyte recovery with no information provided about the fate of other components of the sample (matrix). For many analyses, however, and particularly those using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), quantitative measurements are greatly influenced by sample matrix. Using the example of the drug amitriptyline and three of its metabolites in serum, we performed a comprehensive investigation of nine commonly used sample clean-up procedures in terms of their suitability for preparing serum samples. We were monitoring the undesired matrix compounds using a combination of charged aerosol detection (CAD), LC-CAD, and a metabolomics-based LC-MS/MS approach. In this way, we compared analyte recovery of protein precipitation-, liquid-liquid-, solid-phase- and hybrid solid-phase extraction methods. Although all methods provided acceptable recoveries, the highest recovery was obtained by protein precipitation with acetonitrile/formic acid (amitriptyline 113%, nortriptyline 92%, 10-hydroxyamitriptyline 89%, and amitriptyline N-oxide 96%). The quantification of matrix removal by LC-CAD showed that the solid phase extraction method (SPE) provided the lowest remaining matrix load (48-123 μg mL(-1)), which is a 10-40 fold better matrix clean-up than the precipitation- or hybrid solid phase extraction methods. The metabolomics profiles of eleven compound classes, comprising 70 matrix compounds showed the trends of compound class removal for each sample preparation strategy. The collective data set of analyte recovery, matrix removal and matrix compound profile was used to assess the effectiveness of each sample preparation method. The best performance in matrix clean-up and practical handling of small sample volumes was showed by the SPE techniques, particularly HLB SPE. CAD proved to be an effective tool for revealing the considerable differences between the sample preparation methods. This detector can

  9. Fabricating biomedical origami: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meredith; Chen, Yue; Hovet, Sierra; Xu, Sheng; Wood, Bradford; Ren, Hongliang; Tokuda, Junichi; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-11-01

    Origami-based biomedical device design is an emerging technology due to its ability to be deployed from a minimal foldable pattern to a larger volume. This paper aims to review state-of-the-art origami structures applied in the medical device field. Publications and reports of origami structure related to medical device design from the past 10 years are reviewed and categorized according to engineering specifications, including the application field, fabrication material, size/volume, deployment method, manufacturability, and advantages. This paper presents an overview of the biomedical applications of devices based on origami structures, including disposable sterilization covers, cardiac catheterization, stent grafts, encapsulation and microsurgery, gastrointestinal microsurgery, laparoscopic surgical grippers, microgrippers, microfluidic devices, and drug delivery. Challenges in terms of materials and fabrication, assembly, modeling and computation design, and clinical adoptability are discussed at the end of this paper to provide guidance for future origami-based design in the medical device field. Concepts from origami can be used to design and develop novel medical devices. Origami-based medical device design is currently progressing, with researchers improving design methods, materials, fabrication techniques, and folding efficiency.

  10. Time-of-flight method for positron tomographic imaging and state-of-the-art of detector technology for emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.; Campagnolo, R.; Garderet, P.; Gariod, R.; Laval, M.; Moszynski, M.; Tournier, E.; Vacher, J.

    1981-10-01

    Positron imaging is essentially a method for studying dynamic phenomena and positron emitters are characterized by a short life which allows to inject a high activity. This means that a high counting-rate capability is a major feature of a P.C.T.; furthermore a high resolving time permits to reduce the random coincidence events which yield a low spatial frequency back-ground reducing the contrast of the image and introducing an error for quantitative measurements. For these points of view, CsF appears to be the most suitable scintillator. Its fast light emission allows to reach a time-of-flight information which improves the signal to noise ratio of the image. That advantage is a function of the object size and of the T.O.F. accuracy. Now, a 500 psec time resolution (FWHM) seems to be a realistic characteristics for an operational machine. The comparison between the conventional method and the T.O.F. technique has been expressed in terms of sensitivity gain which is the ratio of the number of events needed to obtain the same signal to noise ratio. A sensitivity gain of 4 has been theoretically estimated with a 500 psec timing and for a 450 mm diameter phantom. This evaluation seems to be in a good ageement with the first experimental results

  11. CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods. State of the art and first results; CT-gesteuerte Neurolysen. Stand der Technik und aktuelle Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, B. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, G.M. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Roeren, T. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, G.W. [Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    We used 21G or 22G fine needles. All CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods require a proper blood coagulation. Most common CT scanners are suitable for neurolysis if there is enough room for maintaining sterile conditions. All neurolysis methods involve sterile puncture of the ganglia under local anesthesia, a test block with anesthetic and contrast agent to assess the clinical effect and the definitive block with a mixture of 96% ethanol and local anesthetic. This allows us to correct the position of the needle if we see improper distribution of the test block or unwanted side effects. Though inflammatory complications of the peritoneum due to puncture are rarely seen, we prefer the dorsal approach whenever possible. Results: Seven of 20 legs showed at least transient clinical improvement after CT-guided lumbar sympathectomies; 13 legs had to be amputated. Results of the methods in the literature differ. For lumbar sympathectomy, improved perfusion is reported in 39-89%, depending on the pre-selection of the patient group. Discussion: It was recently proved that sympathectomy not only improves perfusion of the skin but also of the muscle. The hypothesis of a steal effect after sympathectomy towards skin perfusion was disproved. Modern aggressive surgical and interventional treatment often leaves patients to sympathectomy whose reservers of collateralization are nearly exhausted. We presume this is the reason for the different results we found in our patient group. For thoracic sympathectomy the clinical treatment depends very much on the indications. Whereas palmar hyperhidrosis offers nearly 100% success, only 60-70% of patients with disturbance of perfusion have benefited. Results in celiac ganglia block also differ. Patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and other organs of the upper abdomen benefit in 80-100% of all cases, patients with chronic pancreatitis in 60-80%. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Thorakale und lumbale Sympathikolyse sowie die Zoeliakusblockade

  12. Classification methods of sonar signal. Part One: State of the art; Metodi di classificazione dei segnali Sonar. Parte prima: stato dell'arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colao, F [Dipartimento Tecnologie Fisiche e Nuovi Materiali, ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Roma (Italy); Dell' Erba, R [Dipartimento Tecnologie Fisiche e Nuovi Materiali, ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    STSS500 camera is an innovative instrument dedicated to submarine robot planned in order to increase human operator perception; the objectives include the possibility to operate in hostile atmospheres, the overcoming of the visible and/or infrared vision limits in turbid waters. STSS500 operates lighting by sound the scene with an array of acoustic rays with known electric characteristics. Later it listens to the reception antenna in order to record the reflected and/or diffuse acoustic echoes from the present obstacles in the scene. The camera is stereoscopic. An opportune analysis of signals receipted from the reception antenna renders the construction of synthetic data; the data fill in voxel a portion of the space place in front of the STS500. With simplifications of the physical phenomena the analysis of geometry of the lighted portion and the acoustic echoes is possible the localizations in the space and the physical dimensions of the voxel, and therefore to obtain the trend in the time of the reflected and/or diffused acoustic intensity from every given volume element. The main problem, that up to the present it is little studied, is dealing with the elaboration of the return echoes turns with the aim to extract those features related to the physical characteristics of the target, and whose visualization can help the process of understanding of the scene resumption from STS500. This the aspect is here inquired in detail, by means of the deepening and the study of the technical notes in literature that regard the identification and automatic classification and, the possible application to the case of acoustic data with typical characteristics dates from the camera that is to our disposition. Topic in this job is the use of well known techniques used in optical elaboration of satellite imaging, (methods PCA, SAM, SCM, etc). In this case we assuming that the specificities of the means and of the interaction has formally similar scale laws as in the event

  13. Stored energy calculation: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Lanning, D.D.; Olsen, A.R.; Williford, R.E.; Hann, C.R.

    1978-05-01

    The report is the result of an investigation to determine the current state of the art of fuel temperature, gap conductance, and stored energy calculations. Major emphasis was placed on the propagation of input and model uncertainties. To support this study a comparison was made to the observed variability of experimental data for fuel centerline temperature and gap conductance values. The uncertainty analysis was performed by identifying major thermal models and collecting them into an abstract of a thermal performance code. Uncertainties in the calculations were determined using the method of propagation of uncertainties with a first order Taylor series approximation to the nonlinear functions. Output uncertainty results are presented for the beginning of fuel life, the end of life, and throughout a typical power history. Also presented is an influence and importance analysis for the input parameters. It is concluded that the relative uncertainty in stored energy is approximately +-20 percent at beginning of fuel life, and increases to +-25 to 40 percent contact. The foregoing are 3 sigma (99.9 percent) confidence intervals. The most important contributors to stored energy uncertainty are linear heat rating and fuel thermal conductivity

  14. The backstroke swimming start: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2014-09-29

    As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the 'state of the art' literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers' proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ∼5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances.

  15. Digital astrophotography the state of the art

    CERN Document Server

    Ratledge, David

    2005-01-01

    The CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) has revolutionised optical astronomy during the past 20 years, and specialised astronomical CCD cameras are now even more affordable, colour is standard, and they provide spectacular results. "Digital Astrophotography: The State of the Art", provides some examples of the best images, and gives readers hints and tips about how to get the best out of this extraordinary technology. Experts in CCD astronomy from North America and Europe have contributed to this book, illustrating their help and advice with many beautiful colour images - the book is in full colour throughout. Techniques range from using simple webcams to highly technical aspects such as supernovae patrolling. Computer processing, stacking and image-enhancement are detailed, along with many hints and tips from the experts.

  16. Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tài; Brochard, Laurent J; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Time-Dependent Temperature Measurements in Post-Detonation Combustion: Current State-of-the-Art Methods and Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    processing. Calcium hydroxide (CaOH) is a common emitter seen in propellant and explosive spectra with bands in the green and red. In addition...temperature sensing by the group led by Dr. Jie Lian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute). The approach consists in using ultrathin gold island films (~1...measurements using commercial equipment (e.g., Cary UV/vis/NIR spectrophotometer). Initial results on gold films on quartz substrate required temperature

  18. Ex-post evaluation of local energy efficiency and demand-side management operations - State of the art, bottom-up methods, applied examples and approach for the development of an evaluation practical culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, J.S.

    2006-12-01

    Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)

  19. Leadless Pacemakers: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Domenico G; Gianni, Carola; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Al-Ahmad, Amin

    2018-03-01

    Leadless pacemaker therapy is a new technology that aims at avoiding lead- and pocket-related complications of conventional transvenous and epicardial pacing. To date, 2 self-contained leadless pacemakers for right ventricular pacing have been clinically available: the Nanostim Leadless Pacemaker System and the Micra Transcatheter Pacing System. Additionally, a new multicomponent leadless pacemaker for endocardial left ventricular pacing has been proposed as an alternative choice for cardiac resynchronization therapy. In this review, we describe the state of the art of leadless pacing and compare the currently available devices with traditional transvenous leadless pacemakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality attributes of LED lighting. Current state-of-the-art , advantages, problem areas and potential for development - Final report; Qualitaetsmerkmale der LED-Beleuchtung. Aktueller Stand der Technik, Vorteile, Problempunkte und Entwicklungspotential - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, S.

    2009-09-15

    The present report describes the state-of-the-art of LED technology for room lighting in June 2009, based on internet research, expert interviews as well as a workshop with experts. Of the 20 attributes determined, three key quality characteristics crucial for the breakthrough of LED technology were identified: (i) Energy efficiency: with values of 50 - 70 lumen/watt when in usage, current LED lamps on the market are comparable to energy saving lamps. Experts expect the luminous efficiency to double within the next five years. Declaration is often poor: instead of efficiency in real-life usage many producers declare unrealistic lab measurement results; sometimes even fantasy values are declared. (ii) Light quality: Today's good LEDs reach colour rendering attributes which are comparable to those of halogen lamps and usually better than the CFL's (colour rendering index 80 to 90, with a continuous light spectrum). (iii) Lamp life: A lamp life of up to 50,000 hours can only be reached if the heat dissipation is secured and if the Control gears quality keeps up with the LED's life time. According to the experts, many of today's LED products on the market don't meet these two requirements. Strong uncertainty is caused by inconsistent declaration and partly missing standardisation. With the ANSI standard, the US is ahead of Europe in this matter. Today LED lighting is attractive and economic where its unique advantages can be applied: directional light, very long life-span, no heat in the luminous flux, UV-free light, colour modulation, dimming with little losses. Interesting applications today include: (i) Professional field: operating time > 3,000 hours per year, e.g. shop illumination or downlights in a hall (hotel, administration, etc.). Further spotlights in museums, working place table light fixtures, hybrid solutions (e.g. indirect fluorescent lamp, direct LED). (ii) Domestic field: working place and reading lamps (low luminance, no heat

  1. Nuclear Liability, State of the Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Over fifty years ago states started to introduce legislation protecting the public against the potential magnitude and peculiarity of risks arising from the nuclear energy production. They did so trough a specific liability and compensation regime. Whether legislation was based on national initiatives or, as more frequently, related to international nuclear liability conventions, it was based on a number of principles being applied universally. Furthermore, it at the same time strived for not preventing the development of the nuclear industry because of an unbearable liability. This paper aims at explaining the broad outline of the above legislation, its development since its early years, the state of the art as regards its modernisation as well as the (alleged) problems underlying the delay in its introduction in a number of countries. When dealing with those problems it will be inevitable to touch upon a number of insurance related matters, which, as an insurer I am happy to tell, will lead me to familiar territory.(author).

  2. Imaging Acute Appendicitis: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to present the state of the art in imaging tests for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Relevant publications regarding performance and advantages/disadvantages of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis in different clinical situations were reviewed. Articles were extracted from a computerized database (MEDLINE with the following activated limits: Humans, English, core clinical journals, and published in the last five years. Reference lists of relevant studies were checked manually to identify additional, related articles. Ultrasound (US examination should be the first imaging test performed, particularly among the pediatric and young adult populations, who represent the main targets for appendicitis, as well as in pregnant patients. A positive US examination for appendicitis or an alternative diagnosis of possible gastrointestinal or urological origin, or a negative US, either showing a normal appendix or presenting low clinical suspicion of appendicitis, should lead to a final diagnosis. A negative or indeterminate examination with a strong clinical suspicion of appendicitis should be followed by a computed tomography (CT scan or alternatively, a magnetic resonanace imaging (MRI scan in a pregnant patient. A second US examination in a patient with persistent symptoms, especially if the first one was performed by a less experienced imaging professional, is a valid alternative to a CT.

  3. A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Keko, H.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    This document contains a summary of the main findings from our full report entitled 'Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009'. The aims of this document are to provide guidelines and a quick overview of the current state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting (WPF) and to point out lines of research in the future development of forecasting systems.

  4. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  5. Políticas públicas vigentes de salud mental en Suramérica: un estado del arte / Current public policies on mental health in South America: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Henao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: presentar un Estado del Arte sobre el contenido de las políticas públicas de salud mental vigentes en Suramérica, con el propósito de establecer un panorama de los alcances y limitaciones de la normatividad sobre el tema en la región. Metodología: Estudio documental de enfoque hermenéutico mediante el cual se interpretó y explicó las relaciones entre los contenidos de las políticas públicas de salud mental y el contexto de los países suramericanos. Para el análisis se incluyeron documentos normativos de los países, tales como Acuerdos, Resoluciones y Leyes. Igualmente, se utilizaron publicaciones académicas en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 a 2013, que posibilitaron la descripción y el análisis del tema de investigación. Resultados: países como Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Uruguay cuentan con disposiciones normativas vigentes (acuerdos, resoluciones y leyes que sustentan el contenido de las políticas públicas en materia de salud mental. Por otra parte, Chile, Bolivia y Venezuela fundamentan sus políticas en mecanismos administrativos (programas, planes y proyectos sin apelar a la norma de obligatorio cumplimiento. Conclusión: la noción de salud mental que subyace a cada Política Nacional hace énfasis en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, desde una concepción positiva del bienestar que resalta el papel activo de los sujetos y poblaciones, las capacidades y libertades disponibles; sin embargo, los recursos, estrategias, acciones y metas están orientados sobre la base de un modelo biomédico que prioriza el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de trastornos mentales. / Abstract Objective: to present the state of the art regarding the content of the public mental health policies currently in force in South America in order to establish an overview of the scope and limitations of the regulations on the subject in the region. Methodology: a documentary study

  6. Supplier selection problem: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh R. Ware

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the global competitiveness and growing market environment, “Actual competition is not between firms against firm, than supplier against supplier”. Globally in the fastest market development world gets closer and closer. Consumers prefer fast delivery, economical product, excellent service and high quality product with desired service level. For successful management of this supply chain, supplier considered as the base source for all processes. Therefore, an efficient supplier selection and evaluation process needs to be incorporate. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive state-of-the-art literature review and critique of the studies related to various aspects of supplier selection problem over the past two decades. Research papers appearing in the reputed and leading international journals from 1991 to 2011 are gathered and analyzed. Primary focus is given on more than 200 published and unpublished works. It has been referred extensively to carry out state-of-the-art review for supplier selection problem. Finally, paper provides future perspective based on current research trends available in the published literature.

  7. State-of-the-art computer technologies used to train nuclear specialists and to conduct research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.A.; Tikhonenko, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses innovative methods used in the process of training nuclear specialists and conducting research which are based on state-of-the-art computer technologies. The approach proposed makes wide use of mathematical modeling and state-of-the-art programming techniques. It is based on the development, improvement and application of problem-oriented computer codes to support the teaching process and to solve fundamental and applied problems of nuclear physics and nuclear engineering.

  8. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in

  9. State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD. Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD.

  10. State of the art report on aging reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Eon; Han, Sang Hoon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2002-03-01

    The goal of this report is to describe the state of the art on aging analysis methods to calculate the effects of component aging quantitatively. In this report, we described some aging analysis methods which calculate the increase of Core Damage Frequency (CDF) due to aging by including the influence of aging into PSA. We also described several research topics required for aging analysis for components of domestic NPPs. We have described a statistical model and reliability physics model which calculate the effect of aging quantitatively by using PSA method. It is expected that the practical use of the reliability-physics model will be increased though the process with the reliability-physics model is more complicated than statistical model

  11. State of the Art in Pediatric Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2018-04-24

    Pediatric lung transplantation is a highly specialized therapy for end stage pulmonary disease in children, performed in only a handful of transplant centers around the world. Advancement in the field has been made on many fronts in recent years, including in public policy and organ allocation strategies, donor selection and management, emerging technologies for donor lung rehabilitation and bridge-to-transplant support of listed candidates, and ongoing refinement of surgical techniques. Despite this progress, children continue to suffer discrepant waitlist mortality and longer waiting times than their adult counterparts, and face special challenges of donor availability and size matching. Here we review the current state of the art in pediatric lung transplantation, reviewing progress made to date and further opportunities to improve care for this unique group of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. State of the art in crystal oscillators - Present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, V. J.; Filler, R. L.; Schodowski, S. S.; Vig, J. R.

    It is pointed out that most military communication, navigation, surveillance and IFF systems which are currently under development require stable oscillators for frequency control and/or timing. Examples of such systems are the Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS), MILSTAR, the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Combat Identification System (CIS), and several radar systems. In 1981, a survey and evaluation program was initiated with the aim to determine the state-of-the-art of both TCXOs (temperature compensated crystal oscillators) and OCXOs (oven controlled crystal oscillators). This program is continuing. The results obtained to date are considered because they can provide useful guidance to system users on the availability of stable oscillators.

  13. Environmental impact monitoring methods in the vicinity of waste incineration and co-incineration facilities - State-of-the-art. State-of-the-art of environmental impact monitoring methods in the vicinity of waste incineration and co-incineration facilities. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnac, T.; Cornet, C.; Mathieu, L.

    2005-10-01

    Since the beginning of the 70's, the growing concern from the public opinion and the scientific community for the waste incineration issue made people aware of a number of difficulties of the process and the potential risks linked to it. For example checking the good functioning conditions of the facilities has been made compulsory through the continuous emission monitoring of a number of parameters. The ministerial decree from the 20 September 2002 brings something new: the monitoring of the impact of the facilities on its nearby environment. This monitoring comes in addition to the existing continuous monitoring of some gaseous compounds of the incineration process, and widens the scale of the monitoring to the environment of the incineration facilities. But there is no further information in the ministerial decree about the methods available to match this requirement. Incineration facilities' managers have to face a close deadline (28 December 2005) and have to make the optimal choice of a technique matching these requirements but also the needs of their facilities. The aim of this study is to help incineration facilities' managers thanks to an overview as large as possible of the different techniques available. Managers will have to take into account the characteristics of the methods and their adequacy with the local contexts of their sites. This document is meant to be a support for dealing with this issue. (authors)

  14. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  15. Pathway analysis: State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eGarcía-Campos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathway analysis is a set of widely used tools for research in life sciences intended to give meaning to high-throughput biological data. The methodology of these tools settles in the gathering and usage of knowledge that comprise biomolecular functioning, coupled with statistical testing and other algorithms. Despite their wide employment, pathway analysis foundations and overall background may not be fully understood, leading to misinterpretation of analysis results. This review attempts to comprise the fundamental knowledge to take into consideration when using pathway analysis as a hypothesis generation tool. We discuss the key elements that are part of these methodologies, their capabilities and current deficiencies. We also present an overview of current and all-time popular methods, highlighting different classes across them. In doing so, we show the exploding diversity of methods that pathway analysis encompasses, point out commonly overlooked caveats, and direct attention to a potential new class of methods that attempt to zoom the analysis scope to the sample scale.

  16. MRI Sequences in Head & Neck Radiology - State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner

    2017-05-01

    Background  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head & neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head & neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Method  Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head & neck MRI. Results and Conclusion  Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Menière's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head & neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality. Key Points:   · Understanding of MRI sequences is essential for the correct and reliable interpretation of MRI findings.. · MRI protocols have to be carefully selected based on relevant clinical information.. · Close collaboration with referring physicians improves the output obtained from the diagnostic possibilities of MRI.. Citation Format · Widmann G, Henninger B, Kremser C et

  17. Subliminal Priming—State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative interest, and this paper provides a technical overview of research design strengths and issues in subliminal priming research. Efficient experiments and protocols, as well as associated electroencephalographic and eye movement data analyses, are discussed in detail. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of different priming experiments that have measured affective (emotional and cognitive responses. Finally, very recent approaches and findings are described to summarize and emphasize state-of-the-art methods and potential future directions in research marketing and other commercial applications.

  18. State of the Art ECR Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He 2+ and O 6+ , and 30 eμA of Au 32+ , 1.1 eμA of 238 U 48+ , and epA currents of very high charge states such as 86 Kr 35+ and 238 U 60+ have been produced

  19. Ecological effects assessment: requirements vs state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-05-01

    Concerns for environmental quality, the ecologist's understanding of ecosystems, and the ability to quantitatively sample and evaluate hypotheses have contributed to current requirements and the state-of-the-art in ecological effects assessments in refard to nuclear power plants. The current cooling system approaches, data collection programs, and ecological effects assessments reflect these contributions. Over a decade of experience provides the basis for a timely review and evaluation of current proactice. The magnitude of economic and environmental resources being committed to cooling system alternatives mandates that the decision-making process result in as many optimal choices as possible. In addition, the resources being devoted to environmental data collection and integration provide considerable motivation for providing meaningful input to the decision-making process. It is maintained that the input should be as quantitative and as free from subjective content as is reasonably possible. An alternative viewpoint suggests that the past several decades of experience be considered but a first step, and the current task to be one of designing a second step

  20. Advertising Research: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, Charles

    This book summarizes and appraises current knowledge and practice in the field of advertising research. The material is presented under the following chapter headings: aim and scope, how advertising communicates, how advertising sells, theme research, selecting target audiences, copy research, studies of advertising frequency, media research,…

  1. Entrepreneurship Education: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, José Carlos; Ward, Alexander; Hernández, Brizeida; Florez, Jenny Lizette

    2017-01-01

    Job uncertainty and ambiguity is a reality in many current societies, therefore, the idea of self-employment has taken a more active role, not only out of necessity, but also because it brings innovation and development to societies. In view of this situation, the following question arises: how can we strengthen the entrepreneurial spirit of our…

  2. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    from the first-generation nuclear-powered submarines by gamma scanning / A. F. Usatyi. L. A. Serdyukova and B. S. Stepennov -- Oral session 3: Power plant surveillance. Upgraded neutron dosimetry procedure for VVER-440 surveillance specimens / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Neutron dosimetry on the full-core first generation VVER-440 aimed to reactor support structure load evaluation / P. Borodkin ... [et al.]. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry programs for PWRs in Korea / C. S. Yoo. B. C. Kim and C. C. Kim. Comparison of irradiation conditions of VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel and surveillance specimens for various core loadings / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Re-evaluation of dosimetry in the new surveillance program for the Loviisa 1 VVER-440 reactor / T. Serén -- Oral session 4: Benchmarks, intercomparisons and adjustment methods. Determination of the neutron parameter's uncertainties using the stochastic methods of uncertainty propagation and analysis / G. Grégoire ... [et al.].Covariance matrices for calculated neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G. Williams ... [et al.]. The role of dosimetry at the high flux reactor / S. C. van der Marek ... [et al.]. Calibration of a manganese bath relative to Cf-252 nu-bar / D. M. Gilliam, A. T. Yue and M. Scott Dewey. Major upgrade of the reactor dosimetry interpretation methodology used at the CEA: general principle / C. Destouches ... [et al.] -- Oral session 5: power plant surveillance. The role of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry in reactor vessel surveillance in South Korea / B.-C. Kim ... [et al.]. Spanish RPV surveillance programmes: lessons learned and current activities / A. Ballesteros and X. Jardí. Atucha I nuclear power plant extended dosimetry and assessment / H. Blaumann ... [et al.]. Monitoring of radiation load of pressure vessels of Russian VVER in compliance with license amendments / G. Borodkin ... [et al.] -- Poster session 2: Test reactors, accelerators and advanced systems; cross sections, nuclear

  3. Asset Management The State of the Art in Europe from a Life Cycle Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Herder, Paulien; Wijnia, Ype

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades asset intensive companies have witnessed a number of regulatory changes and especially industry is facing ever increasing competitiveness. To overcome these challenges different asset management methods have been developed aimed to improve the asset life cycle. Especially the design phase and operation and maintenance phase have seen a rise in tools and methods. Smarter design can lead to improved operation. Likewise, improved operation and maintenance leads to lower replacement costs and may provide the basis for better design.   This book brings together and coherently presents the current state of the art in asset management research and practice in Europe from a life cycle perspective. Each chapter  focuses on specific parts of this life cycle and explains how the methods and techniques described are connected and how they improve the asset life cycle, thus treating this important subject from a unique perspective.

  4. Conformation Generation: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul C D

    2017-08-28

    The generation of conformations for small molecules is a problem of continuing interest in cheminformatics and computational drug discovery. This review will present an overview of methods used to sample conformational space, focusing on those methods designed for organic molecules commonly of interest in drug discovery. Different approaches to both the sampling of conformational space and the scoring of conformational stability will be compared and contrasted, with an emphasis on those methods suitable for conformer sampling of large numbers of drug-like molecules. Particular attention will be devoted to the appropriate utilization of information from experimental solid-state structures in validating and evaluating the performance of these tools. The review will conclude with some areas worthy of further investigation.

  5. Regenerative endodontics: A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex and apexification (for immature root apex, or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  6. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...

  7. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.

  8. State of the art of durability-performance evaluation of hardened cement based on phase compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashige, Isao; Imoto, Harutake; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2006-01-01

    Upgrading durability-performance evaluation technique for concrete is urgently demanded in connection to its application to radio-active waste repository which needs ultra long-term durability. Common concrete structures also require an advanced method for minimizing the life-cycle cost. The purpose of this research is to investigate current problems and future tasks on durability-performance evaluation of hardened cement from the view point of phase composition. Although the phase composition of hardened cement has not fully been reflected to durability-performance evaluation, it influences concrete durability as well as its pore structure. This report reviews state of the art of the factors affecting phase composition, analytical and experimental evaluation techniques for phase composition, and durability-performance evaluation methods of hardened cement based on phase composition. (author)

  9. Wave Modelling - The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-27

    8217) - -16 C-Ax( M) (I - 2y) -N +1CgAx’(1 -y)(6y’ - 6y + 1) + O(At4), (8.2) 24OX where p is the Courant- Friedrichs -Lewy (CFL) number, j = CgxAt/Ax. Thus...attainable time step is at the best of the order of min- utes . For early third generation wave models, this was unacceptable, and methods were developed to be... Barbara Channel. In: Beal, R. (Ed.), 5th California Islands Symposium, March 29-31. Mineral Management Service, Santa Barbara , CA. Onorato, M., Osborne

  10. Processing emotional body expressions: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, Violeta; Iancu, Sorina

    2016-10-01

    Processing emotional body expressions has become recently an important topic in affective and social neuroscience along with the investigation of facial expressions. The objective of the study is to review the literature on emotional body expressions in order to discuss the current state of knowledge on this topic and identify directions for future research. The following electronic databases were searched: PsychINFO, Ebsco, ERIC, ProQuest, Sagepub, and SCOPUS using terms such as "body," "bodily expression," "body perception," "emotions," "posture," "body recognition" and combinations of them. The synthesis revealed several research questions that were addressed in neuroimaging, electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Among them, one important question targeted the neural mechanisms of emotional processing of body expressions to specific subsections regarding the time course for the integration of emotional signals from face and body, as well as the role of context in the perception of emotional signals. Processing bodily expression of emotion is similar to processing facial expressions, and the holistic processing is extended to the whole person. The current state-of-the-art in processing emotional body expressions may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of social behavior. At the end of the review, suggestions for future research directions are presented.

  11. Intraoperative mechanical ventilation: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lorenzo; Costantino, Federico; Orefice, Giulia; Chandrapatham, Karthikka; Pelosi, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review was to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass. While anesthesia and mechanical ventilation are becoming increasingly safe practices, the contribution to surgical mortality attributable to postoperative lung injury is not negligible: for these reasons, the prevention of PPCs, including the use of protective mechanical ventilation is mandatory. Mechanical ventilation should be optimized providing an adequate respiratory support while minimizing unwanted negative effects. Due to the high number of surgical procedures performed daily, the impact on patients' health and healthcare costs can be relevant, even when new strategies result in an apparently small improvement of outcome. A protective intraoperative ventilation should include a low tidal volume of 6-8 mL/kg of predicted body weight, plateau pressures ideally below 16 cmH2O, the lowest possible driving pressure, moderate-low PEEP levels except in obese patients, laparoscopy and long surgical procedures that might benefit of a slightly higher PEEP. The work of the anesthesiologist should start with a careful preoperative visit to assess the risk, and a close postoperative monitoring.

  12. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  13. Donkey milk production: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most common causes of food allergies among children under one year of age. No specific therapy exists for this allergy, and thus the only feasible response is to avoid assumption of milk and derived products. Studies conducted on the serum of children with hypersensi- tivity to milk have shown that caseins are the proteins with the greater allergenic potential. However, in some cases, children have also shown hypersensitivity to the β-lactoglobulines and to the α-lactal- bumins. When food intolerance is diagnosed in an infant, it is often necessary to impose a period of total parenteral feeding, followed by breast feeding, considered the most correct method of re-feeding. When human milk can not be given, alternative food sources must be sought. Clinical studies have demonstrated that donkey milk could substitute breast feeding in infants affected by severe Ig-E me- diated milk allergies. In these subjects, donkey milk is not only useful, but also safer than other types of milk. In fact donkey milk composition in lipids (high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid and pro- teins (low caseins content is very close to human milk. Lysozyme content in donkey milk resulted to be very high (mean value 1.0 mg/ml if compared to bovine (traces, caprine (traces and human milk. The high lysozyme content of donkey milk may be responsible of the low bacterial count reported in literature and also makes this milk suitable to prevent intestine infections to infants. Among seropro- teins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin content in donkey milk was respectively 3.75 and 1.80 mg/ml and remained substancially the same during the different stages of lactation.

  14. Egg Yolk Antibodies, State of the Art and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Rüdiger; Hlinak, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    Immunization of chickens and extraction of antibodies from egg yolk belongs to the alternative methods since the animals suffering is reduced by non-invasive antibody-sampling. Also, the number of animals needed to produce a certain amount of antibody can be reduced since chickens produce a significant higher antibody quantity than rabbits. Despite its several advantages this technology (IgY-technology) is rather scarcely used. Traditional behavior as well as limited or no information at all may hamper a broader acceptance at present. However, significant arguments exist in chicken housing, the choice of appropriate IgY-extraction methods and a lack of information regarding the use of IgY-antibodies. This paper intends to give a short introduction in the IgY-technology, to briefly discuss the state of the art and to inform on recent developments and discussions in this field. The suitability of IgY for special fields of application (as a result of the structural differences between IgY and IgG) is emphasized (e.g. assays combining IgG and IgY, immunization of chickens against highly conserved anti-genes). In addition, it is stressed that the IgY-technology as an alternative method can particularly integrate requirements of animal protection (reduce, replace, refine), science (characteristics of avian immune system and resulting properties of IgY) and economy (amount of IgY produced from one chicken).

  15. Aircraft wake vortices : a state-of-the-art review of the United States R&D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-28

    The report summarizes the current state-of-the-art understanding : of the aircraft wake vortex phenomenon and the results of the United : States program to minimize the restrictions caused by aircraft wake : vortices in the terminal environment. The ...

  16. Electric road vehicles. Technology, state of the art, applications. Elektrische Strassenfahrzeuge. Technik, Entwicklungsstand und Einsatzbereiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naunin, D [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Elektronik; Bader, C [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.); Driehorst, F A; Kalberlah, A [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany, F.R.); Fischer, W [Asea Brown Boveri AG, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Kiehne, H A [Zweckverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V. (ZVEI), Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Fachverband Batter

    1989-01-01

    The book discusses (1) economic and traffic policy aspects; (2) new battery systems; (3) different motor concepts; (4) possibilities and problems of serial production; (5) present applications in spas and chances for future applications. The latest state of the art and of the current discussion are presented. (orig./HP) With 139 figs.

  17. Integrated Simulation for HVAC Performance Prediction: State-of-the-Art Illustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Clarke, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the current state-of-the-art in integrated building simulation for performance prediction of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The ESP-r system is used as an example where integrated simulation is a core philosophy behind the development. The

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  19. Digital radiography of the chest: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, M.; Malagari, K.S.; Tucker, D.; Tahoces, P.G.; Correa, J.; Benakis, V.S.; Roussos, C.; Strigaris, K.A.; Vidal, J.J.; Barnes, G.T.; Fraser, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Digital image acquisition possesses a number of advantages over conventional systems in radiographic examination of the chest, the most important of which is its greater dynamic range. In addition, once digital images are acquired, they can be processed by computer in ways that cannot be rivalled by conventional analog techniques. Finally, digital images can be stored, retrieved and transmitted to local or remote sites. Here the status of the different digital systems employed in chest radiology and commonly used image processing techniques are reviewed. Also discussed are the current clinical applications of integrating digital chest radiography with a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) along with the difficulties typically encountered. Studies with a variety of digital techniques have been carried out on several fronts. Computed radiography based on photostimulable phosphor (CR) has replaced screen-film imaging in certain applications (i.e. bedside imaging). However, CR has limitations, namely its poor X-ray utilisation efficiency at high X-ray tube voltages and sensitivity to scatter; therefore, it is not ideal for all applications. Recently, a dedicated digital chest unit with excellent X-ray utilisation efficiency at high X-ray tube potentials has been introduced. On the basis of the state-of-the-art capabilities and research during the past decade, recommendations are made regarding the most desirable equipment specifications for dedicated and bedside digital chest radiography. (orig.)

  20. Nanomedicine applications in women's health: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Parry, Oliver; Downing, Charlotte; Aleisaei, Eisa; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    State-of-the-art applications of nanomedicine have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of a range of conditions and diseases affecting women's health. In this review, we provide a synopsis of potential applications of nanomedicine in some of the most dominant fields of women's health: mental health, sexual health, reproductive medicine, oncology, menopause-related conditions and dementia. We explore published studies arising from in vitro and in vivo experiments, and clinical trials where available, to reveal novel and highly promising therapeutic applications of nanomedicine in these fields. For the first time, we summarize the growing body of evidence relating to the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection, prevention, and treatment of significant diseases and conditions across the life course of a cisgender woman, from puberty to menopause; revealing the far-reaching and desirable theoretical impact of nanomedicine across different medical disciplines. We also present an overview of potential concerns regarding the therapeutic applications of nanomedicine and the factors currently restricting the growth of applied nanomedicine.

  1. Clinical reappraisal and state of the art of nephropexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogorovich, Andrea; Selli, Cesare; De Maria, Maurizio; Manassero, Francesca; Durante, Jacopo; Urbani, Lucio

    2018-04-01

    The diffusion of minimally invasive techniques for renal surgery has prompted a renewed interest in nephropexy which is indicated to prevent nephroptosis in symptomatic patients and to mobilize the upper ureter downward in order to bridge a ureteral defect. Recent publications have been reviewed to present the state of the art of the diagnosis and management of these two challenging conditions and to try to foresee the next steps. The evaluation of patients with mobile kidney can be made relying on diagnostic criteria such as ultrasound with color Doppler and measurement of resistive index, conventional upright X-ray frames after a supine uro-computerized tomography scan and both static and dynamic nuclear medicine scans, always with evaluation in the sitting or erect position. Laparoscopic nephropexy emerges as the current treatment option combining both objectively controlled repositioning of the kidney and resolution of symptoms with minimal invasiveness, low morbidity, and short hospital stay. The use of robotics is presently limited by its higher cost, but may increase in the future. Downward renal mobilization and nephropexy is a safe and versatile technique which has been adopted as a unique strategy or more often in combination with other surgical maneuvers in order to cope with complex ureteral reconstruction.

  2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: state of the art in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, G D; O'Neill, C L; Chow, S; Cheung, S; Parrella, A; Pereira, N; Rosenwaks, Z

    2017-12-01

    Among infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, teratozoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART. The development of ICSI in 1992 has drastically decreased the impact of male factor, resulting in millions of pregnancies worldwide for couples who, without ICSI, would have had little chance of having their own biological child. This review focuses on the state of the art of ICSI regarding utility of bioassays that evaluate male factor infertility beyond the standard semen analysis and describes the current application and advances in regard to ICSI, particularly the genetic and epigenetic characteristics of spermatozoa and their impact on reproductive outcome. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. Antiphospholipid Syndrome during pregnancy: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Fosca A. F.; Valenti, Oriana; Hyseni, Entela; Giorgio, Elsa; Faraci, Marianna; Renda, Eliana; De Domenico, Roberta; Monte, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Obstetric complications are the hallmark of antiphospholipid syndrome. Recurrent miscarriage, early delivery, oligohydramnios, prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal distress, fetal or neonatal thrombosis, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, arterial or venous thrombosis and placental insufficiency are the most severe APS-related complication for pregnant women. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote activation of endothelial cells, monocytes and platelets, causing an overproduction of tissue factor and thromboxane A2. Complement activation might have a central pathogenetic role. These factors, associated with the typical changes in the hemostatic system during normal pregnancy, result in a hypercoagulable state. This is responsible of thrombosis that is presumed to provoke many of the pregnancy complications associated with APS. Obstetric care is based on combined medical-obstetric high-risk management and treatment with the association between aspirin and heparin. This review aims to deter- mine the current state of the art of APS by investigating the knowledge achievements of recent years, to provide the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic management for pregnant women suffering from this syndrome. PMID:22439075

  4. Management of infected pancreatic necrosis: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rasslan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pancreatic necrosis occurs in 15% of acute pancreatitis. The presence of infection is the most important factor in the evolution of pancreatitis. The diagnosis of infection is still challenging. Mortality in infected necrosis is 20%; in the presence of organic dysfunction, mortality reaches 60%. In the last three decades, there has been a real revolution in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. However, the challenges persist and there are many unsolved questions: antibiotic treatment alone, tomography-guided percutaneous drainage, endoscopic drainage, video-assisted extraperitoneal debridement, extraperitoneal access, open necrosectomy? A step up approach has been proposed, beginning with less invasive procedures and reserving the operative intervention for patients in which the previous procedure did not solve the problem definitively. Indication and timing of the intervention should be determined by the clinical course. Ideally, the intervention should be done only after the fourth week of evolution, when it is observed a better delimitation of necrosis. Treatment should be individualized. There is no procedure that should be the first and best option for all patients. The objective of this work is to critically review the current state of the art of the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.

  5. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included the most recent research efforts that used "cloud forensics" as a keyword and then classify the literature in to three dimensions, (1 survey-based, (2 technology-based and (3 forensics procedural-based.We discuss widely accepted international standard bodies and their efforts to cope with the current trend of cloud forensics. Our aim is not only to reference related work based on the discussed dimensions, but also to analyze them and generate a mind map that will help in identifying research gaps. Finally, we summarize existing digital forensics tools and, the available simulation environments that can be used for evidence acquisition, examination and cloud forensics test purposes.

  6. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings. Hist...

  7. Non-animal sensitization testing: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebriel, Rob J; van Loveren, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Predictive tests to identify the sensitizing properties of chemicals are carried out using animals. In the European Union timelines for phasing out many standard animal tests were established for cosmetics. Following this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favors alternative methods, if validated and appropriate. In this review the authors aim to provide a state-of-the art overview of alternative methods (in silico, in chemico, and in vitro) to identify contact and respiratory sensitizing capacity and in some occasions give a measure of potency. The past few years have seen major advances in QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) models where especially mechanism-based models have great potential, peptide reactivity assays where multiple parameters can be measured simultaneously, providing a more complete reactivity profile, and cell-based assays. Several cell-based assays are in development, not only using different cell types, but also several specifically developed assays such as three-dimenionally (3D)-reconstituted skin models, an antioxidant response reporter assay, determination of signaling pathways, and gene profiling. Some of these assays show relatively high sensitivity and specificity for a large number of sensitizers and should enter validation (or are indeed entering this process). Integrating multiple assays in a decision tree or integrated testing system is a next step, but has yet to be developed. Adequate risk assessment, however, is likely to require significantly more time and efforts.

  8. Web mining in soft computing framework: relevance, state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Talwar, V; Mitra, P

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the different characteristics of Web data, the basic components of Web mining and its different types, and the current state of the art. The reason for considering Web mining, a separate field from data mining, is explained. The limitations of some of the existing Web mining methods and tools are enunciated, and the significance of soft computing (comprising fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural networks (ANNs), genetic algorithms (GAs), and rough sets (RSs) are highlighted. A survey of the existing literature on "soft Web mining" is provided along with the commercially available systems. The prospective areas of Web mining where the application of soft computing needs immediate attention are outlined with justification. Scope for future research in developing "soft Web mining" systems is explained. An extensive bibliography is also provided.

  9. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  10. State of the art undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    1998-01-01

    Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem......Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem...

  11. State of the art in video system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The closed circuit television (CCTV) system that is onboard the Space Shuttle has the following capabilities: camera, video signal switching and routing unit (VSU); and Space Shuttle video tape recorder. However, this system is inadequate for use with many experiments that require video imaging. In order to assess the state-of-the-art in video technology and data storage systems, a survey was conducted of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) products. The performance of the state-of-the-art solid state cameras and image sensors, video recording systems, data transmission devices, and data storage systems versus users' requirements are shown graphically.

  12. Hydrogen storage: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, E.; Filiou, C.; Peteves, S.D.; Veyret, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The EU aims at establishing a sustainable energy supply, able to provide affordable and clean energy without increasing green house gas emissions. Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key energy system solutions for the 21. century, enabling clean and efficient production of power and heat from a broad range of primary energy sources. To be effective, there is a crucial need for well-coordinated research, development and deployment at European Level. The particular segment of hydrogen storage is one key element of the full hydrogen chain and it must meet a number of challenges before it is introduced into the global energy system. Regarding its energy characteristics, the gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is about three times higher than gasoline, but its energy content per volume is about a quarter. Therefore, the most significant problem for hydrogen (in particular for on-board vehicles) is to store sufficient -amounts of hydrogen. The volumetric energy density of hydrogen can be increased by compression or liquefaction which are both the most mature technologies. Still the energy required for both compression and liquefaction is one element to be properly assessed in considering the different pathways in particular for distribution. As far as on-board vehicle storage is concerned all possible options (compressed, liquid, metal hydrides and porous structures) have their own advantages and disadvantages with respect to weight, volume, energy efficiency, refuelling times, cost and safety aspects. To address these problems, long-term commitments to scientific excellence in research, coupled with co-ordination between the many different stakeholders, is required. In the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage, no single technology satisfies all of the criteria required by manufacturers and end-users, and a large number of obstacles have to be overcome. The current hydrogen storage technologies and their associated limitations/needs for improvement

  13. PARA'04, State-of-the-art in scientific computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    This meeting in the series, the PARA'04 Workshop with the title ``State of the Art in Scientific Computing'', was held in Lyngby, Denmark, June 20-23, 2004. The PARA'04 Workshop was organized by Jack Dongarra from the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Kaj Madsen and J...

  14. The job demands-resources model : state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to give a state-of-the art overview of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model Design/methodology/approach - The strengths and weaknesses of the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being

  15. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  16. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  17. Paediatric thoracoscopy: State of the art | Van Niekerk | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many advanced procedures, including lobectomy, repair of tracheo-oesophageal fistula, excision of mediastinal tumours and diaphragmatic hernia repairs, are being done routinely in paediatric surgery centres around the world. This article reviews the state of the art of thoracoscopic surgery in children. The author selected ...

  18. State of the art report on design for X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Andersen, Poul; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2009-01-01

    The present State of the Art report aims at defining and reviewing the curent state of the ship design process in the frame of a holistic approach, accounting for various objectives and constraints. The report addresses mainly the design of transportation carriers, though some covered aspects...

  19. State-of-the-art of home networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Popov, M.

    2012-01-01

    To introduce the Symposium on "Indoor Optical Networks: a Promising Way to a Converged Service Delivery", this presentation will give a brief overview of state-of-the-art home networking architectures, technologies and applications covering both technical and techno-economic aspects.

  20. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  1. The state of the art in static and dynamic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Giovanni, P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of the art in static and dynamic games (or inter-firm relationships). This research area has changed significantly over the last 25 years through the development of phenomena such as the supply chain and the progressive overcoming of

  2. State of the art Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OEI, H.-L.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of state-of-the-art ADA Advanced Driver Assistance systems is given. First a main structuring system for the ADA systems is presented, needed for purposes of relevancy, and consistency : the three phases in the accident process, i.e. pre-crash, crash and post-crash; the driving task at

  3. The LIFE Laser Design in Context: A Comparison to the State-of-the-Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.; Bayramian, A.J.; Erlandson, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The current point design for the LIFE laser leverages decades of solid-state laser development in order to achieve the performance and attributes required for inertial fusion energy. This document provides a brief comparison of the LIFE laser point design to other state-of-the-art solid-state lasers. Table I compares the attributes of the current LIFE laser point design to other systems. the state-of-the-art for single-shot performance at fusion-relevant beamline energies is exemplified by performance observed on the National Ignition Facility. The state-of-the-art for high average power is exemplified by the Northrup Grumman JHPSSL laser. Several items in Table I deal with the laser efficiency; a more detailed discussion of efficiency can be found in reference 5. The electrical-to-optical efficiency of the LIFE design exceeds that of reference 4 due to the availability of higher efficiency laser diode pumps (70% vs. ∼50% used in reference 4). LIFE diode pumps are discussed in greater detail in reference 6. The 'beam steering' state of the art is represented by the deflection device that will be used in the LIFE laser, not a laser system. Inspection of Table I shows that most LIFE laser attributes have already been experimentally demonstrated. The two cases where the LIFE design is somewhat better than prior experimental work do not involve the development of new concepts: beamline power is increased simply by increasing aperture (as demonstrated by the power/aperture comparison in Table I), and efficiency increases are achieved by employing state-of-the-art diode pumps. In conclusion, the attributes anticipated for the LIFE laser are consistent with the demonstrated performance of existing solid-state lasers.

  4. Wind power forecasting : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    uncertainty in wind power and to more efficiently operate power systems with large wind power penetrations. Moreover, in a market environment, the wind power contribution to the generation portofolio becomes important in determining the daily and hourly prices, as variations in the estimated wind power will influence the clearing prices for both energy and operating reserves. With the increasing penetration of wind power, WPF is quickly becoming an important topic for the electric power industry. System operators (SOs), generating companies (GENCOs), and regulators all support efforts to develop better, more reliable and accurate forecasting models. Wind farm owners and operators also benefit from better wind power prediction to support competitive participation in electricity markets against more stable and dispatchable energy sources. In general, WPF can be used for a number of purposes, such as: generation and transmission maintenance planning, determination of operating reserve requirements, unit commitment, economic dispatch, energy storage optimization (e.g., pumped hydro storage), and energy trading. The objective of this report is to review and analyze state-of-the-art WPF models and their application to power systems operations. We first give a detailed description of the methodologies underlying state-of-the-art WPF models. We then look at how WPF can be integrated into power system operations, with specific focus on the unit commitment problem.

  5. New simulators from old - achieving state-of-the-art simulation without state-of-the-art costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmeier, H.J.; Rosser, R.M.; Fyffe, K.L.; Gaerttner, G.F.; Chulick, E.T.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving a state-of-the-art simulator for operator training requires neither the expensive remodeling of old simulators nor the acquisition of very expensive new machines. In this paper the authors present two distinct cases where older training simulators have been upgraded to meet training requirements with a minimum of inexpensive hardware additions, including plug-in/-out panels, and software changes

  6. Biopesticides: state of the art and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Coats, Joel; Duke, Stephen O; Gross, Aaron D

    2014-12-03

    The use of biopesticides and related alternative management products is increasing. New tools, including semiochemicals and plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs), as well as botanical and microbially derived chemicals, are playing an increasing role in pest management, along with plant and animal genetics, biological control, cultural methods, and newer synthetics. The goal of this Perspective is to highlight promising new biopesticide research and development (R&D), based upon recently published work and that presented in the American Chemical Society (ACS) symposium "Biopesticides: State of the Art and Future Opportunities," as well as the authors' own perspectives. Although the focus is on biopesticides, included in this Perspective is progress with products exhibiting similar characteristics, namely those naturally occurring or derived from natural products. These are target specific, of low toxicity to nontarget organisms, reduced in persistence in the environment, and potentially usable in organic agriculture. Progress is being made, illustrated by the number of biopesticides and related products in the registration pipeline, yet major commercial opportunities exist for new bioherbicides and bionematicides, in part occasioned by the emergence of weeds resistant to glyphosate and the phase-out of methyl bromide. The emergence of entrepreneurial start-up companies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fast track for biopesticides, and the availability of funding for registration-related R&D for biorational pesticides through the U.S. IR-4 program provide incentives for biopesticide development, but an expanded effort is warranted both in the United States and worldwide to support this relatively nascent industry.

  7. Security of embedded automotive networks: state of the art and a research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Studnia , Ivan; Nicomette , Vincent; Alata , Eric; Deswarte , Yves; Kaâniche , Mohamed; Laarouchi , Youssef

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Embedded electronic components are nowadays a prominent part of a car's architecture. Moreover, modern cars are now able to communicate with other devices through many wired or wireless interfaces. As a consequence, the security of embedded systems in cars has become a main concern for the manufacturers. This paper aims at 1) presenting a short overview of the current attacks already known and experimented against vehicles as well as the current state of the art of the...

  8. State-of-the-art in Heterogeneous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Brodtkorb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Node level heterogeneous architectures have become attractive during the last decade for several reasons: compared to traditional symmetric CPUs, they offer high peak performance and are energy and/or cost efficient. With the increase of fine-grained parallelism in high-performance computing, as well as the introduction of parallelism in workstations, there is an acute need for a good overview and understanding of these architectures. We give an overview of the state-of-the-art in heterogeneous computing, focusing on three commonly found architectures: the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture, graphics processing units (GPUs, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. We present a review of hardware, available software tools, and an overview of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the architectures, and give our view on the future of heterogeneous computing.

  9. Dual color chromogenic in situ hybridization for determination of HER2 status in breast cancer: a large comparative study to current state of the art fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollerup Jens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH is fast becoming a well established technique for easy and sensitive determination of HER2 gene status in breast cancer. However, for the chromogenic method to achieve status as a safe and reliable technique, the method needs to be validated against already known and validated FISH techniques. Methods Here it is reported from a comparative study where HER2 gene status obtained by HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit was compared to HER2 gene status obtained by the FDA approved HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and the PathVysion HER-2 DNA probe Kit. The study included 365 formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tissue specimens collected consecutively at a US reference laboratory. Results The data obtained revealed an overall HER2 status concordance of approximately 98% for comparisons of HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit to both HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and PathVysion HER-2 DNA Probe Kit. Conclusions The concordance between results obtained using the recently FDA approved HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit with previously FDA approved FISH techniques for HER2 gene status determination indicate that the HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit is a reliable chromogenic alternative to fluorescence-based methods.

  10. Dual color chromogenic in situ hybridization for determination of HER2 status in breast cancer: a large comparative study to current state of the art fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is fast becoming a well established technique for easy and sensitive determination of HER2 gene status in breast cancer. However, for the chromogenic method to achieve status as a safe and reliable technique, the method needs to be validated against already known and validated FISH techniques. Methods Here it is reported from a comparative study where HER2 gene status obtained by HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit was compared to HER2 gene status obtained by the FDA approved HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and the PathVysion HER-2 DNA probe Kit. The study included 365 formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tissue specimens collected consecutively at a US reference laboratory. Results The data obtained revealed an overall HER2 status concordance of approximately 98% for comparisons of HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit to both HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and PathVysion HER-2 DNA Probe Kit. Conclusions The concordance between results obtained using the recently FDA approved HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit with previously FDA approved FISH techniques for HER2 gene status determination indicate that the HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit is a reliable chromogenic alternative to fluorescence-based methods. PMID:22333181

  11. Modelling and simulation SSM: latest state of the art technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jahajeeah, N

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available as one phase ? One Phase model ?Wider volume solid fraction 0 – 1 ? Implementation in Power Law Cut-Off Model (PLCO) of Procast Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness Assumptions of the PLCO Model... and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness Modelling and Simulation SSM Latest state of the art technology N Jahajeeah Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness BEHAVIOUR OF THIXOTROPIC...

  12. Electron beam melting state-of-the-art 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakish, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1984 electron beam melting and refining appear poised for an important new growth phase. The driving force for this phase is improved production economics made possible by technological advances. There is also a new and exciting growth application for electron beam melting: its use for surface properties beneficiation. This article is based in part on the content of the Conference on Electron Beam Melting and Refining, The State-of-the-Art 1983, held in November 1983 in Reno, Nevada

  13. Leadership and Fairness: The state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, D.; de Cremer, D.; van Knippenberg, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch in leadership effectiveness has paid less to the role of leader fairness than probably it should have. More recently, this has started to change. To capture this development, we review the empirical literature in leadership and fairness to define the field of leadership and fairness, to assess the state of the art, and to identify a research agenda for future efforts in the field. The review shows that leader distributive, procedural, and especially interactional fairness...

  14. Exchange rate predictability and state-of-the-art models

    OpenAIRE

    Yeșin, Pınar

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically evaluates the predictive performance of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) exchange rate assessments with respect to future exchange rate movements. The assessments of real trade-weighted exchange rates were conducted from 2006 to 2011, and were based on three state-of-the-art exchange rate models with a medium-term focus which were developed by the IMF. The empirical analysis using 26 advanced and emerging market economy currencies reveals that the "diagnosis" of ...

  15. Ascertaining the international state of the art of PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, J. von

    1998-01-01

    Plant-specific PSAs, to be performed within the framework of the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants require further development of the methodology. For that purpose foreign PSA-guidelines and PSA-reviewes as well as relevant literature are examined and appropriate insights are adopted within task A.2 of project SR 2096. The main goal of these activities is to achieve a comparison of the state of the art of PSA-methodologies applied abroad and in Germany. The German state of the art refers to the extent as is documented in the German PSA Guide (Leitfaden Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse /PSUe97/) which has to be used for the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants. The structure for the evaluation is based on the working steps of a PSA. In total, according to the objectives of the Periodic Safety Review the German approach for plant-specific PSAs based on the German PSA Guide is conform to the state of the art abroad. Identified deviations in some details are evaluated reflecting the view of GRS. Particular aspects resulting from the evaluation should be considered for further development of the German PSA Guide. (orig.) [de

  16. A State-of-the-Art Review: Personalization of Tinnitus Sound Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searchfield, Grant D; Durai, Mithila; Linford, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are several established, and an increasing number of putative, therapies using sound to treat tinnitus. There appear to be few guidelines for sound therapy selection and application. Aim: To review current approaches to personalizing sound therapy for tinnitus. Methods: A "state-of-the-art" review (Grant and Booth, 2009) was undertaken to answer the question: how do current sound-based therapies for tinnitus adjust for tinnitus heterogeneity? Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase and PubMed were searched for the 10-year period 2006-2016. The search strategy used the following key words: "tinnitus" AND "sound" AND "therapy" AND "guidelines" OR "personalized" OR "customized" OR "individual" OR "questionnaire" OR "selection." The results of the review were cataloged and organized into themes. Results: In total 165 articles were reviewed in full, 83 contained sufficient details to contribute to answering the study question. The key themes identified were hearing compensation, pitched-match therapy, maskability, reaction to sound and psychosocial factors. Although many therapies mentioned customization, few could be classified as being personalized. Several psychoacoustic and questionnaire-based methods for assisting treatment selection were identified. Conclusions: Assessment methods are available to assist clinicians to personalize sound-therapy and empower patients to be active in therapy decision-making. Most current therapies are modified using only one characteristic of the individual and/or their tinnitus.

  17. State-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymers in additive manufacturing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have received a lot of attention in recent years for their use in multiple materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers. The aim of this review article is to analyze the technology of fiber-reinforced polymers and its implementation with additive...... manufacturing. This article reviews recent developments, ideas, and state-of-the-art technologies in this field. Moreover, it gives an overview of the materials currently available for fiber-reinforced material technology....

  18. Link Prediction in Social Networks: the State-of-the-Art

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Baowen; Wu, Yurong; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    In social networks, link prediction predicts missing links in current networks and new or dissolution links in future networks, is important for mining and analyzing the evolution of social networks. In the past decade, many works have been done about the link prediction in social networks. The goal of this paper is to comprehensively review, analyze and discuss the state-of-the-art of the link prediction in social networks. A systematical category for link prediction techniques and problems ...

  19. The geography of maternal and newborn health: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebener, Steeve; Guerra-Arias, Maria; Campbell, James; Tatem, Andrew J; Moran, Allisyn C; Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Fogstad, Helga; Stenberg, Karin; Neal, Sarah; Bailey, Patricia; Porter, Reid; Matthews, Zoe

    2015-05-27

    As the deadline for the millennium development goals approaches, it has become clear that the goals linked to maternal and newborn health are the least likely to be achieved by 2015. It is therefore critical to ensure that all possible data, tools and methods are fully exploited to help address this gap. Among the methods that are under-used, mapping has always represented a powerful way to 'tell the story' of a health problem in an easily understood way. In addition to this, the advanced analytical methods and models now being embedded into Geographic Information Systems allow a more in-depth analysis of the causes behind adverse maternal and newborn health (MNH) outcomes. This paper examines the current state of the art in mapping the geography of MNH as a starting point to unleashing the potential of these under-used approaches. Using a rapid literature review and the description of the work currently in progress, this paper allows the identification of methods in use and describes a framework for methodological approaches to inform improved decision-making. The paper is aimed at health metrics and geography of health specialists, the MNH community, as well as policy-makers in developing countries and international donor agencies.

  20. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryyani Deb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications.

  1. [Masculinity and femininity scales: current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, María A; Del Olmo, Isabel; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    A theoretical and empirical review of masculinity and femininity scales was carried out after 30 years of their existence. Hypotheses to be tested were: (a) muldimensionality versus bidimensionality; (b) inadequate percentage of variance accounted for (less than 50%); (c) inconsistency between factor structure and the dualistic model. 618, 200 and 287 students took part in each of the three studies that were carried out. Factorial analyses (PAF) were performed. Results support multidimensionality, unsatisfactory percentage of variance accounted for, and lack of congruence between obtained factors and the dualistic model. All these data were analysed within the context of the twofold sex and gender reality model.

  2. Clinical management of achalasia: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krill JT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Joseph T Krill, Rishi D Naik, Michael F Vaezi Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Center for Swallowing and Esophageal Disorders, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Achalasia is a primary disorder of esophageal motility. It classically presents with dysphagia to both solids and liquids but may be accompanied by regurgitation and chest pain. The gold standard for the diagnosis of achalasia is esophageal motility testing with manometry, which often reveals aperistalsis of the esophageal body and incomplete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. The diagnosis is aided by complimentary tests, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and contrast radiography. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is indicated to rule out mimickers of the disease known as “pseudoachalasia” (eg, malignancy. Endoscopic appearance of a dilated esophagus with retained food or saliva and a puckered lower esophageal sphincter should raise suspicion for achalasia. Additionally, barium esophagography may reveal a dilated esophagus with a distal tapering giving it a “bird’s beak” appearance. Multiple therapeutic modalities aid in the management of achalasia, the decision of which depends on operative risk factors. Conventional treatments include medical therapy, botulinum toxin injection, pneumatic dilation, and Heller myotomy. The last two are defined as the most definitive treatment options. New emerging therapies include peroral endoscopic myotomy, placement of self-expanding metallic stents, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. Keywords: achalasia, pseudoachalasia, pneumatic dilation, Heller myotomy, botulinum toxin injection, peroral endoscopic myotomy

  3. Clinical management of achalasia: current state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, Joseph T; Naik, Rishi D; Vaezi, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Achalasia is a primary disorder of esophageal motility. It classically presents with dysphagia to both solids and liquids but may be accompanied by regurgitation and chest pain. The gold standard for the diagnosis of achalasia is esophageal motility testing with manometry, which often reveals aperistalsis of the esophageal body and incomplete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. The diagnosis is aided by complimentary tests, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and contrast radiography. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is indicated to rule out mimickers of the disease known as “pseudoachalasia” (eg, malignancy). Endoscopic appearance of a dilated esophagus with retained food or saliva and a puckered lower esophageal sphincter should raise suspicion for achalasia. Additionally, barium esophagography may reveal a dilated esophagus with a distal tapering giving it a “bird’s beak” appearance. Multiple therapeutic modalities aid in the management of achalasia, the decision of which depends on operative risk factors. Conventional treatments include medical therapy, botulinum toxin injection, pneumatic dilation, and Heller myotomy. The last two are defined as the most definitive treatment options. New emerging therapies include peroral endoscopic myotomy, placement of self-expanding metallic stents, and endoscopic sclerotherapy. PMID:27110134

  4. Apoptosis imaging: current state of the art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Wang Zizheng

    2007-01-01

    This review provides a critical and thorough overview of the radionpharmaceutical development and in vivo evaluation of all apoptosis-detecting radioligands that emerged so far, along with these possible applications in nuclear medicine. Radiolabelled annexin bears the promise of becoming a clinically applied radio-pharmaceutical with potential applications in cardiology and oncology. Visualization of cell death is important in pathologies such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Furthermore, radiolabelled annexin may be developed as a tool for monitoring cell death-induceing or cell death-preventing therapies. Some future perspective are presented with the aim of promoting the development of potential new strategies in pursuit of the idealcell death-detecting radioligand. (authors)

  5. Teaching PR Campaigns: The Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Vincent L.; Cameron, Glen T.

    1999-01-01

    Reports results from a national survey regarding courses on public-relations campaigns. Examines predominant pedagogical strategies and course-management text techniques used; intentions for the course; theory/research elements; the role of management skill and/or interpersonal dynamics in the student campaign both internally and externally, and…

  6. Magnetocaloric refrigeration concepts: current state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2014-01-01

    Refrigeration devices based on the magnetocaloric effect have been prototyped in great numbers during the past decade. The search for the optimal combination of magnetic field source, regenerator geometry, magnetocaloric material composition and flow system design has resulted in a variety...

  7. Seismic response of buried pipelines: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, T.K.

    1999-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of the seismic response of buried pipelines is presented. The review includes modeling of soil-pipe system and seismic excitation, methods of response analysis of buried pipelines, seismic behavior of buried pipelines under different parametric variations, seismic stresses at the bends and intersections of network of pipelines. pipe damage in earthquakes and seismic risk analysis of buried pipelines. Based on the review, the future scope of work on the subject is outlined. (orig.)

  8. Vertebroplasty - state of the art; Vertebroplastie - ''state of the art''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, K. [Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Johanniter-Krankenhaus - Johanniter GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) using PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) was first described in 1987 by Gallibert and Deramond for the treatment of vertebral body instability in patients with aggressive forms of vertebral hemangioma. Other types of painful osteolytic bone lesions, such as osteoporotic vertebral fractures and vertebral metastasis are in the meantime more commonly treated using this method. Within the last few years, this technique has become widely accepted and it is proposed for osteolytic bone lesions in areas that are more difficult to approach surgically, e.g., the pelvis and sacrum. Rapid pain relief and resulting stability have conferred an important role upon osteoplasty especially in palliative tumor-treatment for patients with shortened expected life spans. In addition, combined treatment of painful osteolytic metastases with image-guided thermoablation and percutaneous cement injection has been shown to be a safe palliative modality in the therapy of nonresectable tumors. (orig.) [German] Die Vertebroplastie ist ein minimal-invasives Verfahren, bei dem unter Durchleuchtung oder im CT Knochenzement mithilfe einer Hohlnadel in einen schmerzhaften Wirbelkoerper eingebracht wird. Die Technik wurde initial zur Behandlung aggressiver Wirbelkoerperhaemangiome beschrieben. Inzwischen stellen andere schmerzhafte Wirbelkoerperprozesse, vornehmlich osteolytische Metastasen sowie osteoporotische Wirbelkoerperfrakturen die haeufigsten Indikationen zur Durchfuehrung einer Vertebroplastie dar. Methode und Technik der Zementapplikation werden zwischenzeitlich erfolgreich auch bei ausserhalb der Wirbelsaeule bestehenden gutartigen Pathologien, z. B. bei Ermuedungsfrakturen des Os sacrum in Form der Sakroplastie sowie insbesondere schmerzhaften, metastatisch-osteolytischen Befunden als palliative Therapiemassnahme (Osteoplastie) eingesetzt. Im Rahmen palliativer Therapiekonzepte wird die Vertebroplastie in der Radiologie zunehmend in Kombination mit

  9. Methodologies and applications for critical infrastructure protection: State-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, Jose M.; Correa, Gabriel J.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This work provides an update of the state-of-the-art on energy security relating to critical infrastructure protection. For this purpose, this survey is based upon the conceptual view of OECD countries, and specifically in accordance with EU Directive 114/08/EC on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures, and on the 2009 US National Infrastructure Protection Plan. The review discusses the different definitions of energy security, critical infrastructure and key resources, and shows some of the experie'nces in countries considered as international reference on the subject, including some information-sharing issues. In addition, the paper carries out a complete review of current methodologies, software applications and modelling techniques around critical infrastructure protection in accordance with their functionality in a risk management framework. The study of threats and vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure systems shows two important trends in methodologies and modelling. A first trend relates to the identification of methods, techniques, tools and diagrams to describe the current state of infrastructure. The other trend accomplishes a dynamic behaviour of the infrastructure systems by means of simulation techniques including systems dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, multi-agent systems, etc. - Highlights: → We examine critical infrastructure protection experiences, systems and applications. → Some international experiences are reviewed, including EU EPCIP Plan and the US NIPP programme. → We discuss current methodologies and applications on critical infrastructure protection, with emphasis in electric networks.

  10. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  11. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  12. State of the art: two-phase flow calibration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear community faces a particularly difficult problem relating to the calibration of instrumentation in a two-phase flow steam/water environment. The rationale of the approach to water reactor safety questions in the United States demands that accurate measurements of mass flows in a decompressing two-phase flow be made. An accurate measurement dictates an accurate calibration. This paper addresses three questions relating to the state of the art in two-phase calibration: (1) What do we mean by calibration. (2) What is done now. (3) What should be done

  13. CMOS image sensors: State-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Albert J. P.

    2008-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of CMOS image sensors. The main focus is put on the shrinkage of the pixels : what is the effect on the performance characteristics of the imagers and on the various physical parameters of the camera ? How is the CMOS pixel architecture optimized to cope with the negative performance effects of the ever-shrinking pixel size ? On the other hand, the smaller dimensions in CMOS technology allow further integration on column level and even on pixel level. This will make CMOS imagers even smarter that they are already.

  14. Bidirectional Texture Function Modeling: State of the Art Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2009), s. 1921-1940 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Grant - others:EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * surface texture * 3D texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/filip-bidirectional texture function modeling state of the art survey.pdf

  15. Nuclear power plant decommissioning: state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A brief orientation to the state-of-the-art of nuclear power plant decommissioning discusses the related areas of experience, tools and techniques, and planning. There have been 68 nuclear reactor decommissionings to date, including 9 power plants, some of which were mothballed. The picture suggests that the term art may be misapplied since decommissioning is now more of a mature commercial industrial than a research and development endeavor. It also suggests that the nuclear industry has shown foresight by preparing for it before a crisis situation developed. Some of this has already influenced operators of coal power plants, especially where hazardous materials may be involved. 33 references, 1 table

  16. State-of-the-art report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the considerable work required to develop repositories for radioactive waste, an extensive international co-operation has evolved within the area. The work has also engaged the IAEA to a great extent. The Agency has published a number of reports, covering different aspects of waste disposal. Following a recommendation by its Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (TRCUD) the Agency will publish a ''state-of-the-art'' report on radioactive waste disposal. The report is still in the preparation stage. In this article the principal subjects of the future report are discussed

  17. State of the art of UO2 fuel fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Klemm, U.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from the need of UO 2 for thermal power reactors in the period from 1980 to 1990 and the role of UF 6 conversion into UO 2 within the fuel cycle, the state-of-the-art of the three established industrial processes - ADU process, AUC process, IDR process - is assessed. The number of process stages and requirements on process management are discussed. In particular, the properties of the fabricated UO 2 powders, their influence on the following pellet production and on operational behaviour of the fuel elements under reactor conditions are described. Hence, an evaluation of the three essential conversion processes is derived. (author)

  18. Blade root design a state of the art survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, O

    1988-06-01

    This report was conceived in the wake of recent blade root failures in several horizontal axis turbines. Ten blade root designs are presented. They are considered to represent the state of the art. The information was obtained partly from literature partly from a few important projects with little or no documentation. Suggestions are made how to proceed in the development of the bonded bolt type of root retention. Presently the conclusion is that this type of arrangement seems the most promising. Developments in this field should be closely monitored, however. For this type of very high cycle fatigue designs there is a need for two redundant design principles. (author).

  19. Knowledge discovery in traditional Chinese medicine: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Zhongmei; Fan, Weiyu

    2006-11-01

    As a complementary medical system to Western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of diseases over thousands of years. Confronted with the increasing popularity of TCM and the huge volume of TCM data, historically accumulated and recently obtained, there is an urgent need to explore these resources effectively by the techniques of knowledge discovery in database (KDD). This paper aims at providing an overview of recent KDD studies in TCM field. A literature search was conducted in both English and Chinese publications, and major studies of knowledge discovery in TCM (KDTCM) reported in these materials were identified. Based on an introduction to the state of the art of TCM data resources, a review of four subfields of KDTCM research was presented, including KDD for the research of Chinese medical formula, KDD for the research of Chinese herbal medicine, KDD for TCM syndrome research, and KDD for TCM clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the current state and main problems in each subfield were summarized based on a discussion of existing studies, and future directions for each subfield were also proposed accordingly. A series of KDD methods are used in existing KDTCM researches, ranging from conventional frequent itemset mining to state of the art latent structure model. Considerable interesting discoveries are obtained by these methods, such as novel TCM paired drugs discovered by frequent itemset analysis, functional community of related genes discovered under syndrome perspective by text mining, the high proportion of toxic plants in the botanical family Ranunculaceae disclosed by statistical analysis, the association between M-cholinoceptor blocking drug and Solanaceae revealed by association rule mining, etc. It is particularly inspiring to see some studies connecting TCM with biomedicine, which provide a novel top-down view for functional genomics research. However, further developments

  20. Management of adenovirus infection in patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: State-of-the-art and real-life current approach: A position statement on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Kosulin, Karin; Cesaro, Simone; Mikulska, Malgorzata; Styczynski, Jan; Wynn, Robert; Lion, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The important insights gained over the past years in diagnosis and treatment of invasive adenoviral infections provide new paradigms for the monitoring and clinical management of these life-threatening complications. A meeting was held to discuss and subsequently disseminate the current advances in our understanding of the aetiology/pathogenesis and future treatment options facilitating effective control or prevention of adenovirus-related diseases in the allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Invited experts in the field discussed recent progress with leading members of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation at the "State-of-the-art" Meeting in Poznan, Poland, in October 2017. In this review article, the panel of experts presents a concise summary of the current evidence based on published data from the last 15 years and on recent achievements resulting from real-life practice. The present position statement reflects an expert opinion on current approaches to clinical management of adenovirus infections in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant and provides graded recommendations of the panel for diagnostic approaches and preemptive therapy reflecting the present state of knowledge. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. State-of-the-art and needs for jet instability and direct contact condensation model improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbia-Salah, A.; Moretti, F.; D'auria, F.; Bousbia-Salah, A.)

    2007-01-01

    There is a common understanding among thermal-hydraulic experts that the system analysis codes have currently reached an acceptable degree of maturity. Reliable application, however, is still limited to the validated domain. There is a growing need for qualified codes in assessing the safety of the existing reactors and for developing advanced reactor systems. Under conditions involving multi-phase flow simulations, the use of classical methods, mainly based upon the one dimensional approach, is not appropriate at all. The use of new computational models, such as the direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation or other advanced computational fluid dynamics methods, seems to be more suitable for more complex events. For this purpose, the European Commission financed NURESIM Integrated Project (as a part of the FP6 programme), was adopted to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for modelling, recording and recovering computer data for nuclear reactor simulations. Some of the studies carried out at the University of Pisa within the framework of the NURESIM project are presented in this paper. They mainly concern the investigation of two critical phenomena connected with jet instabilities and direct contact condensation that occur during emergency core cooling. Through these examples, the state-of-the-art and the need for model improvements and validation against new experimental data for the sake of getting a better understanding and more accurate predictions are discussed. (author)

  2. Implementation and Use of State-of-the-Art, Cell-Based In Vitro Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    The impressive advances in the generation and interpretation of functional omics data have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the (patho-)physiology of many biological systems and led to a massive increase in the number of specific targets and phenotypes to investigate in both basic and applied research. The obvious complexity revealed by these studies represents a major challenge to the research community and asks for improved target characterisation strategies with the help of reliable, high-quality assays. Thus, the use of living cells has become an integral part of many research activities because the cellular context more closely represents target-specific interrelations and activity patterns. Although still predominant, the use of traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture models has been gradually complemented by studies based on three-dimensional (3D) spheroid (Sutherland 1988) and other 3D tissue culture systems (Santos et al. 2012; Matsusaki et al. 2014) in an attempt to employ model systems more closely representing the microenvironment of cells in the body. Hence, quite a variety of state-of-the-art cell culture models are available for the generation of novel chemical probes or the identification of starting points for drug development in translational research and pharma drug discovery. In order to cope with these information-rich formats and their increasing technical complexity, cell-based assay development has become a scientific research topic in its own right and is used to ensure the provision of significant, reliable and high-quality data outlasting any discussions related to the current "irreproducibility epidemic" (Dolgin 2014; Prinz et al. 2011; Schatz 2014). At the same time the use of cells in microplate assay formats has become state of the art and greatly facilitates rigorous cell-based assay development by providing the researcher with the opportunity to address the multitude of factors affecting the actual

  3. Simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - State-of-the-art. State-of-the-art of the simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, J.; Vaillant, Herve; Moszkowicz, P.; Alimi Ichola, Ibrahim; Foret, Suzanne

    1997-02-01

    Industrial companies use and produce numerous substances which can induce a pollution of our environment and especially of soil and groundwater. Thus, it's necessary to estimate the risk of an environmental impact from an accidental or chronic, real or potential pollution. Modelling, which allow the simulation of pollutant migration, can be used as a decision support system, either for the pollution control and prevention of the resource, or for the monitoring of the remediation of polluted sites. In the first part of this study, we established a state of the art on modelling of pollutant migration in soils. In the second part, we focused on the main simulation tools currently available on the market, and on the main agencies or laboratories working on this subject, especially in France. At the end of this study, we drew some conclusions concerning modelling of pollutant migration in soils and the main points which will form the subject of further studies: - sensitivity analysis of model to input parameters and ranking of the main parameters, - achievement of a database on the state of the art of the results on modelling realized on case studies, - development of a mobility indicator of pollutant in soil, - application field and relevance of the models. (authors)

  4. Biological network extraction from scientific literature: state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liakata, Maria; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Networks of molecular interactions explain complex biological processes, and all known information on molecular events is contained in a number of public repositories including the scientific literature. Metabolic and signalling pathways are often viewed separately, even though both types are composed of interactions involving proteins and other chemical entities. It is necessary to be able to combine data from all available resources to judge the functionality, complexity and completeness of any given network overall, but especially the full integration of relevant information from the scientific literature is still an ongoing and complex task. Currently, the text-mining research community is steadily moving towards processing the full body of the scientific literature by making use of rich linguistic features such as full text parsing, to extract biological interactions. The next step will be to combine these with information from scientific databases to support hypothesis generation for the discovery of new knowledge and the extension of biological networks. The generation of comprehensive networks requires technologies such as entity grounding, coordination resolution and co-reference resolution, which are not fully solved and are required to further improve the quality of results. Here, we analyse the state of the art for the extraction of network information from the scientific literature and the evaluation of extraction methods against reference corpora, discuss challenges involved and identify directions for future research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Combined Antimicrobial Activity of Photodynamic Inactivation and Antimicrobials–State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wozniak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI is a promising tool for the eradication of life-threatening pathogens with different profiles of resistance. This study presents the state-of-the-art published studies that have been dedicated to analyzing the bactericidal effects of combining aPDI and routinely applied antibiotics in in vitro (using biofilm and planktonic cultures and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, the current paper reviews the methodology used to obtain the published data that describes the synergy between these antimicrobial approaches. The authors are convinced that even though the combined efficacy of aPDI and antimicrobials could be investigated with the wide range of methods, the use of a unified experimental methodology that is in agreement with antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST is required to investigate possible synergistic cooperation between aPDI and antimicrobials. Conclusions concerning the possible synergistic activity between the two treatments can be drawn only when appropriate assays are employed. It must be noticed that some of the described papers were just aimed at determination if combined treatments exert enhanced antibacterial outcome, without following the standard methodology to evaluate the synergistic effect, but in most of them (18 out of 27 authors indicated the existence of synergy between described antibacterial approaches. In general, the increase in bacterial inactivation was observed when both therapies were used in combination.

  6. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Iodine chemistry at severe accidents. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in the field. APRI 5 report. Part I: Iodine chemistry at hypothetical severe accidents. A review of the state-of-the-art 2003. Part II: A comparison of our knowledge on iodine chemistry and fission products with the current models used in MAAP 4.0.5; Jodkemi under svaara haverier. En sammanstaellnig och vaerdering av kunskapslaeget inom omraadet. APRI 5 rapport. Del I: Jodkemi vid hypotetiska svaara haverier. En genomgaang av kunskapslaeget aar 2003. Del II: Jaemfoerelse av kunskapslaeget om jodkemi och fissionsprodukter med aktuella modeller i MAAP 4.0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov [Liljenzins data och kemikonsult, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The current report tries to summarize and analyze the state-of-the-art on Iodine chemistry relevant to the conditions expected during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This has made it necessary to compare a considerable amount of data, new as well as old, in order to try to find the reasons behind some changes in the expected chemical behaviour of Iodine. In a few cases this has been far from simple. Many numerical values are given in this report. However, me numbers given should not be used in a non-critical way because they are often deduced from measurements whose interpretation depends on various kinds of systematic differences and assumptions with regard to technique, 'known' constants, and models applied. The most important observation today is that one can no longer uncritically assume that iodine is only released and transported as cesium iodide. The considerable effect that control rod material (including other construction materials) can have on the way in which an accident develops and on its iodine chemistry is clearly seen from the results of the experiments performed within the PHEBUS FP project. The second part of the report evaluates new knowledge on Iodine chemistry and Iodine behaviour of importance in severe nuclear reactor accidents. Also some new information regarding the behaviour and chemistry of other fission products has been collected. In the light of this information, the current modelling of Iodine behaviour in the MAAP code version 4.0.5 has been investigated. No modelling errors have been found. However, some of the equations used to calculate the vapour pressure of the components in the AlC-alloy used in PWR control rods give questionable results. An error in the MAAP manual was found which should be corrected. Finally, some suggestions are given for future improvements in the modelling of severe accidents used in MAAP for both BWRs and PWRs.

  8. One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivetrain | News | NREL One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain April 1, 2016 modeling, and testing in state-of-the-art facilities designed to put the drivetrain through its paces

  9. State of the art and prospects of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.V.; Glushenkova, S.Z.

    1984-01-01

    State of the art and prospects of nuclear power development abroad except the COMECON countries and Yugoslavia, are considered. Both average electric power of power units and load factor (LF) are shown to increase. Data on both the total generating capacity and nuclear power generation in certain countries are given. The number of commissioned NPPs in the USA decreases but terms of their construction and licensing are reduced, program of fast breeder reactor construction is being realized, prohibition of nuclear fuel reprocessing in cancelled. France came to the second place in the world as regards the operating NPPs. The nuclear power generation in Japan makes up 13% of the total generating capacity in the country. The LF of the Japan NPPs with BWR and PWR in 1982 made up 70.7 and 69.8%, respectively. A higher reliability of NPPs, decrease in the time for periodical inspections and prolongation of the operating cycle have promoted an increase in the LF

  10. PRA: an evaluation of state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    1985-01-01

    Some elements of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology can be characterized as mature and are even ready for some kind of a standardization effort. Other elements are still, however, in a rapid state of evolution. Questions are continuously being asked regarding maturity of PRA techniques vis-a-vis a regulatory decision-making process. Establishing a framework for evaluating state-of-the-art in any technological field is a challenging task. An implementation of a selected framework to a satisfactory conclusion is a monumental task. Of course, these types of issues can be discussed meaningfully only if they are tied to a particular application. The author's participation in the NSF-sponsored risk assessment project is discussed in the paper. The evaluation employed here makes use of the following five evaluation criteria: logical soundness, completeness, accuracy, acceptability, and practicality

  11. [State of the art diagnostic criteria of severe periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, X Y

    2017-02-09

    Periodontitis could be categorized as mild, moderate, and severe according to the severity of the disease. This categorizing system could also be used together with other classification systems. The present article introduced the status about the case definition of severe periodontitis, including the standard of case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the consensus report on the definition of periodontitis case for use in risk factor research by Europe workshop. A consensus on the state of the art definition of severe periodontitis for use in clinical work was gained base on the expertise of Chinese Society of Periodontology, Chinese Association of Stomatology. The background of this consensus and the significance of the criteria for the case definition were discussed.

  12. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  13. State-of-the-art of biodegradable composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baley, Ch.; Grohens, Y.; Pillin, I.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the market demand for environment friendly materials is in strong growth. The biodegradable composites (biodegradable fibres and polymers) mainly extracted from renewable resources will be a major contributor to the production of new industrial high performance products partially solving the problem of waste management. At the end of the lifetime, a structural bio-composite could be be crushed and recycled through a controlled industrial composting process. This the state-of-the-art report focuses on the biopolymers the vegetable fibres properties, the mechanisms of biodegradation and the examples of biodegradable composites. Eco-design of new products requires these new materials for which a life cycle analysis is nevertheless necessary to validate their environmental benefits. (authors)

  14. State of the art metrics for aspect oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareb, Mazen Ismaeel; Allen, Gary

    2018-04-01

    The quality evaluation of software, e.g., defect measurement, gains significance with higher use of software applications. Metric measurements are considered as the primary indicator of imperfection prediction and software maintenance in various empirical studies of software products. However, there is no agreement on which metrics are compelling quality indicators for novel development approaches such as Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). AOP intends to enhance programming quality, by providing new and novel constructs for the development of systems, for example, point cuts, advice and inter-type relationships. Hence, it is not evident if quality pointers for AOP can be derived from direct expansions of traditional OO measurements. Then again, investigations of AOP do regularly depend on established coupling measurements. Notwithstanding the late reception of AOP in empirical studies, coupling measurements have been adopted as useful markers of flaw inclination in this context. In this paper we will investigate the state of the art metrics for measurement of Aspect Oriented systems development.

  15. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  16. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  17. State of the art and prospects for the future of nuclear-medical in-vitro diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, I.

    1984-01-01

    Following a bried outline of the history of the radioimmunoassay, the current state of the art and the range of application of RIAs in clinical routine examinations are summarized. The recently developed ''non-isotopic immunoassays'' (NIIA) are compared with the more conventional RIA techniques, their range of application is discussed, and an outlook is given on future developments. (MG) [de

  18. State of the Art Review on Theoretical Tribology of Fluid Power Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerimagic, Remzija; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    machines, and also the work done to validate the theoretical models. This review is not a complete historical account, but aim to describe current trends in fluid power displacement machine tribology. The review considers the rheological models used in the theoretical approaches, the modeling...... and wear mechanisms in the lubricating gaps in fluid power machines is confined to simulation models, as experimental treatments of these mechanisms are very difficult. The aim of this paper is a state of the art review on the theoretical work for the design and optimization of fluid power displacement...... of elastohydrodynamic effects, the modeling of thermal effects, and finally the experimental validation of the theoretical models....

  19. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: state of the art in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Singh, Sanjay; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a painful shoulder disorder characterised by either single or multiple deposits in the rotator cuff tendon. Although the disease subsides spontaneously in most cases, a subpopulation of patients continue to complain of pain and shoulder dysfunction and the deposits do not show any signs of resolution. Although several treatment options have been proposed, clinical results are controversial and often the indication for a given therapy remains a matter of clinician choice. Herein, we report on the current state of the art in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

  20. Massive parallel sequencing in sarcoma pathobiology: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenca, Monica; Maestro, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are an aggressive and highly heterogeneous group of mesenchymal malignancies with different morphologies and clinical behavior. Current therapeutic strategies remain unsatisfactory. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of these tumors is resulting in the breakdown of the classical histopathological categories into molecular subgroups that better define sarcoma pathobiology and pave the way to more precise diagnostic criteria and novel therapeutic opportunities. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the state-of-the-art on the exploitation of massive parallel sequencing technologies, also known as next generation sequencing, in the elucidation of sarcoma pathobiology and to discuss how these applications may impact on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of these tumors.

  1. An Overview of the State of the Art in Atomistic and Multiscale Simulation of Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Erik; Yamakov, Vesselin; Phillips, Dawn R.; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of nanomechanics is providing a new focus in the study of the mechanics of materials, particularly in simulating fundamental atomic mechanisms involved in the initiation and evolution of damage. Simulating fundamental material processes using first principles in physics strongly motivates the formulation of computational multiscale methods to link macroscopic failure to the underlying atomic processes from which all material behavior originates. This report gives an overview of the state of the art in applying concurrent and sequential multiscale methods to analyze damage and failure mechanisms across length scales.

  2. Flow-induced vibration in LMFBR steam generators: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1975-05-01

    This state-of-the-art review identifies and discusses existing methods of flow-induced vibration analysis applicable to steam generators, their limitations, and base-technology needs. Also included are discussions of five different LMFBR steam-generator configurations and important design considerations, failure experiences, possible flow-induced excitation mechanisms, vibration testing, and available methods of vibration analysis. The objectives are to aid LMFBR steam-generator designers in making the best possible evaluation of potential vibration in steam-generator internals, and to provide the basis for development of design guidelines to avoid detrimental flow-induced vibration

  3. A Critical Review of the State-of-the-Art in Autonomous Land Vehicle Systems and Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DURRNAT-WHYTE, HUGH

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the current state-of-the-art in Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) systems and technology. Five functional technology areas are identified and addressed. For each a brief, subjective, preface is first provided which envisions the necessary technology for the deployment of an operational ALV system. Subsequently, a detailed literature review is provided to support and elaborate these views. It is further established how these five technology areas fit together as a functioning whole. The essential conclusion of this report is that the necessary sensors, algorithms and methods to develop and demonstrate an operationally viable all-terrain ALV already exist and could be readily deployed. A second conclusion is that the successful development of an operational ALV system will rely on an effective approach to systems engineering. In particular, a precise description of mission requirements and a clear definition of component functionality is essential

  4. State-of-the-Art Report on Multi-scale Modelling of Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, T.J.; Dingreville, R.; Littlewood, D.; Tikare, V.; Bertolus, M.; Blanc, V.; Bouineau, V.; Carlot, G.; Desgranges, C.; Dorado, B.; Dumas, J.C.; Freyss, M.; Garcia, P.; Gatt, J.M.; Gueneau, C.; Julien, J.; Maillard, S.; Martin, G.; Masson, R.; Michel, B.; Piron, J.P.; Sabathier, C.; Skorek, R.; Toffolon, C.; Valot, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Besmann, Theodore M.; Chernatynskiy, A.; Clarno, K.; Gorti, S.B.; Radhakrishnan, B.; Devanathan, R.; Dumont, M.; Maugis, P.; El-Azab, A.; Iglesias, F.C.; Lewis, B.J.; Krack, M.; Yun, Y.; Kurata, M.; Kurosaki, K.; Largenton, R.; Lebensohn, R.A.; Malerba, L.; Oh, J.Y.; Phillpot, S.R.; Tulenko, J. S.; Rachid, J.; Stan, M.; Sundman, B.; Tonks, M.R.; Williamson, R.; Van Uffelen, P.; Welland, M.J.; Valot, Carole; Stan, Marius; Massara, Simone; Tarsi, Reka

    2015-10-01

    The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has undertaken an ambitious programme to document state-of-the-art of modelling for nuclear fuels and structural materials. The project is being performed under the Working Party on Multi-Scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Material for Nuclear Systems (WPMM), which has been established to assess the scientific and engineering aspects of fuels and structural materials, describing multi-scale models and simulations as validated predictive tools for the design of nuclear systems, fuel fabrication and performance. The WPMM's objective is to promote the exchange of information on models and simulations of nuclear materials, theoretical and computational methods, experimental validation and related topics. It also provides member countries with up-to-date information, shared data, models, and expertise. The goal is also to assess needs for improvement and address them by initiating joint efforts. The WPMM reviews and evaluates multi-scale modelling and simulation techniques currently employed in the selection of materials used in nuclear systems. It serves to provide advice to the nuclear community on the developments needed to meet the requirements of modelling for the design of different nuclear systems. The original WPMM mandate had three components (Figure 1), with the first component currently completed, delivering a report on the state-of-the-art of modelling of structural materials. The work on modelling was performed by three expert groups, one each on Multi-Scale Modelling Methods (M3), Multi-Scale Modelling of Fuels (M2F) and Structural Materials Modelling (SMM). WPMM is now composed of three expert groups and two task forces providing contributions on multi-scale methods, modelling of fuels and modelling of structural materials. This structure will be retained, with the addition of task forces as new topics are developed. The mandate of the Expert Group on Multi-Scale Modelling of

  5. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. \\'output-sensitive\\' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are \\'ray-guided\\', \\'visualization-driven\\' or \\'display-aware\\'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. 'output-sensitive' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are 'ray-guided', 'visualization-driven' or 'display-aware'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. State-of-the-art methods for testing materials outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, computers, sensors, microelectronics, and communication technologies have made it possible to automate the way materials are tested in the field. It is now possible to purchase monitoring equipment to measure weather and materials properties. The measurement of materials response often requires innovative approaches and added expense, but the...

  8. Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Hansen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout. Methods: A thorough review was conducted to identify research published with an initial open date range and then narrowing the collection to include papers published from 2007 to 2017. Electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus and snowball references were used to cull papers that evaluated the use of Shinrin-Yoku for various populations in diverse settings. Results: From the 127 papers initially culled using the Boolean phrases: “Shinrin-yoku” AND/OR “forest bathing” AND/OR “nature therapy”, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this summary review and then divided into “physiological,” “psychological,” “sensory metrics” and “frameworks” sub-groups. Conclusions: Human health benefits associated with the immersion in nature continue to be currently researched. Longitudinal research, conducted worldwide, is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships associated with Shinrin-Yoku and clinical therapeutic effects. Nature therapy as a health-promotion method and potential universal health model is implicated for the reduction of reported modern-day “stress-state” and “technostress.”.

  9. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-04-07

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  10. State of the art in marketing hospital foodservice departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, C W; Shanklin, C W

    1985-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the state of the art relative to the utilization of marketing techniques within hospital foodservice departments throughout the United States and to determine whether any relationships existed between the degree of utilization of marketing techniques and selected demographic characteristics of the foodservice administrators and/or operations. A validated questionnaire was mailed to 600 randomly selected hospital foodservice administrators requesting information related to marketing in their facilities. Forty-five percent of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed for frequency of response and significant relationship between variables. Chi-square was used for nominal data and Spearman rho for ranked data. Approximately 73% of the foodservice administrators stated that marketing was extremely important in the success of a hospital foodservice department. Respondents (79%) further indicated that marketing had become more important in their departments in the past 2 years. Departmental records, professional journals, foodservice suppliers, observation, and surveys were the sources most often used to obtain marketing data, a responsibility generally assumed by the foodservice director (86.2%). Merchandising, public relations, and word-of-mouth reputation were regarded as the most important aspects of marketing. Increased sales, participation, good will, departmental recognition, and employee satisfaction were used most frequently to evaluate the success of implemented marketing techniques. Marketing audits as a means of evaluating the success of marketing were used to a limited extent by the respondents.

  11. State-of-the-art Model M-2 Maintenance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.; Martin, H.L.; Satterlee, P.E. Jr.; Jelatis, D.G.; Jennrich, C.E.

    1984-04-01

    The Model M-2 Maintenance System is part of an ongoing program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to improve remote manipulation technology for future nuclear fuel reprocessing and other remote applications. Techniques, equipment, and guidelines which can improve the efficiency of remote maintenance are being developed. The Model M-2 Maintenance System, installed in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Facility at ORNL, provides a complete, integrated remote maintenance system for the demonstration and development of remote maintenance techniques. The system comprises a pair of force-reflecting servomanipulator arms, television viewing, lighting, and auxiliary lifting capabilities, thereby allowing manlike maintenance operations to be executed remotely within the remote cell mockup area in the IET. The Model M-2 Maintenance System incorporates an upgraded version of the proven Central Research Laboratories' Model M servomanipulator. Included are state-of-the-art brushless dc servomotors for improved performance, remotely removable wrist assemblies, geared azimuth drive, and a distributed microprocessor-based digital control system. 5 references, 8 figures

  12. Discovery Mondays "State-of-the-art technologies for precision"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic plate drilled with high precision in CERN’s workshop. The diameter of each hole is only 0.02 millimetres, comparable to the diameter of a hair.Scientists have to be infinitely precise to study the infinitely small. Thus, even though the LHC is the world’s largest accelerator, it has to be aligned to within a tenth of a millimetre. The detectors weigh several thousand tonnes but are capable of detecting the tiniest vibration of the Earth. Join us at the next Discovery Monday to find out about CERN’s state-of-the-art tools for achieving the degrees of resolution required in the field of particle physics. Don’t miss this opportunity to discover the world of precision! The event will be conducted in FrenchCome along to the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 5 November from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDecouverte/

  13. Technology in precision viticulture: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matese A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Matese,1 Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro1,2 1Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots. Keywords: remote sensing, proximal sensing, variable-rate technology, robot 

  14. Modular robotics overview of the 'state of the art'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development

  15. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-01-01

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector

  16. State of the art of solid state dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Susana O.; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; D'Errico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed

  17. A state of the art on metallic fuel technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, Hee Young; Nam, Cheol; Kim, Jong Oh

    1997-01-01

    Since worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved in the late 1960's, the development of metallic fuels continued throughout the 1970's at ANL's experimental breeder reactor II (EBR-II) because EBR-II continued to be fueled with the metallic uranium-fissium alloy, U-5Fs. During this decade the performance limitations of metallic fuel were satisfactorily resolved resolved at EBR-II. The concept of the IFR developed at ANL since 1984. The technical feasibility had been demonstrated and the technology database had been established to support its practicality. One key features of the IFR is that the fuel is metallic, which brings pronounced benefits over oxide in improved inherent safety and lower processing costs. At the outset of the 1980's, it appeared that metallic fuels are recognized as a professed viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last score and summarizes the state-of the art on metallic fuel technology development. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab

  18. A state of the art on metallic fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, Hee Young; Nam, Cheol; Kim, Jong Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Since worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved in the late 1960`s, the development of metallic fuels continued throughout the 1970`s at ANL`s experimental breeder reactor II (EBR-II) because EBR-II continued to be fueled with the metallic uranium-fissium alloy, U-5Fs. During this decade the performance limitations of metallic fuel were satisfactorily resolved resolved at EBR-II. The concept of the IFR developed at ANL since 1984. The technical feasibility had been demonstrated and the technology database had been established to support its practicality. One key features of the IFR is that the fuel is metallic, which brings pronounced benefits over oxide in improved inherent safety and lower processing costs. At the outset of the 1980`s, it appeared that metallic fuels are recognized as a professed viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last score and summarizes the state-of the art on metallic fuel technology development. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab.

  19. State-of-the-art report on piping fracture mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report is an in-depth summary of the state-of-the-art in nuclear piping fracture mechanics. It represents the culmination of 20 years of work done primarily in the US, but also attempts to include important aspects from other international efforts. Although the focus of this work was for the nuclear industry, the technology is also applicable in many cases to fossil plants, petrochemical/refinery plants, and the oil and gas industry. In compiling this detailed summary report, all of the equations and details of the analysis procedure or experimental results are not necessarily included. Rather, the report describes the important aspects and limitations, tells the reader where he can go for further information, and more importantly, describes the accuracy of the models. Nevertheless, the report still contains over 150 equations and over 400 references. The main sections of this report describe: (1) the evolution of piping fracture mechanics history relative to the developments of the nuclear industry, (2) technical developments in stress analyses, material property aspects, and fracture mechanics analyses, (3) unresolved issues and technically evolving areas, and (4) a summary of conclusions of major developments to date.

  20. State-of-the-art report on piping fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is an in-depth summary of the state-of-the-art in nuclear piping fracture mechanics. It represents the culmination of 20 years of work done primarily in the US, but also attempts to include important aspects from other international efforts. Although the focus of this work was for the nuclear industry, the technology is also applicable in many cases to fossil plants, petrochemical/refinery plants, and the oil and gas industry. In compiling this detailed summary report, all of the equations and details of the analysis procedure or experimental results are not necessarily included. Rather, the report describes the important aspects and limitations, tells the reader where he can go for further information, and more importantly, describes the accuracy of the models. Nevertheless, the report still contains over 150 equations and over 400 references. The main sections of this report describe: (1) the evolution of piping fracture mechanics history relative to the developments of the nuclear industry, (2) technical developments in stress analyses, material property aspects, and fracture mechanics analyses, (3) unresolved issues and technically evolving areas, and (4) a summary of conclusions of major developments to date

  1. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  2. State of the art on periphyton knowledge in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Moreno, Yimmy; Aguirre R, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    Periphyton is a component of aquatic communities, composed by microbiota adhered to different substrates; plays a fundamental role in matter, energy and information transferences trough food webs and its study is important both from ecology, to understand ecosystems, as from environmental points of view, as periphyton is a good indicator of environmental processes and conditions, for instance water quality, in those ecosystems. Periphyton research is complex; even periphyton definition is still controversial. In addition to that, the variety of methodologies for comprehensive study, the diversity of peri phytic matrix architectures, the diversity of ecosystems and the absence of taxonomic schools in the country, are causing that few works are being published on the subject, which increases the value and importance of the work outlined in this review. The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art in research on periphyton in Colombia, analyzing different lines of research that has been developed and their progress. In order to do this, we examined 84 papers available to the authors. Most studies surveyed in this study (90%) correspond to the study of phycoperiphyton; the remaining 10% included both components of periphyton; one paper was dedicated exclusively to zooperiphyton. Only 10.5% of investigations (8 papers) have been dedicated to detailed taxonomic study; other publications study the structure and dynamics of the periphytic community.

  3. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  4. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  5. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimerskirch André

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  6. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weimerskirch

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  7. Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing) and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Margaret M; Jones, Reo; Tocchini, Kirsten

    2017-07-28

    Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing) in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout. A thorough review was conducted to identify research published with an initial open date range and then narrowing the collection to include papers published from 2007 to 2017. Electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus) and snowball references were used to cull papers that evaluated the use of Shinrin-Yoku for various populations in diverse settings. From the 127 papers initially culled using the Boolean phrases: "Shinrin-yoku" AND/OR "forest bathing" AND/OR "nature therapy", 64 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this summary review and then divided into "physiological," "psychological," "sensory metrics" and "frameworks" sub-groups. Human health benefits associated with the immersion in nature continue to be currently researched. Longitudinal research, conducted worldwide, is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships associated with Shinrin-Yoku and clinical therapeutic effects. Nature therapy as a health-promotion method and potential universal health model is implicated for the reduction of reported modern-day "stress-state" and "technostress.".

  8. Dose Reduction and Dose Management in Computed Tomography - State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Dominik; Marcus, Roy; Othman, Ahmed E; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Flohr, Thomas; Notohamiprodjo, Mike

    2018-03-13

     For years, the number of performed CT examinations has been rising. At the same time, computed tomography became more dose efficient. The aim of this article is to give an overview about the state of the art in dose reduction in CT and to highlight currently available tools in dose management.  By performing a literature research on Pubmed regarding dose reduction in CT, relevant articles were identified and analyzed.  Technical innovations with individual adaptation of tube current and voltage as well as iterative image reconstruction enable a considerable dose reduction with preserved image quality. At the same time, dedicated software tools are able to handle huge amounts of data and allow to optimize existing examination protocols.   · CT examinations are increasingly performed and contribute considerably to non-natural radiation exposure.. · A correct indication is crucial for each CT examination.. · The examination protocol has to be tailored to the medical question and patient.. · Multiple technical innovations enable considerable dose reduction with constant image quality.. · Dose management with dedicated software tools gains importance.. · Zinsser D, Marcus R, Othman AE et al. Dose reduction and dose management in computed tomography - State of the art. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-101261. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: State-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques are emerging with great potential to improve the diagnosis and management of various spinal pathologies, but the current body of evidence has only showed limited clinical utility to date. Among these imaging tools DTI is the most mature, but further work is necessary to standardize and validate its use before it will be adopted in the clinical realm. Large, well-designed studies with a priori hypotheses, standardized acquisition methods, detailed clinical data collection, and robust automated analysis techniques are needed to fully demonstrate the potential of these rapidly evolving techniques.

  10. Indoor Positioning with Smartphones:The State-of-the-art and the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ruizhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning is one of the core technologies of artificial intelligence (AI in the future and will play a pivotal role in the upcoming era of AI. Currently, indoor positioning is one of the hot research topics in academic and industrial society. Google, as one of the leading information technology (IT companies, has listed visual positioning service (VPS as one of the core technologies. Apple has endeavored to prompt iBeacon, the low energy Bluetooth technology for indoor positioning. In cooperation with a Finnish company, IndoorAltas, Baidu launched an indoor positioning program with a magnetic matching approach. All these initiatives and new technologies have shown the significance and necessaries of indoor positioning. However, affected by the complexity of the indoor spaces, it is still challenging to achieve accurate, effective, full coverage and real-time positioning solution indoors. With the popularity of smart phones and the rapid development of MEMS sensors in recent years, many methods have been proposed to use the smartphone built-in sensors and RF radios for indoor positioning. In this paper, we focus on indoor positioning technologies for smartphones and classify the different technologies into two categories, namely the radio frequency (RF technologies and the sensors technologies. The state-of-the-art of the technologies has been reviewed. The pros and cons of the technologies have been commented in the context of different application scenarios. Moreover, the challenges of indoor positioning have also been pointed out and the directions of the future development of this area have been discussed.

  11. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The state of the art of wind energy conversion systems and technologies: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ming; Zhu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems. • Different types of common wind energy conversion systems are classified and compared. • The four most popular MPPT control methods are reviewed and compared. • The latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced. • Future trends of the wind energy conversion technologies are discussed. - Abstract: This paper gives a comprehensive review of the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and technologies, with an emphasis on wind power generator and control. First, different types of common WECSs are classified according to their features and drive train types. The WECSs are compared on the basis of the volume, weight, cost, efficiency, system reliability and fault ride through capability. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, which aims to make the generator speed meet an optimum value to ensure the maximum energy yield, plays a key role in the variable speed WECSs. A comprehensive review and comparison of the four most popular MPPT control methods are carried out and improvements for each method are presented. Furthermore, the latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced, such as the brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG), the stator permanent magnet synchronous generators, the magnetic-geared generators, dual power flow WECS with the electrical variable transmission (EVT) machine, and direct grid-connected WECS. Finally, the future trends of the technologies are discussed

  13. CryoSat Plus for Oceans - analysis of the state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Marc; Gommenginger, Christine; Moreau, Thomas; Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo Dinardo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project is an ESA initiative carried out by a European wide consortium of altimetry experts. It aims to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of data coming from CryoSat-2 over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for seafloor mapping. It also generates and evaluates new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. It therefore also acts as a preparation for the upcoming Sentinel and Jason SAR enabled altimetry missions. In this paper we address the review of the CryoSat state-of-the-art, relevant current initiatives, algorithms, models and Earth Observation based products and datasets that are relevant in the Cryosat+ ocean theme. Compared to conventional (pulse-limited) altimeter missions, Cryosat-2 is not a dedicated platform for ocean research: typically the microwave radiometer (MWR) for wet tropospheric corrections is lacking, as is the direct measurement of the first order ionospheric effect by means of a dual-frequency altimeter. Also the orbit of Cryosat-2 has a rather long repetition period, unsuited for collinear tracks analyses. These three particular features have been studied already in the HERACLES project on the eve of the first CryoSat launch. We revisit the outcome of this study, update to current understanding and perception, and ultimately develop what was, is and will be proposed in these problem areas. Clearly, we question the standard ionosphere corrections, the wet troposphere corrections and the accuracy of the mean sea surface (MSS) underlying the accuracy of derived sea level anomalies. In addition, Cryosat-2 provides the first innovative altimeter with SAR and SARIn modes. This raises the direct problem of "how to process these data", simply because this has not been done before. Compared to pulse-limited altimetry it

  14. Basics and state-of-the-art of modal testing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the current status of the technology of modal testing is reviewed with particular reference to the application of these methodsto the task of ensuring the optimum design of mechanical structures. Existing methods are summarised and new techniques which are currently under development are described.

  15. Fine pitch thermosonic wire bonding: analysis of state-of-the-art manufacturing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavasin, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    A comprehensive process characterization was performed at the Motorola plastic package assembly site in Selangor, Malaysia, to document the current fine pitch wire bond process capability, using state-of-the-art equipment, in an actual manufacturing environment. Two machines, representing the latest technology from two separate manufacturers, were operated one shift per day for five days, bonding a 132 lead Plastic Quad Flat Pack. Using a test device specifically designed for fine pitch wire bonding, the bonding programs were alternated between 107 micrometers and 92 micrometers pad pitch, running each pitch for a total of 1600 units per machine. Wire, capillary type, and related materials were standardized and commercially available. A video metrology measurement system, with a demonstrated six sigma repeatability band width of 0.51 micrometers , was utilized to measure the bonded units for bond dimensions and placement. Standard Quality Assurance (QA) metrics were also performed. Results indicate that state-of-the-art thermosonic wire bonding can achieve acceptable assembly yields at these fine pad pitches.

  16. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallon, Magalie [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, UMR CNRS 5220 - INSERM U1044, INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon-Saint-Etienne, Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint Etienne (France); Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Delattre, Benedicte; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Merlini, Laura [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging. (orig.)

  17. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viallon, Magalie; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven; Delattre, Benedicte; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva; Merlini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging. (orig.)

  18. Digital multicolor printing: state of the art and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1995-04-01

    During the last 5 years, digital techniques have become extremely important in the graphic arts industry. All sections in the production flow for producing multicolor printed products - prepress, printing and postpress - are influenced by digitalization, in an evolutionary and revolutionary way. New equipment and network techniques bring all the sections closer together. The focus is put on high-quality multicolor printing, together with high productivity. Conventional offset printing technology is compared with the leading nonimpact printing technologies. Computer to press is contrasted with computer to print techniques. The newest available digital multicolor presses are described - the direct imaging offset printing press from HEIDELBERG with new laser imaging technique as well as the INDIGO and XEIKON presses based on electrophotography. Regarding technical specifications, economic calculations and print quality, it is worked out that each technique has its own market segments. An outlook is given for future computer to press techniques and the potential of nonimpact printing technologies for advanced high-speed multicolor computer to print equipment. Synergy effects from the NIP-technologies to the conventional printing technologies and vice versa are possible for building up innovative new products, for example hybrid printing systems. It is also shown that there is potential for improving the print quality, based on special screening algorithms, and a higher number of grey levels per pixel by using NIP-technologies. As an intermediate step in digitalization of the production flow, but also as an economical solution computer to plate equipment is described. By producing printed products totally in a digital way, digital color proofing as well as color management systems are needed. The newest high-tech equipment using NIP-technologies for producing proofs is explained. All in all it is shown that the state of the art in digital multicolor printing has reached

  19. IEC planning: eight state-of-the-art principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J

    1983-12-01

    Considerable experience and research has been accumulated in the last 20 years on the ways in which information/education/communication (IEC) programs can be effectively designed, implemented, and evaluated. Possibly more effort has focused on population and family planning IEC than on any other sectoral program of development communication. Several principles have emerged which, taken together, define the state of the art in the field. These principles provide a framework of experience which can guide the development of comprehensive IEC programs. They include: policy and resource assessment; audience analysis; strategy design; message research and pretesting; participation and feedback; management; evaluation; and collaboration. The nature of the national policy base for population and family planning programs will determine the goals and approaches of the IEC program. Strong policies of limitation on popultion growth lead to equally strong and pervasive IEC efforts designed to directly affect contraceptive behavior. Assessment of existing policy is an essential aspect of the design of an effective IEC program. Policies establish the rationale and boundaries for action. Population and family planning programs are concerned with some of the most intimate human behavior. Consequently, structured and sensitive audience analysis has become an integral part of the design of IEC programs. The design of communication strategy requires clearly stated objectives. Principles of human learning are used to structure information appropriately. Message research and pretesting have become integral components of the strategy design process. Small scale research on specific objectives is necessary to establish the basis for message design. Audience participation and feedback in remaining phases of program development and implementation are important. The management of an IEC program requires a specific combination of planning, flexibility, and creativity. Evaluation of program

  20. Deep Learning for Brain MRI Segmentation: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Galimzianova, Alfiia; Hoogi, Assaf; Rubin, Daniel L; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI is routine for many neurological diseases and conditions and relies on accurate segmentation of structures of interest. Deep learning-based segmentation approaches for brain MRI are gaining interest due to their self-learning and generalization ability over large amounts of data. As the deep learning architectures are becoming more mature, they gradually outperform previous state-of-the-art classical machine learning algorithms. This review aims to provide an overview of current deep learning-based segmentation approaches for quantitative brain MRI. First we review the current deep learning architectures used for segmentation of anatomical brain structures and brain lesions. Next, the performance, speed, and properties of deep learning approaches are summarized and discussed. Finally, we provide a critical assessment of the current state and identify likely future developments and trends.

  1. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, E.A.M., E-mail: lizoflynn@doctors.org.u [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Wilson, A.R.M.; Michell, M.J. [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues.

  2. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative

  3. 14 CFR 1203.403 - State-of-the-art and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-of-the-art and intelligence. 1203.403... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.403 State-of-the-art and intelligence. A logical... available from intelligence sources is known or is available to others. It is also important to consider...

  4. 77 FR 5281 - State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket ID: NRC-2012-0022] State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence... release of Draft NUREG-1935, ``State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) Report,'' for public... offsite radiological health consequences for potential severe reactor accidents for the Peach Bottom...

  5. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  6. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, Pippa

    2009-04-01

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the effects 3-D Earth structure upon GIA processes

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Pippa (Durham Univ., Dept. of Geography, Durham (United Kingdom))

    2009-04-15

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the

  8. An Assessment of the State of the Art of Curriculum Materials and a Status Assessment of Training Programs for Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians. Task Analysis and Descriptions of Required Job Competencies of Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Daniel M.; Lovett, James E.

    This report presents the results of research conducted to determine the current state of the art of robotics/automated systems technician (RAST) training offered in the United States. Section I discusses the RAST curriculum project, of which this state-of-the-art review is a part, and offers a RAST job description. Section II describes the…

  9. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  10. The SESAME project. State of the art liquid metal thermal hydraulics and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, F.; Shams, A.; Batta, A.; Moreau, V.; Di Piazza, I.; Gerschenfeld, A.; Planquart, P.; Tarantino, M. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    The European Sustainable Nuclear Industry Initiative (ESNII) aims at industrial application of fast reactor technology for a sustainable nuclear energy production. Currently four demonstration projects have a promising outlook in Europe, i.e. the ASTRID project in France, the MYRRHA project in Belgium, the ALFRED pan-European project to be realized in Romania, and SEALER in Sweden. Sodium and lead(-alloys) are envisaged as coolants for these reactors. Obviously, in the development of these reactors, thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key challenge with emphasis on safety issues. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge with respect to experiments and simulation techniques as pursued in the Horizon 2020 SESAME (thermal hydraulics Simulations and Experiments for the Safety Assessment of MEtal cooled reactors) project.

  11. State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2008-06-01

    Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.

  12. A state-of-the-art plasma polymerization coater for ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Letts, S.; Cook, R.; Brusasco, R.

    1992-01-01

    Increasingly stringent demands on the characteristics of plasma polymer coatings for use in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have created a need for a plasma Polymerization coating system with the capability of producing a wide variety of different types of coatings as well as one that can be used to do fundamental investigations of the process conditions leading to desirable films. We report on the construction and use of just such a coating instrument. We have recognized the usefulness of computer assisted process monitoring and control, currently being developed by the semiconductor industry, in designing our own, State-of-the-art plasma polymerization device. Our system is fully computer interfaced to provide the user with the capability of collecting system parameter data over the length of the deposition experiment. The system is also designed to allow for any degree of computer control of the deposition process in the future

  13. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  14. Wastewater treatment modelling in practice: a collaborative discussion of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H M; Sahlstedt, K E; Frank, K; Bratby, J; Brennan, W; Rogowski, S; Pier, D; Anderson, W; Mulas, M; Copp, J B; Shirodkar, N

    2009-01-01

    Three consulting teams conducted independent modelling projects for three different wastewater treatment plants ranging in size from approximately 113,800 m(3)/d (30 mgd) to 530,000 m(3)/d (140 mgd), in different parts of the world (USA and Finland). The plants have different treatment objectives ranging from nitrification and partial denitrification (nitrate plus nitrite BioWin), and a variation of the Dold model methanol degradation capabilities (NGmeth within GPS-X). The authors compare and contrast the modelling approaches taken, including calibration and validation approaches, sensitivity analyses, and the application of results to full-scale studies, designs and operations. Despite several differences between the approaches, there are many similarities which are discussed in light of the IWA draft uniform protocol for activated sludge modelling. The authors also discuss current modelling limitations and offer suggestions to improve the state of the art.

  15. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors from basis to state-of-the-art applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Candid; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in 1988, spintronics has been presented as a new technology paradigm, awarded by the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2007. Initially used in read heads of hard disk drives, and while disputing a piece of the market to the flash memories, GMR devices have broadened their range of usage by growing towards magnetic field sensing applications in a huge range of scenarios. Potential applications at the time of the discovery have become real in the last two decades. Definitively, GMR was born to stand. In this sense, selected successful approaches of GMR based sensors in different applications: space, automotive, microelectronics, biotechnology … are collected in the present book. While keeping a practical orientation, the fundamentals as well as the current trends and challenges of this technology are also analyzed. In this sense, state of the art contributions from academy and industry can be found through the contents. This book can be used by starting ...

  16. Trends in Mobile Computing: State-of-the-Art and Next Steps

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Computing is moving to the edge of the network. It is becoming increasingly personal and allowing people to enjoy and express themselves in unprecedented ways. The same development allows professionals and enterprises to increase quality and productivity through improved mobility. The seminar discusses the underlying technical and societal trends and the state-of-the-art of mobile computing. Examples of current developments include the transformation of mobile devices into servers, augmented reality in mobile devices and the opportunities offered by wireless sensor networks. The fusion of the physical and digital worlds enabled by mobile computing is driving industry and society to adopt new uses of digital technologies and causing the focus of development to shift from hardware products to new services. Bio:Since 2004 Prof. Jan Bosch is working as Vice President and Head of the Software and Application Technology Laboratory of Nokia Research Centre in Helsinki, Finland. The Software & Application Tec...

  17. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  18. State-of-the-art review of some artificial intelligence applications in pile foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical engineering deals with materials (e.g. soil and rock that, by their very nature, exhibit varied and uncertain behavior due to the imprecise physical processes associated with the formation of these materials. Modeling the behavior of such materials in geotechnical engineering applications is complex and sometimes beyond the ability of most traditional forms of physically-based engineering methods. Artificial intelligence (AI is becoming more popular and particularly amenable to modeling the complex behavior of most geotechnical engineering applications because it has demonstrated superior predictive ability compared to traditional methods. This paper provides state-of-the-art review of some selected AI techniques and their applications in pile foundations, and presents the salient features associated with the modeling development of these AI techniques. The paper also discusses the strength and limitations of the selected AI techniques compared to other available modeling approaches.

  19. State-of-the-art review of some artificial intelligence applications in pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Geotechnical engineering deals with materials (e.g. soil and rock) that, by their very nature, exhibit varied and uncertain behavior due to the imprecise physical processes associated with the formation of these materials. Modeling the behavior of such materials in geotechnical engineering applications is complex and sometimes beyond the ability of most traditional forms of physically-based engineering methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more popular and particularly amenable to modeling the complex behavior of most geotechnical engineering applications because it has demonstrated superior predictive ability compared to traditional methods. This paper provides state-of-the-art review of some selected AI techniques and their applications in pile foundations, and presents the salient features associated with the modeling development of these AI techniques. The paper also discusses the strength and limitations of the selected AI techniques compared to other available modeling approaches.

  20. The Consensus of Strategic Consensus: A Study of the State of the Art about the Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the strategic consensus, emphasizing the approaches and the nature of the research methods used, the results obtained and the future agenda for this theme studies. Analyzing beyond the last four decades of publications, it was understood that relating the strategic consensus only with the performance and strategic levels can be seen as something limited, suggesting the need to bring to the researching field new aspects and backgrounds as innovation, the methods for generating new ideas, the occurrence beyond the Top Management Team level (TMT, among others. Moreover, concludes that the predominant approach the strategic consensus is a process and the methodology used is based on quantitative techniques. As a suggestion for future studies, this study indicates the investigation of situations in which the strategic consensus is not positive.

  1. State of the art of fusion material recycling and remaining issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Broden, K.; Pace, L. Di; Ooms, L.; Pampin, R.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion as a power production system presents several advantages in terms of safety and environmental impact, one of these being the limited amount of radioactive waste production which is burden for future generations. Nevertheless, even if fusion does not produce long term radioactive waste, e.g. by adequate material selection for plasma facing components, there are two important aspects deserving consideration: the presence of tritium in relatively large quantity, and the very hard neutron spectrum leading to large amounts of active materials. In order to keep radioactive waste levels to a minimum it has been proposed to recycle the materials removed from the reactor, after adequate decay period and proper handling and treatment. Treatment may include detritiation, separation of different material types and sorting of the non reusable materials, among others. Moreover if recycle or reuse (within the nuclear industry in general or, for some particular materials, within the fusion industry) are foreseen, the material has to be melted or reduced to reusable raw material, machined or the pieces fabricated again, assembled and checked (for geometrical correctness, or leak tightness for instance). And all this has to be made on industrial scale, as fusion will produce large amounts of material presenting various degrees of radioactivity and tritium content. Even if some experience of recycling exists in the nuclear fission industry, which can be used for fusion materials, the different steps mentioned above are challenging operations when dealing with tritiated materials or highly radioactive components. The paper presents a review of the current situation and state-of-the-art recycling methods for typical fusion materials (e.g. Beryllium, Tungsten, Copper and Copper alloys, steel, Carbon) and components of future fusion plants based on current conceptual design studies. It also focuses attention on R-and-D issues to be addressed in order to be able to recycle as much

  2. State of the art vs biological variability: Comparison on hematology parameters using Spanish EQAS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A; Guiñon, L; Perez, A; Segurana, A; Bedini, J L; Reverter, J C; Merino, A

    2018-02-05

    It is important for clinical laboratories to maintain under control the possible sources of error in its analytical determinations. The objective of this work is to perform an analysis of the total error committed by laboratories using the data extracted from the Spanish External Quality Assessment Program in Hematology and to compare them with the specifications based on the biological variability proposed by the Ricós group. We analyzed a total of 3 89 000 results during the period 2015-2016 from the following quantitative schemes of Spanish External Quality Assessment Program: complete blood count, blood coagulation tests, differential leukocyte count, reticulocytes, hemoglobin A 2 , antithrombin, factor VIII, protein C, and von Willebrand factor. It has been considered as an indicator of the current performance the value of total error that 90% of laboratories are able to achieve, taking into account 75% of their results. We found some magnitudes whose biological variability specifications are achievable by most of the laboratories for either minimum, desirable, or optimum criteria: white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, platelets, fibrinogen, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. However, current performance for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin A 2 only allows to meet the specifications based on the state of the art. Our results reflect the feasibility of establishing specifications based on biological variability criteria or the state of the art, which may help to select the proper criteria for each parameter. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. State of the art on reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, P.; Fry, D.; Stegemann, D.; Van Dam, H.

    1986-01-01

    This report is the result of the work of a task force sponsored by the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics (NEACRP) and is divided into six chapters: 1. Loose-Parts Detection and Acoustic Monitoring, 2. Thermal Hydraulics Surveillance, 3. Flow Measurements, 4. Vibration Monitoring, 5. Surveillance Systems and Evaluation Methods, and 6. System Dynamic Analysis. Each chapter summarizes the current situation in noise analysis techniques with emphasis on the following aspects: . physical quantities considered, . possible anomalies involved, . sensors used for the detection, and . conditions of applications. The remainder of each chapter discusses future trends and recommendations

  4. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Raziel; Shapiro, Amir

    2011-04-26

    Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the option of carrying batteries to the

  5. State of the art and prospectives of smart rotor control for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, T K; Kuik, G A M van

    2007-01-01

    The continued reduction in cost of energy of wind turbines, especially with the increasingly upscaling of the rotor, will require contribution from technology advances in many areas. Reducing loads on the rotor can offer great reduction to the total cost of wind turbines. With the increasing size of wind turbine blades, the need for more sophisticated load control techniques has induced the interest for locally distributed aerodynamic control systems with built-in intelligence on the blades. Such concepts are often named in popular terms 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This paper focuses on research regarding active rotor control and smart structures for load reduction. It presents an overview of available knowledge and future concepts on the application of active aerodynamic control and smart structures for wind turbine applications. The goal of the paper is to provide a perspective on the current status and future directions of the specific area of research. It comprises a novel attempt to summarize and analyze possible advanced control systems for future wind turbines. The overview builds on existing research on helicopter rotors and expands similar concepts for wind turbine applications, based on ongoing research in the field. Research work has been analyzed through UPWIND project's work package on Smart Rotor Blades and Rotor Control. First, the specifications of unsteady loads, the state of the art of modern control for load reduction and the need for more advanced and detailed active aerodynamic control are analyzed. Also, overview of available knowledge in application of active aerodynamic control on rotating blades, from helicopter research, is provided. Concepts, methods, and achieved results are presented. Furthermore, R and D so far and up-to-date ongoing progress of similar applications for wind turbines are presented. Feasibility studies for wind turbine applications, preliminary performance evaluation and novel computational and

  6. Bio-aggregates based building materials state-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 236-BBM

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The work of the RILEM Technical Committee (TC -236 BBM) was dedicated to the study of construction materials made from plant particles. It considered the question whether building materials containing as main raw material recyclable and easily available plant particles are renewable. This book includes a state-of-the-art report and an appendix. The state-of-the-art report relates to the description of vegetal aggregates. Then, hygrothermal properties, fire resistance, durability and finally the impact of the variability of the method of production of bio-based concrete are assessed. The appendix is a TC report which presents the experience of a working group. The goal was to define testing methods for the measurement of water absorption, bulk density, particle size distribution, and thermal conductivity of bio aggregates. The work is based on a first round robin test of the TC-BBM where the protocols in use by the different laboratories (labs) are compared. .

  7. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  8. Pressure Sensor: State of the Art, Design, and Application for Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Almassri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey the state of the art in a variety of force sensors for designing and application of robotic hand. Most of the force sensors are examined based on tactile sensing. For a decade, many papers have widely discussed various sensor technologies and transducer methods which are based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS and silicon used for improving the accuracy and performance measurement of tactile sensing capabilities especially for robotic hand applications. We found that transducers and materials such as piezoresistive and polymer, respectively, are used in order to improve the sensing sensitivity for grasping mechanisms in future. This predicted growth in such applications will explode into high risk tasks which requires very precise purposes. It shows considerable potential and significant levels of research attention.

  9. The self-consistent multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing. Motivations, state of the art and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, N.; Dupuis, M.; Hupin, G.; Berger, J.F. [DAM, CEA, Arpajon (France); Robin, C. [Western Michigan University, Department of Physics, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The main objective of this paper is to review the state of the art of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach which was proposed and implemented using the Gogny interaction ∝ 10 years ago. Various theoretical aspects are re-analyzed when a Hamiltonian description is chosen: the link with exact many-body theories, the impact of truncations in the multiconfigurational space, the importance of defining single-particle orbitals which are consistent with the correlations introduced in the many-body wave function, the role of the self-consistency, and more practically the numerical convergence algorithm. Several applications done with the phenomenological effective Gogny interaction are discussed. Finally, future directions to extend and generalize the method are discussed. (orig.)

  10. State of the art on defenses against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Giannetsos, T.; Dimitriou, T.

    2009-01-01

    describe the wormhole attack, a severe routing attack against sensor networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. We detail its characteristics and study its effects on the successful operation of a sensor network. We present state-of-the-art research for addressing wormhole related...... the possibility of using more sophisticated methods, like intrusion detection systems, to achieve a more complete and autonomic defense mechanism against wormhole attackers. We present our work on intrusion detection and introduce a lightweight IDS framework, called LIDeA, designed for wireless sensor networks....... LIDeA is based on a distributed architecture, in which nodes overhear their neighboring nodes and collaborate with each other in order to successfully detect an intrusion. We conclude by highlighting how such a system can be used for defending against wormhole attackers....

  11. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...... in a full band, a subband system, a subband system with frequency shifting, and a recently proposed subband system with a novel probe noise deployment. All systems outperformed the traditional full-band system in cancellation performance, especially the subband system with probe noise is most effective...... for cancellation. However, in all cases there was a trade-off between performance and computational cost. With a 3-times increase in computation load, the probe noise based cancellation system can be realized that functions even in the most challenging feedback situation....

  12. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  13. Additive manufacturing of titanium alloys state of the art, challenges and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys: State of the Art, Challenges and Opportunities provides alternative methods to the conventional approach for the fabrication of the majority of titanium components produced via the cast and wrought technique, a process which involves a considerable amount of expensive machining. In contrast, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) approach allows very close to final part configuration to be directly fabricated minimizing machining cost, while achieving mechanical properties at least at cast and wrought levels. In addition, the book offers the benefit of significant savings through better material utilization for parts with high buy-to-fly ratios (ratio of initial stock mass to final part mass before and after manufacturing). As titanium additive manufacturing has attracted considerable attention from both academicians and technologists, and has already led to many applications in aerospace and terrestrial systems, as well as in the medical industry, this book explores the un...

  14. Global Software Development: A Review of the State-Of-The-Art (2007-2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    a state-of-the-art review of the GSD research literature published in the main venue of Global Software Engineering in order to identify the main research trends and gaps that needs to be filled by future research. We were also interested placing the findings of our review with respect to a practice......-driven GSD research agenda. Method: We used structured literature review methodology for which we decided to select and review the recently published research papers (i.e., 2007 - 2011) from the International Conference in Global Software Engineering (ICGSE). We used a framework for organizing GSD research...... challenges and threats and a practice-driven research agenda for extracting and organizing the data from the reviewed papers. We used theoretical reasoning for classifying the reviewed papers under different categories, which were mainly based on the framework, a decision that also enabled us to propose...

  15. Base technology development enhances state-of-the-art in meeting performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, J.M.; Allen, G.C. Jr.; Luna, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has responsibility to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for baseline technology to support the design of radioactive material transportation packages. To fulfill this responsibility, SNL works with industry, government agencies, and national laboratories to identify and develop state-of-the-art technology required to design and test safe, cost-effective radioactive materials packages. Principal elements of the base technology program include: 1) analysis techniques, 2) testing, 3) subsystem and component development, 4) packaging systems development support, and 5) technical support for policy development. These program elements support a systems approach for meeting performance requirements and assure that there is a sound underlying technical basis for both transportation packaging design and associated policy decisions. Highlights from the base technology program included in this paper are testing, design and analysis methods, advanced materials, risk assessment and logistics models, and transportation package support

  16. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  17. The self-consistent multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing. Motivations, state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, N.; Robin, C.; Dupuis, M.; Hupin, G.; Berger, J.-F.

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the state of the art of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach which was proposed and implemented using the Gogny interaction ˜ 10 years ago. Various theoretical aspects are re-analyzed when a Hamiltonian description is chosen: the link with exact many-body theories, the impact of truncations in the multiconfigurational space, the importance of defining single-particle orbitals which are consistent with the correlations introduced in the many-body wave function, the role of the self-consistency, and more practically the numerical convergence algorithm. Several applications done with the phenomenological effective Gogny interaction are discussed. Finally, future directions to extend and generalize the method are discussed.

  18. The self-consistent multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing. Motivations, state of the art and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, N.; Dupuis, M.; Hupin, G.; Berger, J.F.; Robin, C.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to review the state of the art of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach which was proposed and implemented using the Gogny interaction ∝ 10 years ago. Various theoretical aspects are re-analyzed when a Hamiltonian description is chosen: the link with exact many-body theories, the impact of truncations in the multiconfigurational space, the importance of defining single-particle orbitals which are consistent with the correlations introduced in the many-body wave function, the role of the self-consistency, and more practically the numerical convergence algorithm. Several applications done with the phenomenological effective Gogny interaction are discussed. Finally, future directions to extend and generalize the method are discussed. (orig.)

  19. State-of-the-art and problems of X-ray diffraction analysis of biomacromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N. S.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules is briefly characterized, and the challenge imposed by science is discussed. These studies are characterized by a wide scope and extensive use. This field of science is of great interest and is developed in many countries. The main purpose is to solve practical problems in medicine consisting in the design of drugs against various diseases. X-ray diffraction analysis of enzymes brought the pharmaceutical industry to a new level, thus allowing the rational design of drugs against formerly untreatable diseases. Modern X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules laid the basis for a new science called structural biology. This method allows one to solve fundamental problems of physical chemistry for a new state of matter existing in living systems. Here, science poses numerous problems in analysis of X-ray diffraction data on biological macromolecules. Many of theses problems are in their infancy

  20. Background and state of the art of near infrared spectroscopy in the forest sector base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, G.I.B. de; Magalhães, W.L.E.; Carneiro, M.E.; Viana, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of wood properties is the fundamental importance for the indication of the potential and use of this material. In the search for new alternatives for a fast, simple and reliable characterization, there are the non-destructive evaluations of wood. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used as a non-destructive method that allows qualitative and quantitative information of the constituents of biomass through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with near-infrared next to the sample. This work aims to provide a review of the technique of near infrared spectroscopy and its application in forestry. The technique is used in virtually all areas due to the level of development that this technology has reached in recent years. NIR spectroscopy has proved a quick and efficient replacement of several tests that determine the quality of the wood. This is a literature review and state of the art on the theme [pt

  1. Theory and state-of-the-art technology of software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Norio

    1999-11-01

    Since FY 1997 , the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been conducting a project , Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems. As part of the project , the methodologies and tools to improve software reliability were reviewed in order to examine the theory and the state-of-the-art technology in this field. It is surmised, as results from the review, that computerized software design and implementation tool (CASE tool), algebraic analysis to ensure the consistency between software requirement framework and its detailed design specification, and efficient test method using the internal information of the software (white-box test) at the validation phase just before the completion of the development will play a key role to enhance software reliability in the future. (author)

  2. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selected examples of intelligent (micro) sensor systems: state-of-the-art and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2006-03-01

    The capability of intelligent sensors to have more intelligence built into them continues to drive their application in areas including automotive, aerospace and defense, industrial, intelligent house and wear, medical and homeland security. In principle it is difficult to overestimate the importance of intelligent (micro) sensors or sensor systems within advanced societies but one characteristic feature is the global market for sensors, which is now about 20 billion annually. Therefore sensors or sensor systems play a dominant role in many fields from the macro sensor in manufacturing industry down to the miniaturized sensor for medical applications. The diversity of sensors precludes a complete description of the state-of-the-art; selected examples will illustrate the current situation. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices are of special interest in the context of micro sensor systems. In past the main requirements of a sensor were in terms of metrological performance. The electrical (or optical) signal produced by the sensor needed to match the measure relatively accurately. Such basic functionality is no longer sufficient. Data processing near the sensor, the extraction of more information than just the direct sensor information by signal analysis, system aspects and multi-sensor information are the new demands. A shifting can be observed away from aiming to design perfect single-function transducers and towards the utilization of system-based sensors as system components. In the ideal case such systems contain sensors, actuators and electronics. They can be realized in monolithic, hybrid or discrete form—which kind is used depends on the application. In this article the state-of-the-art of intelligent sensors or sensor systems is reviewed using selected examples. Future trends are deduced.

  4. ARIA: Delivering state-of-the-art InSAR products to end users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agram, P. S.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Manipon, G.; Sacco, G. F.; Bue, B. D.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Center for Natural Hazards aims to bring state-of-the-art geodetic imaging capabilities to an operational level in support of local, national, and international hazard response communities. ARIA project's first foray into operational generation of InSAR products was with Calimap Project, in collaboration with ASI-CIDOT, using X-band data from the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation. Over the last year, ARIA's processing infrastructure has been significantly upgraded to exploit the free stream of high quality C-band SAR data from ESA's Sentinel-1 mission and related algorithmic improvements to the ISCE software. ARIA's data system can now operationally generate geocoded unwrapped phase and coherence products in GIS-friendly formats from Sentinel-1 TOPS mode data in an automated fashion, and this capability is currently being exercised various study sites across the United States including Hawaii, Central California, Iceland and South America. The ARIA team, building on the experience gained from handling X-band data and C-band data, has also built an automated machine learning-based classifier to label the auto-generated interferograms based on phase unwrapping quality. These high quality "time-series ready" InSAR products generated using state-of-the-art processing algorithms can be accessed by end users using two different mechanisms - 1) a Faceted-search interface that includes browse imagery for quick visualization and 2) an ElasticSearch-based API to enable bulk automated download, post-processing and time-series analysis. In this talk, we will present InSAR results from various global events that ARIA system has responded to. We will also discuss the set of geospatial big data tools including GIS libraries and API tools, that end users will need to familiarize themselves with in order to maximize the utilization of continuous stream of InSAR products from the Sentinel-1 and NISAR missions that the ARIA project will generate.

  5. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor/System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm “Broadwell” U-series processor / System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total ionizing dose (TID) are presented, along with exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts [1] by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  6. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor - System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm Broadwell U-series processor System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total dose are presented, along with first-look exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  7. Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Bredella, Miriam A; Cypess, Aaron M; Torriani, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The rates of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disease have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. In recent years there has been renewed interest in combating these diseases not only by modifying energy intake and lifestyle factors, but also by inducing endogenous energy expenditure. This approach has largely been stimulated by the recent recognition that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-long known to promote heat production and energy expenditure in infants and hibernating mammals-also exists in adult humans. This landmark finding relied on the use of clinical fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and imaging techniques continue to play a crucial and increasingly central role in understanding BAT physiology and function. Herein, the authors review the origins of BAT imaging, discuss current preclinical and clinical strategies for imaging BAT, and discuss imaging methods that will provide crucial insight into metabolic disease and how it may be treated by modulating BAT activity. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  8. State-of-the-art modeling capabilities for Orimulsion modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekirge, H.M.; Palmer, S.L.; Convery, K.; Ileri, L.

    1996-01-01

    The pollution response of Orimulsion was discussed. Orimulsion is an inexpensive alternative to fuel oil No. 6. It has the capability to heat large industrial and electric utility boilers. It is an emulsion composed of approximately 70% bitumen (a heavy hydrocarbon) and 30% water to which a surfactant has been added. It has a specific gravity of one or higher, so it is of particular concern in the event of a spill. The physical and chemical processes that would take place in an Orimulsion spill were studied and incorporated into the design of the model ORI SLIK, a fate and transport model for marine environments. The most critical decision in using ORI SLIK is the assignment of the number of parcels into which the initial spill volume will be divided since an underspecification would result in inaccurate results. However, no reliable methods for determining this, other than a decision based on trial and error, has been found. It was concluded that while many of the complex processes of Orimulsion in marine environments are approximated in currently available models, some areas still need further study. Among these are the effect of current shear, changing particle densities, and differential settling. 24 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  9. Development of a state-of-the-art solid waste characterisation facility at JRC ISPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Hubert, P.; Vassallo, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will review the development and construction of a state-of-the-art waste characterisation facility that represents a fundamental element in the JRC's strategy to characterise radioactive wastes originating from four decades of nuclear research activities conducted at the Ispra Site. The state-of-the-art NDA measurement solution selected by JRC-Ispra will be presented in the light of special requirements imposed by applicable Italian legislation, norms and the qualities of the waste packages. The intended plant combines the state-of-the-art-measurement solution with comprehensive process automation in an industrial environment and is therefore of significant interest to the radioactive waste management community. (orig.)

  10. Statistical dynamic image reconstruction in state-of-the-art high-resolution PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmim, Arman; Cheng, J-C; Blinder, Stephan; Camborde, Maurie-Laure; Sossi, Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Modern high-resolution PET is now more than ever in need of scrutiny into the nature and limitations of the imaging modality itself as well as image reconstruction techniques. In this work, we have reviewed, analysed and addressed the following three considerations within the particular context of state-of-the-art dynamic PET imaging: (i) the typical average numbers of events per line-of-response (LOR) are now (much) less than unity (ii) due to the physical and biological decay of the activity distribution, one requires robust and efficient reconstruction algorithms applicable to a wide range of statistics and (iii) the computational considerations in dynamic imaging are much enhanced (i.e., more frames to be stored and reconstructed). Within the framework of statistical image reconstruction, we have argued theoretically and shown experimentally that the sinogram non-negativity constraint (when using the delayed-coincidence and/or scatter-subtraction techniques) is especially expected to result in an overestimation bias. Subsequently, two schemes are considered: (a) subtraction techniques in which an image non-negativity constraint has been imposed and (b) implementation of random and scatter estimates inside the reconstruction algorithms, thus enabling direct processing of Poisson-distributed prompts. Both techniques are able to remove the aforementioned bias, while the latter, being better conditioned theoretically, is able to exhibit superior noise characteristics. We have also elaborated upon and verified the applicability of the accelerated list-mode image reconstruction method as a powerful solution for accurate, robust and efficient dynamic reconstructions of high-resolution data (as well as a number of additional benefits in the context of state-of-the-art PET)

  11. Why does cervical cancer occur in a state-of-the-art screening program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Befano, Brian; Schussler, John; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The goal of cervical screening is to detect and treat precancers before some become cancer. We wanted to understand why, despite state-of-the-art methods, cervical cancers occured in relationship to programmatic performance at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), where >1,000,000 women aged ≥30years have undergone cervical cancer screening by triennial HPV and cytology cotesting since 2003. We reviewed clinical histories preceding cervical cancer diagnoses to assign "causes" of cancer. We calculated surrogate measures of programmatic effectiveness (precancers/(precancers and cancers)) and diagnostic yield (precancers and cancers per 1000 cotests), overall and by age at cotest (30-39, 40-49, and ≥50years). Cancer was rare and found mainly in a localized (treatable) stage. Of 623 cervical cancers with at least one preceding or concurrent cotest, 360 (57.8%) were judged to be prevalent (diagnosed at a localized stage within one year or regional/distant stage within two years of the first cotest). Non-compliance with recommended screening and management preceded 9.0% of all cancers. False-negative cotests/sampling errors (HPV and cytology negative), false-negative histologic diagnoses, and treatment failures preceded 11.2%, 9.0%, and 4.3%, respectively, of all cancers. There was significant heterogeneity in the causes of cancer by histologic category (p<0.001 for all; p=0.002 excluding prevalent cases). Programmatic effectiveness (95.3%) and diagnostic yield were greater for squamous cell versus adenocarcinoma histology (p<0.0001) and both decreased with older ages (p trend <0.0001). A state-of-the-art intensive screening program results in very few cervical cancers, most of which are detected early by screening. Screening may become less efficient at older ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Practical steganalysis of digital images: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav

    2002-04-01

    Steganography is the art of hiding the very presence of communication by embedding secret messages into innocuous looking cover documents, such as digital images. Detection of steganography, estimation of message length, and its extraction belong to the field of steganalysis. Steganalysis has recently received a great deal of attention both from law enforcement and the media. In our paper, we classify and review current stego-detection algorithms that can be used to trace popular steganographic products. We recognize several qualitatively different approaches to practical steganalysis - visual detection, detection based on first order statistics (histogram analysis), dual statistics methods that use spatial correlations in images and higher-order statistics (RS steganalysis), universal blind detection schemes, and special cases, such as JPEG compatibility steganalysis. We also present some new results regarding our previously proposed detection of LSB embedding using sensitive dual statistics. The recent steganalytic methods indicate that the most common paradigm in image steganography - the bit-replacement or bit substitution - is inherently insecure with safe capacities far smaller than previously thought.

  13. Exploring the Central Nervous System: methodological state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcourt, Jacques; Koulibaly, Pierre-Malick; Migneco, Octave

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the clinical use of brain SPECT demonstrate a defacing between the methodological developments published recently and its current use in clinical practice. We review a description of recent methodological developments that could be useful in three classical clinical application: the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the evaluation of dopaminergic neurotransmission in Parkinson's Disease and the study of epilepsy. In Alzheimer's disease the methods of spatial standardization and the comparison to a normative data base are more useful to observers that have the least experience and for this end methodological approaches that are oriented to routine work better and are simpler than SPM. Quantification is essential in the study of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the measurement of binding potential appears biased due to septal penetration, attenuation, diffusion and partial volume effect. Partial volume effect introduces most error and its correction is difficult because of the co registration precision required with magnetic resonance images. The study of epilepsy by subtraction of ictal and interictal SPECT has demonstrated its clinical value. It is a fusion of images operation that has now very well defined methods (au)

  14. State of the Art of X-ray Speckle-Based Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Zdora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging have evolved to be invaluable tools for non-destructive sample visualisation, delivering information inaccessible by conventional absorption imaging. X-ray phase-sensing techniques are furthermore increasingly used for at-wavelength metrology and optics characterisation. One of the latest additions to the group of differential phase-contrast methods is the X-ray speckle-based technique. It has drawn significant attention due to its simple and flexible experimental arrangement, cost-effectiveness and multimodal character, amongst others. Since its first demonstration at highly brilliant synchrotron sources, the method has seen rapid development, including the translation to polychromatic laboratory sources and extension to higher-energy X-rays. Recently, different advanced acquisition schemes have been proposed to tackle some of the main limitations of previous implementations. Current applications of the speckle-based method range from optics characterisation and wavefront measurement to biomedical imaging and materials science. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the X-ray speckle-based technique. Its basic principles and different experimental implementations as well as the the latest advances and applications are illustrated. In the end, an outlook for anticipated future developments of this promising technique is given.

  15. Laboratory screening markers in gastroenterology--state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocna, Petr; Vanickova, Zdislava; Zima, Tomas

    2013-06-01

    Screening tests for gastrointestinal diseases acceptable for population with a high sensitivity and high specificity can now be offered by clinical laboratories. This paper summarizes major recent advances in this area of laboratory medicine. Relevant articles published within the last 5 years in the NLM (National Library of Medicine) PubMed - Medline database covering the three gastrointestinal diseases - colorectal cancer, coeliac disease, and atrophic gastritis were included for this overview. In Europe, colorectal cancer (CRCA) is the second most frequent malignant disease. Quantitative immunochemical analysis of the stool for haemoglobin provides the best screening test to date, with both sensitivity and specificity approaching 95%. Even though coeliac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population, it remains largely unrecognised. Recommended methods for screening currently involve the detection of IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide. Evaluations of screening are now discussed for other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - such as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Detection of infection by Helicobacter pylori and stomach-specific plasmatic biomarkers, especially pepsinogen I/II ratio, could help with the prevention of gastric carcinomas. The use of faecal calprotectin as a screening test could substantially reduce the number of invasive methods necessary for the diagnostic work-up of patients with IBD. Screening tests for CRCA and CD have been used worldwide for many years. Screening strategies for gastrointestinal diseases are suggested in the text, based on recent basic science, clinical papers as well as our own experience.

  16. State of the Art Review: Poverty and the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jenna L.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, >40% of children are either poor or near-poor. As a group, children in poverty are more likely to experience worse health and more developmental delay, lower achievement, and more behavioral and emotional problems than their more advantaged peers; however, there is broad variability in outcomes among children exposed to similar conditions. Building on a robust literature from animal models showing that environmental deprivation or enrichment shapes the brain, there has been increasing interest in understanding how the experience of poverty may shape the brain in humans. In this review, we summarize research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and brain development, focusing on studies published in the last 5 years. Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by animal models, we highlight neural plasticity, epigenetics, material deprivation (eg, cognitive stimulation, nutrient deficiencies), stress (eg, negative parenting behaviors), and environmental toxins as factors that may shape the developing brain. We then summarize the existing evidence for the relationship between child poverty and brain structure and function, focusing on brain areas that support memory, emotion regulation, and higher-order cognitive functioning (ie, hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex) and regions that support language and literacy (ie, cortical areas of the left hemisphere). We then consider some limitations of the current literature and discuss the implications of neuroscience concepts and methods for interventions in the pediatric medical home. PMID:26952506

  17. MEMS packaging: state of the art and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossche, Andre; Cotofana, Carmen V. B.; Mollinger, Jeff R.

    1998-07-01

    Now that the technology for Integrated sensor and MEMS devices has become sufficiently mature to allow mass production, it is expected that the prices of bare chips will drop dramatically. This means that the package prices will become a limiting factor in market penetration, unless low cost packaging solutions become available. This paper will discuss the developments in packaging technology. Both single-chip and multi-chip packaging solutions will be addressed. It first starts with a discussion on the different requirements that have to be met; both from a device point of view (open access paths to the environment, vacuum cavities, etc.) and from the application point of view (e.g. environmental hostility). Subsequently current technologies are judged on their applicability for MEMS and sensor packaging and a forecast is given for future trends. It is expected that the large majority of sensing devices will be applied in relative friendly environments for which plastic packages would suffice. Therefore, on the short term an important role is foreseen for recently developed plastic packaging techniques such as precision molding and precision dispensing. Just like in standard electronic packaging, complete wafer level packaging methods for sensing devices still have a long way to go before they can compete with the highly optimized and automated plastic packaging processes.

  18. Genetic Bases of Stuttering: The State of the Art, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Yairi, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Objective The literature on the genetics of stuttering is reviewed with special reference to the historical development from psychosocial explanations leading up to current biological research of gene identification. Summary A gradual progression has been made from the early crude methods of counting percentages of stuttering probands who have relatives who stutter to recent studies using entire genomes of DNA collected from each participant. Despite the shortcomings of some early studies, investigators have accumulated a substantial body of data showing a large presence of familial stuttering. This encouraged more refined research in the form of twin studies. Concordance rates among twins were sufficiently high to lend additional support to the genetic perspective of stuttering. More sophisticated aggregation studies and segregation analyses followed, producing data that matched recognized genetic models, providing the final ‘go ahead’ to proceed from the behavior/statistical genetics into the sphere of biological genetics. Recent linkage and association studies have begun to reveal contributing genes to the disorder. Conclusion No definitive findings have been made regarding which transmission model, chromosomes, genes, or sex factors are involved in the expression of stuttering in the population at large. Future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22067705

  19. State-of-the-Art for Hygrothermal Simulation Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The hygrothermal (heat and moisture) performance of buildings can be assessed by utilizing simulation tools. There are currently a number of available hygrothermal calculation tools available which vary in their degree of sophistication and runtime requirements. This report investigates three of the most commonly used models (WUFI, HAMT, and EMPD) to assess their limitations and potential to generate physically realistic results to prioritize improvements for EnergyPlus (which uses HAMT and EMPD). The outcome of the study shows that, out of these three tools, WUFI has the greatest hygrothermal capabilities. Limitations of these tools were also assessed including: WUFI’s inability to properly account for air leakage and transfer at surface boundaries; HAMT’s inability to handle air leakage, precipitationrelated moisture problems, or condensation problems from high relative humidity; and multiple limitations for EMPD as a simplified method to estimate indoor temperature and humidity levels and generally not used to estimate the hygrothermal performance of the building envelope materials. In conclusion, out of the three investigated simulation tools, HAMT has the greatest modeling potential, is open source, and we have prioritized specific features that can enable EnergyPlus to model all relevant heat and moisture transfer mechanisms that impact the performance of building envelope components.

  20. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment

  1. Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estríngana, Pablo; Dunkerley, David; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art Arid and semiarid regions occupy two-fifth of the continents (Reynolds et al., 2007). These regions are characterized by dry climatic conditions, recurrent droughts and a scant rainfall pattern with a marked seasonality and a high inter-annual variability which makes water to be a scant resource and vegetation to follow a high variability spatial distribution pattern (Breshears et al., 1998; Cecchi et al., 2006; Dunkerley, 2008). These conditions make these areas more sensitive to climate change (Rowell, 2005) and to land use change as a consequence of land abandonment (Poyatos et al., 2003; Delgado et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010), increasing the risk of desertification (Puigdefábregas and Mendizabal, 1998; Geeson et al., 2002), in such a way that 65-70% of arid and semiarid areas are vulnerable to this degradation process (UNEP, 1991). Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensity or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant cover is the main factor that controls the soil erosion, controlling the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012; Haregeweyn, 2013). Soil erosion show non-sustainable rates under these regions, such as under Mediterranean conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010) and on agriculture land (Cerdà et al; 2007; 2009) due to climatic conditions, to parent material and to the roughed terrain (Romero Díaz et al., 2010). The traditional impact of grazing, of extremely intense fires, of ploughing and the widespread use of herbicides on agriculture, the increase of the road and railway embankments and the agricultural land abandonment cause vegetation removal. Canopy cover partitions rainfall reducing the amount of water reaching the soil and the kinetic energy of rainfall drops, protecting the soil against the impact of rainfall drops. Vegetation

  2. Analysis and simulation of emergency departments: state of the art and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbrabant, Lien; Braekers, Kris; Ramaekers, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    This abstract gives a brief overview of the state of the art on the analysis and simulation of emergency departments in hospitals. Based on this, research opportunities which will be addressed during my PhD are identified.

  3. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  4. Alternatives to overcoming bacterial resistances: State-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Alessandra C; Moutinho, Carla G; Pinto, Flávio C; Del Fiol, Fernando S; Jozala, Angela; Chaud, Marco V; Vila, Marta M D C; Teixeira, José A; Balcão, Victor M

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, bacterial resistance to chemical antibiotics has reached such a high level that endangers public health. Presently, the adoption of alternative strategies that promote the elimination of resistant microbial strains from the environment is of utmost importance. This review discusses and analyses several (potential) alternative strategies to current chemical antibiotics. Bacteriophage (or phage) therapy, although not new, makes use of strictly lytic phage particles as an alternative, or a complement, in the antimicrobial treatment of bacterial infections. It is being rediscovered as a safe method, because these biological entities devoid of any metabolic machinery do not possess any affinity whatsoever to eukaryotic cells. Lysin therapy is also recognized as an innovative antimicrobial therapeutic option, since the topical administration of preparations containing purified recombinant lysins with amounts in the order of nanograms, in infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, demonstrated a high therapeutic potential by causing immediate lysis of the target bacterial cells. Additionally, this therapy exhibits the potential to act synergistically when combined with certain chemical antibiotics already available on the market. Another potential alternative antimicrobial therapy is based on the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), amphiphilic polypeptides that cause disruption of the bacterial membrane and can be used in the treatment of bacterial, fungal and viral infections, in the prevention of biofilm formation, and as antitumoral agents. Interestingly, bacteriocins are a common strategy of bacterial defense against other bacterial agents, eliminating the potential opponents of the former and increasing the number of available nutrients in the environment for their own growth. They can be applied in the food industry as biopreservatives and as probiotics, and also in fighting multi-resistant bacterial strains. The use of antibacterial antibodies

  5. State of the art in polarized proton sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Present day polarized H/sup +/ and H/sup -/ ion sources are reviewed by describing the performance of sources representative of each of the techniques being used. New ideas for producing higher intensities are then mentioned. Presently, pulsed H/sup +/ currents in the milliampere range, and H/sup -/ currents of hundreds of μA's, can be obtained

  6. Symposium Connects Government Problems with State of the Art Network Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    Symposium Connects Government Problems with State-of-the- Art Network Science Research By Rajmonda S. Caceres and Benjamin A. Miller Network...the US Gov- ernment, and match these with the state-of-the- art models and techniques developed in the network science research community. Since its... science has grown significantly in the last several years as a field at the intersec- tion of mathematics, computer science , social science , and engineering

  7. URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL - STATE-OF-THE-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewer overflows are major sources of water pollution problems, but even discharges of stormwater alone can seriously affect water quality. Current approaches involve control of overflows, treatment, and combinations of the two. Control may involve maximizing treatment wi...

  8. Paediatric thoracoscopy: State of the art | Van Niekerk | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 49, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Application of Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (MHVSR) Analysis for Site Characterization: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25-33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site's MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  10. Application of microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (MHVSR) analysis for site characterization: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25–33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site’s MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  11. State-of-the-art protein engineering approaches using biological macromolecules: A review from immobilization to implementation view point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Guo, Shuqi; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2018-03-01

    Over the past years, technological and scientific advances have proven biocatalysis as a sustainable alternative than traditional chemical catalysis including organo- or metallocatalysis. In this context, immobilization based approaches represent simple but effective routes for engineering enzyme catalysts with higher activities than wild-type derivatives. Many enzymes including oxidoreductases have been engineered by rational and directed evolution, to realize the catalytic activity, enantioselectivity, and stability attributes which are essential for their biotechnological exploitation. Induce yet stable activity in enzyme catalysis offer new insights and motivation to engineer efficient catalysts for practical and commercial purposes. It has now become possible to envisage substrate accessibility to the catalytic site of the enzyme by current computational capabilities that reduce the experimental work related to the enzyme selection, screening, and engineering. Herein, state-of-the-art protein engineering approaches for improving enzymatic activities including chemical modification, directed evolution, and rational design or their combination methods are discussed. The emphasis is also given to the applications of the resulting tailored catalysts ranging from fine chemicals to novel pharmaceutical compounds that use biocatalysts as a vital step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation-effects state of the art 1965-1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamman, D.J.; Drennan, J.E.; Veazie, W.H.; Shober, F.R.; Leach, E.R.

    1966-06-30

    Developments in the field of radiation effects on electronic components including semiconductors, polymetric materials, lubricants, flotation fluids, hydraulic fluids, structural metals and alloys, ceramics, space radiation environment, dosimetry, and ceramic and metallic fuel materials are reviewed. Programs currently being conducted in radiation effects are briefly given for each section of the report.

  13. Corpora and Language Assessment: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the current state of and recent developments in the use of corpora for language assessment and considers future directions with a special focus on computational methodology. Because corpora began to make inroads into language assessment in the 1990s, test developers have increasingly used them as a reference resource to…

  14. Spatial Presence Theory: State of the art and challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Wirth, W.; Vorderer, P.A.; Klimmt, C.; Schramm, H.; Böcking, S.; Lombard, M.; Biocca, F.; Jonathan Freeman,; Wijnand IJsselsteijn,; Rachel J. Schaevitz,

    2015-01-01

    Highlights key research currently being undertaken within the field of telepresence, providing the most detailed account of the field to date, advancing our understanding of a fundamental property of all media - the illusion of presence; the sense of "being there" inside a virtual environment, with

  15. Kinetic Studies on State of the Art Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njodzefon, Jean-Claude; Graves, Christopher R.; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    of the technology, cell optimization and eventual commercialisation requires a sound understanding of the mechanisms that affect performance and stability. These mechanisms depend on operation conditions like temperature, gas composition, fuel utilisation and current load as well as on gradients along cell...

  16. State of the Art of International Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Gay; And Others

    To examine aspects of the political/economic/social/cultural environments (PESCE) affecting international public relations and their significance to the future of public relations practitioners, this paper reviews the 1980s literature regarding the current and projected trends in international public relations practice and their implications for…

  17. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  18. Computer-Managed Instruction: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a report on the current status of systems of computer-managed instruction (CMI). Five systems are reviewed intensively and seventeen others are described briefly. CMI appears to offer potential as a management device but little conclusive evidence exists concerning cost-effectiveness or impact on student achievement.…

  19. Shear design of wood beams : state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Terry D. Gerhardt

    1988-01-01

    Current shear design technology in the United States for lumber or glued- laminated beams is confusing. This report summarizes shear stress and strength research including both analytical and experimental approaches. Both checked and unchecked beams are included. The analytical work has been experimentally verified for only limited load conditions and span-to- depth...

  20. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  1. Alternative Work Schedules: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstrom, John W.; Pierce, Jon L.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a typology of modifications to the standard work week, reviews the current state of research-based knowledge regarding the effectiveness of each major type of alternative, and presents implementation suggestions for personnel interested in adopting one or more of the alternative forms. (Author/IRT)

  2. Syngas biomethanation: state-of-the-art review and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimalt Alemany, Antonio; Skiadas, Ioannis V; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2018-01-01

    Significant research efforts are currently being made worldwide to develop more efficient biomethane production processes from a variety of waste streams. The biomethanation of biomass-derived syngas can contribute to increasing the potential of methane production as it opens the way for the conv...

  3. Secondary and Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism, State of the Art Surgical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Susan C.; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews the current surgical management of patients with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The focus is on innovative surgical strategies that have improved the care of these patients over the past 10 to 15 years. Modalities such as intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring and radioguided probe utilization are discussed. PMID:19836494

  4. Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1996-03-01

    Models of the performance of primary Li/SOCl{sub 2} cells can provide for realistic comparisons between technical information from different sources, and set standards that electronic circuit designers may refer to in the generation of high-quality products. Data from various investigators were used to derive mathematical- statistical relationships with physical design features (e.g. size and materials), operating parameters (e.g. current and temperature) and storage conditions (time and temperature). These efforts were substantially promoted by normalization procedures. For example, current loads were converted into current densities, or if appropriate, into current per unit cathode volume. Similarly, cell capacities were standardized with the maximum values observed at low current and also with respect to the cathode volume. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluations of voltage-delay, cell capacity and self-discharge, for which several equations were established. In spite of a considerable expenditure in time to find high-quality datasets, the reality is that all of the reviewed studies are flawed in one way or another. Specifically, all datasets are afflicted with sizable experimental errors and the precision of the regression equations is much lower than is deemed necessary for a universal model of the lithium thionyl chloride cell. Each of the equations has some definite truth content, but is generally incapable of bridging the gap between different studies. The basic failure to come up with a unifying model for Li/SOCl{sub 2} batteries leaves only one benefit of the present analysis, namely to provide guidance for future investigations. Several recommendations are made based on the insight gained during the search for good data in the relevant literature.

  5. State of the art in wind turbine aerodynamics and aeroelasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Voutsinas, S

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive review of wind turbine aeroelasticity is given. The aerodynamic part starts with the simple aerodynamic Blade Element Momentum Method and ends with giving a review of the work done applying CFD on wind turbine rotors. In between is explained some methods of intermediate complexity...

  6. Educational Forecasting Methodologies: State of the Art, Trends, and Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Barclay; Bruno, James

    This overview of both quantitative and qualitative methods of educational forecasting is introduced by a discussion of a general typology of forecasting methods. In each of the following sections, discussion follows the same general format: a number of basic approaches are identified (e.g. extrapolation, correlation, systems modelling), and each…

  7. Wall thickness measurements using digital radiography - state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzinek, T.; Zscherpel, U.; Bellon, C.

    1997-01-01

    Projection radiography is a method long since used for wall thickness measurements in pipes. Another method sometimes applied is thickness determination based on measuring changes of the optical density by using radioactive isotopes, as in this case the effects of stray radiation are negligible. The two methods hitherto were to be performed manually, and wall thickness data were derived by calculations with a pocket calculator. The required measuring and calculating work can now be automated by way of computerized processing of digitised images. The paper presents the software for automated evaluation of data of a selected location after system calibration. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Cooling tower practice in Germany: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerna, W.; Kraetzig, W.B.; Mungan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Development in design and construction of natural draught cooling towers that has taken place in Germany is discussed. Research has been concentrated on theory and analysis of shells, on acting forces, especially on wind effects, on buckling behavior and constructional problems. An approximate earthquake analysis allows a quick estimation of seismic response. The earthquake analysis is carried out by the response-spectrum-method. All design methods develop construction methods minimizing the imperfections and their control and correction during the erection process. It is shown how by arranging stiffening rings the buckling resistance and the lowest natural frequency of this new generation of cooling towers can be improved. 13 refs

  9. Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Ludivine; Racin, Adelaïde; Brousse, Susie; Beltjens, Françoise; Cauchois, Aurélie; Levêque, Jean; Coutant, Charles; Lavoué, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) of the breast is considered benign histological lesions with breast cancer risk. This review focuses on clinical signification and management of AEH that remains controversial. A review of published studies was performed using medline database. In this review, we fully describe the current evidence available. In particular, we describe 1) data from immunohistochemistry and molecular studies that suggest AEH is a precursor of breast cancer; 2) epidemiological studies demonstrate low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH; 3) surgical excision is necessary after diagnosis of AEH, such as lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical ductal hyperplasia, on core needle biopsy; 4) although current recommendations are evolving to fewer (if not no) excisions for flat epithelial with atypia and classic lobular neoplasia found on percutaneous biopsy (without radiologic indications for excision). Expert commentary: HEA management steel need prospective evidences, but recent retrospective data give some clue for less invasive management for some of HEA.

  10. Information technology - the state of the art at pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D

    1991-05-01

    Following a brief assessment of the current position within the British coal mining industry, the paper concludes that both the capacity and the capability exist to improve performance in order to produce coal to satisfy the market requirements. Information technology has a role to play in enabling the industry to realise its potential by providing accurate, up to date information which can be analysed to present a clear picture of problems, together with possible solutions and their costs and benefits. Production and resource management are two areas in which information technology IT can be particulary useful. The paper discusses the use of IT and the systems available with regard to: coal face production; drivages/heading information; planning and surveying; safety; plant and equipment management; materials purchase and stocking; manpower; deployment; proceeds and cost management and customer satisfaction. An appendix provides details of some of the computer programmes currently available for colliery plant management. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Water soluble vitamins and peritoneal dialysis - State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Magdalena; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia

    2017-12-01

    This review presents the results of a systematic literature search concerning water soluble vitamins and peritoneal dialysis modality. We provide an overview of the data available on vitamin requirements, dietary intake, dialysis related losses, metabolism and the benefits of supplementation. We also summarise the current recommendations concerning the supplementation of vitamins in peritoneal dialysis and discuss the safety of an administration of vitamins in pharmacological doses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Multistandard Radio Systems: State of the Art and Research Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Berger, Michael Stübert; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    Integration of various wireless standards and building one consistent and compatible broadband system is a trend in wireless communication nowadays. This work focuses on multistandard networks enabling the cooperation between LTE and WiMAX systems. It presents the general vision on multistandard ...... systems and current possibilities of such integration. Furthermore, key features and challenges of developing this kind of network are discussed along with the proposed solutions and their performance benefits....

  13. BWR stability: history and state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, George

    2014-01-01

    The paper briefly recalls the historical developments, reviews the important phenomena, the analytical and simulation tools that are used for the analysis of BWR stability focussing on the linear, frequency domain methods

  14. State-of-the-art in control engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kozák

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with new trends in research, development and applications of advanced control methods and structures based on the principles of optimality, robustness and intelligence. Present trends in the complex process control design demand an increasing degree of integration of numerical mathematics, control engineering methods, new control structures based of distribution, embedded network control structure and new information and communication technologies. Furthermore, increasing problems with interactions, process non-linearities, operating constraints, time delays, uncertainties, and significant dead-times consequently lead to the necessity to develop more sophisticated control strategies. Advanced control methods and new distributed embedded control structures represent the most effective tools for realizing high performance of many technological processes. Main ideas covered in this paper are motivated namely by the development of new advanced control engineering methods (predictive, hybrid predictive, optimal, adaptive, robust, fuzzy logic, and neural network and new possibilities of their SW and HW realizations and successful implementation in industry.

  15. State-of-the-Art for Small Satellite Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Khary I.

    2016-01-01

    SmallSats are a low cost access to space with an increasing need for propulsion systems. NASA, and other organizations, will be using SmallSats that require propulsion systems to: a) Conduct high quality near and far reaching on-orbit research and b) Perform technology demonstrations. Increasing call for high reliability and high performing for SmallSat components. Many SmallSat propulsion technologies are currently under development: a) Systems at various levels of maturity and b) Wide variety of systems for many mission applications.

  16. State-of-the-art Space Telescope Digicon performance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginaven, R. O.; Choisser, J. P.; Acton, L.; Wysoczanski, W.; Alting-Mees, H. R.; Smith, R. D., II; Beaver, E. A.; Eck, H. J.; Delamere, A.; Shannon, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Digicon has been chosen as the detector for the High Resolution Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Space Telescope. Both tubes are 512 channel, parallel-output devices and feature CsTe photocathodes on MgF2 faceplates. Using a computer-assisted test facility, the tubes have been characterized with respect to diode array performance, photocathode response (1100-9000 A), and imaging capability. Data are presented on diode dark current and capacitance distributions, pulse height resolution, photocathode quantum efficiency, uniformity and blemishes, dark count rate, distortion, resolution, and crosstalk.

  17. Fecal microbiota transplantation: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bella

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is an emerging problem in terms of incidence, morbidity and mortality. Currently available treatment options are not always effective, especially in cases of recurrent/refractory or complicated CDI. The gut microbiota transplantation is a technique that has been sporadically practiced since the ‘50s, but its clinical efficacy has only recently been supported by scientific evidence. In the present article, we report the pathophysiological basis and the clinical indications of this technique that, in light of its low cost, and proven efficacy and safety, is likely to become part of the management guidelines of difficult cases of CDI in the near future.

  18. Blood tranfusion in critically ill patients: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Auler Junior, Jose Otávio Costa; Santos, Luciana; Galas, Filomena

    2007-08-01

    Anemia is one of the most common abnormal findings in critically ill patients, and many of these patients will receive a blood transfusion during their intensive care unit stay. However, the determinants of exactly which patients do receive transfusions remains to be defined and have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Concerns and doubts have emerged regarding the benefits and safety of blood transfusion, in part due to the lack of evidence of better outcomes resulting from randomized studies and in part related to the observations that transfusion may increase the risk of infection. As a result of these concerns and of several studies suggesting better or similar outcomes with a lower transfusion trigger, there has been a general tendency to decrease the transfusion threshold from the classic 10 g/dL to lower values. In this review, we focus on some of the key studies providing insight into current transfusion practices and fueling the current debate on the ideal transfusion trigger.

  19. Additive manufacturing: state-of-the-art and application framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Picanço Rodrigues

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing encompasses a class of production processes with increasing applications in different areas and supply chains. Due to its flexibility for production in small batches and the versatility of materials and geometries, this technology is recognized as being capable of revolutionizing the production processes as well as changing production strategies that are currently employed. However, there are different technologies under the generic label of additive manufacturing, materials and application areas with different requirements. Given the growing importance of additive manufacturing as a production process, and also considering the need to have a better insight into the potential applications for driving research and development efforts, this article presents a proposal of organization for additive manufacturing applications in seven areas. Additionally, the article provides a panorama of the current development stage of this technology, with a review of its major technological variants. The results presented aim to serve as a basis to support driving initiatives in additive manufacturing in companies, development agencies and research institutions.

  20. Performance of office workers under various enclosure conditions in state-of-the-art open workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heakyung Cecilia

    The objective of this thesis is to more firmly establish the importance of physical attributes of workstations on the performance of workers undertaking a range of complex tasks while subjected to the visual and noise distractions prevalent in state-of-the-art North American office settings. This study investigates objective and subjective evaluations of noise and performance given a range of current physical work environments. The study provides criteria for architects, interior designers and managers, to select distraction-free office environments to deliver better performance. The concluding chapter helps to establish the importance of designing more acoustically responsible work settings in state-of-the-art office projects. With 102 subjects (23 native speakers of English per each of three workstation types), controlled experiments were completed over a six month testing period in three different work settings---four foot partitions on two sides, seated privacy with six foot partitions on three sides, and a closed office with eight foot partitions, a door and a ceiling, with two acoustic environments (office sounds with and without speech at a controlled 45 dBA level at the receiver), the experimental results were statistically significant. Another finding was the lack of a significant effect of background sound variations on simple or complex task performance. That implies the current acoustical evaluation tool, the Articulation Index, may not be an appropriate tool to adequately and conclusively assess the acoustic impact of open workplaces on individual performance. Concerning the impact of acoustic conditions on occupant performance from the experiments, Articulation Index values do not reflect the potential relation of workstation designs and subjects' performance and moods. However, NIC connected with speech privacy rating has the potential to be a better evaluation tool than AI for open workplaces. From the results of this thesis, it is predicted that

  1. Data Input for Libraries: State-of-the-Art Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Lawrence F.

    This brief overview of new manuscript preparation methods which allow authors and editors to set their own type discusses the advantages and disadvantages of optical character recognition (OCR), microcomputers and personal computers, minicomputers, and word processors for editing and database entry. Potential library applications are also…

  2. Sugar dosimeters. Part 1. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z.

    2008-01-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the possibility of using sugars, in particular sucrose, as dosimetric material is presented. All methods involved were divided according to analytical techniques used in dosimetric signal measurements (polarimetry, spectrophotometry and electron paramagnetic resonance - EPR). Double-signal sugar dosimeters (EPR + spectrophotometry) are also described. (author) [pl

  3. State-of-the-art coordination chemistry of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharisov, B I; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel A

    2001-01-01

    Modern procedures for the synthesis of coordination and organometallic compounds of actinides and technetium and the properties of these compounds are surveyed. Experimental techniques, including methods for the synthesis of actinide and technetium complexes from elemental metals (oxidative dissolution and direct electrosynthesis), salts and halide, carbonyl and other complexes are generalised. The bibliography includes 283 references.

  4. Treatment of Childhood Depression: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews various aspects of seven approaches to the treatment of childhood depression--psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, familial, rational-emotive, multimodal, and drug interventions. Implications for practitioners are considered in terms of target selection, choice of treatment methods, rational evaluation based on developmental…

  5. Edge and line oriented contour detection : State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    We present an overview of various edge and line oriented approaches to contour detection that have been proposed in the last two decades. By edge and line oriented we mean methods that do not rely on segmentation. Distinction is made between edges and contours. Contour detectors are divided in local

  6. Counting migrants to monitor bird populations: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica H. Dunn

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize background information on what migration monitoring is, what biases are present and how they can be addressed, evidence that resulting trends are biologically meaningful, and what the benefits and limitations of the method are. Some topics have been covered elsewhere in greater detail (Dunn and Hussell 1995, Dunn et al. 1997,...

  7. Trends in interactive visualization state-of-the-art survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of Interactive Visualization is to develop scientific methods to increase scientists'' abilities to explore data and to understand better the results of experiments based on extensive calculations. This book provides readers with insight in Interactive Visualization from various perspectives, representing the developments in the field.

  8. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Wyngaert, Hans van den [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Love, Charito [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Welling, M.M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Scientist Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Section of Nuclear Medicine C2-203, Leiden (Netherlands); Gemmel, Paul [Ghent University, The Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Hempstead, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  9. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Wyngaert, Hans van den; Love, Charito; Welling, M.M.; Gemmel, Paul; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  10. Environmental aspects of nuclear power: state- of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Y.M.; Hussein, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power is an environmentally benign source, as it does not contribute either to global warming or acid rains.However, nuclear power plants do release radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents, and dispose solid wastes. Nuclear power currently provides 6% of global energy and about 16% of global electricity supply. Up to March 2006 there were 441 nuclear power reactors in operation representing a total capacity of more than 368 gigawatt electricity .World Energy Council projects growth of global use of electricity will increase from 1990 levels by 50% to 75% by the year 2020. At the same time, there are indications that the continued use of traditional fissile fuel will have undesirable impacts on the world climate Nuclear power will have to play an increasingly impact role in long-term energy of the world to achieve the objectives of sustainable develop .This paper presents the recent environmental aspects of nuclear power

  11. Additive manufacturing: state-of-the-art and application framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; de Senzi Zancul, Eduardo; Gonçalves Mançanares, Cauê

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing encompasses a class of production processes with increasing applications indifferent areas and supply chains. Due to its flexibility for production in small batches and the versatilityof materials and geometries, this technology is recognized as being capable...... of revolutionizing theproduction processes as well as changing production strategies that are currently employed. However,there are different technologies under the generic label of additive manufacturing, materials and applicationareas with different requirements. Given the growing importance of additive...... manufacturingas a production process, and also considering the need to have a better insight into the potential applicationsfor driving research and development efforts, this article presents a proposal of organizationfor additive manufacturing applications in seven areas. Additionally, the article provides...

  12. Vertex detectors: The state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerell, C.J.S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    We review the current status of vertex detectors (tracking microscopes for the recognition of charm and bottom particle decays). The reasons why silicon has become the dominant detector medium are explained. Energy loss mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the physics and technology of semiconductor devices, emphasizing the areas of most relevance for detectors. The main design options (microstrips and pixel devices, both CCD`s and APS`s) are discussed, as well as the issue of radiation damage, which probably implies the need to change to detector media beyond silicon for some vertexing applications. Finally, the evolution of key performance parameters over the past 15 years is reviewed, and an attempt is made to extrapolate to the likely performance of detectors working at the energy frontier ten years from now.

  13. The Supplier evaluation problem: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Ghasemy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive world, one of important factor in survival is the reduction of production cost. In the current age the companies for remaining competitive and achieving the customer satisfaction has been paid more attention to supply chain management, so that competition between companies is no longer the case, also there is between supply chains. In this regard, the supplier selection as a strategic key plays an important role in the success of companies. Selecting the right suppliers can significantly reduce the cost of purchasing and Increase the competitiveness of the organization. Decision making and supplier selection is basically a multi-criteria issue. Nevertheless, some of these criteria might be in conflict with each other. This is one of strategic importance to most organizations. The nature of such decisions is usually complex and not structured. The present paper provides a comprehensive literature review on some of articles published for supplier evaluation in recent years.

  14. Pulmonary hypertension-"state of the art" management in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a pathological condition of small pulmonary arteries, characterised by vascular proliferation and remodelling. The pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance progressively rise, leading to right heart failure and death. Pulmonary artery hypertension may be secondary to various conditions, or it may be idiopathic where no underlying cause is identifiable. Earlier, only symptomatic treatment was available for such patients which did not change the natural history of the disease. However, over the years, improvement in understanding the pathogenesis has resulted in the development of targeted approaches to the treatment of PAH. Survival advantage has also been shown with some of the pharmacologic agents. This review article discusses the current management strategy for PAH with special emphasis on an idiopathic variety, in an Indian context. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Positron Emission Tomography: state of the art and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzichemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) plays a fundamental role in medical imaging, with a wide range of applications covering, among the others, oncology, neurology and cardiology. PET has undergone a steady technological evolution since its introduction in mid 20th century, from the development of 3D PET in the late 1980s, to the invention of PET/CT in the 1990s and more recently with the introduction of PET/MR scanners. The current research topics aiming to develop the next generation of PET scanners are summarized in this paper, focusing on the efforts to increase the sensitivity of the detectors, as long as improving their timing, spatial and energy resolutions, with the final goal of reducing the amount of radioactive dose received by the patients and the duration of the exams while improving at the same time the detectability of lesions.

  16. Smart City Analytics: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovannella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with a 'people centred' vision, this paper critically examines current approaches to smart cities benchmarking. In particular, by means of correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA we put in evidence present limitations of city rankings and, as well, the emergence of different perspectives for data interpretations. To follow, a possible redesign of the 'Smart Cities Analytics' grounded on the traces left by individuals, is suggested. In particular, as an example, we focus on the potentiality offered by automatic text analysis to extract people perceptions and expectations that, in turns, demonstrate the need to integrate bottom-up and top-down approaches to city benchmarking. Finally a novel definition of smart city based on the territorial state of flow is proposed and, as a consequence, a novel path toward smart city benchmarking suggested.

  17. Accelerator Control and Global Networks State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Gurd, D P

    2004-01-01

    As accelerators increase in size and complexity, demands upon their control systems increase correspondingly. Machine complexity is reflected in complexity of control system hardware and software and careful configuration management is essential. Model-based procedures and fast feedback based upon even faster beam instrumentation are often required. Managing machine protection systems with tens of thousands of inputs is another significant challenge. Increased use of commodity hardware and software introduces new issues of security and control. Large new facilities will increasingly be built by national (e.g. SNS) or international (e.g. a linear collider) collaborations. Building an integrated control system for an accelerator whose development is geographically widespread presents particular problems, not all of them technical. Recent discussions of a “Global Accelerator Network” include the possibility of multiple remote control rooms and no more night shifts. Based upon current experien...

  18. Safe and Sustainable Tall Buildings - State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendis P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings are becoming very popular around the world. Asia will have most of the tall buildings in this century. Both safety and sustainability aspects are important in planning and designing these buildings. The design and construction of tall buildings present many challenges for the design team, from engineers, architect through to the builder. Although structural systems could be developed and construction solutions could be found to design and construct very tall buildings in excess of 1 km (even 1 mile, other aspects such as fire and egress, long-term movements, environmental wind and perception of motion (including damping for dynamic effects, transportation (lifts issues, sustainability, durability and maintenance will govern and may even restrict the heights. Current practices and important issues related to design of safe and sustainable design of tall buildings are discussed in this paper.

  19. [Biomedicine in thoracic surgery: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, M; Steinke, M; Walles, T

    2013-06-01

    Biomedicine represents a new scientific field at the interface of human, molecular and cell biology and medicine. Comprising the diverse disciplines of stem cell research, tissue engineering and material sciences, biomedicine gives rise to new approaches in research and therapy for - to date - unmet medical issues. Biomedical research is currently conducted in many medical, especially surgical subspecialties, and a number of successful developments have already been brought to clinical application. Concerning thoracic surgery, biomedical approaches are pursued primarily for tissue and organ replacement of the upper airways, lung and thoracic wall. In spite of a comparatively small research foundation, five different concepts have been clinically implemented worldwide, due to a lack of established treatment options in the case of extensive disease of the greater airways. In this review, the clinical background and the tissue-specific basics of tracheobronchial biomedicine are presented. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. State of the art of CO laser angioplasty system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tsunenori; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Miyamoto, Akira; Sakurada, Masami; Kikuchi, Makoto; Kurita, Akira; Nakamura, Haruo; Takaoka, Hidetsugu; Utsumi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi

    1994-07-01

    A unique percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty system new IR therapy laser with IR glass fiber delivery under novel angioscope guidance was described. Carbon monoxide (CO) laser emission of 5 mm in wavelength was employed as therapy laser to achieve precise ablation of atheromatous plaque with a flexible As-S IR glass fiber for laser delivery. We developed the first medical CO laser as well as As-S IR glass fiber cable. We also developed 5.5 Fr. thin angioscope catheter with complete directional manipulatability at its tip. The system control unit could manage to prevent failure irradiations and fiber damages. This novel angioplasty system was evaluated by a stenosis model of mongrel dogs. We demonstrated the usefulness of our system to overcome current issues on laser angioplasty using multifiber catheter with over-the-guidewire system.

  1. Vertex detectors: The state of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerell, C.J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We review the current status of vertex detectors (tracking microscopes for the recognition of charm and bottom particle decays). The reasons why silicon has become the dominant detector medium are explained. Energy loss mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the physics and technology of semiconductor devices, emphasizing the areas of most relevance for detectors. The main design options (microstrips and pixel devices, both CCD's and APS's) are discussed, as well as the issue of radiation damage, which probably implies the need to change to detector media beyond silicon for some vertexing applications. Finally, the evolution of key performance parameters over the past 15 years is reviewed, and an attempt is made to extrapolate to the likely performance of detectors working at the energy frontier ten years from now

  2. Prosthetic joint infection: state-of-the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Belov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In current clinical practice, joint replacement is one of the progressive and permanently developed surgical treatments in patients with locomotor injury of any genesis. However, the upward trend in the number of replacements is inevitably accompanied by the rising number of patients with periprosthetic joint infection. The polymorphism of its clinical picture and the nonspecificity of diagnostic tests lead to a frequent delay in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI and thus late treatment. This paper gives an update on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of PJI. Emphasis is laid on the value of a multimodal approach to PJI treatment Р a combination of surgery and etiotropic antibiotic therapy. The choice of a treatment modality is determined by patient status, comorbidity, and the magnitude and duration of the infectious process.

  3. The state of the art in therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy can be curative or palliative in intent, and local or systemic in administration. Current therapy relies of beta emitting radioisotopes and selective carriers for the treatment of advanced tumours. The next generation of therapeutics may be alpha emitting radionuclides for subclinical, micrometastatic disease. Targeted Alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT has been tested by in vitro and in vivo studies many cancers. The first phase 1 clinical trial of TAT for leukaemia with Bi-213 has concluded at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, a phase 1 and 2 trial of intra-lesional TAT is ongoing at Duke University with At-211 labeled Mab against cystic glioma, and a phase 1 and 2 clinical trial for intra-lesional TAT with Bi-213 of subcutaneous secondary melanoma is underway at St George Hospital

  4. Big Data Provenance: Challenges, State of the Art and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwu; Crawl, Daniel; Purawat, Shweta; Nguyen, Mai; Altintas, Ilkay

    2015-01-01

    Ability to track provenance is a key feature of scientific workflows to support data lineage and reproducibility. The challenges that are introduced by the volume, variety and velocity of Big Data, also pose related challenges for provenance and quality of Big Data, defined as veracity. The increasing size and variety of distributed Big Data provenance information bring new technical challenges and opportunities throughout the provenance lifecycle including recording, querying, sharing and utilization. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities of Big Data provenance related to the veracity of the datasets themselves and the provenance of the analytical processes that analyze these datasets. It also explains our current efforts towards tracking and utilizing Big Data provenance using workflows as a programming model to analyze Big Data.

  5. Stem cells and chronic wound healing: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavitt T

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tripp Leavitt, Michael S Hu, Clement D Marshall, Leandra A Barnes, Michael T Longaker, H Peter Lorenz Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Currently available treatments for chronic wounds are inadequate. A clearly effective therapy does not exist, and treatment is often supportive. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes underlying failure of wound repair are still poorly understood. With an increase in comorbidities, such as diabetes and vascular disease, as well as an aging population, the incidence of these intractable wounds is expected to rise. As such, chronic wounds, which are already costly, are rapidly growing as a tremendous burden to the health-care system. Stem cells have garnered much interest as a therapy for chronic wounds due to their inherent ability to differentiate into multiple lineages and promote regeneration. Herein, we discuss the types of stem cells used for chronic wound therapy, as well as the proposed means by which they do so. In particular, we highlight mesenchymal stem cells (including adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. We include the results of recent in vitro and in vivo studies in both animal models and human clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the current studies to improve stem cell therapies and the limitations of stem cell-based therapeutics. Stem cells promise improved therapies for healing chronic wounds, but further studies that are well-designed with standardized protocols are necessary for fruition. Keywords: stem cells, chronic wounds, cell therapy, wound healing

  6. State of the art of reservoir sedimentation management in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño Salas, Cándido; Sanz Montero, Esther; Cobo Rayán, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Part of the total reservoir storage capacity in Spain (56 km3) is lost due to sedimentation processes taking place. Surveys carried out in 121 reservoirs indicate that 6% of them have undergone a capacity reduction of over 50%. However, most of them (81%) are characterised by a reservoir capacity loss below 20%. The most frequent methods used to control reservoir sedimentation in Spain fall into one of the following groups: reduction of sediment yield through basin management and removal of t...

  7. Benchmarking State-of-the-Art Deep Learning Software Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shaohuai; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Pengfei; Chu, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning has been shown as a successful machine learning method for a variety of tasks, and its popularity results in numerous open-source deep learning software tools. Training a deep network is usually a very time-consuming process. To address the computational challenge in deep learning, many tools exploit hardware features such as multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs to shorten the training time. However, different tools exhibit different features and running performance when training ...

  8. State of the art on wind resource estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1998-12-31

    With the increasing number of wind resource estimation studies carried out for regions, countries and even larger areas all over the world, the IEA finds that the time has come to stop and take stock of the various methods used in these studies. The IEA would therefore like to propose an Experts Meeting on wind resource estimation. The Experts Meeting should describe the models and databases used in the various studies. It should shed light on the strengths and shortcomings of the models and answer questions like: where and under what circumstances should a specific model be used? what is the expected accuracy of the estimate of the model? and what is the applicability? When addressing databases the main goal will be to identify the content and scope of these. Further, the quality, availability and reliability of the databases must also be recognised. In the various studies of wind resources the models and databases have been combined in different ways. A final goal of the Experts Meeting is to see whether it is possible to develop systems of methods which would depend on the available input. These systems of methods should be able to address the simple case (level 0) of a region with barely no data, to the complex case of a region with all available measurements: surface observations, radio soundings, satellite observations and so on. The outcome of the meeting should be an inventory of available models as well as databases and a map of already studied regions. (au)

  9. State-of-the-Art-Review of Collapsible Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. AL-Rawas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Collapsible soils are encountered in arid and semi-arid regions. Such soils cause potential construction problems due to their collapse upon wetting. The collapse phenomenon is primarily related to the open structure of the soil. Several soil collapse classifications based on parameters such as moisture content, dry density, Atterberg limits and clay content have been proposed in the literature as indicators of the soil collapse potential. Direct measurement of the magnitude of collapse, using laboratory and/or field tests, is essential once a soil showed indications of collapse potential. Treatment methods such as soil replacement, compaction control and chemical stabilization showed significant reduction in the settlement of collapsible soils. The design of foundations on collapsible soils depends on the depth of the soil, magnitude of collapse and economics of the design. Strip foundations are commonly used when collapsing soil extends to a shallow depth while piles and drilled piers are recommended in cases where the soil extends to several meters. This paper provides a comprehensive review of collapsible soils. These include the different types of collapsible soils, mechanisms of collapse, identification and classification methods, laboratory and field testing, treatment methods and guidelines for foundation design.

  10. NUCLEAR WASTE state-of-the-art reports 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The report is organized in three parts. First part: 'The nuclear waste question in international and Swedish perspective' takes up questions about how the handling of nuclear waste is organized. This part starts with an international overview of nuclear waste handling in several countries. The overview gives a hint about how countries look for solutions that are judged to be appropriate in the own country. The overview shows clearly that the responsibility for the nuclear waste includes both private and public operators, in varying degrees from country to country. A detailed review is presented of the Swedish process in the chapter 'The municipalities - major stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue'. In the light of the the international overview it is shown that great efforts are spent in order to reach mutual understanding and agreement at the local basis in the Swedish consultation procedure. Part two 'To handle nuclear waste risks: An overview over methods, problems and possibilities' contains an overview of our knowledge in estimating and handling risks and about methods to produce data for assessments associated with the disposal of nuclear waste from a scientific perspective. This part first presents two geoscientific methods that are used to calculate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. In the chapter 'Fractioning of different isotopes' the possibility to consider properties of different isotopes for estimation of transport velocities of radioactive substances is discussed, for a repository for spent nuclear fuel or other radioactive wastes. In the chapter 'Copper canisters - production, sealing, durability' an overview is given of the methods used for manufacture and control of those copper canisters that constitute one of the protective barriers around the waste at geologic disposal according to the KBS-3-method. In the last chapter, an experiment to compare classification of radioactive wastes and chemical wastes, is discussed. 'The

  11. State of the Art and Trends in Wind Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Probst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant rise of the utilization of wind energy the accurate assessment of the wind potential is becoming increasingly important. Direct applications of wind assessment techniques include the creation of wind maps on a local scale (typically 5 20 km and the micrositing of wind turbines, the estimation of vertical wind speed variations, prospecting on a regional scale (>100 km, estimation of the long-term wind resource at a given site, and forecasting. The measurement of wind speed and direction still widely relies on cup anemometers, though sonic anemometers are becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, remote sensing by Doppler techniques using the backscattering of either sonic beams (SODAR or light (LIDAR allowing for vertical profiling well beyond hub height are quickly moving into the mainstream. Local wind maps are based on the predicted modification of the regional wind flow pattern by the local atmospheric boundary layer which in turn depends on both topographic and roughness features and the measured wind rose obtained from one or several measurement towers within the boundaries of the planned development site. Initial models were based on linearized versions of the Navier-Stokes equations, whereas more recently full CFD models have been applied to wind farm micrositing. Linear models tend to perform well for terrain slopes lower than about 25% and have the advantage of short execution times. Long-term performance is frequently estimated from correlations with nearby reference stations with concurrent information and continuous time series over a period of at least 10 years. Simple methods consider only point-to-point linear correlations; more advanced methods like multiple regression techniques and methods based on the theory of distributions will be discussed. Both for early prospecting in regions where only scarce or unreliable reference information is available, wind flow modeling on a larger scale (mesoscale is becoming

  12. State of the art of sonic boom modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on fundamental theory developed through the 1950s and 1960s, sonic boom modeling has evolved into practical tools. Over the past decade, there have been requirements for design tools for an advanced supersonic transport, and for tools for environmental assessment of various military and aerospace activities. This has resulted in a number of advances in the understanding of the physics of sonic booms, including shock wave rise times, propagation through turbulence, and blending sonic boom theory with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic design methods. This article reviews the early fundamental theory, recent advances in theory, and the application of these advances to practical models.

  13. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  14. [Time for cluster C personality disorders: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, J; Willemsen, E M C; Van, H L

    Compared to cluster B personality disorders, the assessment and treatment of people with obsessive-compulsive, dependent, and avoidant personality disorders (cluster C) is given little attention in the field of research and clinical practice. Presenting the current state of affairs in regard to cluster C personality disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted using the main data bases. Cluster C personality disorders are present in approximately 3-9% of the general population. In about half of the cases of mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, there is co-morbid cluster C pathology. This has a major influence on the progression of symptoms, treatment effectiveness and potential relapse. There are barely any well conducted randomized studies on the treatment of cluster-C in existence. Open cohort studies, however, show strong, lasting treatment effects. Given the frequent occurrence of cluster C personality disorders, the burden of disease, associated societal costs and the prognostic implications in case of a co-morbid cluster C personality disorder, early detection and treatment of these disorders is warranted.

  15. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Tissue engineering: state of the art in oral rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, E L; Krebsbach, P H; Kohn, D H

    2009-05-01

    More than 85% of the global population requires repair or replacement of a craniofacial structure. These defects range from simple tooth decay to radical oncologic craniofacial resection. Regeneration of oral and craniofacial tissues presents a formidable challenge that requires synthesis of basic science, clinical science and engineering technology. Identification of appropriate scaffolds, cell sources and spatial and temporal signals (the tissue engineering triad) is necessary to optimize development of a single tissue, hybrid organ or interface. Furthermore, combining the understanding of the interactions between molecules of the extracellular matrix and attached cells with an understanding of the gene expression needed to induce differentiation and tissue growth will provide the design basis for translating basic science into rationally developed components of this tissue engineering triad. Dental tissue engineers are interested in regeneration of teeth, oral mucosa, salivary glands, bone and periodontium. Many of these oral structures are hybrid tissues. For example, engineering the periodontium requires growth of alveolar bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament. Recapitulation of biological development of hybrid tissues and interfaces presents a challenge that exceeds that of engineering just a single tissue. Advances made in dental interface engineering will allow these tissues to serve as model systems for engineering other tissues or organs of the body. This review will begin by covering basic tissue engineering principles and strategic design of functional biomaterials. We will then explore the impact of biomaterials design on the status of craniofacial tissue engineering and current challenges and opportunities in dental tissue engineering.

  17. State of the art: nursing knowledge and electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froimson, L; Creed, P; Mathew, L

    1995-09-01

    Nursing services attempting to develop standards for their own facilities will find limited literature specific to nursing and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in American publications. From 1966 to December 1994, there were only 19 publications in American nursing journals that provide a specific focus on nursing and ECT. Only one of these articles reported research findings. Twenty-seven citations in Convulsive Therapy included nurse contributors. While the APA Task Force on the Practice of ECT has addressed educational needs of nursing and technical elements of the procedure, there do not currently exist specific standards for nursing practice in ECT. Concerns salient to nursing that have generated articles by nurses include instruction of patients, support to patients and families, safety of patients, assessment of clinical status, informed consent, and nurses' and patients' attitudes about ECT. Nurses are encouraged to join their physician-colleagues in developing and disseminating the information needed for the field of nursing to contribute its own expertise to the care of patients receiving ECT.

  18. Big-hole drilling - the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The art of big-hole drilling has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site since the start of underground testing in 1961. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary-drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. The current design of bits, cutters, and other big-hole-drilling hardware results from contributions of manufacturers and Test Site personnel. The dual-string, air-lift, reverse-circulation system was developed at the Test Site. Necessity was really the Mother of this invention, but this circulation system is worthy of consideration under almost any condition. Drill rigs for big-hole drilling are usually adaptations of large oil-well drill rigs with minor modifications required to handle the big bits and drilling assemblies. Steel remains the favorite shaft lining material, but a lot of thought is being given to concrete linings, especially precast concrete

  19. Urban wind energy. State of the Art 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, C.

    2009-10-15

    Wind energy in urban areas is a new area and a rather blank page concerning design criteria, aesthetics, concepts, minimizing costs etc. Even though the potential energy in the flow is much higher on the country side or off-shore, the erection of wind turbines in urban areas is carried out and also shows perspectives regarding e. g. direct use of the energy instead of redirecting the energy to the grid and reduction of transmission loss. Within the area of urban wind energy, different applications are to be distinguished. The main groups are turbines integrated in buildings, small turbines on already existing buildings and free standing turbines in public areas. In this report, a look is taken on the mentioned applications, a short introduction to urban climate is given, followed by a list of already existing small turbines which are compared. Examples in between, field tests and experiments support the understanding. An overview of current projects set the application of wind turbines in the urban environment in a relevant perspective. (author)

  20. State of the art of produced water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, S; Micó, M M; Arnaldos, M; Medina, F; Contreras, S

    2018-02-01

    Produced water (PW) is the wastewater generated when water from underground reservoirs is brought to the surface during oil or gas extraction. PW is generated in large amounts and has a complex composition, containing various toxic organic and inorganic compounds. PW is currently treated in conventional trains that include phase separators, decanters, cyclones and coarse filters in order to comply with existing regulation for discharge. These treatment trains do not achieve more restrictive limitations related to the reuse of the effluent (reinjection into extraction wells) or other beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation). Therefore, and to prevent environmental pollution, further polishing processes need to be carried out. Characterization of the PW to determine major constituents is the first step to select the optimum treatment for PW, coupled with environmental factors, economic considerations, and local regulatory framework. This review tries to provide an overview of different treatments that are being applied to polish this type of effluents. These technologies include membranes, physical, biological, thermal or chemical treatments, where special emphasis has been made on advanced oxidation processes due to the advantages offered by these processes. Commercial treatments, based on the combination, modification and improvement of simpler treatments, were also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plastic heat exchangers: a state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D; Holtz, R E; Koopman, R N; Marciniak, T J; MacFarlane, D R

    1979-07-01

    Significant increases in energy utilization efficiency can be achieved through the recovery of low-temperature rejected heat. This energy conserving possibility provides incentive for the development of heat exchangers which could be employed in applications where conventional units cannot be used. Some unique anticorrosion and nonstick characteristics of plastics make this material very attractive for heat recovery where condensation, especially sulfuric acid, and fouling occur. Some of the unique characteristics of plastics led to the commercial success of DuPont's heat exchangers utilizing polytetrafluoroethylene (trade name Teflon) tubes. Attributes which were exploited in this application were the extreme chemical inertness of the material and its flexibility, which enabled utilization in odd-shaped spaces. The wide variety of polymeric materials available ensures chemical inertness for almost any application. Lower cost, compoundability with fillers to improve thermal/mechanical properties, and versatile fabrication methods are incentives for many uses. Also, since many plastics resist corrosion, they can be employed in lower temperature applications (< 436 K), where condensation can occur and metal units have been unable to function. It is clear that if application and design can be merged to produce a cost-effective alternate to present methods of handling low-temperature rejected heat, then there is significant incentive for plastic heat exchangers, to replace traditional metallic heat exchangers or to be used in services where metals are totally unsuited.

  2. Micro- and nanobiosensors—state of the art and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Gerald A

    2009-01-01

    Recent progress in microsystem technologies for creating small, integrated and reliable microelectronic devices and microtransducers in combination with biological sensing elements has raised the expectation to get a comprehensive insight into dynamic cellular metabolic events and subsequently a complete understanding of the metabolism of human biology. Such micro- and nanobiosensor tools in combination with appropriate microfluidics enable the simultaneous description and moreover monitoring of gene, protein expression and metabolic states in a biosystem. This knowledge will lead to new future therapies and pharmaceutical treatments. Furthermore, with such methods and microdevices a new direct combination of diagnostics and immediately starting therapy can be established which is called theranostic. There are a lot of challenging problems to be overcome to reach this goal: microsystems monitoring of physical parameters in biological systems is well established, whereas chemo- and biosensors are available for only a few parameters and mainly as in vitro devices. Gene arrays entered the research market but are up to now not in clinical practice. Protein arrays are in a developmental state with promising results, but far from a mature reproducible state. For getting insights into metabolic events intra- and extracellularly, some new and promising technologies are under research and will undoubtedly revolutionize systems biology but only in the longer run. As a conclusion, it can be stated that new methods stemming from microelectronics and biological technologies are now entering the world of chemical and biological analytics as well as clinics to offer clinicians new theranostic tools in the future. (topical review)

  3. Nanoscale surface modifications of medically relevant metals: state-of-the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variola, Fabio; Brunski, John B.; Orsini, Giovanna; Tambasco de Oliveira, Paulo; Wazen, Rima; Nanci, Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Evidence that nanoscale surface properties stimulate and guide various molecular and biological processes at the implant/tissue interface is fostering a new trend in designing implantable metals. Cutting-edge expertise and techniques drawn from widely separated fields, such as nanotechnology, materials engineering and biology, have been advantageously exploited to nanoengineer surfaces in ways that control and direct these processes in predictable manners. In this review, we present and discuss the state-of-the-art of nanotechnology-based approaches currently adopted to modify the surface of metals used for orthopedic and dental applications, and also briefly consider their use in the cardiovascular field. The effects of nanoengineered surfaces on various in vitro molecular and cellular events are firstly discussed. This review also provides an overview of in vivo and clinical studies with nanostructured metallic implants, and addresses the potential influence of nanotopography on biomechanical events at interfaces. Ultimately, the objective of this work is to give the readership a comprehensive picture of the current advances, future developments and challenges in the application of the infinitesimally small to biomedical surface science. We believe that an integrated understanding of the in vitro and particularly of the in vivo behavior is mandatory for the proper exploitation of nanostructured implantable metals and, indeed, of all biomaterials.

  4. State-of-the-Art Techniques in Treating Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Carrie A; Kung, Theodore A; Brown, David L; Cederna, Paul S; Kemp, Stephen W P

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern, as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biological approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state-of-the-art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury. Four categories are considered: (1) electroceuticals, (2) nerve guidance conduits, (3) fat grafting, and (4) optogenetics. Significant study results are highlighted, focusing on histologic and functional outcome measures. This review documents the current state of the literature. Advancements in neuronal stimulation, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapies demonstrate promise with regard to augmenting nerve regeneration and appropriate rehabilitation. The future of treating peripheral nerve injury will include multimodality use of electroconductive conduits, fat grafting, neuronal stimulation, and optogenetics. Further clinical investigation is needed to confirm the efficacy of these technologies on peripheral nerve recovery in humans, and how best to implement this treatment for a diverse population of nerve-injured patients.

  5. A State-of-the-Art Experimental Laboratory for Cloud and Cloud-Aerosol Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremaux, Charles M.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    The state of the art for predicting climate changes due to increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere with high accuracy is problematic. Confidence intervals on current long-term predictions (on the order of 100 years) are so large that the ability to make informed decisions with regard to optimum strategies for mitigating both the causes of climate change and its effects is in doubt. There is ample evidence in the literature that large sources of uncertainty in current climate models are various aerosol effects. One approach to furthering discovery as well as modeling, and verification and validation (V&V) for cloud-aerosol interactions is use of a large "cloud chamber" in a complimentary role to in-situ and remote sensing measurement approaches. Reproducing all of the complex interactions is not feasible, but it is suggested that the physics of certain key processes can be established in a laboratory setting so that relevant fluid-dynamic and cloud-aerosol phenomena can be experimentally simulated and studied in a controlled environment. This report presents a high-level argument for significantly improved laboratory capability, and is meant to serve as a starting point for stimulating discussion within the climate science and other interested communities.

  6. Silicon solar cell technology state of the art and a proposed double sided cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    A review of the silicon technology state of the art is given. It had been found that single crystal silicon efficiency was limitd to ≥ 20%. The reason was identified to be due to the recombination current loss mechanisms. However, use of new technologies such as back-surface field, surface passivation, double anti-reflection coatings and back-surface illumination demonstrated to achieve higher efficiencies. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of back surfaces illumination on the cell efficiency enhancement. It was found that for single cell, back-surface illumination contribute a 12% increase in efficiency whereas for double cell illumination (back-to-back cells) the improvement was 59% increase in efficiency. A V-shaped flat mirror reflector with optimum angle of 45 deg. to the plane of the cell from both sides achieved the ultimate efficiency performance. Finally, a proposed high current - high efficiency solar cell called ''Double Drift'' - Double Sided Illumination Cell'' was presented. The new structures were in the form of n + pn + or p + np + double junctions. The expected efficiency ranges 50-60% with proper material design, double anti-reflection coatings and V-shaped irregular plane mirror reflector illumination. (author). 43 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  7. Mandible reconstruction: History, state of the art and persistent problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José J; Zagalo, Carlos M; Oliveira, Marta L; Correia, André M; Reis, Ana R

    2015-06-01

    Mandibular reconstruction has been experiencing an amazing evolution. Several different approaches are used to reconstruct this bone and therefore have a fundamental role in the recovery of oral functions. This review aims to highlight the persistent problems associated with the approaches identified, whether bone grafts or prosthetic devices are used. A brief summary of the historical evolution of the surgical procedures is presented, as well as an insight into possible future pathways. A literature review was conducted from September to December 2012 using the PubMed database. The keyword used was "mandible reconstruction." Articles published in the last three years were included as well as the relevant references from those articles and the "historical articles" were referred. This research resulted in a monograph that this article aims to summarize. Titanium plates, bone grafts, pediculate flaps, free osteomyocutaneous flaps, rapid prototyping, and tissue engineering strategies are some of the identified possibilities. The classical approaches present considerable associated morbidity donor-site-related problems. Research that results in the development of new prosthetics devices is needed. A new prosthetic approach could minimize the identified problems and offer the patients more predictable, affordable, and comfortable solutions. This review, while affirming the evolution and the good results found with the actual approaches, emphasizes the negative aspects that still subsist. Thus, it shows that mandible reconstruction is not a closed issue. On the contrary, it remains as a research field where new findings could have a direct positive impact on patients' life quality. The identification of the persistent problems reveals the characteristics to be considered in a new prosthetic device. This could overcome the current difficulties and result in more comfortable solutions. Medical teams have the responsibility to keep patients informed about the predictable

  8. Chemical protective clothing - State of the art and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Clothing used to protect the skin from exposure to chemicals (CPC) is an integral part of many work-places. Only 10-15 years ago the strategy behind selecting CPC to afford this protection was to find a type of CPC which was essentially liquid-proof and would therefore protect the skin from exposure to a liquid chemical. However, in the last 10 years there has been an explosion of data in the industrial hygiene field related to the permeation of chemical protective clothing by liquid chemicals. These data indicate clearly that when CPC is exposed to a chemical, it may not disintegrate or degrade, but nevertheless, will be permeated by the chemical and the skin will be exposed. This has led to a new strategy for selecting CPC which essentially assumes that any exposure of the skin is harmful. Consequently, a worst-case scenario is assumed when selecting CPC and often the garment with the best permeation properties is selected regardless of cost. This philosophy is prompted by a lack of knowledge concerning the skin and how it is permeated by industrial chemicals in their liquid and vapor states. The interests in the last 10 years in CPC has led to new developments and an exciting future for protective clothing. Several new laminated polymeric materials are now being used in both gloves and full-body suits. These polymers are plastic rather than elastomeric and therefore do not afford good dexterity properties. However, their permeability properties are extremely good. In addition, further research on dermal penetration should give the industrial hygienist the necessary information to perform risk assessments for skin exposure. These new risk assessment strategies should negate the current need to overprotect workers. Overprotection often leads to unnecessary costs and can lead to increased stress on the worker in the form of heat stress

  9. Thermosensitive liposomal drug delivery systems: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kneidl B

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Kneidl,1,2 Michael Peller,3 Gerhard Winter,2 Lars H Lindner,1 Martin Hossann11Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Munich, 2Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, 3Institute for Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Thermosensitive liposomes are a promising tool for external targeting of drugs to solid tumors when used in combination with local hyperthermia or high intensity focused ultrasound. In vivo results have demonstrated strong evidence that external targeting is superior over passive targeting achieved by highly stable long-circulating drug formulations like PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Up to March 2014, the Web of Science listed 371 original papers in this field, with 45 in 2013 alone. Several formulations have been developed since 1978, with lysolipid-containing, low temperature-sensitive liposomes currently under clinical investigation. This review summarizes the historical development and effects of particular phospholipids and surfactants on the biophysical properties and in vivo efficacy of thermosensitive liposome formulations. Further, treatment strategies for solid tumors are discussed. Here we focus on temperature-triggered intravascular and interstitial drug release. Drug delivery guided by magnetic resonance imaging further adds the possibility of performing online monitoring of a heating focus to calculate locally released drug concentrations and to externally control drug release by steering the heating volume and power. The combination of external targeting with thermosensitive liposomes and magnetic resonance-guided drug delivery will be the unique characteristic of this nanotechnology approach in medicine.Keywords: thermosensitive liposomes, phosphatidyloligoglycerol, hyperthermia, high intensity focused ultrasound, drug delivery, drug targeting

  10. [Acute achilles tendon rupture : State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, M; Baumbach, S F; Herterich, V; Böcker, W; Polzer, H

    2017-12-01

    The most favorable treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures remains controversial. In particular, three key questions are intensively debated: is operative or non-operative treatment superior? If surgery is performed, should open or minimally invasive percutaneous techniques be used? How should the follow-up treatment be carried out? The aim of this article is to answer these essential questions based on the currently available evidence. Non-operative treatment leads to a higher rate of re-ruptures and inferior functional results when compared to operative treatment. The major disadvantage of open surgery is the increased risk of wound healing problems and wound infections. Due to the development of minimally invasive percutaneous techniques, complication rates could be significantly reduced and patient satisfaction could be significantly improved, without increasing the risk of re-ruptures. The functional outcome is still partially unsatisfactory independent of the type of treatment. This is particularly expressed in weakness of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle complex; therefore, the follow-up treatment is of fundamental importance. The available evidence clearly underlines the importance of early weight bearing and mobilization of the ankle joint, as it is safe and leads to better function, patient satisfaction and faster return to work or sport, compared with partial weight bearing and immobilization. Nevertheless, treatment protocols vary greatly with the majority still carrying out open suture and immobilizing follow-up treatment with fixed plantar flexion. Based on the available data the authors recommend minimally invasive percutaneous suture of the tendon followed by progressive functional rehabilitation. Implementation of the available evidence into routine practice is the next important step for successful treatment of this challenging injury.

  11. Cogeneration trends in Europe history -- State of the art - Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunschofsky, H.

    1998-01-01

    Cogeneration, the utilization of heat created while producing electricity from fossil fuels, is by no means a new technology. In 1926, 71 years ago, a brochure from MAN in Germany showed a heat recovery system for diesel engines. Despite the fact that cogeneration has existed for a long time, it took half a century and the first so called ''oil crisis'' in the 1970's for societies to become aware of limited energy resources. Environmental groups gave cogeneration an additional boost in the 1980's. Additionally, governments in the Western European Nations attracted cogeneration investors by not only providing subsidies and tax breaks but also regulating electricity prices. Although there has been much growth in the cogeneration market in the past years, the industry has still not reached its peak in Europe. A variety of studies have shown that there is still significant growth potential in the future: WWF (World Wildlife Fund) published a study in 1996 suggesting a target of 330 Twh of generation will be produced through cogeneration by the year 2005, a tripling of current generation. Due to the EU's belief that cogeneration is an optimal form of generation, it has developed a cogeneration strategy. As part of this strategy, the EC is promoting cogeneration so that it accounts for 20% of all European generation by the year 2010. These factors would give a variety of companies such as equipment suppliers, investment companies, utilities, consultants and energy brokers a wide range of opportunities in Europe. Detailed information and some hints will be given as to how to participate in this fast growing industry. Ways to overcome obstacles in those markets will be shown as well as the pros and cons of different entry strategies

  12. State of the art report on iodine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.; Cantrel, L.; Ducros, G.; Funke, F.; Herranz, L.; Rydl, A.; Weber, G.; Wren, C.

    2007-01-01

    An accident in which the normal core cooling is lost could lead to fuel elements melting and fission product release beyond the plant limits. Nuclear power plants are designed with engineering systems and associated operational procedures which provide an in-depth defence against such accidents. Iodine is a major contributor to the potential source term to the environment, thus a good understanding of its behaviour and validated calculation tools are required to perform meaningful risk analyses and make decisions in the field of accident management, mitigation measures and emergency procedures. A number of experimental programmes, involving separate-effect and integral tests have been carried out during the last decade, providing new and valuable results that have improved our understanding of iodine phenomena. A modelling effort has also been pursued in order to encapsulate the acquired knowledge in the calculation tools prepared for predicting the iodine behaviour under severe accident conditions. In view of the progress made, the Working Group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (GAMA) considered the necessity of producing a status paper on iodine chemistry, with the following objectives: - to review insights gained and evaluate the progress made during the last 10 years on the understanding of phenomena governing iodine chemistry and release in the case of a reactor severe accident, - to evaluate the current status of iodine chemistry knowledge and tools used for source term prediction in connection with accident management and emergency planning, under various reactor conditions, to identify the remaining weaknesses, discuss the reactor safety relevance of these issues and make recommendations as necessary. This paper aims at shedding light on the present situation, helping end-users and decision makers to adequately address questions related to iodine behaviour under severe accident conditions, and to essential programmes of work in this area

  13. Czech safety concept: 2013 state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, Antonin; Slovak, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    The Czech Republic operates four WWER 440 reactors (Dukovany) and two WWER 1000 reactors (Temelin). The four 440 MW Dukovany units were installed and began operation during the period 1985-1988. The two WWER 1000 reactors at Temelin started operation in 2002 and 2003. Currently, more than 8000 SF assemblies from WWER 440 reactors and 900 spent assemblies from WWER 1000 reactors spent fuel assemblies are stored in dry storage facilities located in the area of both NPP in approved casks or in pools at reactor sites. More than 4 000 assemblies are expected to be spent by 2025 at Dukovany reactors and 4 600 assemblies by 2042 at Temelin reactors. The multi-billion Euro contract to build two new nuclear reactors at the current site of Temelin with the option for an additional one in Dukovany has recently been launched in the Czech Republic. It is expected that more than 8 000 fuel assemblies would be spent in the three new nuclear reactors in the Czech Republic during their 60 years of electricity production. The basic reference plan is to directly dispose of all of the spent fuel assemblies in a deep geological repository (DGR), starting operation not earlier than in 2065. The DGR is planned to be located in granite host rock, because no other type of host rock in sufficient volume is available in the Czech Republic. Currently seven candidate sites for DGR suitable for geological disposal of SF assemblies have been selected, but due to negative community attitudes at the notion of have a repository in their backyard, they are still awaiting a detailed geological survey. According to proposed reference designs, SF assemblies should be in steel-based canisters emplaced in vertical or horizontal boreholes in granite host rock at approximately 500 m under the surface and surrounded by compacted bentonite. The Czech safety concept is based on the KBS-3 concept developed in Sweden. The Swedish concept is primarily based on almost thermodynamic stability of copper overpack in

  14. Direct energy conversion - state of the art in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euler, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Contemporary research and development of direct energy conversion (D.E.C.) started about 25 years ago. Having considered possibilities, cost, and advantages, the efforts have become more and more steady during the last decade. It has been recognized that, in most cases, D.E.C. methods will serve only as electricity sources for special application. This is true for radioisotopic generators used in space and submarine technologies, for thermoelectric devices used in air defence and along desert pipelines, and for thermionic convertors used in television satellites. Thus, the goal, to introduce these D.E.C. units in large scale manufacture has not been reached, and will not be reached even in the future. Only magneto-hydrodynamic channels exhibit a certain innovation potential as topping devices in advanced thermal power stations. Fuel cells will not be treated here, solar cells only mentioned briefly. (orig.) [de

  15. Powder Metallurgy characteristics and application: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2005-01-01

    Powder metallurgy process (P/M) is a near-net or net-shape manufacturing process that combines the features of shape making technology of powder compaction with the development of final material and design properties (physical and mechanical) during subsequent densification or consolidation processes, e.g. sintering. It utilizes the metal powder or powders of metal alloys. In this paper, the major historical developments in P/M are reviewed and discussed. The main parameters involved in the process and their effects on the product characteristics are presented and discussed, which include: powders and methods of their production, particle size and shape, compressibility and additives, sintering temperature and time and finishing processes. The advantages and limitations of powder metallurgy are also presented and discussed. Finally, applications and future developments of the process are outlined and discussed. (author)

  16. Brain radioligands. State of the art and new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halldin, C.; Gulyas, B.; Langer, O.; Farde, L.

    2001-01-01

    Non-invasive radioligand imaging methods for brain receptor studies use either short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 11 C and 18 F for positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emitting radionuclides such as 123 I for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). PET and SPECT use radioligands which are injected intravenously into experimental animals, human volunteers or patients. The main applications of radioligands in brain research concern human neuro psychopharmacology and the discovery and development of novel drugs to be used in the therapy of neurological and psychiatric disorders. A basic problem in PET and SPECT brain receptor studies is the lack of useful radioligands with appropriate binding characteristics. Prerequisite criteria need to be satisfied for a radioligand to reveal target binding sites in vivo. This section will discuss these important criteria and also review recent examples in neuro receptor radioligand development such as selective radioligands for brain monoamine transporters

  17. Maximizing kinetic performance in supercritical fluid chromatography using state-of-the-art instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud, Alexandre; Hamman, Chris; Goel, Meenakshi; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2013-11-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), due to the introduction of state-of-the-art instruments and dedicated columns packed with small particles. However, the achievable kinetic performance and practical possibilities of such modern SFC instruments and columns has not been described in details until now. The goal of the present contribution was to provide some information about the optimal column dimensions (i.e. length, diameter and particle size) suitable for such state-of the-art systems, with respect to extra-column band broadening and system upper pressure limit. In addition, the reliability of the kinetic plot methodology, successfully applied in RPLC, was also evaluated under SFC conditions. Taking into account the system variance, measured at ∼85μL(2), on modern SFC instruments, a column of 3mm I.D. was ideally suited for the current technology, as the loss in efficiency remained reasonable (i.e. less than 10% decrease for k>6). Conversely, these systems struggle with 2.1mm I.D. columns (55% loss in N for k=5). Regarding particle size, columns packed with 5μm particles provided unexpectedly high minimum reduced plate height values (hmin=3.0-3.4), while the 3.5 and 1.7μm packing provided lower reduced plate heights hmin=2.2-2.4 and hmin=2.7-3.2, respectively. Considering the system upper pressure limit, it appears that columns packed with 1.7μm particles give the lowest analysis time for efficiencies up to 40,000-60,000 plates, if the mobile phase composition is in the range of 2-19% MeOH. The 3.5μm particles were attractive for higher efficiencies, particularly when the modifier percentage was above 20%, while 5μm was never kinetically relevant with modern SFC instruments, due to an obvious limitation in terms of upper flow rate value. The present work also confirms that the kinetic plot methodology could be successfully applied to SFC, without the need for isopycnic measurements, as the difference

  18. STATE OF THE ART IN PROTEOMICS FOR CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrizayanti Syafrizayanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The earliest stages of cancer detection determine the successful of cancer treatment andtherapy. The existing cancer test or detection methods have been routinely used, but they arelack of sensitivity and specificity that are needed to avoid false positive or negative results. Thegenomic basedtechniques have been applied, although molecular understandings of cancerfar from complete, but few genomic platforms are becoming routine. Application of proteomicsbasedtechniques provide intriguing outcome, which is cancer detection at their earliest stages.Proteomics have exposed a new perspective into the phases of tumorigenesis and depictedmore detailed molecular network scheme, which made important contributions in the discoveryof biomarker of early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction outcome of cancer therapies.The noticeable proteomic platforms to achieve these goals are protein microarray, tissuemicroarray, mass spectrometry-based proteomic, and two-dimensionalgel electrophoresis (2-DE. The application of these techniques will be overviewed, providing a general review ofcurrent proteomic methods in cancer detection and subsequently improvement in prognosisand prediction of cancer therapies.Keywords: proteomics, protein microarrays, mass spectrometry, cancer biomarkerAbstrakDeteksi dini kanker sangat menentukan keberhasilan penanganan dan terapi kanker. Hinggasaat ini, telah banyak jenis metoda deteksi dan uji kanker yang sudah rutin digunakan, akantetapi metoda-metoda tersebut memiliki tingkat sensitifitas dan spesifikasi yang rendah,sehingga sering menyebabkan terjadi kesalahan hasil uji baik secara positif ataupun negatif.Bidang genomik telah banyak digunakan untuk lebih memahami kanker pada level molekuler,meskipun hasil yang diperoleh belum mendalam, akan tetapi beberapa metoda berbasiskangenomik telah mulai rutin digunakan. Bidang pioteomik mulai banyak diaplikasikan untukkeperluan deteksi kankersedini mungkin. Proteomik memberikan perspektif

  19. State of the art: Asphalt for airport pavement surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport runways and taxiways are commonly comprised of a flexible pavement with an asphalt surface. Marshall-designed asphalt with sawn grooves is the most frequent airport asphalt surface material. However, some airports have adopted alternate asphalt mixtures for improved resistance to shear stress and for increased surface texture, allowing grooving to be avoided. Of the alternate asphalt mixtures, stone mastic asphalt is the most commonly reported. Resistance to shear stress is a critical performance requirement for airport surface asphalt. Shear stress resistance minimises the risk of rutting, shoving and groove closure. However, fracture resistance must not be ignored when developing even more shear resistance asphalt mixtures. Significant distress in airport asphalt surfaces, compliant with the traditional prescriptive specification, has increased interest in a performance-based airport asphalt specification. Commonly reported distresses include groove closure in slow moving aircraft areas and shearing in heavy aircraft braking zones. Development of reliable performance-indicative test methods is expected in the future and will enable warranted performance-based asphalt mixture design for airport surfaces. Keywords: Airport, Pavement, Asphalt, Surface

  20. Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P. A.; Murashov, V.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose-response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose-response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.