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Sample records for current smoking prevalence

  1. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

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    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  2. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

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    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  3. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

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    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (pcigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, restricting tobacco advertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance

  4. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

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    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  5. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

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    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  6. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

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    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  7. Has smoking cessation ceased? Expected trends in the prevalence of smoking in the United States.

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    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-08-01

    From 1965 to 1990, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults (aged > or = 18 years) fell steadily and substantially. Data for the 1990s suggest that the smoking initiation rate is increasing and that the decline in the prevalence of smoking may have stalled, raising the fear that the historical 25-year decline will not continue. The authors used a new dynamic forecasting model to show that although the decline may slow down, the demographics of smoking imply that prevalence will inexorably continue to decline over the next several decades, even without any intensified efforts aimed at tobacco control. The authors estimated and validated the model using historical (1965-1993) data collected by the National Health Interview Surveys on the prevalence of smoking among adults. Their results indicate that the current increase in the smoking initiation rate partially explains the fact that the prevalence of smoking has apparently leveled off, but even if the most grim assumptions about future initiation rates are used, the prevalence of smoking among adults will continue to decline for several more decades. The authors predict that if current initiation and cessation behaviors persist, the prevalence of smoking among adults will automatically decline from its current level of 25% to 15-16% by the second quarter of the next century. Even so, smoking will remain the nation's leading cause of premature death.

  8. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas.

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    Neuberger, John S; Lai, Sue Min

    2015-06-11

    Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation.

  9. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

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    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  10. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 267-272

  11. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

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    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  12. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

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    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  13. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

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    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  14. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  15. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  16. Assessment of health impacts of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard;

    2014-01-01

    , but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......-initiation rates, whereas an intervention targeting only initiation among youth had marginal effects on morbidity and mortality within the modelled time frame. Conclusions: By modifying the DYNAMO-HIA model, we were able to estimate the potential health effects of four interventions to reduce smoking prevalence...

  17. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

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    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  18. Smoking outside: the effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed.

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    Savage, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The primary aim of the ban was to reduce people's exposure to second-hand smoke. A 95% compliance rate among employers suggests this aim was achieved. By prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor working places, an effect of the ban was to increase the non-monetary cost of smoking. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. A difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employed relative to the non-working population following the introduction of the workplace smoking ban. The research finds that the workplace smoking ban did not induce a greater reduction in smoking prevalence among the employed population compared with the non-working population. In fact, the evidence suggests a significantly larger decrease in smoking prevalence among the non-workers relative to the employed. Changes in the real price of cigarettes and changes in attitudes to risk are discussed as possible causes for the pattern observed.

  19. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996-2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Mokdad, Ali H; Srebotnjak, Tanja; Flaxman, Abraham D; Hansen, Gillian M; Murray, Christopher Jl

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for morbidity and premature mortality in the United States, yet information about smoking prevalence and trends is not routinely available below the state...

  20. Correlates of current smoking among Malaysian secondary school children.

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    Tee, Guat Hiong; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in adolescent is a significant public health problem, leading to the risk of addiction, morbidity, and mortality in the long term. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of current smoking among adolescent school children. A nationwide school-based survey among 25 507 students between Forms 1 to 5 (aged 12-17) was conducted using a 2-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of current smoking was 11.5%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking was significantly associated with males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87, 4.98), current drinking (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.46, 3.74), drug used (aOR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.24, 7.11), and being bullied (aOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.98) at least once in the past 12 months. Smoking is associated with several behaviors that pose risks to adolescents, such as social issues and smoking-related health problems. Thus, early and integrated prevention programs that address multiple risk behaviors simultaneously are required.

  1. Smoking in korean-chinese middle school students: prevalence and risk factors.

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    Park, Soonbok E; Yun, Soon-Nyung; Cui, Wenying; Kim, Hyang

    2013-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is rising among Chinese adolescents, and adolescent smoking is a crucial public health issue. Despite the number of studies that have explored the prevalence and various aspects of adolescent smoking in China, we know of no data currently available on smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. This article studies the prevalence of smoking and factors affecting smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from six Korean-Chinese middle schools in the Yanbian region of Jilin, China. The differences in data from three groups (never-smokers, ever-smokers, and current smokers) were analyzed using χ2 tests and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting smoking behavior. Among the 2,116 participants, 7.3% of the boys and 3.7% of the girls were ever-smokers, and 7.2% of the boys and 0.8% of the girls were current smokers. Differences among groups in terms of gender, number of friends currently smoking, parental smoking behavior, academic performance, alcohol consumption, and intention not to smoke were all significant (p students, currently smoking students perceived a significantly less antismoking environment (p = .000). The smoking rate was 2.24 times higher in boys than girls and was 11.57 times higher in students who had three smoking friends compared with those who had no smoking friends. The findings may help develop more effective intervention approaches to prevent adolescent smoking. Preventive programs should involve smoking parents by increasing the value they place on their children's nonsmoking behavior and equipping them to help deter adolescent smoking.

  2. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  3. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot ... to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence

  4. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

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    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  5. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

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    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  6. Prevalence and risk indicators of smoking among on-reserve First Nations youth.

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    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Tempier, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    To determine the current prevalence of smoking among First Nations youth living on reserve within the Saskatoon Tribal Council, and to determine the independent risk indicators associated with smoking among First Nations youth. Students in grades 5 to 8 attending school within the Saskatoon Tribal Council were asked to complete a youth health survey. Of 271 eligible students, 204 completed the consent protocol and the school survey, yielding a response rate of 75.3%; 26.5% of youth were defined as current smokers. Regression analysis indicated that older age, not having a happy home life, suicide ideation and having three or more friends who smoke cigarettes were independent risk indicators of smoking in First Nations youth. Smoking prevalence among on-reserve First Nations youth is quite high. The identification of four main risk indicators should assist with the design of youth smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  7. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Hashim R Fida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  8. Parental behaviours, but not parental smoking, influence current smoking and smoking susceptibility among 14 and 15 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Citation bias in reported smoking prevalence in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Ragg, Mark; McGeechan, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    A meta-analysis of 42 studies on tobacco smoking among schizophrenia subjects found an average smoking prevalence of 62% (range=14-88%). Statements are common, however, in the research literature and the media that between 80% and 90% of people with schizophrenia smoke. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to determine if citation bias exists in the over-citation and reportage of studies finding high rates of smoking prevalence in schizophrenia subjects. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) that studies on the prevalence of smoking in people with schizophrenia reporting high smoking rates would be cited more often than studies reporting lower rates; and (ii) that statements about smoking rates among schizophrenic people on the Internet would report very high rates more often than more realistic, less dramatic rates. A 10% increase in reported prevalence of smoking was associated with a 61% (95% confidence interval (CI)=30-98%) increase in citation rate. Journal impact factor (IF) was significantly associated with citation rate (p=0.001) but the country in which a study was carried out did not have an effect (p=0.90). After adjusting for IF, a 10% increase in prevalence of smoking was associated with a 28% increase (95%CI=1-62%) in citation rate. This bias is mirrored on the Internet, where statements abound about uncommonly highly rates of smoking by people with schizophrenia. Studies reporting very high prevalence of smoking among people with schizophrenia are cited more often than those studies reporting a low prevalence, a result consistent with citation bias. This citation bias probably contributes to the misinformation available on the Internet, and may have adverse policy and clinical implications.

  10. Prevalence and Psychological Characterization of Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The questionnaire based study was conducted amongst university students in Abbottabad,. Pakistan during ... Keywords: Psychology, Smoking, Health, Withdrawal symptoms, Counseling. Tropical Journal of ... EXPERIMENTAL.

  11. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P < 0.001), smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  12. An audit of smoking prevalence and awareness of HSE smoking cessation services among HSE staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OhAiseadha, C; Killeen, M; Howell, F; Saunders, J

    2014-04-01

    This audit estimated smoking prevalence and awareness of quit services among Health Service Executive (HSE) staff. A questionnaire posted to a random sample of 1,064 staff received a 71% response rate. Staff smoking prevalence was 15.0% overall, and 4.4% among Medical/Dental staff. Front-line-healthcare staff were less likely to smoke than other staff categories (adjusted OR 0.38, p HSE quit services. Targeted interventions are required to help staff to quit smoking and to boost awareness of quit services.

  13. Disparities in Prevalence of Smoking and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study

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    Josiane L. Dias-Damé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine time trends in prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy by family income, maternal level of education, skin color, and age. Methods. We conducted three population-based surveys in 2007, 2010, and 2013 with newly delivered mothers living in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Data were collected using questionnaires administered after delivery in all (two maternity units in the city, at Dr. Miguel Riet Corrêa Júnior Hospital and at Santa Casa de Misericórdia. Time trends were analyzed using chi-square test for linear trend. Results. Data of 7,572 women showed that the prevalence of smoking before pregnancy decreased from 28% (26.2–29.7 in 2007 to 22% (20.8–24.0 in 2013 (P<0.001. Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 22% (20.4–23.7 in 2007 to 18% (16.6–19.5 in 2013 (P<0.001. This reduction varied across income ranging from 17% (poorest to 35% (richest (P<0.001. The lower the income, the higher the smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking cessation was more prevalent among women of higher level of education and income. Conclusions. Smoking before and during pregnancy is still highly prevalent and the prevalence of cessation is low pointing to a need to strengthen actions targeting low-income, less educated, black pregnant women.

  14. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  15. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  16. Why Do Adolescents Overestimate Their Peers' Smoking Prevalence? Correlates of Prevalence Estimates among California 8th-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2002-01-01

    Used data from a statewide sample of 5,870 eighth graders in California to examine the correlates of smoking prevalence estimates. Best friends' smoking accounted for the largest proportion of the variance in prevalence estimates. Smoking by peers may give adolescents the impression that smoking is more normative and prevalent than it actually is.…

  17. Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking by college students in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; McCoy, Thomas P; Reboussin, Beth A; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Known most commonly in the U.S. as "hookah," waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. A cross-sectional sample of 3770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Degen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods: Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND, and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results: A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points, 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points and 47.1% a high (5–10 points dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least

  19. Smoking Prevalence Among Users of Primary Healthcare Units in Brazil: The Role of Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Giglio, Flávia Masili; Terada, Natalia Akemi Yamada; da Silva, Anderson Soares; Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo

    2017-03-24

    The objective of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association between religious involvement and tobacco use in a large representative sample of users of primary healthcare units of Ribeirão Preto, Southeast Brazil. Current and past smoking habits were determined among 1055 users of primary healthcare units. Participants' religiosity was measured using the DUREL questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking among men was 16.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.0-22.5] and among women was 12.6% (95% CI 10.4-15.0). Among the current smokers, 40.9% were light smokers, 24.6% were moderate smokers, and 34.5% were heavy smokers. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 13.5. Respondents who have a religion had a lower smoking prevalence than people who had no religion. Current smoking prevalence tended to be higher among people who do not practice their religion than people who practice their religion. Smoking status is also associated with self-reported religiosity, organizational religious activity and some aspects of intrinsic religiosity. Religiosity is an important factor in influencing the smoking behavior in Brazilian users of the public health services.

  20. Prevalence of smoking in northwest Iran: a meta-analysis

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    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco addiction is a major cause of preventable death worldwide. Thus, efforts to eliminate its use have the potential of producing significant health benefits. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among people in the age range of 15 to 64. The specific objective of this meta-analysis was to provide valid data that policy makers can use to make evidence-based decisions. Methods: To determine the prevalence of smoking among the adult population in northwest Iran, we used reports published by the surveillance system used to assess the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in different provinces in northwest Iran for the years 2004 and 2006-2009. Several variables were extracted, including the years of study, gender, ages, and smoking prevalence. Based on the heterogeneity of the results, we used fixed or random effects models to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. The analyses were performed using Stata 11 software. Results: A total of 28,436 subjects (14,248 males and 14,188 females in five age groups, i.e., 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64, were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men showed that, across the age groups, the lowest prevalence was 22.9%, the highest prevalence was 26.5%, and the average prevalence was 24.7%. Among women, the lowest prevalence was 0.3%, the highest prevalence was 0.8%, and the average prevalence was 0.5%. Conclusion: We found that approximately one-fourth of males in the age range of 15-64 in northwest Iran smoked cigarettes daily. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of addiction to tobacco in this area.

  1. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

    2013-11-01

    This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  2. Smoking prevalence, attitudes, and confidence about tobacco roles among Australian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Raoul A; Cholowski, Krystyna; Tzelepis, Flora; Stojanovski, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    This study identified major challenges to be addressed before student nurses can achieve their full potential in providing effective and comprehensive smoking cessation interventions. Smoking behaviors were assessed among undergraduate nursing students. In addition, students' attitudes, confidence levels, and support for extra training in tobacco control were examined. A nonprobability sample of 381 students at an Australian university was surveyed. The consent rate was 81%. Prevalence of current smoking was 21%. In the regression analysis, age group was the only statistically significant predictor of smoking status. Over one third (36%) did not endorse the nonsmoking exemplar role of their future profession. Most (60%) did not support the concept of routine smoking cessation intervention. Students who were smokers had significantly higher tobacco control confidence levels than nonsmokers. Smoking-related variables did not differ between students in different years of the course. Improved tobacco control training is needed at undergraduate level.

  3. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Dental Practitioners: Prevalence and Health Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Alnazzawi, Ahmad; Shoqair, Noora; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence, practice, and the associated health perceptions among dental practitioners have not been previously reported. This study aims to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners and to evaluate their awareness of health hazards of waterpipe smoking, particularly the adverse effects on oral health. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among dental practitioners. Surveyed dental practitioners practiced dentistry in the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a city in the Central-Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and the study was conducted during March 2015. The questionnaire consisted of questions on demographic data, history and practices of tobacco use, and perceptions toward the health hazards of smoking. Dentists were approached at their work places and invited to participate. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample's demographic and smoking characteristics, while cross-tabulation and chi-square test were used to determine the statistical significance of association between the groups (P ≤ 0.05). One hundred dental practitioners participated in the survey, with 55 males and 45 females. Twenty-six percent indicated that they were waterpipe smokers. Male gender and cigarette smoking were the only factors to be significantly associated with waterpipe smoking (P = 0.008 and P = 0.000, respectively). Most participants stated that waterpipe smoking is harmful to health, and the most commonly reported health hazard was respiratory disease, which was reported by 81% of participants. Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners is comparable to adult populations but lower than younger populations of university students. Health awareness of dental practitioners regarding waterpipe smoking was judged to be insufficient.

  4. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  5. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

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    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  6. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Smoking Among SEPAR Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Reina, Segismundo; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Garcia Rueda, Marcos; Callejas González, Francisco J; de Granda Orive, Jose I; Vaquero Lozano, Paz; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of smoking among SEPAR members, and their approach to smoking cessation in their patients. An online survey was completed by 640 members (496 pulmonologists, 45 nurses, 34 thoracic surgeons, 37 physiotherapists, and 28 other specialists). Of the members interviewed, 5% confessed that they were smokers: 3.5% pulmonologists; 8.9% nurses; 8.8% thoracic surgeons, and 13.5% physiotherapists. A total of 96% of members assign a lot or quite a lot of importance to setting an example; 98% of members always or often ask their patients about their smoking habit. The most effective anti-smoking intervention, according to 77% of members, is a combination of drugs and psychological support. These results are an indicator of the awareness and commitment of SEPAR members to smoking and its cessation. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in China: 1981–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systematic data regarding adolescent smoking are needed at the national level to support evidence-based tobacco control in China. The goal of this study was to estimate smoking prevalence among Chinese adolescents using published data. Methods: Published studies were located electronically from the commonly used databases in Chinese and English, complemented by manual searching. Forty-five studies were selected of the 9771 retrieved from the databases. These studies targeted adolescents aged 12–17 or middle/high school students, were conducted during the 1981–2010, and had adequate data for meta-analysis. The 45 selected studies covered 52 sites in different parts of China. Smoking rates were estimated using the sample-weighted and random effect method. Results: The estimated prevalence rate of lifetime smoking (ever smoked varied within a narrow range (39.04%–46.03% for males and progressively increased from 2.47% in 1981–1985 to 19.72% in 2001–2005 for females. The prevalence rate of current (30-day smoking for males declined from 26.62% in 1981–1985 to 10.86% in 1996–2000 before increasing again. The prevalence of current smoking for females increased from 0.29% in 1981–1985 to 3.26% in 2006–2010. Conclusions: The high levels of male smoking and the rapid increase in female smoking indicate growing burdens from tobacco-related diseases, underscoring the urgent need to strengthen adolescent tobacco control in China.

  8. Gender, economics and culture: diversity and the international evolution of smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andy R A; Caan, Woody

    2008-05-01

    To examine whether the observed diversity between national patterns of smoking prevalence could require modification of the World Health Organization (WHO) linear model for an international 'smoking pandemic' (a worldwide epidemic) to address data from non-western countries. We conducted secondary research using current measures in three publicly available databases: Globalink, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank (all Internet-accessible). The measures we used are the separate percentage data for men and women on: smoking and employment and national income per capita (US$) and percentage growth per annum. Regression analysis showed that women smokers were more frequent in countries with higher national income, but women were less likely to smoke in countries of rapid growth. Men were less likely to smoke in countries with higher national income, but more likely to smoke in countries of rapid growth. Two principle components together explained 62% of all the variance in the international data. The largest factor was positively correlated with the percentage of employed females, the percentage of female smokers and national income per capita, but negatively correlated with the percentage of male smokers and percentage annual. growth. The effect of female employment was not continuous, but above a threshold of 51%, was associated with a higher prevalence of female smoking. The smaller, second factor was only weakly correlated with any smoking variables. In his 1994 model (subsequently adopted by the WHO) Lopez looked at historical trends in 'stages' of smoking prevalence. These have been associated with 'stages' of economic development. We extended this analysis to look at a dynamic change (% annual growth) and a social indicator (employment). Male and female smoking is affected differentially by economic change and by level of income. These are also strongly related to the percentage of women in employment. This has implications for workplace

  9. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

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    Joanna d’Arc Lyra Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS, which may increase life expectancy and quality of life, as smoking is related to risk of death, relapse of tuberculosis, and non communicable diseases.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Oliano, Vinicius J; Aranda, Carolina S; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    Despite anti-smoking prevention programs, many adolescents start smoking at school age. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking in adolescents living in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. A prospective study was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years), enrolled in municipal schools, who answered a self-administered questionnaire on smoking. 798 adolescents were enrolled in the study, with equal distribution between genders. The tobacco experimentation frequency (ever tried a cigarette, even one or two puffs) was 29.3%; 14.5% started smoking before 12 years of age and 13.0% reported smoking at least one cigarette/day last month. Having a smoking friend (OR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.06-7.09), having cigarettes offered by friends (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.46-5.76) and having easy access to cigarettes (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.22-5.41) was identified as factors associated with smoking. Having parental guidance on smoking (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-0.77), having no contact with cigarettes at home in the last week (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79) and knowing about the dangers of electronic cigarettes (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92) were identified as protection factors. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and factors influencing smoking amongst Malay primary school children in Tumpat, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbanee, T H; Norhayati, M N; Norsa'adah, B; Naing, N N

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, knowledge and factors that influence smoking in Malay primary school children in Tumpat, Kelantan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2004 among primary school children in Tumpat District. Two hundred-twelve children in standard one to six were randomly selected from three rural schools. An interview that included information on history of ever smoking, knowledge related to smoking and health, and potential factors that could influence smoking was done. Twenty-five children had previously smoked, with a prevalence of 11.8% (95%CI=8.0, 17.0) and 8 were current smokers (3.8%, 95%CI=1.2, 6.4). More than half (64.6%) of the children had a good knowledge of smoking. However, only 105 (49.5%) of them knew that passive smokers have a higher risk of developing diseases. Of those who had ever smoked, 12 (36.6%) were influenced by peers and 17 (51.5%) had a self-desire to smoke. The earliest age to start smoking was at 6 years. Factors found to be significantly associated with smoking on multivariate analysis were increasing age (OR=2.8, 95%CI=1.6, 5.1), being boys (OR=5.8, 95%CI=2.0, 16.8), being at second school level (standard 4, 5, 6)(OR=7.8, 95%CI=1.3, 45.3) and having other family members (excluding father) who smoked (OR=2.8, 95%CI=1.2, 6.5). However, having a father who smoked and a good knowledge were not reported as influencing factors.

  12. Prevalence of active and passive tobacco smoking among Beijing residents in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Ding Zhang; Jie Cao; Zhong Dong; Jian-Xin Li; Gang Li; Ai-Jun Ma; Xue-Li Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of active and passive tobacco smoking among Beijing residents in 2011. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a stratified multistage cluster random sampling method to select a representative sample of 20,242, among Beijing residents aged 18-79 years. Active and passive tobacco smoking information was collected by a standardized and validated questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. All estimates of prevalence and numbers were weighted by the 2010 Beijing Population Census data and the sampling scheme. Results: Among Beijing residents aged 18-79 years, the overall prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers were 33.13%and 30.18%, respectively. The prevalence in males was much higher than that in females (60.75%vs. 3.75%for ever smokers, and 55.53% vs. 3.21% for current smokers, respectively). For overall current smokers, 14.12 cigarettes were consumed per day. However, only 8.91%of ever smokers quitted smoking at the time of the survey, and 2.44%of ever smokers quitted smoking in recent two years. Furthermore, 44.74%of overall nonsmokers and former smokers, with 47.03%of males and 43.63%of females, reported exposure to secondhand smoke for at least 15 minutes per day and at least one day per week. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking prevalence is still extremely high in Beijing. Nonsmokers do still suffer from secondhand smoke critically. Further urgent efforts for tobacco control are warranted in Beijing.

  13. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  14. A Study on Prevalence and Pattern of Smoking Among Rural Population in Dehradun District of Uttarakhand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Imtiaz, Sunil Dutt Kandpal, Ruchi Juyal, Ved Prakash Shrotriya, Atul Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Tobacco is a major public health problem all over the world with 82% of the world’s 1.1 billion smokers residing in low and middle income countries. The government of India has taken several measures, including legislation to control tobacco intake. Numerous surveys conducted worldwide and in India show a greater prevalence of smoking tobacco use among the less educated, illiterate and rural population. Objective: Objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors influencing smoking tobacco use among rural Community of Dehradun. Methods: Present study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. The households were selected by systematic random sampling and all the smoking tobacco users in the surveyed house were personally interviewed by using a pre-structured and pretested schedule. Results: Overall 663 current smoking tobacco users (Males-28.4%, Female-7.6% were interviewed. Prevalence of smoking tobacco increased with advancing age and the difference was statistically significant (?2=18.938; p<0.05. Peer Pressure (31.2% was the major reason for the initiation of smoking tobacco followed by enjoyment (20.0% in the surveyed population. Conclusion: In the study smoking was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Smoking also showed a consistent rise with the increasing age group and was found to maximum in the older age group. The predominant smoking tobacco product used was bidi followed by cigarette."

  15. Patterns of Smoking Prevalence among the Elderly in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Gallus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (≥65 years old, using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17 European countries in 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE project. Overall smoking prevalence in 17 European countries was 11.5% (15.3% in men and 8.6% in women. An inverse relation with level of education was observed among men, while no specific pattern was evident among women. Smoking prevalence was highest in eastern/central Europe for men (20.3% and northern Europe for women (13.1%. In both sexes combined, smokers were more frequent in countries with low implementation of tobacco control activities (14.9%. Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted to the elderly are urgently needed in Europe.

  16. Disparities in Prevalence of Smoking and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane L. Dias-Damé; Cesar,Juraci A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine time trends in prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy by family income, maternal level of education, skin color, and age. Methods. We conducted three population-based surveys in 2007, 2010, and 2013 with newly delivered mothers living in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Data were collected using questionnaires administered after delivery in all (two) maternity units in the city, at Dr. Miguel Riet Corrêa Júnior Hospital and at Santa ...

  17. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.

  18. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  19. The prevalence of smoking among Iranian middle school students, a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hefazi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objectives: "n "nThe mean age of cigarette smoking has decreased along with an increase in its prevalence, in developing countries. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the prevalence of lifetime, current and daily smoking among middle school students in Iran . "nMethods: Various search methods have been used in this study including searching different international databanks such as Pubmed, ISI web of Science, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Embase, as well as domestic databanks including IranPsych and IranMedex. All original studies and researches in Persian or English, which had described any kind of use including lifetime, current and daily use of cigarette, hookah, and pipe among middle school students, were included in the study with no restriction on date of publication, and were qualitatively assessed. Subsequent to data extraction, heterogeneity test was carried out on indicators for which more than two studies were found, and meta-analysis was done using random effects model . "nResults: The combined prevalence of lifetime, current and daily cigarette smoking were calculated as 14.2% (95% CI: 6.6-21.7, 2.7% (95% CI: 0.5- 5.9 and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.6-2.8, respectively. The combined prevalence of "current tobacco use of all kinds" was 15% (95% CI: 10.4-19.5, as well. "nConclusions: The prevalence of smoking in this age range is lower in Iran compared to other countries. However, a conclusion cannot be made about the changes in the prevalence of smoking in recent years. Moreover, studies carried out to the present have several qualitative limitations, which points to the necessity of high quality repeated surveys

  20. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Associated Risk Factors amongst Middle-School Students in Ongkharak District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana; Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common tobacco use which is the leading preventable cause of death in Thailand. Prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking are varied amongst communities. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of cigarette smoking amongst middle-school students studying in the Ongkharak district, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with students of the public schools in Ongkharak district, central Thailand, in 2013. Of 677 middle-school students (grade 7-9) who currently enrolled in the classes, 130 were randomly selected. Data on smoking as well as demographic characteristics were collected using an anonymous self- administered questionnaire which was modified from the 2013 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and translated into Thai. The prevalence of children who smoked or had smoked before was 24.6% (38.9% amongst males and 6.9% amongst females, p-value coffee or tea consumption (OR = 2.95, 95% CI 1.08-8.05) and sharing a household with a smoker (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.09-8.06). Those who have smoked reported higher prevalence of asthma compared to those who have never smoked (25.0% vs. 9.2%, p-value = 0.033). About a quarter ofmiddle-school students in Ongkharak district smoked cigarettes. Anti-smoking and prevention policies should be encouraged to tackle this rising major public health problem.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz F Al-Kaabba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009. Results: Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153 had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (΁3.3. There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies.

  2. Higher smoking prevalence in urban compared to non-urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idris, Berlian I; Giskes, Katrina; Borrell, Carme

    2007-01-01

    We investigated differences in smoking prevalence between urban and non-urban area of residence in six Western European countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Italy and Spain), and smoking prevalence trends over the period 1985-2000. In most countries, smoking prevalence was highest in urb...

  3. Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether in countries with high gender empowerment the female-to-male smoking prevalence ratio is also higher. Methods Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the relation between the United Nations Development Programme’s gender empowerment measure (GEM) and the female-to-male smoking prevalence ratio (calculated from the 2008 WHO global tobacco control report). Because a country’s progression through the various stages of the tobacco epidemic and its gender smoking ratio (GSR) are thought to be influenced by its level of development, we explored this correlation as well, with economic development defined in terms of gross national income (GNI) per capita and income inequality (Gini coefficient). Findings The GSR was significantly and positively correlated with the GEM (r = 0.680; P empowerment can take place without a corresponding increase in smoking among women remains to be seen. Strong tobacco control measures are needed in countries where women are being increasingly empowered. PMID:21379415

  4. THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AMONG THE STUDENTS OF MERAM APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhusen KUTLU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School and to analyze the affecting factors. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out among 192 students who educated at Meram Apprenticeship School during 2004-2005 academic years. Of 192 students whom participated in this study, 95.8 % ( n= 184 were male, and 4.2 % (n= 8 were female, minimum age was 15, maximum age was 20 (median value= 17 years. When the smoking status was evaluated, 50.5 % (n= 97 were ever-smokers, 7.3 % (n= 14 were ex-smokers, 42.2 % (n=81 were never smokers. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7 years, the highest age was 18 years and the median value was 13 years. When the reasons to start smoking were analysed, 41 students of 97 current smokers stated that they had started smoking because of affecting of social environment and friend groups (40.6 %, n=41, affectation and enthusiasm (27.7 %, n=28, stress and anxiety (21.8 % n=22. According to Fagerstrom criterion, 43 students (42.2 % were assessed very low addictive level, 23 students (n=22.5% were high addictive level. Our results showed that the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School was an important matter. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 424-433

  5. Tobacco smoking by adult emergency department patients in Australia: a point-prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Tracey; Jelinek, George A; Taylor, Simone E; Taylor, David McD

    2016-07-15

    Objectives and importance of study: Tobacco smoking is the leading single cause of preventable death. International findings suggest that rates of smoking are higher among emergency department (ED) patients than the general population, suggesting that the ED may be a strategic location in which to initiate smoking cessation programs. We aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking among adult ED patients in Australia, their desire for smoking cessation and preferred methods of cessation. Point-prevalence survey Method: A sample of adult ED patients was recruited from two tertiary referral hospital EDs. Participants were asked whether or not they currently smoked. Smokers were asked 15 additional questions, including about their readiness for smoking cessation. Demographics were collected from patients, and ED presentation characteristics were collected from medical records. Of 443 consecutive ED patients, 348 were eligible and 338 consented to participate. Data for 335 participants were available for analysis and 78 (23.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.1, 28.1) reported being current smokers. The mean age of smokers was 42.1 years, and 64.1% were male. Forty-one per cent (31/75) reported difficulty refraining from smoking, 78.1% (57/73) anticipated health problems because of smoking and 69.7% (53/76) had a desire to quit. Overall, 23/61 (37.7% of smokers) had a desire to cease smoking in the next month. The majority (44/73, 60.3%) were willing to undergo brief counselling. Multisession face-to-face counselling was most commonly preferred (22/55, 40.0%) and more than one-third (20/55, 36.4%) preferred group counselling. A session with an ED doctor (6/55, 10.9%) and multiple telephone-delivered interventions (7/55, 12.7%) were least preferred. Smoking is more prevalent among ED patients than statistics reported for the general population. Delivery of appropriate brief interventions suited to the stage of change should be trialled, along with referral from ED to

  6. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  7. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths in the UK and around the world. It poses enormous health- and non-health-related costs to the affected individuals, employers, and the society at large. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, globally, smoking causes over US$500 billion in economic damage each year. OBJECTIVES This paper examines global and UK evidence on the economic impact of smoking prevalence and evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation measures. STUDY SELECTION Search methods We used two major health care/economic research databases, namely PubMed and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) database that contains the British National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; Cochrane Library of systematic reviews in health care and health policy; and other health-care-related bibliographic sources. We also performed hand searching of relevant articles, health reports, and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations, and health intervention campaign agencies. Selection criteria The paper includes cost-effectiveness studies from medical journals, health reports, and white papers published between 1992 and July 2014, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992. Most of the papers reviewed reported outcomes on smoking prevalence, as well as the direct and indirect costs of smoking and the costs and benefits of smoking cessation interventions. We excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations. We also excluded papers that combine smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases. Data collection and analysis The included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. Outcomes assessed in the review Primary outcomes of the selected studies are smoking prevalence

  8. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths in the UK and around the world. It poses enormous health- and non-health-related costs to the affected individuals, employers, and the society at large. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, globally, smoking causes over US$500 billion in economic damage each year. This paper examines global and UK evidence on the economic impact of smoking prevalence and evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation measures. SEARCH METHODS We used two major health care/economic research databases, namely PubMed and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) database that contains the British National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; Cochrane Library of systematic reviews in health care and health policy; and other health-care-related bibliographic sources. We also performed hand searching of relevant articles, health reports, and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations, and health intervention campaign agencies. SELECTION CRITERIA The paper includes cost-effectiveness studies from medical journals, health reports, and white papers published between 1992 and July 2014, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992. Most of the papers reviewed reported outcomes on smoking prevalence, as well as the direct and indirect costs of smoking and the costs and benefits of smoking cessation interventions. We excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations. We also excluded papers that combine smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS The included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. OUTCOMES ASSESSED IN THE REVIEWPrimary outcomes of the selected studies are smoking prevalence, direct and indirect costs of smoking

  9. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  10. Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ou, Jia-Xian; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2011-11-01

    About one-third of the world's tobacco is produced and consumed in China. Despite existing tobacco control policies and activities, the prevalence of smoking in China remains high with 350 million smokers and 740 million passive smokers. Furthermore, smoking rates in the young population and in females are increasing. The number of deaths attributed to tobacco use has reached 1.2 million per year, whereas the death toll is expected to rise to 2 million annually by 2025. Sociocultural factors favouring smoking initiation, lack of awareness among the public about the hazards of smoking, weak support from the government and strong resistance from the tobacco industry are major reasons for the lack of effectiveness of current tobacco control measures. Effective intervention efforts are urgently required. Commitments from the government are crucial in tobacco control. Firm action should be taken on tobacco control issues at multiple levels including a reduction in tobacco supply, increased tobacco taxation, increased education, tobacco advertising limitations, decreased second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation support. The health-care community should also play a leading role in anti-tobacco campaigns and take a more active role in smoking cessation programmes.

  11. Current prevalence rate of latex allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miaozong Wu; James McIntosh; Jian Liu

    2016-01-01

      Objectives: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous...

  12. Smoking prevalence among migrants in the US compared to the US-born and the population in countries of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizzo R Bosdriesz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants' smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. METHODS: Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS from 2006-2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS from 2002-2005. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1% was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1% and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%. The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the 'healthy migrant effect' or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration.

  13. Chronic periodontitis and smoking Prevalence and dose-response relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahrukh; Khalid, Taimur; Awan, Kamran H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 (±6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (>5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. Results: Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p<0.007), male gender (p<0.001), and lower education level (p<0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p<0.001) and severity (p<0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis. PMID:27464867

  14. [Changes in smoking prevalence among adolescents in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Suelves, Josep M; García-Continente, Xavier; Saltó, Esteve; Ariza, Carles; Cabezas, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    To analyse information on adolescent use of tobacco in Spain from different school surveys. Data on daily smoking prevalence by sex at the end of compulsory education is extracted and figures are compared, analysing trends. The five representative studies on adolescents in Spain are reviewed: The National Survey on Drug Use in Secondary School Children (Encuesta estatal sobre uso de drogas en estudiantes de secundaria (ESTUDES); Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC-ECERS); Surveillance System of Risk Factors Associated With Non-Transmittable diseases in the Young Population (Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Enfermedades No Transmisibles dirigido a población Juvenil)(SIVFRENT-J); Study of Risk Factors in Secondary School Children (Estudio de factores de riesgo en estudiantes de secundaria) (FRESC); Surveillance Study of Health Behaviour in Adolescents (Estudio de Monitorización de las Conductas de Salud de los Adolescentes) (EMCSAT). The prevalence of daily smokers varies among studies, in boys from 8.5 to 13.3% and in girls from 12.7 to 16.4%. Although some series show variations, the trend from 1993 to 2008 is downwards. With data from recent years, weighted annual declines in smoking prevalence in adolescence can be estimated to be 6.47% for boys and 6.96% for girls. There is a decreasing pattern in adolescent daily smoking prevalence in Spain from the different existing studies, which provide consistent data, although surveillance must be kept due to fluctuations. This is in agreement with tobacco sales statistics and health surveys in the adult population. However, the pace of change should be more rapid and constant. © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  16. Genome-wide association study of smoking initiation and current smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Smit, August B; de Geus, Eco J C;

    2009-01-01

    For the identification of genes associated with smoking initiation and current smoking, genome-wide association analyses were carried out in 3497 subjects. Significant genes that replicated in three independent samples (n = 405, 5810, and 1648) were visualized into a biologically meaningful network......) and cell-adhesion molecules (e.g., CDH23). We conclude that a network-based genome-wide association approach can identify genes influencing smoking behavior....

  17. Does Having Children Affect Adult Smoking Prevalence and Behaviours at Home?

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    Johansson AK

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence and smoking behaviours have changed in society and an increased awareness of the importance of protecting children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is reported. The aim of this study was to find out if smoking prevalence and smoking behaviours were influenced by parenthood, and if differences in health-related quality of life differed between smoking and non-smoking parents. Methods Questionnaires were sent to a randomly selected sample, including 1735 men and women (20–44 years old, residing in the south-east of Sweden. Participation rate was 78%. Analyses were done to show differences between groups, and variables of importance for being a smoker and an indoor smoker. Results Parenthood did not seem to be associated with lower smoking prevalence. Logistic regression models showed that smoking prevalence was significantly associated with education, gender and mental health. Smoking behaviour, as well as attitudes to passive smoking, seemed to be influenced by parenthood. Parents of dependent children (0–19 years old smoked outdoors significantly more than adults without children (p Conclusion As smoking behaviour, but not smoking prevalence, seems to be influenced by parenthood, it is important to consider the effectiveness of commonly used precautions when children's risk for ETS exposure is estimated.

  18. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  19. MODELING FOR DEMOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL PREVALENCE AND TRENDS OF SMOKING IN THAI MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Apiradee; McNeil, Don

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe using national survey data the demographic and regional prevalence and trends of smoking in Thai males during the past 25 years. Data from eight national surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office from 1986 to 2011 were used to examine the prevalence of smoking. Males aged 15 and older were included in this study. Logistic regression was used to model smoking patterns, according to year of survey, age group, urbanization, and Public Health Area (PHA). The prevalence of smoking among males aged 15 years and older in 2011 was 38.4%. Sharply increasing smoking prevalence was found in the 15-24 years-old age group in all surveys. Before survey year 1999, the prevalence of smoking started to level off near retirement age, and subsequently, it leveled off after 40 years of age. The prevalence of smoking in all age groups decreased after 1986 except in the 15-19 years-old age group. Higher prevalence of smoking was found in rural areas. Males from the Northeast and the lower South regions had the highest prevalence. More effective anti-smoking policies should focus on males aged below 25 years to reduce the increasing prevalence of smoking in this group.

  20. High prevalence of lung cancer in a surgical cohort of lung cancer patients a decade after smoking cessation

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    Mosenifar Zab

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the prevalence of smoking at time of lung cancer diagnosis in a surgical patient cohort referred for cardiothoracic surgery. Methods Retrospective study of lung cancer patients (n = 626 referred to three cardiothoracic surgeons at a tertiary care medical center in Southern California from January 2006 to December 2008. Relationships among years of smoking cessation, smoking status, and tumor histology were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Results Seventy-seven percent (482 had a smoking history while 11.3% (71 were current smokers. The length of smoking cessation to cancer diagnosis was Conclusions In a surgical lung cancer cohort, the majority of patients were smoking abstinent greater than one decade before the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  1. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008.

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    James Lightwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347 percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132 packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85 and $3.14 (SE.786 reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars, using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA measure of healthcare spending. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5 billion.

  2. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

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    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  3. The Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking in Patients With Diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Albaroodi, K.A.I.; Syed Sulaiman, S.A.; A. A. Shafie; Awaisu, A.; Lajis, R.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread evidence has demonstrated the negative effects of tobacco smoking in patients with diabetes. Although many studies have explored the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population, data are lacking regarding its prevalence in a specific population with a chronic disease such as diabetes.Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among patients with diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional surv...

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Smoking Prevalence: Evidence from a National Survey of Teens

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    Hosanna A. Asfaw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.

  5. Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among university students in Russia and Ukraine is threatening

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    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waterpipe smoking becomes a public health problem in countries where it is brought from the Middle East. The objective was to compare prevalence of waterpipe smoking among university students (WSAUS in two countries of the former Soviet Union – Russia and Ukraine – with countries with traditional use of waterpipe and those where it has recently arisen. METHODS: A systematic review of research of WSAUS was conducted with the use of PubMed. Survey of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy students (Kiev, Ukraine was conducted in 2007-2009 and of Kazan medical university (Kazan, Russia in 2010.RESULTS: Nineteen studies of WSAUS were revealed. Daily WSAUS was only addresses in four studies and varied from about 1% in Lebanon and Pakistan to 7% in men in Syria. Prevalence of daily smoking in Russia (0.6% did not exceed that. Current smoking varied greatly: 5.6-35.0% for all, 14.6-49.6% for males, 4.9-20.2% for females.Last week WSAUS varied from 3.3% in Pakistan to 9.3 in Lebanon. Measurements in Russia (3.5% fall into this interval.Last month WSAUS varied from 9.5% to 20% in Iran, Pakistan, and USA with 13-14% measured in Russia and Ukraine.Last year WSAUS was between 18.7% in Pakistan and 30.6% in USA. Measurements in Kiev (39.7% and Kazan (52.3% were much higher. Ever smoking of waterpipe was 37.9% in UK, 53.6% in Pakistan, and somewhat higher in Russia and Ukraine.CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of period prevalence indicators in selected universities of Ukraine and Russia shows that daily, weekly, monthly prevalence indicators are similar to those in countries with traditional use of waterpipe. Last year and life time smoking indicators in Russia and Ukraine are higher than those in countries with traditional and newly established waterpipe use. To measure prevalence of waterpipe smoking questions with clearly specified time spans (day, week, month, year, lifetime are needed.

  6. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying.

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of smoking among secondary school students in Harare Zimbabwe

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    Rusakaniko Simbarashe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing epidemic of tobacco use among adolescents in the developing world. However, there is no up to date information on smoking among adolescents. Although in the developing world concerted efforts are being made to control tobacco use, Zimbabwe does not have any documented tobacco control programmes. We estimated the prevalence of smoking among school going secondary school students in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods A 3-stage stratified random sampling was employed to select six participating schools and students. A descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the participants. The prevalence of smoking was estimated and the comparison of prevalence was performed according to its associated factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for smoking. Results 650 students with a mean age 16 years and 47% of them female participated. Prevalence of ever-smoked was 28.8% (95% CI 25.3 to 32.3. Prevalence of ever-smoked among males (37.8% was significantly (p Conclusions The study provides recent estimates of prevalence of smoking, and indicates that there is still a high prevalence of smoking among urban secondary school students. Exposure to friends who smoke, risky behaviour like substance abuse, premarital sex and physical fights are significantly associated with smoking. Interventions to stop or reduce the habit should be implemented now and future studies should monitor and evaluate the impact of the interventions.

  8. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  9. [Prevalence and related risk factors on smoking among pupils in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia; Sun, Tong; Zhou, Pei-jing; Chen, Ren-you; Kang, Dian-min

    2013-11-01

    To study the prevalence of smoking and its influential factors among pupils in Shandong. A multi-stage stratified-cluster random sampling method was used in the survey. 6050 students from 3 different cities of Shandong province were selected as the study population. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed and the survey was conducted by trained investigators. The rate of attempting smoking among pupils under study in Shandong province was 6.0% while the current smoking rate was 1.2%. The average age of children who initiated smoking cigarette was 7.8±2.1 with 80.5% of them due to curiosity. 34.7% of them got the cigarettes from their families. In terms of the motivation of buying cigarettes, 74.3% of them claimed that the access to purchase was easy. Data from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that the smoking behavior of pupils was influenced by their familial or surrounding environments. Tobacco control programs on pupils should be strengthened with more powerful control measures including health education.

  10. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.

  11. Prevalence, social acceptance, and awareness of waterpipe smoking among dental university students: a cross sectional survey conducted in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Suhair R; Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Mahasneh, Arwa M; Bibars, Abdel Raheem M; Khader, Yousef S; Alsa'di, Amani

    2014-11-24

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in popularity especially among young adults. This spread could be related to limited knowledge of the negative health effects of waterpipe smoking. In this study, prevalence, social acceptance, and awareness of waterpipe smoking were examined among dental university students. This is a cross-sectional survey study, where a self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample of dental university students in Jordan. Students (n=547) reported current tobacco use of 54.3% for males versus 11.1% for females (Pwaterpipe (36.6% males, 88.6% females), and 6.9% used both (41.5% males, 9.1% females). Approximately, 70% of males and 42.5% of females who used waterpipe reported smoking mostly at a café. Nearly half of the females reported that they smoke at home in the presence of parents. Among participants, 33.3% of males and 62.5% of females reported indifferent parents' reaction regarding their waterpipe smoking. Approximately one third of students agreed with the statement that waterpipe smoking is less harmful to oral health than cigarette smoking. About 50-70% of students agreed that waterpipe smoking causes halitosis, delays wound healing time, is associated with dental implant failure, and increases the risk of dental decay. In this sample, waterpipe tobacco smoking was more common than cigarette smoking among dental students, especially females. This could be an implication of social acceptance of waterpipe leading to its predominance, and thus, the gradual replacement of cigarette smoking with waterpipe smoking. Additionally, dental students' awareness about the harms of waterpipe is not optimal, and steps are needed to ensure providing such knowledge to students.

  12. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

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    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  13. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment.Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions.Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region.Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys.What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially.What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking in

  14. Smoking among female sex workers: prevalence and associated variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devóglio, Ligia Lopes; Corrente, José Eduardo; Borgato, Maria Helena; Godoy, Ilda de

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs). This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8%) had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3%) resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1%) were smokers, 5 (6.0%) were former smokers, 74 (89.2%) regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8%) used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4%) were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%). The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271) and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001), although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651). The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted. Avaliar a prevalência de tabagismo e variáveis associadas em mulheres profissionais do sexo (MPS). Estudo de corte transversal quantitativo com MPS na cidade de Botucatu (SP), as quais completaram um questionário sociodemográfico, incluindo informações sobre tabagismo, estágio motivacional para cessação do tabagismo e grau de dependência da nicotina, assim como a

  15. Prevalence of Smoking and Related Risk Factors among Physical Education and Sports School Students at Istanbul University

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    Tümer Ulus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking among students at the Physical Education and Sports School of Istanbul University. A cross-sectional study was performed on total of 373 students who have been continuing their education at the school from February to March 2011. A total of 166 responders were male (44.5% and 207 responders were female (55.5% out of 373 participants. Of the 373 students, 94 (25.2% were current smokers and the average age for beginning smoking was 18.03 ± 2.6 (min: 12–max: 30. In this study, we found that the smoking prevalence associated with some variables such as age place of residence, mother’s education, father’s education, cigarette or tobacco use in the living place, knowledge status of students about their teacher’s smoking habits and alcohol consumption (p ≤ 0.05. These findings suggest that the students, who will train the sportspeople of the future, and should be considered a role model of healthy behavior in society. Consequently, we believe that sports school students should take an active role in providing health education programs to increase their awareness about the detrimental effects of smoking and to extensively quit smoking in public.

  16. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China

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    Zhijun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%. The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9, 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6, and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7, respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1, and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0 of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4, but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5% (95% CI: 6.0–7.1. More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0 of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5% (95% CI: 48.7–50.3 did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in

  17. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Northwest Ohio: Correlates of Prevalence and Age at Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Price

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392 ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was obtained using a questionnaire administered in classrooms. Data were analyzed using weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regressions in SAS that accounted for the survey design. The prevalence rates for adolescents that ever tried smoking were 7.4% in elementary (grades 4-5; 17.7% in middle (grades 6-8, and 41.4% in high (grades 9-12 schools, respectively. The highest prevalence rate was among Hispanics. Having a close friend that smoked and a smoker at home correlated significantly with both initiation of smoking and smoking at an earlier age. Smoking was correlated with low academic achievement among adolescents in all grades. Students who reported smoking by parents or siblings were significantly more likely to start smoking at an earlier age, compared to other students living in a non-smoking home environment. Smoking prevention program should include components focused on adolescents’ home environment and should start as early as the 4th grade.

  18. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P satisfaction with family relationships (OR = 1.89; 95 % CI: 1.27-2.83), low school-related parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  19. [Smoking prevalence in hospital workers: meta-analysis in 45 Catalan hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Antón, Laura; Riccobene, Anna; Fu, Marcela; Quirós, Nuria; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of smoking in workers from hospitals within the Catalan Network for Smoke-free hospitals from 2009 to 2012 according to workers' sociodemographic characteristics and the type of hospital. A meta-analysis was performed of prevalence surveys from representative samples of workers from 45 hospitals. The combined prevalence for all hospitals was calculated using a regression model with a random effects model weighted by sample size. The overall prevalence of smoking was 28.1% (95%CI: 26.1 to 30.0%) with a maximum and minimum of 40.3% and 19.1%, respectively. The health professionals with the lowest prevalence of smoking were physicians (16.4%; 95%CI: 12.9 to 19.9) and nurses (25.4%; 95%CI 21.6 to 29.2). The prevalence of smoking in hospital health workers was lower than in the general population of working age. Physicians were the group with the lowest smoking prevalence. Smoking cessation should be promoted among other professional groups. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Waterpipe smoking in students: prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. Evidence from one British university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel; Aveyard, Paul

    2008-05-22

    Anecdotal reports suggest waterpipe smoking is becoming common in students in western countries. The aim was to examine prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. This was a cross-sectional survey of students with subsidiary survey of regular waterpipe user and survey of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) before and after waterpipe smoking in customers of a waterpipe café. 937 students of Birmingham University completed the initial survey with a follow up of 21 regular waterpipe smokers. 63 customers of a waterpipe café near the University completed the study of CO intake. 355 (37.9%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 34.8 to 41.1%) students had tried waterpipes, the prevalence of trying rising with duration at University. 75 (8.0%, 95%CI 6.4 to 10.0%) were regular smokers, similar to the prevalence of cigarette smoking (9.4%). Although cigarette smoking was the major risk factor for being a regular waterpipe smoker, odds ratio (95%CI) 2.77 (1.52 to 5.06), 65% of waterpipe smokers did not smoke cigarettes. Seven of 21 (33.3%) regular waterpipe smokers experienced cravings. Nearly all regular waterpipe users thought it less harmful than smoking cigarettes. The mean (standard deviation) rise in CO was 37.4 (25.8)ppm, nearly twice as high as a typical cigarette smoker seeking cessation treatment. Waterpipe smoking is a common part of student culture in one British university, as in the Middle East and in the United States. It poses a potential threat to public health, with evidence of dependence and high smoke intake.

  1. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods: To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II. The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results: For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Brath

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00 and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79 were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07 and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17 were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05 and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94, were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99, with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits.

  4. Smoking in hotels: prevalence, and opinions about restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmonds, A; Bailey, K; Bentley, S; Chase, V; Fernando, S; Guruge, A; King, M; Tan, O M; Walsh, R

    1995-02-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke can occur in hotels. Controversy exists about smoking regulation on licensed premises. This survey of 138 people attending one of three Newcastle hotels during 1993 found that 57 per cent of respondents were nonsmokers. Fifty-eight per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 50 to 66 per cent) of respondents in these hotels believed their health was being adversely affected by other people's smoke in the hotel. Seventy per cent (CI 62 to 78 per cent), including half the smokers, were in favour of restriction of smoking in the hotels. Most preferred the establishment of smoke-free areas to the introduction of total smoking bans in hotels. The failure of hotels to regulate smoking suggests that a legislative approach is required. The case for legislation would be strengthened by a larger study elsewhere in Australia.

  5. A dynamic modelling framework towards the solution of reduction in smoking prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Tisya Farida Abdul; Sapiri, Hasimah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a hypothetical framework towards the solution for reduction in smoking prevalence in Malaysia. The framework is design to assist in decision making process related to reduction in smoking prevalence using SD and OCT. In general, this framework is developed using SD approach where OCT is embedded in the policy evaluation process. Smoking prevalence is one of the determinant which plays an important role in measuring a successful implementation of anti-smoking strategies. Therefore, it is critical to determine the optimal value of smoking prevalence in order to trim down the hazardous effects of smoking to society. Conversely, smoking problem becomes increasingly complex since many issues that ranged from behavioral to economical need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, a hypothetical framework of the control model embedded in the SD methodology is expected to obtain the minimum value of smoking prevalence which the output in turn will provide a guideline for tobacco researchers as well as decision makers for policy design and evaluation.

  6. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  7. Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India

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    P S Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66–12.22]. More than half of the study participants (56.3% reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  8. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

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    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  9. sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia. Richard Zulu1 ... potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic .... your family discussed the harmful effects of smoking with you?

  10. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  11. Smoking in the United States Air Force: Trends, Most Prevalent Diseases and their Association with Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Talcott, Harry Lando, and Risa J. Stein. “Smoking prevalence and risk factors for smoking in a population of United States Air Force basic trainees...Stein, Risa J., Sara A. Pyle, C. Keith Haddock, W.S. Carlos Poston, Robert Bray, and Jason Williams, “ Reported stress and its relationship to tobacco

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

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    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  13. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence--A case study in Northamptonshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin G M; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  14. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... collected by questionnaire in random samples of the general population in the area of Copenhagen. The database used included 71,842 measurements of smoking behaviour for 32,156 subjects aged 30 years or more, who had been examined at intervals between 1964 and 1994. In bi- and multivariate analyses...... the effects of sex, age, education, time period, and study group on the prevalence of smoking and of heavy smoking were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking was least prevalent in women, in the oldest age group (more than 70 years), and among those with 8 years or more of school education. During the study period (from...

  15. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M; Bonu, S; Jha, P; Nguyen, S N; Jamjoum, L

    2003-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of tobacco consumption in India. Cross sectional, nationally representative population based household survey. 315 598 individuals 15 years or older from 91 196 households were sampled in National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-99). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from household informants. Measures and methods: Prevalence of current smoking and current chewing of tobacco were used as outcome measures. Simple and two way cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. Thirty per cent of the population 15 years or older-47% men and 14% of women-either smoked or chewed tobacco, which translates to almost 195 million people-154 million men and 41 million women in India. However, the prevalence may be underestimated by almost 11% and 1.5% for chewing tobacco among men and women, respectively, and by 5% and 0.5% for smoking among men and women, respectively, because of use of household informants. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption increased up to the age of 50 years and then levelled or declined. The prevalence of smoking and chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with individual's sociocultural characteristics. The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most likely result in doubling the burden of diseases-both communicable and non-communicable-among India's teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed. The study also suggests a need to adjust the prevalence estimates based on household informants.

  16. Chapter 5: Actual and counterfactual smoking prevalence rates in the U.S. population via microsimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jihyoun; Meza, Rafael; Krapcho, Martin; Clarke, Lauren D; Byrne, Jeff; Levy, David T

    2012-07-01

    The smoking history generator (SHG) developed by the National Cancer Institute simulates individual life/smoking histories that serve as inputs for the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) lung cancer models. In this chapter, we review the SHG inputs, describe its outputs, and outline the methodology behind it. As an example, we use the SHG to simulate individual life histories for individuals born between 1890 and 1984 for each of the CISNET smoking scenarios and use those simulated histories to compute the corresponding smoking prevalence over the period 1975-2000.

  17. SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RELATED FACTORS IN HEALTH NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS COLLEGE (GMMA-2004

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    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determine smoking prevalence and the factors which effect smoking behavior, among Health Noncommissioned Officers College, that in Gulhane Military Medical Academy. This cross-sectional study was performed at February 2004. Population of study has been defined as, the students continue education in Health Noncommissioned Officers College on 2003-04 period. In our study we found that, 50.3% of students have used cigarette in any period of their life, and the prevalence of students who declare smoking one or more cigarette every day is 44.9%. Affect of friends (58.3%, and pleasure (47.2% is 1st and 2nd reasons start smoking. Price is the most effective factor of cigarette availability. In our study, economic reasons are reported as 2nd reason of give up smoking (56.3% after health counter effect (71.3%. The prevalence of smoking among Health Noncommissioned Officers College students is quite high than other studies, which performed in high schools and colleges in our country. Intention of give up smoking is hopeful, but results aren?t satisfying. This situation shows the importance and need of effective give up smoking programs for adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(8.000: 178-185

  18. Factors Associated With Current Smoking Among Off-Reserve First Nations and Métis Youth: Results From the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher; Leatherdale, Scott; Cooke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    First Nations and Métis, two of Canada's constitutionally recognized Indigenous groups, suffer from poorer overall health than non-Indigenous Canadians. Current smoking, a known predictor of chronic health conditions, is close to twice as prevalent among Indigenous youth as it is among non-Indigenous Canadian youth. However, little population-level research has examined the correlates of current smoking among this population. Guided by a health framework centered on Indigenous-specific determinants, we used data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine the correlates of current smoking among First Nations and Métis youth aged 15-17 years living outside of First Nations reserves. Using binary logistic regression, we investigated how culturally specific factors, namely knowledge of an Indigenous language, participation in traditional activities, and family members' attendance at residential schools, were correlated with current smoking. We also considered demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related correlates. Overall, an estimated 20.6% of First Nations and Métis youth reported current smoking. We found no significant associations between culturally specific activities and current smoking in the multivariate analyses, although those who spoke an Indigenous language were more likely to smoke. Those who participated in sports more often were less likely to smoke, and respondents who reported heavy drinking and who were from families with lower income were more likely to smoke. Gender, body mass index, urban/rural geography and regional geography, and mother's highest level of education were not significantly correlated with smoking. The results of our study support prior research that has found a disturbingly high prevalence of current smoking among Indigenous youth, compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Our results highlight the importance of considering sports participation, co-occurring health-risk behaviours and socioeconomic

  19. The costs of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Taiwan: a prevalence-based annual cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hai-Yen; Chang, Li-Chuan; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Wen

    2014-07-09

    To assess the costs of the health effects of cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure to society. Prevalence-based, disease-specific cost-of-illness study. We used an epidemiological population-attributable risk method to determine the costs that can be attributed to smoking and SHS exposure. Taiwan. All adult population aged 35 and older. Direct costs of healthcare expenditures spent for treating tobacco-related diseases, indirect mortality costs measured by the value of lost productivity due to tobacco-related premature deaths and indirect morbidity costs measured by the value of time lost from work due to tobacco-related illness. In 2010, direct costs of smoking and SHS exposure amounted to US$828 million, accounting for 3.4% of Taiwan's total personal healthcare expenditures. Smoking and SHS exposure also contributed to 15 555 premature deaths-corresponding to a loss of 284 765 years of life and US$820 million in productivity-and US$22 million in indirect morbidity costs. These direct and indirect costs totalled US$1670 million, representing 0.4% of Taiwan's gross domestic product and averaging about US$720/adult smoker. The share of the total costs was greater from active smoking (92%) than SHS exposure (8%), and greater for men (92%) than women (8%). Smoking and SHS exposure impose a huge financial loss in Taiwan. Sustained tobacco control efforts to encourage people to quit smoking, prevent smoking uptake by children and young adults and protect all people from SHS exposure are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Prevalence and of smoking and associated factors among Malaysian University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Al-Naggar, Thekra Hamoud; Chen, Robert; Al-Jashamy, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the prevalence and associated factors for smoking among university students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 students in the period from December of academic year 2009 until April of academic year 2010 in Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to all faculties of MSU by choosing one of every 3 lecture rooms, as well as the library and cafeterias of the campus randomly by choosing one from every 3 tables. Questions concerned socio-demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes and practice toward smoking. Participant's consent was obtained and ethical approval was provided by the ethics committee of the University. Data entry and analysis were performed using descriptive statistics, chi square test, Student t- test and logistic multiple regression with the SPSS version 13.0, statistical significance being concluded at p students were smokers (29%). The most important reason of smoking was stress (20%) followed by 'influenced by friends' (16 %). Prevalence of smoking was significantly higher among male and those in advanced semesters (p = >0.001, p = 0.047). Smokers had low level of knowledge (p semester of study (p = 0.025) and attitude toward smoking (p students were smokers. Males and students in advanced semesters were more likely to smoke. The results provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program to limit smoking in the university by implementing policies against smoking.

  1. The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study

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    Hesham I Al-Khashan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%, and the southern region the lowest (27.5%. Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%, and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%. Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit.

  2. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

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    David Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a

  3. Prevalence of Parental Smoking and Predictors of Cessation: A Study in the South Carolina Pediatric Practice Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Basco, William T; Hulsey, Thomas C; Ebeling, Myla D; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J

    2015-08-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure harms children. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in children ≤2 years and determine the predictors of smoking and smoking cessation in parents. We surveyed parents of children ≤2 years of age, asking about parental smoking patterns, interest in quitting and children's respiratory symptoms. Data were analyzed with chi-square and multiple logistic regression. Thirteen percent were current smokers and 18% had quit. The most common reason for quitting was being pregnant (42%). Children's respiratory symptoms did not predict quitting. Parents on Medicaid were more likely to smoke than those on private insurance (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 2.0-16.5) and less likely to quit (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.9). Having a new baby may be a motivator for parents to quit. We must address socioeconomic factors to develop a successful intervention in pediatric practices. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Semenya, Kofi A; Elzey, Jared D; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking.

  5. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H.; Garfield, Melissa J.; Sullivan, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. Objective: To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Methods: Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. Results: A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58–0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. Conclusions: High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. PMID:27193200

  6. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

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    Rachel Brathwaite

    Full Text Available To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries.Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions.26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries.Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website.Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%. Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6% and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%. Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents.Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  7. An econometric analysis of smoking prevalence among lone mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, R

    1999-08-01

    This paper uses panel data to examine the determinants of smoking among lone mothers over the period 1991-1996. Consideration is given to the initial conditions problem encountered when modelling dynamic panel probit models, and a recently suggested approach is applied to address this problem.

  8. Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Richard; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of noncommunicable disease morbidity and mortality. Most smokers initiate the smoking habit as adolescents or young adults. Survey data from the 2007 Lusaka (Zambia) Global Youth Tobacco Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and assess whether exposure to pro-tobacco media and perception of the potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations. Altogether, 2378 students, of whom 56.8% were females, participated in the study. Overall, 10.5% of the students (9.3% among males and 12.1% among females) smoked cigarettes in the 30 days prior to the survey. Students who favored banning smoking in public places were 33% (OR = 0.67; 95% CI [0.47, 0.96]) less likely to smoke cigarettes compared to those who were not in favor of the ban. Seeing actors smoking in TV shows, videos or movies was positively associated with smoking (OR = 1.90; 95% CI [1.26, 2.88]). However, possessing an item with a cigarette brand logo on it, seeing advertisements of cigarettes on billboards and being ever offered a free cigarette by a cigarette sales representative were negatively associated with smoking (OR=0.39, 95% CI [0.26, 0.58]; OR=0.63, 95% CI [0.43, 0.92]; and OR=0.43, 95% CI [0.29, 0.65], respectively). Findings from this study indicate that TV advertisement-promotion-sponsorship was positively associated with smoking, while it was the opposite with other forms of advertisement; there is a need for further studies.

  9. Medicaid coverage for tobacco dependence treatments in Massachusetts and associated decreases in smoking prevalence.

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    Thomas Land

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of smokers die prematurely from tobacco-related diseases. In July 2006, the Massachusetts health care reform law mandated tobacco cessation coverage for the Massachusetts Medicaid population. The new benefit included behavioral counseling and all medications approved for tobacco cessation treatment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008, a total of 70,140 unique Massachusetts Medicaid subscribers used the newly available benefit, which is approximately 37% of all Massachusetts Medicaid smokers. Given the high utilization rate, the objective of this study is to determine if smoking prevalence decreased significantly after the initiation of tobacco cessation coverage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Smoking prevalence was evaluated pre- to post-benefit using 1999 through 2008 data from the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFSS. The crude smoking rate decreased from 38.3% (95% C.I. 33.6%-42.9% in the pre-benefit period compared to 28.3% (95% C.I.: 24.0%-32.7% in the post-benefit period, representing a decline of 26 percent. A demographically adjusted smoking rate showed a similar decrease in the post-benefit period. Trend analyses reflected prevalence decreases that accrued over time. Specifically, a joinpoint analysis of smoking prevalence among Massachusetts Medicaid benefit-eligible members (age 18-64 from 1999 through 2008 found a decreasing trend that was coincident with the implementation of the benefit. Finally, a logistic regression that controlled for demographic factors also showed that the trend in smoking decreased significantly from July 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a tobacco cessation benefit that includes coverage for medications and behavioral treatments, has few barriers to access, and involves broad promotion can significantly reduce smoking prevalence.

  10. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-06-01

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  12. Prevalence of smoking and oral contraception in a sample of Danish young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B; Wielandt, H

    1991-01-01

    A representative sample of 286 Danish females aged 16-20 years were interviewed during the period April 1984--February 1985. The response rate was 75%. Both use of oral contraception (OC) and smoking were common; 46.6% used OC, 34.2% smoked and 19.6% combined smoking and OC. The prevalence...... of smoking was significantly higher (42.0%) among OC-users than among non-users (27.2%). The combination of smoking and OC was especially prevalent among young women with sexual debut before 16 years (36.8%). The association between smoking and the use of OC was significant both when tested unstratified (p...... less than 0.05) and stratified by age at sexual debut (p less than 0.01). Smoking was also associated with early debut of intercourse (p less than 0.001). It has been reported that the combination of these two factors in adult women increase the risk for cardiovascular mortality. However, the health...

  13. [Smoking and alcohol consumption among university students: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Habeyche, Esther Campos; Oliz, Manoela Maciel; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-06-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake among university students from the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil (UFPel), as well as to investigate factors associated with both habits. The sample included 485 students who were admitted to the university in 2008. Students were sampled randomly across all schools of the UFPel campus, and answered a pre-tested questionnaire, which was administered in the classroom by a member of the research team. Of the individuals interviewed, 53.9% were females and 42.3% were under 20 years. Regarding alcohol intake, 75% used alcohol once a month or less frequently, and the prevalence of risk for abusive alcohol intake was 6.2%. Regarding smoking, 10.2% reported smoking regularly or on weekends. More than 90% of those who smoked or used alcohol started before entering the university. Smoking was directly related to age and inversely related to self-rated health. In terms of alcohol intake, those who lived with friends were more likely to use it. Our data suggest the need for implementing strategies to promote healthy lifestyles among university students. However, the fact that more than 90% of individuals started to smoke or drink before entering the university suggests that interventions should target adolescents as a whole, and not only those who are university students, because onset of smoking and alcohol intake seems to occur at earlier ages.

  14. [Prevalence of smoking habits of Upper Austria students of the 7th and 8th grade and effect of smoking habits of family and peers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidek, T; Haidinger, G; Zacharasiewicz, A; Waldhör, T; Vutuc, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of different smoking habits in a population of Austrian pupils, 12 to 15 years old, and the relationship of familial and peer group smoking customs with these habits. In 1997 a population-based survey (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC) was conducted of all 7th and 8th grade school children of a district of Upper Austria. Information on the smoking habits of the adolescents, the family members, and of the peer as well as smoking habits of the teacher, gender, and age of the children was collected. The overall-prevalence of having ever smoked in this population is 57.8%. The percentage of eversmokers among the 12-year-olds is 50%. This amount increases to 63.8% among the 14- to 15-year-olds. The odds ratios for smoking daily is highest among those whose best friend smokes (OR: 70.63, CI: 9.19, 542.40). The risk of daily smoking increases also if the siblings of the juvenile (OR: 4.71, CI: 1.15, 19.35) or the mother (OR: 4.95, CI: 1.67, 14.70) smoke. If the father smokes the risk to smoke monthly is increased (OR: 2.09, CI: 1.28, 3.40). These results point to the fact that smoking prevention programes should take into account the influence of peers and family of the adolescents.

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and behavioral models of smoking addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige eFraser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While few studies have applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to smoking addiction, existing work suggests that the intervention holds promise for altering the complex system by which environmental cues interact with cravings to drive behavior. Imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS studies suggest that increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activation and integrity may be associated with increased resistance to smoking cues. Anodal tDCS of the DLPFC, believed to boost activation, reduces cravings in response to these cues. The finding that noninvasive stimulation modifies cue induced cravings has profound implications for understanding the processes underlying addiction and relapse. TDCS can also be applied to probe mechanisms underlying and supporting nicotine addiction, as was done in a pharmacologic study that applied nicotine, tDCS, and TMS paired associative stimulation to find that stopping nicotine after chronic use induces a reduction in plasticity, causing difficulty in breaking free from association between cues and cravings. This mini-review will place studies that apply tDCS to smokers in the context of research involving the neural substrates of nicotine addiction.

  16. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

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    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  17. Prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuo; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Yokoyama, Eise; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Takemura, Shinji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among Japanese medical students, to help promote effective antismoking measures in this population. From the 80 university medical schools in Japan, 20 were randomly selected and invited to participate in our survey. The survey focused on medical students and employed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Information on each university's antismoking measures was obtained using a separate questionnaire administered to teaching staff. The survey was conducted from December 2006 through March 2007. Factors associated with smoking were identified by using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 1619 valid surveys were returned. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.7% (18.1% among men and 5.1% among women). Factors associated with smoking among medical students were male sex, enrollment at a private medical university, smoking by siblings, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, insomnia, and less than 6 hours of sleep per night. Antismoking education must be further promoted to Japanese medical students, with consideration given to the factors associated with smoking behavior found in the present study.

  18. Prevalência e fatores de risco para tabagismo em adolescentes Prevalence and risk factors for smoking among adolescents

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    Maura C Malcon

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tabagismo é uma das principais causas de enfermidades evitáveis e incapacidades prematuras. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de medir a prevalência e estudar fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo nos adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A partir de um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 1.187 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, da zona urbana de Pelotas, sul do Brasil. Todos os adolescentes da amostra, de cada domicílio, foram entrevistados por meio de questionário pré-codificado, individual e confidencial. Utilizou-se o teste de Kaplan-Meier para análise da curva de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo na amostra foi de 12,1% (IC95% 10,3%-14%. As prevalências foram similares para os sexos femininos e masculinos. Os fatores de risco para tabagismo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: maior idade, odds ratio (OR de 28,7 (11,5-71,4, irmãos mais velhos fumantes, OR de 2,4 (1,5-3,8, três ou mais amigos fumantes, OR de 17,5 (8,8-34,8 e baixa escolaridade OR de 3,5 (1,5-8,0. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo na adolescência mostrou-se alta, na cidade de Pelotas. Campanhas antitabágicas devem ser direcionadas à comunidade e à família tendo o adolescente como alvo. Medidas legais adotadas pelo governo são importantes para impedir o acesso dos adolescentes ao cigarro.OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of preventable disease and premature disability. Th estudy was aimed at measuring smoking prevalence and related risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 1,187 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. All adolescents were interviewed separately using a confidential coded questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier test was performed for survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The overall smoking prevalence

  19. Prevalence of COPD and Tobacco Smoking in Tunisia — Results from the BOLD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, Hager; Denguezli, Meriam; Jithoo, Anamika; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter; Tabka, Zouhair; Harrabi, Imed

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia, there is a paucity of population-based data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prevalence. To address this problem, we estimated the prevalence of COPD following the Burden of Lung Disease Initiative. We surveyed 807 adults aged 40+ years and have collected information on respiratory history and symptoms, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Six hundred and sixty one (661) subjects were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of GOLD Stage I and II or higher COPD were 7.8% and 4.2%, respectively (Lower Limit of Normal modified stage I and II or higher COPD prevalence were 5.3% and 3.8%, respectively). COPD was more common in subjects aged 70+ years and in those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2. Prevalence of stage I+ COPD was 2.3% in <10 pack years smoked and 16.1% in 20+ pack years smoked. Only 3.5% of participants reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In this Tunisian population, the prevalence of COPD is higher than reported before and higher than self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In subjects with COPD, age is a much more powerful predictor of lung function than smoking. PMID:24351745

  20. Prevalence of COPD and Tobacco Smoking in Tunisia — Results from the BOLD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Daldoul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, there is a paucity of population-based data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD prevalence. To address this problem, we estimated the prevalence of COPD following the Burden of Lung Disease Initiative. We surveyed 807 adults aged 40+ years and have collected information on respiratory history and symptoms, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines. Six hundred and sixty one (661 subjects were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of GOLD Stage I and II or higher COPD were 7.8% and 4.2%, respectively (Lower Limit of Normal modified stage I and II or higher COPD prevalence were 5.3% and 3.8%, respectively. COPD was more common in subjects aged 70+ years and in those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2. Prevalence of stage I+ COPD was 2.3% in <10 pack years smoked and 16.1% in 20+ pack years smoked. Only 3.5% of participants reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In this Tunisian population, the prevalence of COPD is higher than reported before and higher than self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In subjects with COPD, age is a much more powerful predictor of lung function than smoking.

  1. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based...... in Europe, Israel and North America. Data were analysed with multi-level hierarchical regression models. FINDINGS: The study found large differences in the prevalence of daily smoking among adolescents, and also large differences between boys and girls within some countries. The study found that smoking...... bans in schools were associated with lower odds ratios of daily smoking, which was the one positive association in the study. The study found no association between cigarette prices and adolescent daily smoking prevalence, and also the somewhat unexpected finding that having an age limit for allowing...

  2. Smoking prevalence and views about tobacco law in students of medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Baykan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine smoking prevalence among first year students attending Erciyes University Medical School and to evaluate their ideas about the law Prevention and Control of Hazards of Tobacco Products”. Methods:This was a descriptive study conducted in May 2013. The participation rate was 72.5%. A questionnaire including 18 questions was administered to the participants. Socio demographic features, smoking status, addiction perception of smokers and their ideas about the law were asked in the questionnaire. Ethical approval was obtained for the study. Chi square test was used. Results:Out of 200 students 49.0% had tried smoking and 23. 0% has been smoking. 40,6 % of the male and 6.7% of the female students was smoking. There was statistically significant difference between them (fisher exacttest, p<0.001. Smoking among students, whose family members also smokers, were higher. The mean starting age to smoking was 16.7±2.0 and stress was the first reason. 84.3 % of the students evaluated smoking as an addiction. 79.0% of the students were considering that the law was partially applied. 60.5% said that tobacco use had decreased with the law and 28.3% said that their usage had also been decreased. Only 38.0% believes that this law interfere personal rights. Conclusion:Half of the students had tried smoking at early ages. Parents were important role models. The majority of the students thought that restrictive laws limit smoking.

  3. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  4. Changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight: Does neighborhood prevalence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, D.J.; Vlas, S.J. de; Empelen, P. van; Richardus, J.H.; Lenthe, F.J. van

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the prevalence of health-related behaviors and overweight in neighborhoods is associated with changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight over 13 years of follow-up in Dutch adults residing in 86 neighborhoods of Eindhoven in 1991. We showed that living in neighbo

  5. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors among secondary school teachers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Jawad, Ammar A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence in Malaysia is high, especially among men and adolescents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors towards cigarette smoking among school teachers in Malaysia. This study was a school-based cross-sectional study conducted among 495 secondary school teachers. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of 29 questions categorized into two sections: socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behaviour. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program 13.0. ANOVA; t-tests were used in univariate analysis; multiple linear regression was applied for multivariate analysis. The majority of the participants were female (81.6%), in the age group ranged between 30-39 years (44%), Malay (90.1%), married (89.7%), degree holders (85.1%), with monthly income ranged between 3000-3999 Ringgit Malaysia (33.5%), from urban areas (94.7%), their specialty is social studies (33.9%) and with no family history of cancer (83.6%). The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Malaysia was found to be 7.8%. Regarding reasons to start smoking among school teachers: the major reason was found to be relaxation (33.3%), followed by stress-relief (28.2%). Univariate analysis showed that sex, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers (pMalaysia was found to be relatively low. Sex, marital status, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers.

  6. The Comparison of Hookah Smoking Prevalence in Medical Students between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hookah smoking is increasing worldwide. It is estimated the worldwide prevalence of daily hookah smoking is 100 million. The aim of this study was to compare hookah smoking prevalence in Islamic Azad University medical students in the city of Ardabil between 2009 and 2014. Method: Of 2956 Islamic Azad University medical students, Ardabil branch, almost 25% of students {737 students (226 males vs. 511 females; 436 subjects at 2009 vs. 301 subjects at 2014} were randomly selected to participate in this survey. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used after verbal informed consent according to the Review Committee of Ardabil Branch Islamic Azad University Medicine School approved protocol. A cluster sampling technique was used. The questions focused on gender, hookah smoking status, and students’ replies for the following issues: (1 Kind of hookah (2 Frequency of smoking (3 Motivation of hookah use (4 Place of smoking use (5 and Second-hand exposure to hookah. Results: Hookah use showed significant decrease in male students compared with five years ago (P<0.05. Frequency of molasses (tobacco with sweetened fruit flavors and mild aromatic smoke use has significantly enhanced among both genders in 2014 compared with 2009 (P<0.05. Furthermore, second-hand exposure to hookah was significantly higher among both nonsmoker genders at 2014 compared with 2009 (32.7% at 2014 vs. 13.2% at 2009. Conclusion: Unfortunately, in spite of knowledge promotion among medicine school students in recent years, hookah use is still prevalent among medical students. Molasses use has significantly increased and second hand exposure to tobacco has escalated since 2009.

  7. The Prevalence, Incidence, and Progression of Hand Osteoarthritis in Relation to Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Ida K; Magnusson, Karin; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Englund, Martin

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the extent that overweight/obesity, smoking, and alcohol are associated with prevalence and longitudinal changes of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). Participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (n = 1232) were included, of whom 994 had 4-year followup data. In analyses on incident hand OA, only persons without hand OA at baseline were included (n = 406). Our exposure variables were overweight/obesity [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference], smoking (current/former, smoking pack-yrs), and alcohol consumption (drinks/week). Using linear and logistic regression analyses, we analyzed possible associations between baseline exposure variables and radiographic hand OA severity, erosive hand OA, incidence of hand OA, and radiographic changes. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and education. Neither overweight nor obesity were associated with hand OA. Current smoking was associated with less hand OA in cross-sectional analyses, whereas longitudinal analyses suggested higher odds of incident hand OA in current smokers (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.02-4.77). Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with higher Kellgren-Lawrence sum score at baseline (1-3 drinks: 1.55, 95% CI 0.43-2.67) and increasing sum score during 4-year followup (4-7 drinks: 0.33, 95% CI 0.01-0.64). Moderate alcohol consumption (1-7 drinks/week) was associated with 2-fold higher odds of erosive hand OA, which was statistically significant. Additional adjustment for BMI gave similar strengths of associations. Overweight/obesity were not associated with hand OA. Contrasting results were observed for smoking and hand OA, suggesting lack of association. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with hand OA severity, radiographic changes, and erosive hand OA, warranting further investigation.

  8. The impact of regional economic reliance on the tobacco industry on current smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Barnett, Ross; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Weijun; Li, Lu

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of province of residence and other contextual factors on the likelihood of being a current smoker in China. A cross-sectional, multistage sampling process was used to recruit participants, and their smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through face-to-face interviews. The contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of provincial economic reliance on the tobacco industry, as well as individual-level characteristics, on the likelihood of being a current smoker. Participants totaled 20,601 from 27 cities located in 26 of the 31 municipalities/provinces in China. Overall smoking prevalence was 31.3% (95% CI: 19.3-33.2%), with rates being highest in Yinchuan City in Ningxia Province (49.8%) and lowest in Shanghai (21.6%). The multilevel analysis showed an excess likelihood of being a current smoker for individuals living in provinces with the highest rate of cigarette production relative to those with the smallest (pmarketing of tobacco products in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Female Students Aged 13 to 15 Years in Vietnam, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh, MD, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors.MethodsWe used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10 from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking.ResultsPrevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5, and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9 of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements.ConclusionOur findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  10. Prevalence of and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors. We used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10) from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements. Our findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Rao, Saadiyah; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-02-21

    Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking.

  12. Small area estimates reveal high cigarette smoking prevalence in low-income cities of Los Angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Baldwin, Susie B; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret; Yu, Hongjian; Teutsch, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Los Angeles County has among the lowest smoking rates of large urban counties in the USA. Nevertheless, concerning disparities persist as high smoking prevalence is found among certain subgroups. We calculated adult smoking prevalence in the incorporated cities of Los Angeles County in order to identify cities with high smoking prevalence. The prevalence was estimated by a model-based small area estimation method with utilization of three data sources, including the 2007 Los Angeles County Health Survey, the 2000 Census, and the 2007 Los Angeles County Population Estimates and Projection System. Smoking prevalence varied considerably across cities, with a more than fourfold difference between the lowest (5.3%) and the highest prevalence (21.7%). Higher smoking prevalence was generally found in socioeconomically disadvantaged cities. The disparities identified here add another layer of data to our knowledge of the health inequities experienced by low-income urban communities and provide much sought data for local tobacco control. Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of providing credible local estimates of smoking prevalence using the model-based small area estimation method.

  13. Does smoking among friends explain apparent genetic effects on current smoking in adolescence and young adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    White, V M; Byrnes, G B; Webster, B.; Hopper, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used data from a prospective cohort study of twins to investigate the influence of unmeasured genetic and measured and unmeasured environmental factors on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults. Twins were surveyed in 1988 (aged 11?18 years), 1991, 1996 and 2004 with data from 1409, 1121, 732 and 758 pairs analysed from each survey wave, respectively. Questionnaires assessed the smoking behaviour of twins and the perceived smoking behaviour of friends and parents. Using a no...

  14. Accuracy and importance of projections from a dynamic simulation model of smoking prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Méndez, David

    2012-11-01

    We compared projections from a dynamic model of US adult smoking prevalence with official estimates of prevalence from the National Health Interview Survey. Ten years after they were made, the model projections closely fit the National Health Interview Survey estimates for 2005 and 2010. We conclude that a verified model of adult smoking prevalence can assist governmental authorities in establishing aspirational but feasible targets for tobacco control. By extension, carefully crafted models can help in goal setting in multiple areas of public health.

  15. The Peculiarities of the Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking among Schoolchildren in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Polka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the European Region, 40 % of poor health and premature deaths are caused by three avoidable risk factors: smoking, alcohol and traffic accidents (which are in turn frequently caused by alcohol. Among the WHO regions, Europe has the highest prevalence of tobacco smoking among both adults (28.0 % and adolescents (19.0 %.In the period from 1999 to 2014 three series of international surveys (ESPAD, GYTS, and HBSC were carried out in Ukraine, which contained, inter alia, questions on smoking. All interviews were conducted among children of different school ages. The results of the survey of schoolchildren conducted in 2010–2011, de­monstrated that Ukraine continues to occupy a leading position in terms of smoking (3rd place after the Czech Republic and Italy. The following negative tendencies have been revealed: 28.8 % ever smokers initiated smoking before age ten; 3.7 % always have or feel like having a cigarette first thing in the mor­ning; besides cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, mini-cigars become more popular among the adolescent smokers (to 7.2 %; 55.3 % of never smokers are likely to initiate smoking next year; 19.2 % have an object with a cigarette brand logo. In addition to tobacco, alcohol is the second common habit among today’s teenagers. According to the Institute for Social and Forensic Psychiatry and Toxicology, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, 22 % of pupils and students drink alcohol on a daily basis or several times a week. The high prevalence of smoking and alcohol use among children and adolescents in Ukraine requires the deve­lopment and introduction of new effective preventive measures aimed at the formation of health behavior in young people. It is also important to start preventive measures in advance of the onset of risk behavior.

  16. High Prevalence of Smoking in the Roma Population Seems to Have No Genetic Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiatal, Szilvia; Tóth, Réka; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Kósa, Zsigmond; Sándor, János; McKee, Martin; Ádány, Róza

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking in Romani of both genders is significantly higher than in the general population. Our aim was to determine whether a genetic susceptibility contributes to the high prevalence of smoking among Roma in a study based on data collected from cross-sectional surveys. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms known to be closely related to smoking behavior were investigated in DNA samples of Hungarian Roma (N = 1273) and general (N = 2388) populations. Differences in genotype and allele distribution were investigated. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) were generated to estimate the joint effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes COMT, CHRNA3/4/5, CYP2A6, CTNNA3, DRD2, MAOA, KCNJ6, AGPHD1, ANKK1, TRPC7, GABRA4, and NRXN1. The distribution of scores in study populations was compared. Age, gender, and body mass index were considered as confounding factors. Difference in allele frequencies between the study populations remained significant for 16 polymorphisms after multiple test correction (p smoking behavior of the Roma population could not be accounted for by genetic susceptibility; therefore, interventions aimed at smoking prevention and cessation should focus on cultural and environmental factors. This is the first study designed to determine whether genetic background exists behind the harmful behavior of the smoking of the Roma population. Although the frequencies of susceptible and protective alleles strongly differ between the Hungarian Roma and general populations, it is shown that calculated GRSs being significantly higher in the general population, which do not support the hypothesis on the genetic susceptibility of the Roma population. Interventions aimed at smoking cessation in the Roma population should preferentially target cultural and environmental factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  17. Beyond Smoking Prevalence: Exploring the Variability of Associations between Neighborhood Exposures across Two Nested Spatial Units and Two-Year Smoking Trajectory among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenadenik, Adrian E; Frohlich, Katherine L; Gauvin, Lise

    2016-01-06

    Young adults have the highest prevalence of smoking amongst all age groups. Significant uptake occurs after high school age. Although neighborhood exposures have been found to be associated with smoking behavior, research on neighborhood exposures and the smoking trajectories among young adults, and on the role of geographic scale in shaping findings, is scarce. We examined associations between neighborhood exposures across two nested, increasingly large spatial units and smoking trajectory over two years among young adults living in Montreal, Canada. A sample of 2093 participants aged 18-25 years from the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (ISIS) was surveyed. The dependent variable was self-reported smoking trajectory over the course of two years. Residential addresses, data on presence of tobacco retail outlets, and the presence of smoking accommodation facilities were coded and linked to spatial units. Three-level multinomial models were used to examine associations. The likelihood of being a smoker for 2+ years was significantly greater among those living in larger spatial unit neighborhoods that had a greater presence of smoking accommodation. This association was not statistically significant at the smaller spatial units. Our findings highlight the importance of studying young adults' smoking trajectories in addition to static smoking outcomes, and point to the relevance of considering spatial scale in studies of neighborhoods and smoking.

  18. Poverty status and cigarette smoking prevalence and cessation in the United States, 1983-1993: the independent risk of being poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A J; Novotny, T E

    1997-01-01

    To analyse the independent relations between poverty status and cigarette smoking prevalence and cessation in the United States, 1983-1993. An analysis of eight cross-sectional national surveys. The United States, 1983-1993. 236,311 civilian, non-institutionalised adult residents of the United States, aged 18 years and older. Probability of current cigarette smoking and proportion of former smokers among ever-smokers (quit ratio) in surveyed subjects below the poverty threshold, compared with those at or above the poverty threshold. The odds ratio for current smoking among persons below the poverty threshold ranged from a low of 1.10 in 1985 to a high of 1.45 in 1990, and remained between 1.26 and 1.30 during 1991-1993. The odds ratio for smoking cessation (quit ratio) among persons below the poverty threshold ranged from 0.81 in 1985 to 0.64 in 1991, and remained between 0.73 and 0.66 during 1991-1993. These measures of the relations between poverty status and smoking were derived using multiple logistic regression models, which adjusted for the effects of sex, age, education, race, employment status, marital status, and geographic region. Persons below the poverty threshold continue to be more likely than those at or above the threshold both to be current smokers and not to have quit. Poverty may be an indicator of underparticipation in the changing social norms regarding smoking behaviour in recent years. Individuals below the poverty threshold may need focused efforts to help achieve the Healthy People 2000 objectives for reducing adult smoking prevalence. Further understanding of the relation between poverty and smoking is essential to develop effective programmes for this vulnerable population subgroup.

  19. Tratamiento actual del tabaquismo Current treatment for smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Regalado-Pineda

    2007-01-01

    receptors blocker, rimonabant. As for non-pharmaceutical treatments, medical advice is a useful tool whose success can range from 2 to 4%, but only 35% of medical professionals provide it (RM 1.74, IC95% 1.48-2.05. Group psychological therapy helps to modify the perception of cigarettes and its noxious effects. The success of this modality is between 20% and 35% per year (RM 2.17, IC95% 1.42-3.45. Some of the disadvantages are the time invested and the cost of the treatment, which can be considerable. Finally, self-help materials can increase success (RM 1.24, IC95% 1.07-1.45. In summary, multiple modalities currently exist that have been proven effective in the treatment for quitting smoking; however, the treatment should be individualized according to each particular case.

  20. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  1. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  2. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    James Tosin Akinlua; Richard Meakin; Aminu Mahmoud Umar; Nick Freemantle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution o...

  3. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap.

  4. Nondisclosure of Smoking Status to Health Care Providers among Current and Former Smokers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laurel Erin; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2013-01-01

    An unintended consequence of tobacco control's success in marginalizing smoking is that smokers may conceal their smoking from those who are best positioned to help them quit: health care providers (HCPs). The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of, and factors related to, nondisclosure of smoking to HCPs. Data were obtained from…

  5. Cigarette advertising and female smoking prevalence in Spain, 1982-1997: case studies in International Tobacco Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, Omar; Fernández, Esteve; Thun, Michael; Schiaffino, Anna; Dolwick, Suzanne; Cokkinides, Vilma

    2004-04-15

    Compared with northern Europe and the U.S., the widespread initiation of cigarette smoking began 20-40 years later among young women in Spain because of strong cultural prohibitions against female smoking. In this study, the authors examined the correlation between the rapid increase in female smoking prevalence and tobacco industry cigarette marketing practices in Spain during a period of rapid social liberalization. The authors examined age-specific, period-specific, and birth cohort-specific increases in cigarette smoking among young women in Spain in relation to internal documents from Philip Morris beginning in 1971, cigarette advertising from 1982 to 1997, and the increase in the market share of blond tobacco and "light" cigarettes preferred by women. Some increase in cigarette smoking occurred among Spanish women before 1970, but the increase was substantially smaller and occurred later than in many Western countries. However, after 1970, the prevalence of cigarette smoking increased rapidly in Spanish women of all ages market share of blond tobacco, "light cigarettes," and international tobacco brands. The increase in cigarette smoking among young Spanish women illustrates how aggressive marketing can exploit periods of social liberalization and rapidly increase cigarette smoking among women, even in countries in which female smoking traditionally has been unacceptable. Strategies are needed to prevent similar increases in smoking by women elsewhere. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  6. Childhood asthma prevalence and parents’ daily cigarette smoking: a case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Asthma prevalence has increased in developed and developing countries in several last decades. Although cigarette smoking is an identified risk factor for many diseases such as coronary Heart disease and chronic obstructive lung disease, its effect on asthma is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the odds ratio and its confidence interval for asthma morbidity among children referred to the Immunology and Allergy department of children medical center according to their parents' smoking and daily cigarette consumption."n"nMethods: A case-control study was conducted during two years period on the asthmatic patients who referred to Immunology and Allergy department of children medical center. Demographic information and parents' smoking and daily cigarette consumption assessed by a questionnaire. Healthy children with same age and sex were entered to the study as the control group. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate odds ratio."n"nResults: Among 215 patients who entered the study 63 patients were exposed the cigarette smoke. Odds ratio for asthma morbidity among children whose parents smoke more than five cigarettes per day in comparison with whose smoke less than five

  7. Photoaging smartphone app promoting poster campaign to reduce smoking prevalence in secondary schools: the Smokerface Randomized Trial: design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Julia; Baudson, Tanja G; Sies, Katharina; Jakob, Lena; Baumert, Hannah Maria; Heckl, Marlene; Cirac, Ana; Suhre, Janina L; Mathes, Verena; Spielmann, Hannah; Rigotti, Nancy; Herth, Felix; Groneberg, David A; Raupach, Tobias; Gall, Henning; Bauer, Claudia; Marek, Pat; Batra, Anil; Harrison, Chase H; Taha, Lava; Owczarek, Andreas; Hofmann, Felix J; Thomas, Roger; Mons, Ute; Kreuter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the largest cause of preventable death globally. Most smokers smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence. We took advantage of the widespread availability of mobile phones and adolescents’ interest in appearance to develop a free photoaging app which is promoted via a poster campaign in secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate its effectiveness regarding smoking prevalence and students’ attitudes towards smoking. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial is conducted with 9851 students of both genders with an average age of 12 years in grades 6 and 7 of 126 secondary schools in Germany. At present, cigarette smoking prevalence in our sample is 4.7%, with 4.6% of the students currently using e-cigarettes (1.6% use both). The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 months postintervention via a questionnaire plus a random cotinine saliva sample at 24 months postintervention. The study groups consist of randomised schools receiving the Smokerface poster campaign and control schools with comparable baseline data (no intervention). The primary end point is the difference of change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 24 months follow-up. Longitudinal changes in smoking-related attitudes, the number of new smokers and quitters and the change in the number of never-smokers will be compared between the two groups as secondary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Gießen and the ministries of cultural affairs, both in Germany. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on our websites and throughout the multinational Education Against Tobacco network. Trial registration number NCT02544360, Pre-results. PMID:27821601

  8. Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gimenes Bonilha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. METHODS: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; females, 53% completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7% as never-smokers, 244 (12.1% as current smokers, and 487 (24.2% as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80, alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64, illicit drug use (OR = 9.32, having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39, having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08, and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32. Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16, illicit drug use (OR = 3.61, and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.

  9. Prevalence, frequency, and initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among first-year female college students: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2012-02-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among college students, but little is known about frequency of use or patterns of use over time, including during the transition to college. The goals of this longitudinal cohort study were to assess the: (a) lifetime prevalence, (b) current prevalence, (c) frequency of use, and (d) pattern of initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among female students during the first year of college. First-year female college students (N=483) at a large private university in upstate New York completed 13 monthly online surveys about their hookah tobacco use from August 2009 to August 2010. Lifetime prevalence of hookah use increased from 29% at college entry to 45% at one-year follow-up. The highest rates of hookah initiation occurred in the first two months of students' first semester of college. Current (past 30 days) hookah use ranged from 5% to 13% during the year after college entry. On average, hookah users reported smoking hookah two days per month. Hookah tobacco use is common among female college students. The transition to college is a vulnerable time for hookah initiation. Preventive efforts should begin in high school and continue through college, with a focus on students' first few months on campus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of a campus-wide Irish hospital smoking ban in 2009: prevalence and attitudinal trends among staff and patients in lead up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    We report the evidence base that supported the decision to implement the first campus-wide hospital smoking ban in the Republic of Ireland with effect from 1 January 2009. Three separate data sources are utilized; surveillance data collected from patients and staff in 8 surveys between 1997 and 2006, a 1-week observational study to assess smoker behaviour in designated smoking shelters and an attitudinal interview with 28 smoker patients and 30 staff on the implications of the 2004 indoors workplace smoking ban, conducted in 2005. The main outcome measures were trends in prevalence of smoking over time according to age, sex and occupational groups and attitudes to the 2004 ban and a projected outright campus ban. Smoking rates among patients remained steady, 24.2% in 1997\\/98 and 22.7% in 2006. Staff smoking rates declined from 27.4% to 17.8%, with a strong occupational gradient. Observational evidence suggested a majority of those using smoking shelters in 2005 were women and health-care workers rather than patients. Attitudes of patients and staff were positive towards the 2004 ban, but with some ambivalence on the effectiveness of current arrangements. Staff particularly were concerned with patient safety issues associated with smoking outdoors. The 2004 ban was supported by 87.6% of patients and 81.3% of staff in 2006 and a majority of 58.6% of patients and 52.4% of staff agreed with an outright campus ban being implemented. These findings were persuasive in instigating a process in 2007\\/08 to go totally smoke-free by 2009, the stages for which are discussed.

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the frontal-parietal-temporal area attenuates smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chang; Yu, Chengyang; Ma, Yuanye

    2014-07-01

    Many brain regions are involved in smoking addiction (e.g. insula, ventral tegmental area, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus), and the manipulation of the activity of these brain regions can show a modification of smoking behavior. Low current transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive way to manipulate cortical excitability, and thus brain function and associated behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of inhibiting the frontal-parietal-temporal association area (FPT) on attention bias to smoking-related cues and smoking behavior in tobacco users. This inhibition is induced by cathodal tDCS stimulation. We tested three stimulation conditions: 1) bilateral cathodal over both sides of FPT; 2) cathodal over right FPT; and 3) sham-tDCS. Visual attention bias to smoking-related cues was evaluated using an eye tracking system. The measurement for smoking behavior was the number of daily cigarettes consumed before and after tDCS treatment. We found that, after bilateral cathodal stimulation of the FPT area, while the attention to smoking-related cues showed a decreased trend, the effects were not significantly different from sham stimulation. The daily cigarette consumption was reduced to a significant level. These effects were not seen under single cathodal tDCS or sham-tDCS. Our results show that low current tDCS of FPT area attenuates smoking cue-related attention and smoking behavior. This non-invasive brain stimulation technique, targeted at FPT areas, might be a promising method for treating smoking behavior.

  12. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  13. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence in California: results from the California tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Remer, Lillian; Compton, Christine

    2007-07-01

    Tobacco control policies are examined utilizing a simulation model for California, the state with the longest running comprehensive program. We assess the impact of the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and surrounding price changes on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Modeling begins in 1988 and progresses chronologically to 2004, and considers four types of policies (taxes, mass media, clean air laws, and youth access policies) independently and as a package. The model is validated against existing smoking prevalence estimates. The difference in trends between predicted smoking rates from the model and other commonly used estimates of smoking prevalence for the overall period were generally small. The model also predicted some important changes in trend, which occurred with changes in policy. The California SimSmoke model estimates that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in California by an additional 25% relative to the level that they would have been if policies were kept at their 1988 level. By 2004, the model attributes 59% of the reduction to price increases, 28% of the overall effect to media policies, 11% to clean air laws, and only a small percent to youth access policies. The model estimates that over 5000 lives will be saved in the year 2010 alone as a result of the CTCP and industry-initiated price increases, and that over 50,000 lives were saved over the period 1988-2010. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive tobacco control strategies have significantly impacted smoking rates. Further tax increases should lead to additional lives saved, and additional policies may result in further impacts on smoking rates, and consequently on smoking-attributable health outcomes in the population.

  14. Cigarette smoking in male patients with chronic schizophrenia in a Chinese population: prevalence and relationship to clinical phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia of European background may be related to smoking's reducing clinical symptoms and medication side effects. Because smoking prevalence and its associations with clinical phenotypes are less well characterized in Chinese than European patients with schizophrenia, we assessed these smoking behaviors using clinician-administered questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND in 776 Chinese male schizophrenia and 560 control subjects. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. We found that the schizophrenia patients had a higher lifetime incidence of smoking (79% vs 63%, were more likely to be heavy smokers (61% vs 31%, and had lower smoking cessation rates (4% vs 9% (all p0.05 than the non-smoking patients. These results suggest that Chinese males with schizophrenia smoke more frequently than the general population. Further, smokers with schizophrenia may display fewer negative symptoms and possibly less parkinsonism than non-smokers with schizophrenia.

  15. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-11-01

    There are no large-scale, carefully designed cohort studies that provide evidence on whether menthol cigarette use is associated with a differential risk of initiating and/or progressing to increased smoking. However, questions of whether current menthol cigarette smokers initiated smoking at a younger age or are more likely to have transitioned from non-daily to daily cigarette use compared to non-menthol smokers can be addressed using cross-sectional data from U.S. government surveys. Analyses of nationally representative samples of adult and youth smokers indicate that current menthol cigarette use is not associated with an earlier age of having initiated smoking or greater likelihood of being a daily versus non-daily smoker. Some surveys likewise provide information on cigarette type preference (menthol versus non-menthol) among youth at different stages or trajectories of smoking, based on number of days smoked during the past month and/or cigarettes smoked per day. Prevalence of menthol cigarette use does not appear to differ among new, less experienced youth smokers compared to established youth smokers. While there are limitations with regard to inferences that can be drawn from cross-sectional analyses, these data do not suggest any adverse effects for menthol cigarettes on measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking.

  16. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Aden; Sara Karrar; Omar Shafey; Farida Al Hosni

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi′s Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants...

  17. Smoke exposure as a risk factor for asthma in childhood: a review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Antona, Roberta; Malizia, Velia; Montalbano, Laura; Corsello, Giovanni; La Grutta, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic multifactorial disease that affects >300 million people worldwide. Outdoor and indoor pollution exposure has been associated with respiratory health effects in adults and children. Smoking still represents a huge public health problem and millions of children suffer the detrimental effects of passive smoke exposure. This study was designed to review the current evidences on exposure to passive smoke as a risk factor for asthma onset in childhood. A review of the most recent studies on this topic was undertaken to provide evidence about the magnitude of the effect of passive smoking on the risk of incidence of asthma in children. The effects of passive smoking are different depending on individual and environmental factors. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important indoor air pollutants and can interact with other air pollutants in eliciting respiratory outcomes during childhood. The increased risk of respiratory outcomes in children exposed to prenatal and early postnatal passive smoke might be caused by an adverse effect on both the immune system and the structural and functional development of the lung; this may explain the subsequent increased risk of incident asthma. The magnitude of the exposure is quite difficult to precisely quantify because it is significantly influenced by the child's daily activities. Because exposure to ETS is a likely cause for asthma onset in childhood, there is a strong need to prevent infants and children from breathing air contaminated with tobacco smoke.

  18. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tosin Akinlua

    Full Text Available The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million.The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies.A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria.The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3 to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4 in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8 to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8 in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4 to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5 for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12 to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6% for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4 to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4 and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7 to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9 respectively.The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population.

  19. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Umar, Aminu Mahmoud; Freemantle, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies. A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria. The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3) to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4) in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8) to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8) in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4) to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5) for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12) to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6%) for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4) to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7) to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9) respectively. The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population.

  20. The prevalence of household second-hand smoke exposure and its correlated factors in six counties of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-P; Ma, S J; Xu, X F; Wang, J-F; Mei, C Z; Yang, G-H

    2009-04-01

    To study the prevalence of, and discuss factors contributing to, household second-hand smoke exposure in six counties in China, providing scientific support for the need to establish tobacco control measures in these areas. A cross-sectional survey was performed. Investigators conducted face-to-face interviews using a standardised questionnaire to collect information on demographics, passive smoking behaviours and knowledge, and attitudes towards tobacco control. The setting was six counties from the three provinces: Mianzhu and Xichong counties in Sichuan Province; Anyi and Hukou counties in Jiangxi Province; and Xinan and Yanshi counties in Henan Province. A total of 8142 non-smokers (aged 18-69) in 2004 were included in the data analysis. Household second-hand smoke exposure rate as defined as the proportion of household passive smokers in the non-smoker population was used as the measure of household second-hand smoke exposure. The analysis of 8142 non-smokers revealed that, in these selected counties, the household second-hand smoke exposure rate was 48.3%. Respondents had positive attitudes towards tobacco control. Of 6972 respondents, 84.4% supported all the three tobacco control policies (banning smoking in public places, banning the selling of cigarettes to minors, banning all cigarette advertisements). In 3165 families with smokers, 87.2% of respondents reported that smokers would smoke in front of them. In 2124 families with smokers and children, 76.5% of respondents reported that smokers would smoke in front of children. As many as 42.1% of non-smokers would offer cigarettes to their guests, and only 46.8% of respondents would ask smokers to smoke outdoors. Only 6.3% of families completely forbade smoking at home. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed high second-hand smoke exposure for the following demographic groups: Jiangxi Province inhabitants, females, those with low education level, farmers and married respondents. Household second

  1. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in four Peruvian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6% and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2% of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2% and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8% and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8% Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru

  2. Tabagismo em universitários de ciências da saúde: prevalência e conhecimento Smoking among undergraduate health sciences students: prevalence and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Botelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de tabagismo e o nível de conhecimento acerca do tabagismo entre estudantes universitários da área de saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Um questionário estruturado e autoadministrado foi respondido em sala de aula por universitários do último ano dos cursos da saúde de Cuiabá e Várzea Grande (MT. Foram avaliados alunos de uma universidade pública e de duas universidades particulares. Cinco variáveis foram analisadas: idade, sexo, curso de graduação, status tabágico e noções sobre o tabagismo. A variável "conhecimento" foi dividida em cinco partes: tabagismo como doença; tabagismo e nicotina como causa de dependência; treinamento específico sobre tabagismo; fatores dificultadores da cessação tabágica; e formas de tratamento do tabagismo. Os últimos dois itens somente foram respondidos pelos alunos dos cursos de medicina. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo variou de 9,3% na universidade pública a 21,1% em uma das universidades particulares. Aproximadamente 30% dos entrevistados não souberam identificar a nicotina como causadora da dependência, 20,8% não consideravam o tabagismo como doença, e 47,2% responderam não terem recebido nenhum treinamento sobre o tabagismo. Os alunos de medicina da universidade pública mostraram maior conhecimento sobre as diversas formas de tratamento do tabagismo. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência do tabagismo entre os universitários estudados foi alta. O conhecimento sobre tabagismo foi deficitário, o que poderia refletir uma inadequação da grade curricular dos cursos dessas universidadesOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoking and the level of knowledge about smoking among undergraduate health sciences students. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was completed in the classroom by senior undergraduate health sciences students in the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Brazil. We

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in “smoke-free” bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers’ predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3,147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44% respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  6. Associations between tobacco control mass media campaign expenditure and smoking prevalence and quitting in England: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2017-06-30

    It has been established that mass media campaigns can increase smoking cessation rates, but there is little direct evidence estimating associations between government expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns and smoking cessation. This study assessed the association over 8 years between mass media expenditure in England and quit attempts, smoking cessation and smoking prevalence. Autoregressive integrated moving average modelling with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) was applied to monthly estimates from the Smoking Toolkit Study between June 2008 and February 2016. We assessed the association between the trends in mass media expenditure and (1) quit attempts in the last two months, (2) quit success among those who attempted to quit and (3) smoking prevalence. Analyses were adjusted for trends in weekly spending on tobacco by smokers, tobacco control policies and the use of established aids to cessation. Monthly spending on mass media campaigns ranged from nothing to £2.4 million, with a mean of £465 054. An increase in mass media expenditure of 10% of the monthly average was associated with a 0.51% increase (of the average) in success rates of quit attempts (95% CI 0.10% to 0.91%, p=0.014). No clear association was detected between changes in mass media expenditure and changes in quit attempt prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -2.05% to 2.00%, p=0.979) or smoking prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.09% to 0.03%, p=0.299). Between 2008 and 2016, higher monthly expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns in England was associated with higher quit success rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Current smoking behaviour among rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

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    Monyeki Kotsedi D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of tobacco products is the major cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. Most smokers start the smoking habits from childhood and adolescent stages. Method This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls, aged 11 to 18 years, who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. Association between tobacco products use and habits, attitudes and beliefs were explored in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association. Results The prevalence of tobacco product use increases with increasing (4.9 to 17.1% age among boys whereas girls do not smoke cigarette but only considerable number (1.0 to 4.1% use home made tobacco products (pipe and snuff among the Ellisras rural children. Parents and grand parents play a significant (about 50% role in influencing smoking behaviour among the Ellisras rural children. Seeing actors smoking on TV shows was positively associated (p Conclusion The usage of tobacco products was high among older boys. Girls did not smoke cigarette. This tobacco use behaviour mirrors the cultural norms and adult behaviour. The association of this tobacco used products with biological parameters will shed more light on the health of these children over time.

  8. Prevalence and Determinants of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Women in Bangladesh, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnwegen, Martina; Kaneider, Ulrike; Kraemer, Alexander; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The population of Bangladesh is highly susceptible to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure due to high smoking rates and low awareness about the harmful effects of SHS. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure and highlight the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Bangladesh. Methods: The analysis is based on the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2011, in which 17,749 women in the reproductive age group (12–49 years) were included. The information regarding SHS exposure at home was derived from the question: “How often does anyone smoke inside your house?” The variable was recoded into 3 groups: daily exposure, low exposure (exposed weekly, monthly, or less than monthly), and no SHS exposure. We performed descriptive and bivariable analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: A total of 46.7% of the women reported high exposure to SHS at home. According to the multinomial logistic regression model, relatively lower education and lower wealth index were significantly associated with daily SHS exposure at home. The exposure differed significantly between the divisions of Bangladesh. Having children at home (vs. not) and being Islamic (compared to other religious affiliations) were protective factors. Conclusions: The study indicates that women from socioeconomically disadvantaged households are more likely to experience daily exposure to SHS at home. Therefore, especially these groups have to be targeted to reduce tobacco consumption. In addition to aspects of legislation, future strategies need to focus educational aspects to improve the population’s health status in Bangladesh. PMID:25125322

  9. Licht dalende prevalentie van roken rondom de zwangerschap [Slight decrease in the prevalence of smoking around pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.; Segaat, D.; Crone, M.; Wouwe, K. van

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To establish smoking prevalence of fertile-aged women; before and during pregnancy, and 6 months after delivery. Design. Cross-sectional. Method. Yearly surveys by questionnaires handed out during 2001-2003 to mothers visiting a Well Baby Clinic with infants aged 0-6 months. Results. Out

  10. Licht dalende prevalentie van roken rondom de zwangerschap [Slight decrease in the prevalence of smoking around pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.; Segaat, D.; Crone, M.; Wouwe, K. van

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To establish smoking prevalence of fertile-aged women; before and during pregnancy, and 6 months after delivery. Design. Cross-sectional. Method. Yearly surveys by questionnaires handed out during 2001-2003 to mothers visiting a Well Baby Clinic with infants aged 0-6 months. Results. Out

  11. Prevalence and correlates of current daily use of electronic cigarettes in the European Union: analysis of the 2014 Eurobarometer survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis; Le Houezec, Jacques

    2017-03-04

    The study purpose was to analyze current daily and current daily nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (EC) use in the European Union (EU). Special Eurobarometer 429, a cross-sectional survey performed in a representative sample of 28 member states of the EU in November and December of 2014, was analyzed. The prevalence of current daily and current daily nicotine-containing EC use was 1.08% (95% CI 0.95-1.20%) and 1.00% (95% CI 0.88-1.12%), respectively, and was mainly observed in current and former smokers. Minimal current daily (0.08%, 95% CI 0.03-0.12%) and current daily nicotine-containing EC use (0.04%, 95% CI 0.01-0.08%) was observed among never smokers. Smoking cessation with the help of ECs was reported by 47.12% (95% CI 41.28-52.96%) of current daily and 49.14% (95% CI 43.12-55.17%) of current daily nicotine-containing EC users. Additionally, 33.18% (95% CI 27.67-38.69%) and 31.40% (95% CI 25.80-36.99%) reported reduction in smoking consumption, respectively. The strongest correlates of daily EC use were being current and former smokers. In the EU in late 2014, current daily EC use was predominantly observed in current and former smokers and was associated with high self-reported rates of smoking cessation and reduction. Current daily EC use by never smokers was extremely infrequent.

  12. Parental Smoking and Smoking Status of Japanese Dental Hygiene Students: A Pilot Survey at a Dental Hygiene School in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Naito; Koichi Miyaki; Mariko Naito; Masahiro Yoneda; Takao Hirofuji; Nao Suzuki; Takeo Nakayama

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of smoking and to explore factors associated with the smoking habits of female students at a dental hygiene school in Japan. Questionnaires regarding cigarette smoking were given to 168 female students. The response rate was 97.6%. The prevalence of smoking, including current and occasional smokers, was 20.3%. Among family members, only the smoking status of their mother significantly influenced the smoking status of the students. The odds ratio for...

  13. Can a deterministic spatial microsimulation model provide reliable small-area estimates of health behaviours? An example of smoking prevalence in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dianna M; Pearce, Jamie R; Harland, Kirk

    2011-03-01

    Models created to estimate neighbourhood level health outcomes and behaviours can be difficult to validate as prevalence is often unknown at the local level. This paper tests the reliability of a spatial microsimulation model, using a deterministic reweighting method, to predict smoking prevalence in small areas across New Zealand. The difference in the prevalence of smoking between those estimated by the model and those calculated from census data is less than 20% in 1745 out of 1760 areas. The accuracy of these results provides users with greater confidence to utilize similar approaches in countries where local-level smoking prevalence is unknown.

  14. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

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    Nagelhout Gera E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widening of socioeconomic status (SES inequalities in smoking prevalence has occurred in several Western countries from the mid 1970’s onwards. However, little is known about a widening of SES inequalities in smoking consumption, initiation and cessation. Methods Repeated cross-sectional population surveys from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year were used to examine changes in smoking prevalence, smoking consumption (number of cigarettes per day, initiation ratios (ratio of ever smokers to all respondents, and quit ratios (ratio of former smokers to ever smokers in the Netherlands. Education level and income level were used as indicators of SES and results were reported separately for men and women. Results Lower educated respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, smoked more cigarettes per day, had higher initiation ratios, and had lower quit ratios than higher educated respondents. Income inequalities were smaller than educational inequalities and were not all significant, but were in the same direction as educational inequalities. Among women, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Among low educated women, smoking prevalence remained stable between 2001 and 2008 because both the initiation and quit ratio increased significantly. Among moderate and high educated women, smoking prevalence decreased significantly because initiation ratios remained constant, while quit ratios increased significantly. Among men, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking consumption only. Conclusions While inequalities in smoking prevalence were stable among Dutch men, they increased among women, due to widening inequalities in both smoking cessation and initiation. Both components should be addressed in equity-oriented tobacco control policies.

  15. The Effect of Different Case Definitions of Current Smoking on the Discovery of Smoking-Related Blood Gene Expression Signatures in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Ma'en; Ding, Xiaoting; Fishbane, Nick; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Ng, Raymond T; McManus, Bruce; Tebbutt, Scott J; Miller, Bruce E; Rennard, Stephen; Paré, Peter D; Sin, Don D

    2016-09-01

    Smoking is the number one modifiable environmental risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical, epidemiological and increasingly "omics" studies assess or adjust for current smoking status using only self-report, which may be inaccurate. Objective measures such as exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) may also be problematic owing to limitations in the measurements and the relatively short half life of the molecule. In this study, we determined the impact of different case definitions of current cigarette smoking on gene expression in peripheral blood of patients with COPD. Peripheral blood gene expression from 573 former- and current-smokers with COPD in the ECLIPSE study was used to find genes whose expression was associated with smoking status. Current smoking was defined using self-report, eCO concentrations, or both. Linear regression was used to determine the association of current smoking status with gene expression adjusting for age, sex and propensity score. Pathway enrichment analyses were performed on genes with P PID1, FUCA1, GPR15) with enrichment in 40 biological pathways related to metabolic processes, response to hypoxia and hormonal stimulus. Additionally, the combined definition provided better distributions of test statistics for differential gene expression. A combined phenotype of eCO and self report allows for better discovery of genes and pathways related to current smoking. Studies relying only on self report of smoking status to assess or adjust for the impact of smoking may not fully capture its effect and will lead to residual confounding of results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F

    2015-03-01

    Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.

  17. Changes in the Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and the Profile of Spanish Smokers after a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Perez-Rios

    Full Text Available A partial smoke-free regulation in Spain was introduced on January 1, 2006, which was subsequently amended to introduce a comprehensive smoke-free policy from 2 January 2011 onward. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain and the profile of smokers before (2006 and after (2011 the comprehensive smoking ban passed in 2010.Two independent, cross-sectional, population-based surveys were carried out among the adult (≥ 18 years old Spanish population in 2006 and 2011 through telephone interviews. Both surveys used the same methods and questionnaire. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and readiness to quit according to the stages of change.The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed a nonsignificant decrease from 23.4% in 2006 to 20.7% in 2011. No changes were observed in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. In 2011, most smokers (76% showed low nicotine dependence and were mainly in the precontemplation stage (72%.The prevalence of smokers has slightly decreased since the introduction of the total smoking ban in Spain. No differences were found in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit.

  18. Prevalence survey on smoking behavior among undergraduates in a medical college%某医学院大学生吸烟行为现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明伟; 李太顺; 汪徐林; 汪鹏; 丁书姝; 袁慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the smoking: status and the attitudes towards smoking-cessation among undergraduates in a mediral college, and to examine the influencing factors on practice of tobacco smoking in college students for scientific evidence to supply health education and effective tobacco-control policy in campus. Methods-. By cluster sampling, sell-administered questionnaire was used to purvey on the 787 medical college undergraduates( school years of 1 to 4 )regarding their demographic characteristics and smoking-related knowledge, attitude, and practice. Results: A total of 787 students participated in the survey. Overall 18.0% ol them were current smokers,and the male smokers( 30. 69c ) were over lemales( 2.0%)(P<0.001). The percentage ol the smokers tended to increase with schooling years( P < 0. 05 ). The major influential factors on smoking practice were associated with curiosity, social purpose and influence from friends and peers. The knowledge towards the harmful effects of smoking and risks of passive smoking on heath, including the causative effect on lung caner and hypertension, was different between smokers and non-smokers( P <0. 01 ;P < 0. 05 ) , whose attitudes were also diverse a lot concerning suffering passive smoking, smoking prevalence in different age groups, smoking ban in public places and illegal sale of cigarettes to mi-nors( P < 0. 001 ). Conclusion: Smoking appeals highly prevalent in the medical college undergraduates, which indicates that our society and school authorities should work together to take effective measures to put the current condition under control.%目的:了解某医学院大学生吸烟现状及对控制吸烟的态度,分析该人群吸烟行为的影响因素,为今后教育和干预措施提供科学理论依据.方法:整群抽取某医学院一到四年级在校学生787名,采用自填调查问卷的方法来调查学生的一般特征和吸烟相关的知识、信念、行为.结果:787名调

  19. Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison

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    Kraemer Alexander

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488 and non-slum (= 5,667 groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8% than non-slums (46.4%. Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P bidis (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.58–2.29 and any of the two (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13–1.34 among men living in slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums

  20. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  1. Meta-analysis approach to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among current, former and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritul Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative risk assessment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD among current, former and non-smokers categories remains controversial and not studied in detail. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all the relevant published studies on this topic and to update the association between smoking and prevalence of COPD in current, former and non-smokers. Identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion of articles for the study were conducted as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines. Quality assessment of included studies was undertaken using a scoring sheet. Meta-analysis after the final synthesis of the selected studies was performed using the STATA and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA software. Estimates from forty two independent studies reporting 547,391 individuals were identified. Twenty two studies were conducted in Europe, nine in America and ten in Asia and one from New Zealand. The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of COPD was significantly higher in current smokers compared with former and non-smokers. However, owing to large heterogeneity among the estimates obtained from the studies, stratification was done with respect to continent, diagnostic criteria of COPD and study design which also showed similar results. The stratified analysis also revealed similar trend of results with prevalence of COPD being higher in current smokers as compared to former and non-smokers. The present meta-analysis highlights the positive association between smoking and COPD prevalence. There is an urgent need to implement more effective policies towards the restriction of tobacco use, to reduce the burden of COPD.

  2. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also talk with your teen about how tobacco companies try to influence ideas about smoking — such as through advertisements or product placement in movies that create the perception that smoking is glamorous and more prevalent than ...

  3. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  4. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults.

  5. Tabagismo no Brasil: desigualdades regionais e prevalência segundo características ocupacionais Tobacco smoking in Brazil: regional inequalities and prevalence according to occupational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio J. D. Barros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreveu a prevalência do tabagismo diário segundo sexo, idade, renda domiciliar e ocupação dos moradores de 15 anos ou mais, no Brasil e regiões, baseado nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra Domiciliar 2008 (PNAD/IBGE. A análise considerou o desenho da amostra e incluiu 252.768 indivíduos. A prevalência de fumo diário no Brasil foi 15,1%, variando de 12,8% na região Norte a 17,4% na região Sul, sendo 62% maior nos homens que mulheres. A prevalência de fumo foi inversamente proporcional à renda domiciliar, sendo 18,6% entre os 20% mais pobres e 11,5% entre os 20% mais ricos. As mesmas tendências para sexo, idade e renda foram observadas nas diferentes regiões do país. O consumo diário de cigarros foi 3% maior entre os trabalhadores comparados com não trabalhadores. Trabalhadores não manuais apresentaram prevalências de fumo abaixo de 10%, enquanto trabalhadores manuais relataram frequências acima de 20%. A associação entre tabagismo e ocupação permaneceu após ajuste para sexo, idade e renda. As desigualdades encontradas devem ser consideradas no planejamento e direcionamento de ações efetivas para redução do tabagismo. Os grupos ocupacionais mais expostos deveriam ter prioridade nas intervenções.This study describes the prevalence of daily tobacco smoking according to sex, age, per capita household income and occupation of residents aged 15 years or more in Brazil and regions using data from the 2008 National Household Sample Survey (PNAD/IBGE. The analysis was adjusted for the sampling design and included 252.768 individuals. Daily smoking prevalence in Brazil was 15.1%, varying from 12.8% in the North region to 17.4% in the South region, and it was 62% higher in men compared to women. Smoking prevalence was inversely proportional to household income, 18.6% among the poorest 20% and 11.5% among the wealthiest 20%. The same trends for gender, age and income were observed in the different regions of

  6. Smoking Lung Cancer Patients and Tobacco Cessation - Is the Current Treatment in Germany Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, K; Thielke, L; Deter, A; Riemer, T; Eggeling, S; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is the most preventable neoplastic disease for men and women. The incidence rate per year is 14.000 in Germany. Smoking is the main risk factor for the onset of lung cancer and for a share of 90% of cases, lung cancer is associated with smoking. Recent studies have shown that the time slot of diagnosing lung cancer is a teachable moment for tobacco cessation interventions. The therapy that was rated most effective was a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy (e. g. NRT, Bupropion, Varenicline). We examined the smoking status of all patients undergoing lung cancer surgery in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in this study. A retrospective semi structured interview via telephone was conducted regarding smoking habits and current quality of life. 131 patients (36.6% female, average age of 68.7 years) of an urban German hospital were included.Results showed a relapse rate of 22.3%, while 86.2% used to be highly addicted smokers; A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated a significant overall impact of smoking status on quality of life with a medium effect size, controlled for age, gender, living conditions, tumor stage, duration of smoking abstinence, type of cancer therapy, type of resection method, and the time period between the date of surgery and of the survey. Two thirds of all smokers did not see an association between their habit and their disease.So far motivation to quit and long term abstinence rates are not sufficiently established even among seriously sick patients in Germany; further initiatives should focus on new and more intense interventions and educational strategies.

  7. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  8. The combined unhealthy behaviors of breakfast skipping and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

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    Nishiyama, Midori; Muto, Takashi; Minakawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Toshie

    2009-08-01

    Skipping breakfast has been considered a representative unhealthy behavior, but there is little information about the combined effects of breakfast skipping and other unhealthy health habits, especially smoking. First this cross-sectional study investigated unhealthy behaviors among breakfast skippers, and then examined the impact of the combined association of skipping breakfast and smoking on health. A total of 1,200 adults living in one Japanese community were sent questionnaires to elicit data on age, gender, breakfast-eating frequency, and other lifestyle habits. A total 603 of people returned their questionnaires (response rate: 50.3%), and 493 (230 men and 263 women) questionnaires were considered appropriate for analysis. Smoking rate in men (mean age, 53.7 years) and women (mean age, 50.4 years) was 41.3%, and 9.5%, respectively. Skipping breakfast was more prevalent in people under age 50 years (p breakfast skipping (3.10, 95%CI 1.50-6.39). Other factors included, age younger than 50 years (3.04, 95%CI 1.31-7.06) and poor sleeping quality (2.06, 95%CI 1.00-4.25). After examining the combined impact of skipping breakfast and smoking, the highest odds ratio for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was found among those who smoked and skipped breakfast (4.68, 95% CI: 1.46-15.05). Moreover, skipping breakfast among non-smokers showed a high association with perceived stress (2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61). In conclusion, the combined unhealthy behaviors of skipping breakfast and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depends on age: A cross-sectional study in Xi'an, China.

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    Liu, Jie; Shang, Suhang; Li, Pei; Deng, Meiying; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Yu; Dang, Liangjun; Qu, Qiumin

    2017-09-08

    Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment, while the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment is not fully understood. The objectives were to identify a possible association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depending on age in the Chinese rural population. Data for the study consisted of 1,782 participants (40 years and older) who lived in a rural village in the vicinity of Xi'an, China. Data about smoking history and cognitive function were collected. Cognitive function was scored by the Mini-Mental State Examination. The effect of age on the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment was analyzed with interaction and stratified analysis by logistic regression models. Interaction analysis showed that current smoking is positively related with cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR]=9.067; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.305-62.979; P=.026). However, the interaction term, age by current smoking, is negatively related with cognitive impairment (OR=0.969; 95%CI 0.939-0.999; P=.045). Stratified logistic regression showed that in the 40-65 years of age sublayer, OR of current smoking is 1.966 (P=.044), whereas in the>65 years of age sublayer, the OR is 0.470 (P=.130). This means that the association between current smoking and cognitive impairment with age might be positive (OR>1) in lower age sublayers, but no significant difference in higher age sublayers. In conclusion, current smoking might be positively associated with cognitive impairment in the middle-aged but the relationship declines with increasing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. SMOKING PREVALENCE AND NICOTINE DEPENDENCY AMONG YOUNG ADULT MEN AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS

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    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health risk with highest mortality and morbidity among the worldwide preventable diseases. While military period is a risky period for starting smoking, it is also a good opportunity for population based education studies opposed to smoking. At this point of view it is important to know the smoking behaviors of enlisted people. This study was planned as cross-sectional research, and performed on 455 people selected by simple random method in Etimesgut Armed Unities School and Training Center Commandership at 2002. 53.8% of the participants reported that they had been smoking, and 9.9% of the participants reported that they had been smoking some times. The frequency of the symptoms of nicotine dependence was found as 16.2%. It was found that smoking frequency was very high in enlisted people and significant amount of them had had nicotine dependency symptoms. It is considered that educations about the hazards of smoking and activities for smoking cessation were needed during the military service. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 105-117

  11. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

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    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

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    Karabi Nandy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457. Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work. Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively. American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7. Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack, smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.

  13. Prevalência de tabagismo em localidade urbana da região sudeste do Brasil Prevalence of smoking in a city of southeasthern Brazil

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    Cecília Amaro de Lolio

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal de prevalência da hipertensão arterial da população de 15-74 anos de idade, residente na zona urbana do Município de Araraquara, localidade situada a 250 km da cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1987. Na ocasião foram perguntadas aos 1.199 entrevistados (533 do sexo masculino e 666 do sexo feminino questões sobre o uso de tabaco (fumo, a forma de uso, o hábito de tragar, bem como variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi equiprobabilística, por conglomerados, em três estágios. A prevalência de tabagismo foi bastante alta, de 45,2% entre os homens e 22,8% entre as mulheres. Os ex-fumantes eram em percentagem de 15,9% entre os homens e 8,0% das mulheres. O sexo masculino fumava maior quantidade de equivalentes de cigarro do que o feminino. As camadas de mais baixa renda familiar fumavam mais, em ambos os sexos, do que os estratos de renda mais alta. Entre os homens, a prevalência de tabagismo diminuía com a maior escolaridade e nas mulheres, este aspecto não foi notado. Comparando com os resultados já publicados sobre a alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial e de obesidade, nota-se que a população de Araraquara, cidade média do interior urbano afluente do Brasil, apresenta uma freqüência bastante alta de fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.A cross-sectional study for prevalence of arterial hipertension in the population aged 15-74 years of age of the urban area of Araraquara County, 250 km from the city of S. Paulo, S. Paulo, State, Brazil, in 1987, was performed. The questionnaires presented to 1,199 people (533 men and 666 women at the interview consisted of regarding sociodemographic variables, as well as the use of tobacco (smoking, the ways in which tobacco was used and the habit of inhaling the smoke. The sample was taken by the procedure of clustering, carried out in three stages. The sample was equiprobabilistic. The prevalence of

  14. Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among Greek urban adolescents: A cross-sectional study

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    Athanasia Liozidou

    2015-10-01

    Greek adolescents report lower smoking rates than previously reported, yet it is a population experimenting with tobacco products. Electronic cigarette emerged as the third most likely product of experimentation. The social origin of smoking behavior is confirmed, as well as the imperative need to encourage tobacco-free school policies and bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

  15. Smoking dose modifies the association between C242T polymorphism and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population.

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    Jiyong Ge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C242T polymorphism of the CYBA gene that encodes p22phox, a component of NADPH oxidase, has been found to modulate superoxide production. Oxidase is a major source of the superoxide anion that contributes to individual components of metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationship of the C242T polymorphism with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population, taking account of consumed cigarette amounts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 870 participants, we collected biomarkers related to metabolic syndrome and detailed history of smoking and genotyped the C242T polymorphisms. After adjustment for covariates, the CT/TT genotypes were associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.0008. The odds of having metabolic syndrome in the CT/TT participants were 0.439 (95%CI: 0.265, 0.726, while for CC participants the odds were 1.110 (95%CI: 0.904, 1.362. There was significant (P = 0.014 interaction between the C242T polymorphism and smoking status in relation to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. For smokers who smoke no less than 25 pack-years, those with CT/TT genotypes had lower risk of metabolic syndrome as compared with CC polymorphism carriers (P = 0.015. In the multiple regression analysis, the CT/TT genotypes were significantly associated with lower serum concentration of triglycerides both in all subjects and smokers; furthermore, the CT/TT genotypes were also related to smaller waist circumference in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the C242T gene polymorphism is indeed related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and smoking dose might modify this association.

  16. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

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    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  17. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

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    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    relevant associations.Results: The prevalence of CB in middle age was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5, 6.8. Current asthma and/or wheezy breathing in middle age was independently associated with adult CB (odds ratio [OR]: 6.2 [95% CI: 4.6, 8.4], and this estimate was significantly higher than for current smokers of at least 20 pack-years (OR: 3.0 [95% CI: 2.1, 4.3]. Current asthma and smoking in middle age were similarly associated with obstructive CB, in contrast to the association between allergy and nonobstructive CB. Childhood predictors included allergic history (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.7], current asthma (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7], “episodic” childhood asthma (OR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4, 3.9], and parental bronchitis symptoms (OR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6, 4.1].Conclusion: The strong independent association between current asthma and CB in middle age suggests that this condition may be even more influential than personal smoking in a general population. The independent associations of childhood allergy and asthma, though not childhood bronchitis, as clinical predictors of adult CB raise the possibility of some of this burden having originated in childhood. Keywords: nonobstructive chronic bronchitis, obstructive chronic bronchitis, current asthma, personal smoking, allergy history

  18. Prevalencia de consumo de tabaco en vehículos privados Prevalence of smoking among drivers of private vehicles

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    María Tolosana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de conductores fumadores en vehículos privados en la ciudad de Lleida. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 1600 vehículos privados en seis cruces regulados por semáforos. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad y sexo, conductor fumador, acompañante >18 años, tipo de cruce (urbano/interurbano, día (laborable/festivo, hora (mañana/tarde y fumadores simultáneos. Se calculó la prevalencia de conductores fumadores y las odds ratio ajustadas (ORa, con su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%. Resultados: La prevalencia fue del 6,0% (IC95%: 4,9-7,3, mayor en los hombres (6,4%, en el grupo de 41 a 60 años (6,9% y sin acompañante (6,5%. La probabilidad de que el conductor fumara aumentó con acompañante fumador (ORa=10,8; IC95%: 3,6-32,5. La frecuencia de conductores fumadores fue mayor en los días laborables (ORa=1,7; IC95%: 1,0-2,8 y por la mañana (ORa=1,6; IC95%: 1,0-2,4. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de conductores fumadores se considera elevada y perjudicial. Se recomienda evitar fumar en los vehículos.Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among drivers of private vehicles in the city of Lleida (Spain. Methods: A random sample of 1600 cars passing through six intersections regulated by traffic lights were selected. The variables were age, sex, smoking driver, adult passengers, intersection (urban/interurban, day (working day/weekend, hour (morning/evening and simultaneous smokers. We calculated the prevalence of smoking drivers and the corresponding odds ratios (ORs, adjusted for the potential confounding variables, as well as their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: The prevalence was 6.0% (95% CI: 4.9-7.3 and was higher in men (6.4%, in the group aged 41 to 60 years (6.9%, and in unaccompanied drivers (6.5%. The probability of the driver smoking increased if there was a smoking passenger (aOR=10.8; 95% CI: 3.6-32.5. The frequency of smoking drivers was higher on

  19. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes.

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    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment.

  20. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

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    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  1. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

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    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  2. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

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    Spallek Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239 of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%. In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%. Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after

  3. [The prevalence of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke inside motor vehicles].

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    Pedrol, M T; Tolosana, M; Soler, M T; Taló, M; Godoy, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the level of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke (SHS) inside motor vehicles. A prevalence study was conducted on the exposure of children under the age of 18 to SHS in motor vehicles in Lleida (Spain). The population was the users of private motor vehicles. The sample was random, and the data were collected by direct observation. The study variables were: the age and sex of the driver, whether the driver was smoking, and the presence of an exposed passenger under the age of 18. A total of 1600 vehicles were observed, 134 of which (8.4%) were carrying a child. In 8 of these 134 vehicles (6%; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0) a child was exposed to SHS. In all these cases, the driver was a male (P=0.02), and in 75% of cases he was over 40 years old. The rate of child exposure to SHS is very high. There is, therefore, a case for organising campaigns to prevent smoking tobacco inside motor vehicles in the presence of children in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the Effect of Waterpipe Smoking on Cancer Outcome - a Systematic Review of Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Siddiqi, Kamran; Patil, Shankargouda; Hussain, Quratul Ann

    2017-02-01

    Background: Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is widely believed to be a safe and hazard-free tobacco habit. However, a number of studies have indicated that exposure to several toxicants and carcinogens through WPS is strongly related to serious health hazards. The current paper presents a narrative review on the effects of WPS on cancer outcome. Methods: The addressed focused question was “Is there an association between waterpipe smoking and cancer outcome?” PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane databases were searched until June 2015 using the key words “Waterpipe”, “Hookah”, “Narghileh”, “Shisha”, “Hubbly Bubbly” “cancer” in various combinations. Letters to the Editor, review articles, case-reports and unpublished articles were excluded. Results: A total of 16 studies were included: six on lung cancer, three on oesophageal cancer, two on gastric cancer, two on bladder cancer, and one each on nasopharyngeal, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Our search did not yield any study that evaluated the risk of oral cancer in WPS users. The available evidence showed a significant association of WPS with lung cancer (UOR 6.0, 95% CI 1.78–20.26); however, no association was observed with bladder, nasopharyngeal, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Gastric (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1) and oesophageal cancers (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.44) were observed to have weak associations with WPS. Conclusion: Regardless of the limitations, there is sufficient evidence to suggest associations of WPS with cancer, particularly in the lung. Future well-designed studies are required to identify and quantify with confidence all the health effects of this form of smoking. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fresh and smoked fish in Poland.

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    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63.6%). Similar duality of prevalence was observed only for L. monocytogenes of 1/2b-3b-7 serogroup (14 strains; 24.6%), which was identified in 11 (23.9%) marine and 3 (27.3%) freshwater fish. All isolates harboured 10 virulence-associated genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, lmo2672, plcA, plcB, hlyA, actA, and mpl) and most of them (56; 98.2%) also possessed the flaA marker. Several strains displayed resistance to oxacillin (33; 57.9%), ceftriaxone (18; 31.6%), or clindamycin (5; 8.8%), and two isolates of serogroup 1/2a-3a showed multiresistance to all three. Genetic subtyping showed the presence of different pulsotypes belonging to six PFGE clusters. The obtained results provide useful information regarding fish contamination with L. monocytogenes which may have implications for public health.

  6. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions.

  7. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking: a quantitative health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-08-05

    Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. For eleven countries-approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population-we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set. For each country the age- and sex-specific risk-factor prevalence and the incidence, prevalence, and excess mortality of nine chronic diseases are utilized; including the corresponding relative risks linking risk-factor exposure causally to disease incidence and all-cause mortality. Applying the DYNAMO-HIA tool, we dynamically project the country-wise potential health gains and losses using feasible, i.e. observed elsewhere, risk-factor prevalence rates as benchmarks. The effects of the "worst practice", "best practice", and the currently observed risk-factor prevalence on population health are quantified and expected changes in life expectancy, morbidity-free life years, disease cases, and cumulative mortality are reported. Applying the best practice smoking prevalence yields the largest gains in life expectancy with 0.4 years for males and 0.3 year for females (approx. 332,950 and 274,200 deaths postponed, respectively) while the worst practice smoking prevalence also leads to the largest losses with 0.7 years for males and 0.9 year for females (approx. 609,400 and 710,550 lives lost, respectively). Comparing morbidity-free life years, the best practice smoking prevalence shows the highest gains for males with 0.4 years (342,800 less disease cases), whereas for females the best practice BMI prevalence yields the largest gains with 0.7 years (1,075,200 less disease cases). Smoking is still the risk-factor with the largest potential health gains. BMI, however, has comparatively large effects on morbidity. Future

  8. Current status of smoking and passive smoking among aged 45 to 65 years old females in five cities of China%中国5个地区45~65岁女性吸烟及被动吸烟现况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈川; 黄育北; 刘雪鸥; 高鹰; 宋丰举; 闫晔; 戴弘季; 叶兆祥; 曹亚丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of smoking and passive smoking among Chinese females to provide evidence for related strategy development.Methods Data from 32 720 women aged 45-65 years old who participated in the 2008 to 2010 Chinese Multi-center Women Breast Cancer Screening Project,were used to analyze the prevalence rates of smoking/heavy smoking,daily smoking,smoking cessation,successful smoking cessation,passive smoking,etc.Results A total of 913 females,accounted for 2.8% of all the women in the study,had reported the history of smoking.There were significant differences seen regarding the prevalence rates of smoking in different regions (Beijing,2.8% ; Tianjin,5.9% ; Nanchang,1.7% ; Feicheng,0.9% ; Shenyang,1.8%).The prevalence rates of current smoking,daily smoking,and heavy smoking were 1.8%,1.0% and 0.2%,respectively.The prevalence rates of smoking and current smoking increased with age but not the prevalence rates of daily smoking and heavy smoking.Among the smokers,the median initiation age of smoking,the median daily cigarette per day,and median year of smoking were 30 years old,10 cigarette,and 16 years,respectively.And the prevalence rates of smoking cessation and successful smoking cessation were 19.1% and 8.2%.The prevalence rate of passive smoking was 45.7% (12 730/27 874).After combing the number of smokers and the number of passive smokers,the total exposure rate to tobacco was 41.8% (13 670/32 720).Conclusion There was a relatively low level of smoking among Chinese females,so as the rate of smoking cessation.However,passive smoking presented a relatively high level among Chines females.%目的 分析我国女性吸烟和被动吸烟现况及其分布特点.方法 采用2008-2010年中国多中心女性乳腺癌优化筛查方案研究中32 720名45~65岁女性数据,根据吸烟率、现在吸烟率、经常吸烟率、重度吸烟率、戒烟率、成功戒烟率以及被动吸烟率等指标分析不

  9. Impact of village-based health education of tobacco control on the current smoking rate in Chinese rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-miao; Xiong, Wei-ning; Xie, Jun-gang; Liu, Xian-sheng; Zhao, Jian-ping; Zhang, Zhen-xiang; Xu, Yong-jian

    2016-02-01

    The number of smokers in Chinese rural areas is more than 200 million, which is twice that in cities. It is very significant to carry out tobacco control interventions in rural areas. We performed this community intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of village-based health education of tobacco control on the male current smoking rate in rural areas. The population of this study was the males above 15 years old from 6 villages in rural areas. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention group or control group (3 villages in each group). Self-designed smoking questionnaire was applied. The intervention group received the village-based health education of tobacco control for one year. The primary outcome measurement was the male current smoking rate. In the baseline investigation, completed surveys were returned by 814 male residents from the control group and 831 male residents from the intervention group. The male current smoking rate in the control group and the intervention group was 61.2% and 58.5%, respectively, before intervention. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). After one-year intervention, the current smoking rate in the intervention group (51.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (62.8%) (Pareas, which could be a suitable and feasible way for tobacco control in the Chinese rural areas.

  10. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  11. Current but not past smoking increases the risk of cardiac events: insights from coronary computed tomographic angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Rine; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Gransar, Heidi; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Andreini, Daniele; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor Y.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jörg; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We evaluated coronary artery disease (CAD) extent, severity, and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in never, past, and current smokers undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Methods and results We evaluated 9456 patients (57.1 ± 12.3 years, 55.5% male) without known CAD (1588 current smokers; 2183 past smokers who quit ≥3 months before CCTA; and 5685 never smokers). By risk-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models, we related smoking status to MACE (all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction). We further performed 1:1:1 propensity matching for 1000 in each group evaluate event risk among individuals with similar age, gender, CAD risk factors, and symptom presentation. During a mean follow-up of 2.8 ± 1.9 years, 297 MACE occurred. Compared with never smokers, current and past smokers had greater atherosclerotic burden including extent of plaque defined as segments with any plaque (2.1 ± 2.8 vs. 2.6 ± 3.2 vs. 3.1 ± 3.3, P < 0.0001) and prevalence of obstructive CAD [1-vessel disease (VD): 10.6% vs. 14.9% vs. 15.2%, P < 0.001; 2-VD: 4.4% vs. 6.1% vs. 6.2%, P = 0.001; 3-VD: 3.1% vs. 5.2% vs. 4.3%, P < 0.001]. Compared with never smokers, current smokers experienced higher MACE risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–2.6, P < 0.001], while past smokers did not (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8–1.6, P = 0.35). Among matched individuals, current smokers had higher MACE risk (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6–4.2, P < 0.001), while past smokers did not (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.7–2.4, P = 0.39). Similar findings were observed for risk of all-cause death. Conclusion Among patients without known CAD undergoing CCTA, current and past smokers had increased burden of atherosclerosis compared with never smokers; however, risk of MACE was heightened only in current smokers. PMID:25666322

  12. BRFSS Prevalence and Trends Data: Tobacco Use - Four Level Smoking Data for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 2011 BRFSS data reflects a change in weighting methodology (raking) and the addition of cell phone only respondents. Shifts in observed prevalence from 2010 to...

  13. The effects of maximising the UK's tobacco control score on inequalities in smoking prevalence and premature coronary heart disease mortality: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kirk; Kypridemos, Chris; Hyseni, Lirije; Gilmore, Anna B; Diggle, Peter; Whitehead, Margaret; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is more than twice as common among the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in England compared to the most affluent and is a major contributor to health-related inequalities. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive smoking policies in place: regular tax increases; public information campaigns; on-pack pictorial health warnings; advertising bans; cessation; and smoke-free areas. This is confirmed from its high Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) score, an expert-developed instrument for assessing the strength of tobacco control policies. However, room remains for improvement in tobacco control policies. Our aim was to evaluate the cumulative effect on smoking prevalence of improving all TCS components in England, stratified by socioeconomic circumstance. Effect sizes and socioeconomic gradients for all six types of smoking policy in the UK setting were adapted from systematic reviews, or if not available, from primary studies. We used the IMPACT Policy Model to link predicted changes in smoking prevalence to changes in premature coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality for ages 35-74. Health outcomes with a time horizon of 2025 were stratified by quintiles of socioeconomic circumstance. The model estimated that improving all smoking policies to achieve a maximum score on the TCS might reduce smoking prevalence in England by 3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1-4%), from 20 to 17% in absolute terms, or by 15% in relative terms (95% CI: 7-21%). The most deprived quintile would benefit more, with absolute reductions from 31 to 25%, or a 6% reduction (95% CI: 2-7%). There would be some 3300 (95% CI: 2200-4700) fewer premature CHD deaths between 2015-2025, a 2% (95% CI: 1.4-2.9%) reduction. The most disadvantaged quintile would benefit more, reducing absolute inequality of CHD mortality by about 4 % (95% CI: 3-9%). Further, feasible improvements in tobacco control policy could substantially improve population health, and reduce health-related inequalities in England.

  14. CIGARETTE SMOKING IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS THAT ARE CURRENTLY TREATED IN A MEXICAN HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral; Julio César Flores-Lázaro; Nuria Lanzagorta; Fernando Corona-Hernández; Humberto Nicolini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of...

  15. Attitudes Towards Smoking and Frequency of Smoking Among Students of Duzce Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih Mayda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study; to determine smoking prevalence in the students of Duzce Medical School and to learn attitudes of students towards smoking was aimed and questionnaires applied under supervision to 230 students (96.0% who accepted to participated to the study of all 242 students of the Medical School in the term of 2005-2006. The prevalence of smoking was found 31.3%. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in the students who have smokers among their friends, the students who had been graduated from Science High School, the students who deal with an art such as painting, music, theatre and the students who have lived alone. Almost all the students declined that they had supported the legal regulations and sanctions against smoking and 43.0 % of the students thought that to persuade community not to smoke has been the mission of doctors. The reasons to begin to smoke were declined as; the affects of friends, (54.4%, affectation (28.0%, curiosity (28.8% and being alone (20.6%. Of the students who have been smoking currently 42 students (65.6% have wanted to quit smoking, 20 (31.3% haven’t want to quit and 2 (%3.1 has been undecided. Of smokers, 47 students (74.6% had been tried to quit smoking. The students of Medical School have known that smoking was harmful to health. Because friends’ affects are important to begin smoking; campaigns to quit smoking has to be planned towards friend groups not to individuals. Considering that behaviors of physicians have effected to community physicians have to be ensured to quit smoking and not to begin smoking with campaigns against smoking. It’s important to support students who want to quit smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 364-370

  16. Attitudes Towards Smoking and Frequency of Smoking Among Students of Duzce Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih Mayda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study; to determine smoking prevalence in the students of Duzce Medical School and to learn attitudes of students towards smoking was aimed and questionnaires applied under supervision to 230 students (96.0% who accepted to participated to the study of all 242 students of the Medical School in the term of 2005-2006. The prevalence of smoking was found 31.3%. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in the students who have smokers among their friends, the students who had been graduated from Science High School, the students who deal with an art such as painting, music, theatre and the students who have lived alone. Almost all the students declined that they had supported the legal regulations and sanctions against smoking and 43.0 % of the students thought that to persuade community not to smoke has been the mission of doctors. The reasons to begin to smoke were declined as; the affects of friends, (54.4%, affectation (28.0%, curiosity (28.8% and being alone (20.6%. Of the students who have been smoking currently 42 students (65.6% have wanted to quit smoking, 20 (31.3% haven’t want to quit and 2 (%3.1 has been undecided. Of smokers, 47 students (74.6% had been tried to quit smoking. The students of Medical School have known that smoking was harmful to health. Because friends’ affects are important to begin smoking; campaigns to quit smoking has to be planned towards friend groups not to individuals. Considering that behaviors of physicians have effected to community physicians have to be ensured to quit smoking and not to begin smoking with campaigns against smoking. It’s important to support students who want to quit smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 364-370

  17. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B Fulmer

    Full Text Available Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students.By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use.In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation.These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  18. Evolución de la prevalencia de tabaquismo entre las médicas y enfermeras de la Comunidad de Madrid Evolution of the prevalence of smoking among female physicians and nurses in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Fernández Ruiz

    2003-02-01

    professionals (435 doctors and 800 nurses in 1998 and 1000 in 2001 (400 doctors and 600 nurses; 43.1% were smokers in 1998 and 43% were smokers in 2001. In both years smoking was more prevalent among nurses (47.6% and 47% than doctors (34.7% and 37%. Smoking was also more prevalent among health professionals working in hospitals (46.6% and 46.7% than in those working in primary care (35.3% and 37.3%. When both years were compared, no significant differences in smoking prevalence according to profession were found. In both surveys, the prevalence of smoking was lowest among younger (< 30 years doctors (22.9% and 23.6%. A similar situation was found in 2001 among nurses (43.8% of those aged < 30 years smoked. The percentage of exsmokers was higher in 2001 (18.9% vs. 27.8%. The percentage of health workers who smoked in front of patients decreased (2.9% vs. 1% as did the percentage of those who thought smoking should be allowed smoke in waiting rooms (14.9% vs. 7.4%. The percentage of workers who smoked in staff rooms decreased (90.6% vs. 87.1% and that of health professionals who worked in centers with a specific smoking area increased (30.4% vs. 59.4%. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among female physicians and nurses in the Community of Madrid is very high, and in the case of nurses, it higher than among the general population. No substantial changes were observed between the two surveys. Smoking is more frequent among nurses than among doctors, and is more frequent in hospitals than in primary care. In the second survey, those who smoked less were the younger members of both professions, which allows a certain optimism. Although it has improved, observance of current legislation in health centers continues to be very low.

  19. 浙江省2013年成人烟草流行现状调查分析%Surveys on prevalence of adult cigarette smoking in Zhejiang province in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 徐越; 吴青青; 郭妤洁; 徐水洋

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省2013年成人烟草使用的流行现状.方法 采用多阶段、按地理位置进行整群随机抽样,在浙江省15个县区对2 779名15~69岁的居民进行面对面问卷调查.结果 浙江省15 ~ 69岁的人群现在吸烟率为25.62%,常吸烟率为21.85%,男性现在吸烟率为50.88%,女性为0.78%.40.56%的每日吸烟者每天醒后30 min以内吸第1支烟.95.19%的吸烟者尚无戒烟的意愿.64.04%的调查对象报告有人在自己家中吸烟.67.48%的吸烟者认为烟草价格上涨对他没有影响.21.09%的人通过商店和电视看到过烟草广告.知晓吸烟会导致卒中、心脏病和肺癌3种疾病的为42.00%.89.69%的人不知道低焦油卷烟的危害与一般卷烟相同.同意在公共场所完全禁烟的人达73.92%.结论 浙江省男性吸烟人群水平依然处于高平台期,总吸烟人群中戒烟率低,家庭二手烟暴露严重,人们对吸烟的认识模糊不清,烟草控制措施有待加强.%Objective To understand the status of tobacco epidemic among adults in Zhejiang province in 2013.Methods A total of 2 779 residents aged 15-69 years from 15 counties were selected using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method and surveyed by face to face interview to complete questionnaire.Results The current smoking prevalence was 25.62% among the adults 15-69 years old in Zhejiang province,50.88% among males and 0.78% among females.The daily smoking prevalence was 21.85%;40.56% of the current daily smokers smoked within 30 minutes after waking;95.19% of current smokers were not willing to quit;64.04% of all respondents reported someone smoked in their own homes;67.48% smokers thought they would continue to smoke even if the price of tobacco rises;21.09% of all respondents saw tobacco AD at shops and on TV;42.00% of people were aware that smoking could cause stroke,heart attack and lung cancer;89.69% smokers still believed that low

  20. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2011-10-26

    Social and community service organisations (SCSOs) are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate). Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking) was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77%) and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2) lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8%) reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%), cash rewards (52%) and non-cash rewards (47%) for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%). Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  1. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  2. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  3. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  4. Health-related quality of life in current smokers with COPD: factors associated with current smoking and new insights into sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheruvu VK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinay K Cheruvu,1 Lorriane A Odhiambo,1 Dana S Mowls,2 Melissa D Zullo,1 Abdi T Gudina1 1Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 2Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Abstract: Findings from studies that examined the association between health-related ­quality of life (HRQOL and smoking status among COPD patients have been mixed. Moreover, factors associated with current smoking in COPD patients and differences by sex have not been fully elucidated. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used in this study. Four HRQOL indicators were examined in this study: general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitations. General health was dichotomized into two groups: “excellent/very good/good” and “fair/poor”, and the other three HRQOL indicators were dichotomized into <14 (infrequent and ≥14 (frequent unhealthy days in the past 30 days. To examine HRQOL indicators in association with current versus former smoking and identify factors associated with current smoking, logistic regression models were used. Sex differences were explored. In COPD patients, current smokers compared to former smokers had significantly poor HRQOL on all subdomains: “fair/poor” general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1–1.5]; poor physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.1–1.5]; poor mental health (AOR: 1.8 [CI: 1.4–2.2]; and poor activity limitations (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.3–1.9]. HRQOL subdomains affected by current smoking differed by sex except activity limitations. General health (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.1–2.0] and activity limitations (AOR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2–2.2] in males and physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.0–1.6], mental health (AOR: 2.1 [CI: 1.7–2.6], and activity

  5. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    . It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  6. Lower prevalence of cigarette and waterpipe smoking, but a higher risk of waterpipe dependence in Lebanese adult women than in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Khayat, Georges; Waked, Mirna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether nicotine dependence was higher in Lebanese women smokers compared with men smokers. Data were taken from a national cross-sectional study. Lebanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were enrolled between October 2009 and September 2010. After informed consent, participants answered a standardized questionnaire about smoking behaviors and dependence (measured by the Fagerström-Test-Nicotine-Dependence for cigarettes and the Lebanon-Waterpipe-Dependence-Scale 11 for waterpipes): 1,066 males and 1,134 females were interviewed. 58.7% versus 42.9% of them, respectively, ever smoked cigarettes, while 6.9% versus 6.7% ever smoked a waterpipe (p waterpipe smokers (p = 0.076), and 67.9% versus 43.6% in mixed smokers were tobacco dependent. A dose-effect relationship was observed with increased rates of women versus men with waterpipe dependence) and an increased odds of dependence among women in multivariable analysis (ORa = 2.28). Positive (smoking waterpipe for pleasure and conviviality) and negative (smoking waterpipe to relax nerves and improve morale) reinforcements were significantly more frequent in women, while no significant sex difference was observed for nicotine dependence or psychological craving. In exclusive waterpipe smokers, significantly higher respiratory diseases and symptoms prevalences were found in females compared with males. Women who smoke waterpipes should receive attention during tobacco health education and smoking cessation.

  7. Does Telephone Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing Improve the Accuracy of Prevalence Estimates of Youth Smoking? Evidence from the UMass Tobacco Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currivan, Douglas; Nyman, Amy L; Turner, Charles F; Biener, Lois

    2004-12-01

    Despite their advantage for obtaining representative samples of adolescents, telephone surveys have been regarded as inferior for collecting data on youth tobacco use because they yield lower estimates than school-based self-administered surveys. Although no gold standard for smoking estimates exists, the lower estimates in telephone surveys have been attributed to underreporting due to youths' concern about parents or others overhearing their responses. Telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI) is a cost-effective method for obtaining a representative sample of youths and provides increased privacy for the respondent. We hypothesized that using T-ACASI would encourage youths to more fully report smoking behavior compared to traditional interviewer-administered telephone methods. Our analysis further assessed whether respondent age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parental attitude toward smoking moderated the relationship between survey mode and smoking reports. Using data from a statewide tobacco use survey that randomly assigned youth respondents to either T-ACASI or interviewer-administered mode, we found youths were more likely to report smoking behaviors in T-ACASI mode and that this was especially true for girls, particularly those who believed their parents would disapprove strongly of their smoking. Findings suggest that traditional telephone surveys may underestimate smoking prevalence in most girls by a factor of two, and that a technique for insuring privacy for these respondents is an important component of effective telephone survey methodology.

  8. Prospective Analysis of the Influence of Sport and Educational Factors on the Prevalence and Initiation of Smoking in Older Adolescents from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenic, Natasa; Ban, Djivo; Jurisic, Sanja; Cubela, Mladen; Rodek, Jelena; Ostojic, Ljerka; Jelicic, Mario; Bianco, Antonino; Sekulic, Damir

    2017-04-20

    The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational) achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females). Baseline testing was implemented at the beginning of the 3rd year of high school (September 2014) when participants were 16 years old. Follow-up testing was completed at the end of the fourth year of high school, which occurred 20 months later. The evaluated predictor variables were educational-achievement- and sport-related-factors. The outcome variables were (i) smoking at baseline; (ii) smoking at follow-up; and (iii) smoking initiation over the course of the study. We assessed the associations between predictors and outcomes using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and conflict with parents. The educational variables were consistently associated with smoking, with lower grade-point-average (Baseline: odd ratio (OR): 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61-2.55; Follow-up: 1.59, 1.31-1.94), more frequent absence from school (Baseline: OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.19-1.69; Follow-up: 1.30, 1.08-1.58), and lower behavioral grades (Baseline: OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.10-2.89; Follow-up: 1.57, 1.03-2.41) in children who smoke. Adolescents who reported quitting sports were at greater odds of being smokers (Baseline: 2.07, 1.31-3.32; Follow-up: 1.66, 1.09-2.56). Sport competitive achievement at baseline was protective against smoking initiation during following two-year period (0.45, 0.21-0.91). While the influence of the educational variables on smoking initiation has been found to be established earlier; sport achievement was identified as a significant

  9. Prospective Analysis of the Influence of Sport and Educational Factors on the Prevalence and Initiation of Smoking in Older Adolescents from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Zenic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females. Baseline testing was implemented at the beginning of the 3rd year of high school (September 2014 when participants were 16 years old. Follow-up testing was completed at the end of the fourth year of high school, which occurred 20 months later. The evaluated predictor variables were educational-achievement- and sport-related-factors. The outcome variables were (i smoking at baseline; (ii smoking at follow-up; and (iii smoking initiation over the course of the study. We assessed the associations between predictors and outcomes using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and conflict with parents. The educational variables were consistently associated with smoking, with lower grade-point-average (Baseline: odd ratio (OR: 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61–2.55; Follow-up: 1.59, 1.31–1.94, more frequent absence from school (Baseline: OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.19–1.69; Follow-up: 1.30, 1.08–1.58, and lower behavioral grades (Baseline: OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.10–2.89; Follow-up: 1.57, 1.03–2.41 in children who smoke. Adolescents who reported quitting sports were at greater odds of being smokers (Baseline: 2.07, 1.31–3.32; Follow-up: 1.66, 1.09–2.56. Sport competitive achievement at baseline was protective against smoking initiation during following two-year period (0.45, 0.21–0.91. While the influence of the educational variables on smoking initiation has been found to be established earlier; sport achievement was identified

  10. CIGARETTE SMOKING IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS THAT ARE CURRENTLY TREATED IN A MEXICAN HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of the disease, use of other drugs and times of hospitalization among others and cigarette smoking in a Mexican population of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Method: The relation between the main variables and smoking were evaluated in a Mexican population of schizophrenic patients while hospitalized. A casuistic sampling was performed in 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and they were divided into three groups: 1 non-smokers, 2 ex-smokers and 3 smokers; according to their score on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The results showed that hospitalized schizophrenic patients smoke 2.7 times more than the general population. Most of these patients showed moderate to high dependence of nicotine, as well as a higher risk for other drugs abuse (marihuana mainly. Most patients started smoking before the first positive symptoms of schizophrenia appeared, and their symptoms started at an earlier age than in patients without a smoking background. Conclusions: Similar studies will allow deepening into specific aspects that modify and or improve the prescribed treatments for each psychiatric patient in hospital settings.

  11. Socio-economic and Psychosocial Determinants of Smoking and Passive Smoking in Older Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong Mei; HU Zhi; ORTON Sophie; WANG Jia Ji; ZHENG Jian Zhong; QIN Xia; CHEN Ruo Ling

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with active and passive smoking in older adults. Methods Using a standard interview method, we examined random samples of 6071 people aged≥60 years in 5 provinces of China during 2007-2009. Results World age-standardised prevalence for current and former smoking in men was 45.6% and 20.5%, and in women 11.1%and 4.5%. Current smoking reduced with older age but increased with men, low socioeconomic status (SES), alcohol drinking, being never-married, pessimistic and depressive syndromes. Former smoking was associated with men, secondary school education, a middle-high income, being a businessman, being widowed, less frequencies of visiting children/relatives and friends, and worrying about children. Among 3774 never-smokers, the prevalence of passive smoking was 31.5%, and the risk increased with women, low SES, alcohol drinking, being married, having a religious believe, and daily visiting children/relatives. There were sex differences in the associations, and an interaction effect of education and income on smoking and passive smoking. Conclusion Older Chinese had a higher level of smoking and passive smoking than those in high income countries, reflecting China’s failures in controlling smoking. The associations with low SES and different psychosocial aspects and sex differences suggest preventative strategies for active and passive smoking.

  12. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance S. Ballester

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973 were linked to state taxes (n = 41, state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily. There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001 and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001. Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  13. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among Aden university medical students and their relationship to BP and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laswar Al Khader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the smoking and khat chewing habits in male Aden University medical students and correlate them with blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, and year of training, we randomly selected 100 students of different levels of training and measured their BP, height, and weight, and evaluated their cigarette smoking and khat chewing habits. The mean age of the whole group was 31.8 years. The mean BMI was 23.24 with a range from 22.6 in the in first year medical students to 24.7 (4.4 in 5 th year medical students (P= 0.127. The mean SBP, DBP, and MBP were 120.35, 70.47 and 87.1 mmHg, respectively, and did not change over the years of training. Preva-lence of smoking increased from 20% to 40% and khat chewing from 35% to 90% over the 5 years of training (P= 0.0003. There was a tendency for positive correlation between age and weight, BMI and frequency of khat chewing, and BMI and MBP. We found high prevalence of smoking and khat chewing among the medical students at Aden University and their prevalence increases with student seniority with no significant changes in BMI, SBP, DBP or MBP. There was a weak positive correlation between BMI with SBP, MBP and frequency of Khat chewing.

  14. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001-2011, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Mayne, Stephanie L

    2017-03-20

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001-2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  15. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Robinson, Lucy F.; Mayne, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. PMID:28335533

  16. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-21

    The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents' self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  17. Meta-analysis of prevalence of smoking in 15-64-year-old population of West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: It was found that more than one-fifth of men from 15 year to 64-year-old of west of Iran smoked cigarette. Providing an education on harmful effects of smoking to the adult population would be a valuable means for reducing destructive consequences of smoking.

  18. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  19. Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Passive Smoking on Hearing Impairment: Data from a Population–Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiwon; Ryou, Namhyung; Jun, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Soon Young; Song, Jae-Jun; Chae, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of both active and passive smoking on the prevalence of the hearing impairment and the hearing thresholds in different age groups through the analysis of data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Study Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods The KNHANES is an ongoing population study that started in 1998. We included a total of 12,935 participants aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES, from 2010 to 2012, in the present study. Pure-tone audiometric (PTA) testing was conducted and the frequencies tested were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Smoking status was categorized into three groups; current smoking group, passive smoking group and non-smoking group. Results In the current smoking group, the prevalence of speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment was increased in ages of 40−69, and the rate of high frequency bilateral hearing impairment was elevated in ages of 30−79. When we investigated the impact of smoking on hearing thresholds, we found that the current smoking group had significantly increased hearing thresholds compared to the passive smoking group and non-smoking groups, across all ages in both speech-relevant and high frequencies. The passive smoking group did not have an elevated prevalence of either speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment or high frequency bilateral hearing impairment, except in ages of 40s. However, the passive smoking group had higher hearing thresholds than the non-smoking group in the 30s and 40s age groups. Conclusion Current smoking was associated with hearing impairment in both speech-relevant frequency and high frequency across all ages. However, except in the ages of 40s, passive smoking was not related to hearing impairment in either speech-relevant or high frequencies. PMID:26756932

  20. The prevalence and influencing factors of smoking behavior among junior middle school students in Tibet Au-tonomous Region%西藏自治区初中生吸烟现状及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尼玛曲措; 宋启飞; 索朗德吉; 央金

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and influencing factors of smoking behaviors among junior middle school students in Tibet,and provide evidence for intervention measures in future.Methods Using stratified multi-stage probability sampling method and the uniform global standard core questionnaire on GYTS (Globe Youth Tobacco Survey), 3652 students from 11 junior middle schools in Tibet were investigated.Results The current smoking rate of junior high school students was 19.0%,the prevalence of ever smoked tobacco product was 31.0%.Multiple factors analysis showed that the risk factors of current smoking were male (OR =11.423),grade (second graders OR =1.580;third graders OR=2.815),maternal smoking (OR =8.240),parents smoking (OR =1.565),friends smoking (all friends smoking OR=16.544),exposure to second-hand smoking at home (OR =2.711),exposure to second-hand smoking at indoor public spaces (OR =1.377),exposure to second-hand smoking at outdoor public places (OR =2.249),seeing somebody smok-ing in school (OR =1.833),offered tobacco for free (OR =3.617),seeing somebody smoking on media (OR =1.252), thinking that smoking make easy to social contact (OR =2.070),and having been offered information about smoking con-trol (OR =1.606).The protective factors were believing that it is difficult to quit once smoking (OR =0.744),and be-lieving second-hand smoking is harmful definitely (OR =0.513).Conclusion The tobacco control on junior middle school students in Tibet should be focus on reducing second-hand smoke exposure,media advertising and sales of tobacco,and strengthening the spread knowledge of smoking dangers.%目的:了解西藏自治区初中学生吸烟现状及其影响因素,为后期制定干预措施提供依据。方法采用多阶段抽样方法,使用全球统一标准的青少年烟草调查核心问卷,对西藏自治区11所初中学校的3652名学生进行调查。结果现在烟草使用率为19.0%,尝试吸烟率为31.0%。多因素

  1. Perceptions of hookah smoking harmfulness: predictors and characteristics among current hookah users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Delaimy Wael K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tobacco cigarette smoking a well-known cause of cancer and other diseases. Hookah smoking is another form of tobacco use that has rapidly spread in the United State and Europe. This study assessed beliefs about the harmfulness of smoking hookah. Methods We surveyed hookah users in all cafes that provided hookah to its customers in downtown San Diego, California and nearby areas. A total of 235 hookah users participated in this study. Results Average age of study participants was 22 years, 57% were males, and 72% were not cigarette smokers. Whites were more likely to use hookah than the other ethnic groups (33%, older hookah users (26-35 years were mostly males, and mint flavor of hookah tobacco was the most popular among a wide variety of flavors (23%. There was no significant difference in gender in relation to the wrong perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes, but those of Asian ethnicity were much less likely than other ethnic groups to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. More frequent users of hookah were more likely to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The majority of hookah users (58.3% believe hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Discussion Compared to cigarettes, there appears to be a lack of knowledge about the harmfulness of smoking hookah among users regardless of their demographic background. Education about the harmfulness of smoking hookah and policies to limit its use should be implemented to prevent the spread of this new form of tobacco use.

  2. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  3. Women and Smoking: Global Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Kinnunen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global tobacco control has led to a reduction in smoking prevalence and mortality in men, while the rates among women have not followed the same declining rates or patterns. Tobacco-induced diseases, including those unique to women (reproductive complications, cervical and breast cancer are becoming increasingly prevalent among women. Unfortunately, many tobacco control policies and cessation programs have been found to be less effective for women than men. This is alarming as disease risk for lung cancer, CVD, osteoporosis, and COPD, associated with smoking, is higher among women. Women are also more likely to be exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke and subsequent morbidity. Finally, quitting smoking appears to be harder for women than men. Current tobacco control and surveillance data come primarily from high resource countries. WHO estimates that in 2030, in low and medium resource countries, 7 out of 10 deaths will be smoking-related. While the prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low in these countries, more information is needed regarding their patterns of tobacco use uptake, and subsequent health outcomes, as theirs differ from men. Tobacco use in women is greatly influenced by social, cultural and political determinants, and needs to be conceptualized within an intersectional framework.

  4. Smoking prevalence and knowledge,attitude toward smoking among different occupational groups in Zhangzhou city%漳州市不同人群吸烟现状及知识态度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥炬; 林曙光; 钟文玲; 陈铁晖; 管纪惠; 方红; 陈子平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand somking prevalence, konwledge of smoking,passive smoking hazards and attitude toward smoking bans in public places among diferent occupational groups in Zhangzhou city of Fujian province. Methods Totally 911 persons were randomly selected at medical institutions, schools, agencies, restaurants, waiting-rooms of bus terminal, and intemet bar for a face-to-face interview. Results There were 216 smokers with a smoking rate of 23.71%.Among the participants, the smoking rate was 19. 81% ( 63/318 ) for medical staff, 18. 86% ( 66/350 ) for staff in the schools,34. 38% (22/64) for personnel in the agencies,and 36. 31% (65/179) for persons in restaurants,watiting-room of bus terminal, and internet bar, respectively. There were 538 persons exposed to passive smoking. The passive smoking for the four places was 59.06%. Totally more than 95% of the persons recognizing the health risk of smoking but less than 90%knowing the health risk of passive smoking. Conclusion Smoking and passive smoking rate at public places such as internet bar is higher than that of other institutions, while correct recognition rate of smoking is low. Propaganda on knowledge of smoking and hazards of passive smoking should be increased in public places.%目的 了解福建省漳州市居民吸烟现状及吸烟危害知识以及对公共场所禁烟态度.方法 在医疗、教育、机关、餐馆/公共汽车站候车室/网吧4类机构和场所随机抽取911名人员进行面对面问卷调查.结果 吸烟216人,吸烟率为23.71%,其中,医疗机构人员吸烟率为19.81%(63/318),教育机构为18.86%(66/350)、机关为34.38%(22/64),餐馆/公共汽车站候车室/网吧为36.31%(65/179).被动吸烟538人,总暴露率59.06%;人群知晓吸烟会危害吸烟者健康的比例>95%,而知晓吸烟会给被动吸烟者健康造成危害比例则<90%,对被动吸烟造成的健康危害知晓率则更低.结论 餐馆/公共汽车站候车室/网吧等场

  5. Association of current smoking with airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asymptomatic smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, BWM; ten Hacken, NHT; Rutgers, B; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    2005-01-01

    Background: Inflammation in the airways and lung parenchyma underlies fixed airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The exact role of smoking as promoting factor of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not clear, partly because studies often do not distinguis

  6. Smoking water-pipe, chewing nass and prevalence of heart disease: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Poustchi, Hossein; Kamangar, Farin; Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Khademi, Hooman; Freedman, Neal D; Merat, Shahin; Garg, Vaani; Fuster, Valentin; Wakefield, Jon; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Malekzadeh, Reza; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Water-pipe and smokeless tobacco use have been associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, little information is available on the association between water-pipe use and heart disease (HD). Therefore, we investigated the association of smoking water-pipe and chewing nass (a mixture of tobacco, lime and ash) with prevalent HD. Cross-sectional study. Baseline data (collected in 2004-2008) from a prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. 50 045 residents of Golestan (40-75 years old; 42.4% men). ORs and 95% CIs from multivariate logistic regression models for the association of water-pipe and nass use with HD prevalence. A total of 3051 (6.1%) participants reported a history of HD, and 525 (1.1%) and 3726 (7.5%) reported ever water-pipe or nass use, respectively. Heavy water-pipe smoking was significantly associated with HD prevalence (highest level of cumulative use vs never use, OR=3.75; 95% CI 1.52 to 9.22; p for trend=0.04). This association persisted when using different cut-off points, when restricting HD to those taking nitrate compound medications, and among never cigarette smokers. There was no significant association between nass use and HD prevalence (highest category of use vs never use, OR=0.91; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.20). Our study suggests a significant association between HD and heavy water-pipe smoking. Although the existing evidence suggesting similar biological consequences of water-pipe and cigarette smoking make this association plausible, results of our study were based on a modest number of water-pipe users and need to be replicated in further studies.

  7. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence...... to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  8. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cognition, symptoms, and smoking in schizophrenia: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert C; Boules, Sylvia; Mattiuz, Sanela; Youssef, Mary; Tobe, Russell H; Sershen, Henry; Lajtha, Abel; Nolan, Karen; Amiaz, Revital; Davis, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by cognitive deficits which persist after acute symptoms have been treated or resolved. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to improve cognition and reduce smoking craving in healthy subjects but has not been as carefully evaluated in a randomized controlled study for these effects in schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled study of the effects of 5 sessions of tDCS (2 milliamps for 20minutes) on cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and smoking and cigarette craving in 37 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were current smokers. Thirty subjects provided evaluable data on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), with the primary outcome measure, the MCCB Composite score. Active compared to sham tDCS subjects showed significant improvements after the fifth tDCS session in MCCB Composite score (p=0.008) and on the MCCB Working Memory (p=0.002) and Attention-Vigilance (p=0.027) domain scores, with large effect sizes. MCCB Composite and Working Memory domain scores remained significant at Benjamini-Hochberg corrected significance levels (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant effects on secondary outcome measures of psychiatric symptoms (PANSS scores), hallucinations, cigarette craving, or cigarettes smoked. The positive effects of tDCS on cognitive performance suggest a potential efficacious treatment for cognitive deficits in partially recovered chronic schizophrenia outpatients that should be further investigated.

  9. The prevalence and the socio – economic costs of smoking among the working age population in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health problem, the costs of which include sickness, pain, grief and misery. But tobacco use also imposes a significant economic burden on society. One efficient way to assess the adverse health effects of smoking on a society is to translate smoking-caused illnesses, premature mortality, and productivity losses into economic terms, a universal marker for measuring the adverse effects of smoking. Due to the high proportion of smokers, Latvia faces high male mortality from smoking-related diseases; life expectancy for men in the age group 35–64 years is 2.44 years less than for non-smokers in the same age group, losing 37% of total lost years of life and therefore the government loses approximately 45 88346 Euro per year from YPLL from smoking related diseases.

  10. Cigarette and Nargila (Water Pipe Use Among Israeli Arab High School Students: Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Smoking

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    Liat Korn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a popular habit among Arab Israelis. Over the past decade, smoking tobacco using nargila, a water pipe, has become a popular and accepted behavior among teenagers in Israel. Although the use of a water pipe (nargila is an old habit among Middle Eastern adult males, its emergence among youth is a new finding. A representative sample of high school students in Tayibe, Israel is the subject of this survey. The sample represents data from 326 adolescents (boys 52.5% and girls 47.5%, ages 15–18, studying in one of the largest high schools in the Arab region of Israel. Our results show that a third of the sample smoked either cigarettes (36.2% or nargila (37.1%. The gender difference among youths smoking cigarettes was 24.8% (48.0% for boys and 23.3% for girls, in contrast to 37.6% (55.0% for boys and 17.4% for girls for nargila. There was a statistically significant correlation between cigarette and nargila smoking in populations where there is low religious inclination, increased parental smoking, and low student academic achievement. Students’ perceptions of low academic achievement (OR 4.51, p < 0.001, students’ mothers who smoke (OR 3.57, p < 0.001, and student's fathers who smoke (OR 2.75, p < 0.01 increase the youths’ chances of using nargila. Our conclusions are that smoking cigarettes and nargila are equally popular, and patterns of smoking cigarettes and nargila parallel each other. Causes that influence cigarette smoking also influence nargila smoking. Educational efforts are needed as a public health intervention.

  11. The contribution of parental smoking history and socio-demographic factors to the smoking behavior of Israeli women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.

  12. What is the role of tobacco control advertising intensity and duration in reducing adolescent smoking prevalence? Findings from 16 years of tobacco control mass media advertising in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; Durkin, Sarah J; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2015-03-01

    To examine how the intensity and duration of tobacco control advertising relate to adolescent smoking prevalence. Australian students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a national survey conducted triennially between 1993 and 2008 (sample size range 12 314-16 611). The outcome measure was students' smoking in the previous 4 weeks collected through anonymous, self-completed surveys. For each student, monthly targeted rating points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure) for tobacco control advertising was calculated for the 3 and 12 months prior to surveying. For each time period, cumulative TRPs exposure and exposure to three intensity levels (≥100 TRPs/month; ≥400 TRPs/month; ≥800 TRPs/month) over increasing durations (eg, 1 month, 2 months, etc) were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between TRPs and adolescent smoking after controlling for demographic and policy variables. Past 3-month cumulative TRPs were found to have an inverse relationship with smoking prevalence. Low TRPs exposure in the past 12 months was positively associated with adolescent smoking prevalence. However, smoking prevalence reduced with cumulative exposure levels above 5800 cumulative TRPs. Additionally, exposure to ≥400 TRPs/month and ≥800 TRPs/month were associated with reduced likelihood of smoking, although the duration needed for this effect differed for the two intensity levels. When intensity was ≥400 TRPs/month, the odds of smoking only reduced with continuous exposure. When intensity was ≥800 TRPs/month, exposure at levels less than monthly was associated with reductions in smoking prevalence. Both antismoking advertising intensity and duration are important for ensuring reductions in adolescent smoking prevalence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Prevalência de tabagismo e fatores associados em área metropolitana da região Sul do Brasil Prevalence of smoking and associated factors in a metropolitan area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila B. Moreira

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a prevalência de tabagismo em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, e os fatores associados, executou-se estudo observacional, de delineamento transversal e base populacional. Através de amostragem aleatória proporcional, por estágios múltiplos e conglomerados, selecionaram-se 1.091 indivíduos, a partir de 18 anos, que responderam a um questionário, em entrevista domiciliar. Aferiu-se o hábito de fumar através de perguntas dirigidas ao tipo de fumo, freqüência e tempo de exposição. A prevalência foi de 34,9% (IC 31,9 - 37,8, sendo de 41,5% (IC 38,5 - 44,4 entre os homens e 29,5% (IC 26,8 - 32,2 entre as mulheres. O início foi, em média, aos 16 (±5,6 e 17,8 (±6,7 anos, com moda de 15 e 14 anos, respectivamente. Os homens fumavam 19,0 ± 14,0 cigarros por dia e as mulheres 14,5 ± 10,3. Analisaram-se as associações através de regressão logística, incluindo-se no modelo sexo, idade, educação, renda, qualificação profissional e consumo de álcool. O hábito de fumar foi mais freqüente entre os homens, indivíduos de menor nível socioeconômico, dos 30 aos 39 anos, e entre os usuários de bebidas alcoólicas. Conclui-se que o tabagismo é freqüente em Porto Alegre, constituindo-se problema de saúde pública similar ao referido pela literatura. O consumo de álcool deve estar associado ao fumo por serem ambos comportamentos de risco, com determinantes comuns.A cross-sectional study was carried out for the purpose of evaluating, the prevalence of smoking and the factors associated with it in Porto Alegre, a city in southern Brazilian. Through proportional, multiple stage, random sampling, 1.091 individuals (92% of those eligible of 18 or more years of age, were interviewed at home. Exposure to smoking was measured by a questionnaire that inquired about the type, quantity and frequency of tobacco use. The prevalence of smoking was 34.9% (Cl 31.9 - 37.8. It was higher -among men - 41.5% (Cl 38.5 - 44.4 then

  14. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking: current perspectives

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    Maccani JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer ZJ Maccani, Matthew A Maccani Penn State Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science, College of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse early life exposures can have lasting, detrimental effects on lifelong health. Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with morbidity and mortality in offspring, including increased risks for miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, asthma, obesity, altered neurobehavior, and other conditions. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy interferes with placental growth and functioning, and it has been proposed that this may occur through the disruption of normal and necessary placental epigenetic patterns. Epigenome-wide association studies have identified a number of differentially methylated placental genes that are associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, including RUNX3, PURA, GTF2H2, GCA, GPR135, and HKR1. The placental methylation status of RUNX3 and NR3C1 has also been linked to adverse infant outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, respectively. Candidate gene analyses have also found maternal smoking-associated placental methylation differences in the NR3C1, CYP1A1, HTR2A, and HSD11B2 genes, as well as in the repetitive elements LINE-1 and AluYb8. The differential methylation patterns of several genes have been confirmed to also exhibit altered gene expression patterns, including CYP1A1, CYP19A1, NR3C1, and HTR2A. Placental methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy may be largely gene-specific and tissue-specific and, to a lesser degree, involve global changes. It is important for future research to investigate the mechanistic roles that these differentially methylated genes may play in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and disease in later life, as well

  15. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  16. Prevalência e fatores associados ao tabagismo em estudantes de medicina de uma universidade em Passo Fundo (RS Prevalence of and variables related to smoking among medical students at a university in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Mazzoleni Stramari

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados ao tabagismo entre os acadêmicos de medicina e avaliar o perfil desse grupo. MÉTODOS: Responderam a um questionário autoaplicável, contendo perguntas sobre consumo e atitudes relacionadas ao tabagismo, 316 acadêmicos de medicina (98,7% do total da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Segundo recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde, os estudantes foram classificados em fumantes diários, fumantes ocasionais, ex-fumantes ou não-fumantes, sendo considerados fumantes ativos os nas duas primeiras categorias. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 16,5% dos acadêmicos eram fumantes ativos (5,4% diários e 11,1% ocasionais e 3,5% eram ex-fumantes. A média de idade foi 22,2 ± 2,4 anos. Os fatores significativamente associados ao tabagismo (p OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among medical students, as well as to evaluate the profile of this group. METHODS: A total of 316 medical students (98.7% of the total at the University of Passo Fundo, in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil, completed a self-report questionnaire with questions on tobacco intake and on attitudes related to smoking. In accordance with the World Health Organization guidelines, the students were classified as daily smokers, occasional smokers, former smokers or nonsmokers, those in the two first categories being considered active smokers. RESULTS: We found that 16.5% of the students were active smokers (daily smokers, 5.4%; occasional smokers, 11.1% and that 3.5% were former smokers. The mean age was 22.2 ± 2.4 years. Factors significantly associated with the smoking habit (p < 0.05 were male gender, paternal smoking, regular alcohol consumption and use of antidepressants or anxiolytics. For the majority (69.2% of the smokers, the age at smoking onset was 15-19 years of age, and the main motivations to start smoking were selfinitiative and influence of friends. The conceptualization of

  17. A review of current smoke constituent measurement activities and aspects of yield variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Stephen W; Meger, Michael; Wuttke, Roland

    2012-02-01

    An increasing number of initiatives to regulate cigarette smoke constituents beyond 'tar', nicotine and carbon monoxide are being launched. The objective of existing and proposed regulation is presumably either to gain a better understanding of product performance, to be able to discriminate between products, or to impose limits for selected constituents. However, without standardized analytical methods and measurement tolerances a meaningful comparison of data or verification against regulated limits is challenging if not impossible. Hence, an understanding of the validity and limitations of generated data is important for industry and regulators alike to avoid unjustified 'out-of-compliance' situations, and consequent competitive and reputational concerns for manufacturers. This paper reviews smoke constituent regulation and provides examples of technical challenges and good practice. It discusses approaches used to standardize measurements; the role of the International Organization for Standardization; factors influencing result variability and limitations and possible misinterpretations of generated data. If smoke constituents regulation is to be introduced, a standardized, science-based approach must be the pre-requisite for the generation and comparison of data. Potential analytical and technical issues must be resolved in discussion, both before and after the implementation of regulation, to the benefit of the public, regulators and manufacturers.

  18. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: an emerging health crisis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10-20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread.

  19. Waterpipe Smoking and Regulation in the United States: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Haddad; Omar El-Shahawy; Roula Ghadban; Barnett, Tracey E.; Emily Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers in tobacco control are concerned about the increasing prevalence of waterpipe smoking in the United States, which may pose similar risks as cigarette smoking. This review explores the prevalence of waterpipe smoking in the United States as well as the shortcomings of current U.S. policy for waterpipe control and regulation. Methods: Researchers conducted a literature review for waterpipe articles dated between 2004 and 2015 using five online databases: MEDLINE, CINHAHL...

  20. Levantamento randomizado sobre a prevalência de tabagismo nos maiores municípios do Brasil Random sample survey on the prevalence of smoking in the major cities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sergio Leitão Filho

    2009-12-01

    prevalence of daily smokers was 17.4% (20.3% among males and 14.8% among females. We found that 9% of the sample (10.1% of the men and 7.9% of the women were nicotine-dependent, according to the criteria of the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of current smoking in the 107 largest cities of Brazil is significantly lower in this decade than was the national prevalence at the end of last century.

  1. Survey on Current Status of Smoking and Smoking-related Knowledge Among Medical Staff Members of a Hospital in Hunan%湖南省某医院医务人员吸烟现状及相关知识调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭进平; 陈梅英; 卜平元

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence of smoking behavior and the smoking- related knowledge and attitude in medical professionals. Methods We designed a smoking - related questionnaire according to the smoking- related materials. Cluster sampling method was applied to conduct a survey of smoking on 578 medical professionals of a hospital in Hunan in October, 2010. Results The current smoking rate of medical professionals was 19.38 %, and the rate of smoking was 33.64 % in males and 1.56 % in females. There were statistically significant differences in the smoking rates of medical staff members with different gender, age, educational backgrounds and professional titles (P<0.05). As for the smokingrelated knowledge and attitude, medical professionals knew the common hazards, such as pulmonary diseases easily resulted from smoking and passive smoking; but there were still 22.49% medical professionals knew little about the harmful effects of smoking and passive smoking on other organs. Most of the medical professionals thought that smoking was de rigueur and it could relieve the stress. Conclusions Smoking behavior is a serious problem among male medical workers, especially smoking behavior of staff members of medical institutions, which brings negative effects on the surrouling people. It is necessary to enhance the tobacco control in medical institutions and create tobacco-free environment in hospitals so as to be a role model and play a support role in the tobacco control work.%目的 探讨医务人员吸烟行为流行情况以及对吸烟的知识与态度.方法 参照有关资料自行设计调查问卷,采用整群抽样法,于2010年11月对湖南省某医院578名医务人员进行调查.结果 医务人员现在吸烟率为19.38%,其中男性吸烟率为33.64%,女性为1.56%;不同性别、年龄、文化程度与职称的医务人员吸烟率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).在对吸烟相关知识与态度方面,医务人员知道吸烟与

  2. Legionella pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients suffering from severe respiratory infections: Role of age, sex and history of smoking in the prevalence of bacterium

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    Faradonbeh Fatemeh Alaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Legionella pneumophila is the most commonly detected cause of legionellosis, which is an acute respiratory tract infection with high morbidity and mortality rates. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of L. pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavages and study the role of sex, age and history of smoking as risk factors for susceptibility to the bacterium. Methods. One hundred bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected from the Iranian health centers and immediately transferred to laboratory. The samples were cultured and those that were L. pneumophila positive were subjected to PCR method with respect to the 16S rRNA gene. Results. Twelve out of 100 samples were positive for L. pneumophila (12%. Patients older than 70 years had the highest incidence of L. pneumophila (17.77%. Prevalence of L. pneumophila in male and female patients was 14.81% and 8.69%, respectively. Total incidence of L. pneumophila in patients with and without history of smoking was 18% and 6%, respectively. There were significant differences in the incidence of bacterium between groups of our study. Conclusion. Sex, age and history of smoking are predominant risk factors for the occurrence of L. pneumophila. However, more studies should be undertaken to confirm these results.

  3. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  4. Smoking patterns among adolescents with asthma attending upper secondary schools: a community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking among people who have asthma may be a serious health problem. We studied the prevalence of smoking and the relations between smoking and asthma, symptoms, medicine, and gender differences among adolescents with asthma. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study on health...... and lifestyles was performed in 1996-1997 using a computerized questionnaire in upper secondary schools in Denmark. We included 1887 pupils with asthma (defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a physician) and 20 688 controls. Smoking was categorized as daily, occasional, ex-smokers, and never smoked. We...... adjusted for age, gender, parents' job and smoking, family type, body mass index, and exercise habits. RESULTS: In total, 37.7% smoked currently and 16.5% smoked daily; more girls than boys smoked. More pupils with asthma than without smoked daily (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval...

  5. Prevalence

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    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  6. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G.; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use......, drugs and alcohol and the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: 21% of ADHD probands vs. 16% controls were daily smokers (P = 0.326). Among alcohol users, 52% of ADHD probands vs. 70% controls confirmed monthly alcohol intake (P = 0.014); 4% of cases...

  7. Higher prevalence of smoking and lower BMI, waist circumference, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels in Prague's homeless compared to a majority of the Czech population

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    Rambousková Jolana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless people have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. Research has shown that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in older homeless adults. This study was undertaken to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the homeless population in Prague. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2003. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerides (TAG and smoking habits were assessed. The homeless participants in the study were recruited from a homeless center run by a Prague charitable organization called Naděje ("Hope" and at Prague's main railway station. Most participants were assessed at the Naděje center (134 persons while the rest were assessed at Prague's Bulovka University Hospital (67 persons. Results A total of 201 homeless (174 males and 27 females aged 19 – 70 years were examined. Mean values of BMI, WC, TC and TAG in homeless men and women were within normal limits. Compared with the majority of the Czech population, the homeless had significantly lower mean levels of TC and TAG and lower BMI and WC values. When compared to the majority of the Czech population, the incidence of smoking among the homeless was significantly higher. Among smokers in both populations, no differences were found in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusion Classical cardiovascular risk factors such as TC, TAG, BMI and WC, are significantly lower in Prague's homeless minority than in the majority of the Czech population. However, the prevalence of smoking is much higher in the homeless population.

  8. Intensified testing for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls should reduce depression and smoking in adult females and the prevalence of ADHD in the longterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan; Brummer, Dagmar; Koelch, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Fegert, Joerg M; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2009-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in youth. About a third to one-half of the affected subjects continue to have symptoms in adulthood. Remarkably, the prevalence numbers published for adult females are higher than for girls. The differences in the epidemiological data between the age groups clearly point to underdiagnosed ADHD in girls. Major depression, the most frequent psychiatric condition worldwide in adulthood, is twice as common in female as in male adults. Anxiety and depression are also among the most common comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Therefore, an undiagnosed ADHD may often underlie the psychopathology in depressive women. Another possibly associated phenomenon is the increased frequency of smoking in adult females. Since nicotine indirectly enhances the intrasynaptic dopamine level which presumably is too low both in ADHD and in depression, smoking might be used as a self-medication in women with untreated ADHD and consecutive depression. Furthermore, smoking during pregnancy is a major risk factor for ADHD in the offspring, so the vicious circle is complete. Depression in mothers of children with ADHD is associated with a higher rate of comorbidity in the children. Improved screening for ADHD in girls and treatment in childhood might thus reduce the rate of depression and smoking in adult females. We hypothesize that earlier identification and interventions might not only improve the lives of millions of girls and women but might also reduce the prevalence rates in future generations or at least moderate the deviant behaviour in this highly heritable disorder in which the development and severity of symptoms and the functional impairment depend to a high degree on epigenetic factors.

  9. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

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    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  10. Negative DC corona discharge current characteristics in a flowing two-phase (air + suspended smoke particles) fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendt, Artur; Domaszka, Magdalena; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    The electrical characteristics of a steady-state negative DC corona discharge in a two-phase fluid (air with suspended cigarette smoke particles) flowing along a chamber with a needle-to-plate electrode arrangement were experimentally investigated. The two-phase flow was transverse in respect to the needle-to-plate axis. The velocity of the transverse two-phase flow was limited to 0.8 m/s, typical of the electrostatic precipitators. We found that three discharge current modes of the negative corona exist in the two-phase (air + smoke particles) fluid: the Trichel pulses mode, the "Trichel pulses superimposed on DC component" mode and the DC component mode, similarly as in the corona discharge in air (a single-phase fluid). The shape of Trichel pulses in the air + suspended particles fluid is similar to that in air. However, the Trichel pulse amplitudes are higher than those in "pure" air while their repetition frequency is lower. As a net consequence of that the averaged corona discharge current in the two-phase fluid is lower than in "pure" air. It was also found that the average discharge current decreases with increasing suspended particle concentration. The calculations showed that the dependence of the average negative corona current (which is a macroscopic corona discharge parameter) on the particle concentration can be explained by the particle-concentration dependencies of the electric charge of Trichel pulse and the repetition frequency of Trichel pulses, both giving a microscopic insight into the electrical phenomena in the negative corona discharge. Our investigations showed also that the average corona discharge current in the two-phase fluid is almost unaffected by the transverse fluid flow up to a velocity of 0.8 m/s. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  11. Evaluating depressive symptom interactions on adolescent smoking prevention program mediators: a mediated moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson

    2010-11-01

    Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world's current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program x Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition x Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming.

  12. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

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    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  13. Cigarette smoking among 17–18 year old adolescents – Prevalence and association with sociodemographic, familial, sport, and scholastic factors

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    Kemal Idrizovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though adolescence is recognised as a critical period for smoking prevention, there is a lack of research focused on this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this study has been to examine the gender-specific factors of influence (predictors for smoking among adolescents in Pristina, Kosovo. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised 1002 adolescents at the age of 17–18 (366 boys, 636 girls, all of whom were in the school’s 12th grade. The predictors included sociodemographic variables, familial (i.e., parental monitoring, parents’ educational background, and sport-related factors. The Chi2 and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses with a dichotomous criterion (smoking vs. non-smoking were applied. Results: The incidence of smoking was high (31% and 40% smokers, including 7% and 12% daily smokers for girls and boys, respectively. The regression model revealed more frequent absence from school (odds ratio (OR: 1.544; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–2.243, more unexcused school absences (OR: 1.360; 95% CI: 1.029–1.796, and frequent parental questioning (OR: 1.530; 95% CI: 1.020–2.295 to be significant predictors of smoking among boys. For girls, a higher risk of smoking was associated with lower scholastic achievement (OR: 1.467; 95% CI: 1.089–1.977, more frequent absence from school (OR: 1.565; 95% CI: 1.137–2.155, increased conflict with parents (OR: 1.979; 95% CI: 1.405–2.789, and a self-declared perception of less parental care (OR: 0.602; 95% CI: 0.377–0.962. Sports were not found to be strongly related to smoking. However, a high risk of daily smoking was found among boys who participated in team sports and subsequently quit. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for gender- and culture-specific approaches to studying the factors that influence smoking among adolescents. Med Pr 2015;66(2:153–163

  14. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

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    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  15. Reported prevalence of gestational diabetes in Scotland: The relationship with obesity, age, socioeconomic status, smoking and macrosomia, and how many are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Andrew; Abraham, E Christie; Armstrong, Julie; Godwin, Jon; Monteath, Kirsten; Lindsay, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as 'carbohydrate intolerance of varying degrees of severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy,' and is associated with increased fetal and maternal risks. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of GDM in Scotland over 32 years (1981-2012), and using the data from 2012, to assess how GDM related to maternal body mass index, maternal age, parity, smoking, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, infant gender and macrosomia status. GDM prevalence along with anthropometric, obstetric and demographic data were collected on a total of 1,891,097 women with a delivery episode between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2012 using data extracted from the Scottish Morbidity Record 02. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to investigate their association with GDM. A ninefold increase in GDM prevalence was observed from 1981 to 2012 (P macrosomia were positively associated with GDM. Reported smoking status at booking was inversely associated with GDM. Multivariable analysis showed that fetal macrosomia was not associated with GDM status. The present study confirmed that the reporting of GDM is low in Scotland, and that GDM is associated with maternal body mass index, maternal age, multiparity and social deprivation. GDM was negatively associated with smoking and requires further investigation. The lack of association between GDM and macrosomia (following multivariate analysis) might reflect the screening processes undertaken in Scotland. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Prevalence of primary aldosteronism in patient's cohorts and in population-based studies--a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, A; Wallaschofski, H

    2012-03-01

    There is an ongoing controversy on the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA). We aimed to update a meta-analysis published in 2008, that compiled studies reporting the prevalence of positive ARR screening tests and PA. We therefore reviewed original studies published in 2008 or later to examine whether current reports provide similar, higher or lower prevalences of elevated ARRs or PA than reports included in the original meta-analysis. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed was conducted. Search and extraction of articles were performed by one review author; the second review author checked all extracted data. We identified 11 eligible studies. The updated, weighted mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care (prevalence of high ARRs 16.5%; prevalence of PA 4.3%) and referred patients (prevalence of high ARRs 19.6%; prevalence of PA 9.5%) were only marginally different from the mean values obtained in the original meta-analysis. Among the current studies the maximum values for the prevalence of elevated ARRs and PA were substantially lower than among the older studies. Our results confirm the main conclusions from the original meta-analysis. The prevalence of PA increases with the severity of hypertension and the inclusion of current study results did not alter the mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care and referred patients. Additionally, we found that current studies focus increasingly on patients in referral centers or special subgroups, while the prevalence of PA in the general hypertensive population is yet unknown.

  17. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, B S

    2011-12-12

    Background:  Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of its diagnosis. Methods:  The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and barriers to screening. Results:  Prevalence is most often reported as 2-6% of pregnancies. Prevalence may be lower towards the Northern Atlantic seaboard of Europe and higher in the Southern Mediterranean seaboard. Screening practice and policy is inconsistent across Europe, hampered by lack of consensus on testing methods, diagnostic glycaemic thresholds and the value of routine screening. Poor clinician awareness of gestational diabetes, its diagnosis and local clinical guidelines further undermine detection of gestational diabetes. Conclusions:  Europe-wide agreement on screening approaches and diagnostic standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  18. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  19. Current prevalence of major depressive disorder in the general population from Bucaramanga, Colombia

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    Nubia L. Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (m d d is the disorder with the most important global burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years. Objetive: to determine the current prevalence of m d d in the general population in Bucaramanga, Colombia, and to explore the risk factors associated with them. Methodology: this is a cross-sectional survey with a population random sampling that involved 18-65 year-old people living in Bucaramanga. A psychiatric diagnosis of a m d d during last month was accomplished using Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I diagnoses (s c i d-i according to the d s m-i v-t r criteria issued by the American Psychiatric Association. Results: a total amount of 266 people were selected (57,1% women. Their mean age were 37,4 years and the formal education years were 9,8. A total of 12,0% was unemployed, 56,1% had a stable couple, and 51,2% lived in medium socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of m d d was 16,5% (95% c i 12,3-21,6. A significant association was identified between the fact of not having a stable couple (p r = 2,11 and the and level of education (p r = 0,41, for 6-11 cursed years, and p r = 0,28, for 12 or more cursed years, compared to five or lesser years of schooling and the m d d. Discussion: the current prevalence of m d d is high among adult general population from Bucaramanga. This implies the necessity to develop better strategies for an early detection and an integral treatment of m d d cases in order to decrease social and economical costs of m d d.

  20. Combined effects of current-smoking and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2*2 allele on the risk of myocardial infarction in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kazunori; Miyazaki, Hiroko; Saruwatari, Junji; Oniki, Kentaro; Kumagae, Naoki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Ayami; Otake, Koji; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Arima, Yuichiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2015-01-05

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies toxic aldehydes, e.g. acetaldehyde in cigarette smoke; however, the interactive effects between smoking status and the ALDH2 genotype on coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been reported. We investigated the effects of smoking status and the ALDH2 genotype, and assessed their interactive and combined effects on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) or stable angina (SA), including 221 MI and 175 SA subjects and 473 age- and sex-matched controls without CAD. Current-smoking and the ALDH2*2 allele additively increased the risk of MI (adjusted odds ratio 4.54, 95% confidence interval 2.25-9.15), although this combination was not associated with the risk of SA. This combination also increased the peak creatine kinase (CK) level synergistically in the acute MI (AMI) subjects. Moreover, current-smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for an increased peak CK level in the ALDH2*2 allele carriers (B 2220.2IU/L, p=0.008), but not the non-carriers. Additionally, a synergistic effect of this combination on the triglycerides levels was also found in the AMI subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that the combination of current-smoking and the inactive ALDH2*2 allele may increase the risk of MI additively and the infarct size synergistically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district".

  2. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India

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    S Goel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke

  3. Work stress, smoking status, and smoking intensity: an observational study of 46,190 employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relation between work stress, as indicated by the job strain model, and the effort-reward imbalance model, and smoking. Ten municipalities and 21 hospitals in Finland. Binary logistic regression models for the prevalence of smoking were related to survey responses of 37,309 female and 8881 male Finnish public sector employees aged 17-65. Separate multinomial logistic regression models were calculated for smoking intensity for 8130 smokers. In addition, binary logistic regression models for ex-smoking were fitted among 16,277 former and current smokers. In all analyses, adjustments were made for age, basic education, occupational status, type of employment, and marital status. Respondents with high effort-reward imbalance or lower rewards were more likely to be smokers. Among smokers, an increased likelihood of higher intensity of smoking was associated with higher job strain and higher effort-reward imbalance and their components such as low job control and low rewards. Smoking intensity was also higher in active jobs in women, in passive jobs, and among employees with low effort expenditure. Among former and current smokers, high job strain, high effort-reward imbalance, and high job demands were associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker. Lower effort was associated with a higher likelihood of ex-smoking. This evidence suggests an association between work stress and smoking and implies that smoking cessation programmes may benefit from taking into account the modification of stressful features of work environment.

  4. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

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    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  5. Tabagismo e consumo de álcool em estudantes universitários: prevalência e fatores associados Smoking and alcohol consumption among university students: prevalence and associated factors

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    Thiago Rozales Ramis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve o objetivo de verificar a prevalência de tabagismo e consumo de álcool entre estudantes da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel, além de investigar os fatores associados a esses comportamentos. A amostra foi composta por 485 alunos que ingressaram na UFPel em 2008. Os alunos foram selecionados de maneira aleatória entre cursos de todas as áreas da UFPel e responderam a um questionário pré-testado na sala de aula, sob supervisão da equipe de pesquisa. Dos indivíduos entrevistados, 53,9% eram do sexo feminino e 42,3% tinham menos de 20 anos. Em relação ao consumo de álcool, 75% da amostra o utilizam pelo menos uma vez por mês; a prevalência de risco para o alcoolismo foi de 6,2%. Em relação ao tabagismo, 10,2% dos estudantes relataram fumar regularmente ou nos fins-de-semana. Além disso, mais de 90% dos fumantes e dos que consomem bebidas alcoólicas iniciaram o hábito antes de ingressar na universidade. O tabagismo apresentou uma relação direta com a idade e inversa com a autopercepção de saúde. Em relação ao álcool, estudantes que moram com amigos relataram um maior consumo. Os dados sugerem a necessidade de intervenções no meio acadêmico. Entretanto, cabe destacar que as ações para a população adolescente como um todo devam ser priorizadas, pois mais de 90% dos alunos adquiriram os hábitos antes de ingressarem na universidade, demonstrando que o início do consumo está ocorrendo em idades mais precoces.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake among university students from the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil (UFPel, as well as to investigate factors associated with both habits. The sample included 485 students who were admitted to the university in 2008. Students were sampled randomly across all schools of the UFPel campus, and answered a pre-tested questionnaire, which was administered in the classroom by a member of the research team. Of the

  6. Prevalence and severity of asthma among Indian school children aged between 6 and 14 years: associations with parental smoking and traffic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Sharma, S K; Sabir, Mohammed; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Phase three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) was carried out at various sites in India. The prevalence of asthma symptoms in school children and the effect of environmental tobacco smoke and traffic pollution on the occurrence of asthma were analysed. Two groups of school children, aged 6-7 yr and 13-14 yr, participated according to the ISAAC protocol. Schools were randomly selected and responses to the ISAAC questionnaire were recorded. The prevalence of asthma was 5.35% in the 6-7 yr age group and 6.05% in the 13-14 yr age group. The odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of asthma in children with exposure to mild, moderate and heavy traffic pollution compared with minimal traffic pollution were 1.63 (95% CI: 1.43, 1.85), 1.71 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.96) and 1.53 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.78), respectively, in the younger group. Similarly, in the older group, they were 1.19 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.36), 1.51 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.75) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.76). Asthma was associated with maternal smoking [6-7 yr group: OR = 2.72 (2.05, 3.6); 13-14 yr group: OR = 2.14 (1.72, 2.66)] and paternal smoking [6-7 yr group: OR = 1.9 (1.70, 2.11); 13-14 yr group: OR = 1.21 (1.09, 1.34)]. The prevalence of asthma was lower in the 6-7 than the 13-14 yr age group. Environmental tobacco smoke and traffic pollution were the factors most strongly associated with asthma in Indian children.

  7. Mediation Role of C-Reactive Protein on the Association between Smoking Quantity and Type 2 Diabetes in Current Chinese Smokers

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    Dan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies have indicated that cigarette smokers are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and that both smoking and type 2 diabetes are associated with C-reactive protein (CRP. This study examined whether CRP mediates the association between smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes. Methods. Nine hundred and eighty-four current Chinese smokers were selected from a community-based chronic disease survey conducted in Guangzhou and Zhuhai. Type 2 diabetes was defined according to the WHO 1999 criteria. CRP was measured with flow cytometry. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the mediation. Results. A positive association was observed between smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes (P<0.05. After controlling for potential confounders, daily cigarette consumption was significantly associated with higher CRP levels. Current smokers with type 2 diabetes had higher CRP levels than smokers without type 2 diabetes. The association between the smoking quantity and type 2 diabetes was mediated by CRP, which accounted for 50.77% of the association. Conclusions. This study provides further evidence that smoking quantity is positively associated with type 2 diabetes and suggests that the association between smoking and type 2 diabetes might be mediated by CRP.

  8. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma. PMID:22788356

  9. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

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    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  10. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  11. Prevalence of current anxiety disorders in people with bipolar disorder during euthymia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, B; Perlis, R H; Mantere, O; Sellgren, C M; Isometsä, E; Mitchell, P B; Alda, M; Uher, R

    2017-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in people with bipolar disorder, but it is not clear how many have anxiety disorders even at times when they are free of major mood episodes. We aimed to establish what proportion of euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder meet diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis of prevalence rates of current DSM-III- and DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified) in euthymic adults with bipolar disorder in studies published by 31 December 2015. Across 10 samples with 2120 individuals with bipolar disorder, 34.7% met diagnostic criteria for one or more anxiety disorders during euthymia [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.9-45.5%]. Direct comparison of 189 euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder and 17 109 population controls across three studies showed a 4.6-fold increase (risk ratio 4.60, 95% CI 2.37-8.92, p bipolar disorder. These findings suggest that anxiety disorders are common in people with bipolar disorder even when their mood is adequately controlled. Euthymic people with bipolar disorder should be routinely assessed for anxiety disorders and anxiety-focused treatment should be initiated if indicated.

  12. Ethnic Discrimination and Smoking-Related Outcomes among Former and Current Arab Male Smokers in Israel: The Buffering Effects of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Amira; Daoud, Nihaya; Thrasher, James F; Bell, Bethany A; Walsemann, Katrina M

    2017-08-07

    We examined the relationship between two forms of ethnic discrimination-interpersonal and institutional-and smoking outcomes among Arab men in Israel, and whether social support buffered these associations. We used cross-sectional data of adult Arab men, current or former smokers (n = 954). Mixed-effects regression models estimated the association between discrimination and smoking status, and nicotine dependence among current smokers. Interpersonal discrimination was associated with higher likelihood of being a current smoker compared to a former smoker, whereas institutional group discrimination was not. Social support moderated the ethnic discrimination-nicotine dependence link. Among men with low social support, greater interpersonal discrimination was associated with greater nicotine dependence. Similarly, among smokers with high institutional group discrimination, those with high social support reported lower nicotine dependence compared to those with low social support. Ethnic discrimination should be considered in efforts to improve smoking outcomes among Arab male smokers in Israel.

  13. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  14. Smoking and Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D. Samara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between smoking and pulmonary fibrosis is under debate and intense investigation. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature and identify further areas of research interest. Recently the negative influence of cigarette smoking on IPF outcome was highlighted, as non-smokers exhibit a better survival than ex-smokers and combined current- and ex-smokers. In patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, a high prevalence of emphysema was recently demonstrated, providing an indirect support for a smoking pathogenetic hypothesis in NSIP. The coexistence of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema has been extensively described in a syndrome termed combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE. Connective tissue disorders (CTDs are a group of autoimmune diseases which affect the lung, as one of the most common and severe manifestations. However, the relationship between smoking and autoimmune disorders is still conflicting. Rheumatoid arthritis results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, while the best established environmental factor is tobacco smoking. Smoking has also a negative impact on the response of the RA patients to treatment. The aforementioned smoking-related implications give rise to further research questions and certainly provide one more important reason for physicians to advocate smoking cessation and smoke-free environment.

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, B S; Harreiter, J; Damm, P

    2012-01-01

    of its diagnosis. Methods: The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide...... an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices...... standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis...

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence: Current susceptibility patterns in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Michael

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become one of the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recently, reports have emerged that S. aureus strains recovered from community-acquired infections are also methicillin-resistant. This study was undertaken to analyze the prevalence of methicillin resistance among isolates at a regional hospital in Trinidad, and document the current resistance profile of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA to the commonly used anti-staphylococcal agents. Methods Over a 6-year period we analyzed 2430 isolates of S. aureus strains recovered from various clinical sources, from hospital and community practices. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to guideline recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results The prevalence of MRSA from surgical/burn wounds, urine and pus/abscess were 60.1%, 15.5% and 6.6%, respectively. The major sources of MSSA were surgical/burn wounds, pus/abscess and upper respiratory tract specimens with rates of 32.9%, 17.1% and 14.3%, respectively. The greatest prevalence of resistance of MRSA was seen for erythromycin (86.7%, and clindamycin (75.3%. Resistance rates among MSSA were highest for ampicillin (70%. Resistance rates for tetracycline were similar among both MRSA (78.7% and MSSA (73.5%. The MRSA recovery rates from nosocomial sources (20.8% was significantly higher than that of previous years (12.5% (p Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA in the hospital increased from 12.5% in 1999 to 20.8% in 2004. Most isolates were associated with infected surgical/burn wounds which may have become infected via the hands of HCPs during dressing exercises. Infection control measures aimed at the proper hand hygiene procedures may interrupt the spread of MRSA. HCPs may also be carriers of MRSA in their anterior nares. Surveillance cultures of both patients and HCPs may help

  17. Socioeconomic position and smoking behaviour in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holstein, B; Avlund, K;

    2001-01-01

    . Logistic regression was used to analyse the influence of education and occupation on smoking behaviour controlling for sex and birth cohort. RESULTS: In cohorts born after 1930 ever and current smoking were related to years of school education and current occupation. The prevalences of ever and current......AIMS: The associations between smoking and various socioeconomic indicators may have different implications and causes, which may also vary according to sex and birth cohort. This study analyses how two dimensions of socioeconomic position, an individual (education) and a structural (occupation......) indicator, are associated with ever, current and ex-smoking. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were collected in five cross-sectional surveys of random samples of the general Danish population aged 20 years or more at intervals between 1982 and 1994. In total, 8,054 men and 8,281 women participated...

  18. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Paweł; Sowiński, Jerzy; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Brązert, Jacek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology.

  19. Correlates of Smoke-Free Home Policies in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 63.7% of nonsmokers in China are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS in their homes. The current study documents the prevalence and correlates of smoke-free home policies in Shanghai, as well as reasons for implementing such a policy and places where smoking is most commonly allowed. Methods. We conducted in-person surveys of 500 participants using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district. Results. Overall, 35.3% had a smoke-free home policy. In the logistic regression, having higher income, not having smokers in the home, having children in the home, having fewer friends/relatives who permit smoking at home, and not being a current smoker were correlates of having a smoke-free home policy P<0.05. Concern about the health impact of SHS was reportedly the most important reason for establishing a smoke-free home. Among participants with no or partial bans, the most common places where smoking was allowed included the living room (64.2%, kitchen (46.1%, and bathroom (33.8%. Conclusions. Smoke-free home policies were in place for a minority of households surveyed. Establishing such a policy was influenced by personal smoking behavior and social factors. These findings suggest an urgent need to promote smoke-free home policies through tobacco control programs.

  20. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  1. Czech medical faculties and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králíková, E; Kozák, J; Rames, J; Zámecník, L; Wallenfels, I

    1995-05-01

    At the 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague the prevalence of smoking was investigated among the faculty, staff, students and among health professionals in the country. We found 38.1% smokers (current and occasional) among malephysicians (N = 625), 25.6% smokers among women physicians (N = 394), 48.7% smoking nurses (N = 729) and 42.3% smokers among paramedical staff (N = 298). We have also followed up smoking habits among our students since 1989 (N = 1235). The number of smokers among them rose from 7% in 1989 to 18% in 1994. Students were also asked about their opinion on smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease which has a rising trend. Trying to coordinate the anti-smoking activity at all seven medical faculties in the Czech Republic, in collaboration with the Faculty of Medicine of Masaryk University in Brno, the National Centre for Health Promotion and the Czech Commission of EMASH, present the main points of the anti-smoking strategy at Czech medical faculties.

  2. Epidemiology of dengue in Nepal: History of incidence, current prevalence and strategies for future control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Dinesh; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is now established as one of the most important arboviral infections. As the epidemic continues unabated globally, this Aedes mosquito-transmitted pathogen is considered a major re-emerging tropical disease and significant public health concern. Four well-established distinct serotypes of dengue virus, with a fifth one recently proposed, are responsible for causing a spectrum of clinical symptoms in humans ranging from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic manifestations. Indigenous cases of dengue were first recognised in Nepal, a Himalayan country bordered by India and China, just a decade ago in a cluster of tropical and subtropical areas. Subsequently, the range of infection has extended all over the country and now comprises not only low lying regions, but also hilly locations including the capital city Kathmandu. The two major epidemics to date, in 2010 and 2013, have demonstrated the capacity of infection outbreaks to be explosive and challenging to currently available disease control measures. There is a pressing need to undertake effective vector surveillance studies supported by provision of well-equipped diagnostic virology laboratories. However, sincere efforts are being made to map the nationwide prevalence and understand the epidemiology of dengue infection. Yet, the precise burden of dengue in Nepal remains unknown, since most reports are confined to economically affluent areas and do not account for regions of relative social deprivation in which disease is more likely to occur. This review presents a current overview of dengue in Nepal and discusses future prospects for control of this debilitating disease in the country.

  3. Prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital Prevalencia del tabaquismo en funcionarios de un hospital universitario Prevalência do tabagismo em funcionários de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Echer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital in Southern Brazil. Data collection happened in 2008, during the periodic health exam, using a questionnaire, according to the smoking status of the employees. The sample consisted of 1,475 subjects, in which 979 (66.4% were non-smokers, 295 (20% former smokers and 201 (13.6% smokers. Smoking was more prevalent among employees with lower education levels and among professionals in administrative positions. Among smokers, low dependence was identified, as well as desire and high degree of motivation to stop smoking, with health concerns as the main reason. Thus, taking into account the motivation of smokers to stop smoking, this is an appropriate time for health education and specific support to employees in the process of smoking cessation.Estudio transversal con objetivo de identificar a prevalencia del tabaquismo en funcionarios de un hospital universitario del sur de Brasil. La recolección de datos ocurrió en el año de 2008, durante el examen periódico de salud de los funcionarios, por medio de cuestionario de acuerdo con la condición de fumador de los mismos. La muestra se constituyó de 1.475 sujetos, de estos 979 (66,4% no fumaban, 295 (20% ex-fumantes y 201 (13,6% fumantes. El predominio de fumantes está entre funcionarios con menor nivel de instrucción y entre los que ejercían actividades en cargos administrativos. Se identificó entre los fumantes, dependencia leve, deseo y grado de motivación elevado para cesar el tabaquismo, siendo el principal motivo la preocupación con la salud. Así, considerándose la motivación de los funcionarios para parar de fumar, se recomienda aprovechar este momento para realizar un trabajo de educación en salud y de apoyo profesional específico para que el proceso de cesación del tabaquismo ocurra.Este é um estudo transversal, e teve como objetivo identificar a prevalência do

  4. Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C A; Harris, W C; Cook, D R; Bedford, K F; Zuo, Y

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. SUBJECTS/ SETTING: 2038 females aged 12-17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. DESIGN/ INTERVENTION: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1 and the intervention group, during week 2. Before seeing the movie in week 2, a 30 second anti-smoking advertisement was shown, which featured a well known female actor drawing attention to the prevalence of smoking in movies. Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to be smoking in 12 months time. Among non-smokers, 48.2% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the movie they viewed was "not OK" compared with 28.3% of the control subjects (p advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to "immunise" young women against the influences of film stars smoking.

  5. The effects of household income distribution on stroke prevalence and its risk factors of high blood pressure and smoking: a cross-sectional study in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.

  6. Factors associated with smoking frequency among current waterpipe smokers in the United States: Findings from the National College Health Assessment II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Rifat; Salloum, Ramzi G; Islam, Farahnaz; Ortiz, Kasim S; Kates, Frederick R; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-08-01

    Some waterpipe smokers exhibit nicotine dependent behaviors such as increased use over time and inability to quit, placing them at high risk of adverse health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of dependence by measuring frequency of use among current waterpipe smokers using a large national U.S. Data were drawn from four waves (Spring/Fall 2009 and Spring/Fall 2010) of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment datasets. The sample was restricted to students who smoked a waterpipe at least once in the past 30 days (N=19,323). Ordered logistic regression modeled the factors associated with higher frequency of waterpipe smoking. Among current waterpipe smokers, 6% used a waterpipe daily or almost daily (20-29 days). Daily cigarette smokers were at higher odds of smoking a waterpipe at higher frequencies compared with non-smokers of cigarettes (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.61-2.04). There was a strong association between daily cigar smoking and higher frequency of waterpipe smoking (OR=7.77; 95% CI=5.49-11.02). Similarly, students who used marijuana had higher odds of smoking a waterpipe at higher frequencies (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.37-1.81). Daily consumers of other addictive substances are at a higher risk of intensive waterpipe smoking and thus higher risk of waterpipe dependence. Intervention programs must incorporate methods to reduce waterpipe dependence and subsequently prevent its deleterious health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 南昌市办公场所吸烟与二手烟暴露现况调查%Survey on the current status of smoking and Second-Hand smoking exposure in Work places in Nanchang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金星; 陈海婴; 范义兵; 杨树

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the current status of smoking and Second-Hand smoking exposure in work places in Nanchang City, provide evidence for policy-making, and to promote enacting ' Non-smoking workplace' legislation. METHODS Field observation, questionnaire survey and the TSI Side Pak was used to measure indoor air PM2.5 level in workplaces. RESULTS Field observation was conducted among 29 work places, of which 2 were smoke-free places regulated by the ordinance, 16 had established smoking areas and No-smoking areas; In the smoke-free places, the percentage of smoking phenomenon ratio in (10, 50) was 50%. Among the survey workers, the general passive smoking rate was 51.9%; 60.7% of smokers smoked in the no-smoking areas, and the percentage of worker's discourage rate was only 5.9%. The average indoor air PM2.5 level was 49.7 μg/m3 in work places with complete smoke free policies, 67.6μg/m3 in work places with partial smoke free policies, 66.0μg/m3 in work places with no rules or restrictions on smoking. CONCLUSION The smoking phenomenon in the work places in Nanchang City was seriously, and the rate of Second-Hand smoking exposure to high. Anti-smoking measures was imperfect, and the charged with smoke was not sufficient. Need to enhance smoker's awareness of the harm of smoking and Second-Hand smoking, and enter corresponding "Non-smoking workplace" local code and legislation.%目的 了解南昌市办公场所吸烟和二手烟暴露情况,为政府决策提供依据,促进“无烟工作场所”立法.方法 采用现场观察,问卷拦截调查和对工作场所空气中PM2.5浓度进行监测等方法,分析南昌市办公场所吸烟和二手烟暴露情况.结果 现场观察了29家办公场所,禁烟场所2家,16家场所划分了吸烟区和非吸烟区;全面禁烟场所吸烟现象比例在(10,50]的分布为50%.被调查工作人员中,有51.9%在工作单位受到二手烟的侵害;有60.7%的吸烟者在工作场所的非吸烟区内吸

  8. Parental smoking exposure and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001-2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents' current non-nicotine-dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children's lifetime to reduce these risks. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Prevalence of Smoking and its Influencing Factors Among Middle School Students in Guangming New District, Shenzhen%深圳市光明新区中学生吸烟现况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万孝先; 冒荣荣; 刘义; 陈小良

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市光明新区中学生吸烟及其影响因素分布情况,为中学生吸烟干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 运用分层整群抽样法对深圳市光明新区学校544名中学生进行吸烟状况、烟草有关知识、态度和行为、周围环境控烟情况等调查,使用SAS9.0软件分析.结果 深圳市光明新区中学生尝试吸烟率为15.07%,男生(21.90%)显著高于女生(6.30%,P<0.05);中学生吸烟率为3.13%,男生(4.25%)和女生(1.68%)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);高中生的尝试吸烟率和吸烟率分别为17.73%、1.42%,初中生的尝试吸烟率和吸烟率分别为14.14%、3.72%,初、高中学生其尝试吸烟率、吸烟率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).82名尝试过吸烟的学生中,31.71%、24.39%的学生分别在7岁以前、12~13岁初始尝试吸烟;17名吸烟学生中,初始吸烟年龄主要集中在12~ 13岁(29.41%)、14~15岁(35.29%)和7岁前(23.53%).93.01%、87.87%的学生分别知道吸烟和吸二手烟肯定危害健康,45.40%和52.21%的学生其父母与好朋友不吸烟.多因素非条件Logistic回归分析显示,女生比男生尝试吸烟可能性低(OR=0.50,95%CI:0.26~0.96),好朋友吸烟(OR=1.88,95%CI:1.08~3.27)、具有好朋友给烟肯定会愿意吸(OR =3.11,95% CI:2.12~4.54),年龄增加(OR=1.33,95%CI:1.04~1.69)增加了尝试吸烟的可能性.结论 深圳市光明新区中学生吸烟现况不容乐观.加强同伴教育、提高中学生控烟主见等将有助于降低中学生的尝试吸烟率和吸烟率.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of smoking and the distribution of its influencing factors so as to provide evidence for formulating further tobacco control strategies.Methods A total of 544 middle school students from Guangming New District,Shenzhen were selected by stratified cluster sampling to conduct questionnaire survey,and epidemiological analysis method was used to

  10. Smoking-related attitudes and perceptions among young adults in Malta and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Catriona; Hamilton-West, Kate

    2010-05-01

    Although youth smoking in Europe has been highlighted as a significant public health concern, there is little data available to guide development of population-specific smoking prevention measures. In this study, we examined smoking-prevalence and smoking-related attitudes and perceptions among 118 young adults in Malta (a country for which there is little existing data), with comparison data from a sample of young adults in the UK (N = 112). To ensure that samples were demographically similar (e.g. in terms of age, level of education, and social status) we obtained data from university students. Only students of Maltese nationality (in Malta), or British nationality (in the UK) were invited to participate. Participants completed measures of smoking behavior, perceived risks of smoking, subjective norms, temptation to smoke, and attitudes towards smoking cessation. Almost half (46%) of the Maltese students were current smokers, compared to 25% of the British students. British students were more aware of the risks of smoking than their Maltese counterparts, perceived greater social pressure not to smoke and held more positive attitudes towards smoking cessation; Maltese students reported greater temptation to smoke and were around others who smoke more often than the British students. Attitudes and perceptions were associated with smoking behavior in both samples although the relative importance of psychological determinants of smoking varied between the two samples. Our data indicate higher smoking prevalence and more pro-smoking attitudes/ perceptions among students in Malta, consistent with data for other Southern European countries. Findings also indicate that the influence of smoking-related attitudes and perceptions varies between populations and the influence of social norms in particular may be moderated by nationality.

  11. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Mehta, C Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R; Golub, Elizabeth T; Fischl, Margaret A; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-02-20

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9-27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0-19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant.

  12. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Fischl, Margaret A.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. Methods: We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Results: Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9–27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0–19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Conclusion: Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant. PMID:27902507

  13. Interplay between heritability of smoking and environmental conditions? A comparison of two birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink Jacqueline M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attitudes and policy towards smoking changed over the past years in many countries including the Netherlands. Generally, this led to a decrease in smoking prevalence. As demonstrated in twin and family studies, individual differences in smoking behavior are partly influenced by genetic factors. We explore whether the current change in environmental conditions has influenced the genetic architecture of smoking. This would constitute evidence for Gene × Environment (G×E interaction. Methods Data on smoking were available from 2 cohorts of young adult twins (18-25 year registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The first cohort completed a survey in 1993-1995 (n = 2669 and the second in 2009-2010 (n = 2339. Prevalence and genetic architecture of smoking were compared across cohorts using structural equation models in MX. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 40-51% to 22-23% between 1993-1995 and 2009-2010. Genetic analyses, making use of the different genetic resemblance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, showed that the heritability was the same in both cohorts. Conclusions The change in policy and smoking attitudes that led to a decrease in prevalence of smoking did not change the heritability of smoking and thus no evidence was found for GxE interaction.

  14. Current smoking-specific gene expression signature in normal bronchial epithelium is enhanced in squamous cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Mirjam C.; van den Berg, Anke; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Geerlings, Marie; de Jong, Wouter K.; te Meerman, Gerard J; Sietsma, Hannie; Timens, Winn; Postma, Dirkje S.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for the development of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC). However, the smoking-related molecular changes in SCC have not been studied. Gene expression studies in both histologically normal bronchial epithelium and SCC epithelial samples identified genes dif

  15. 常州市青少年吸烟现状及影响因素分析%Prevalence of smoking and its influencing factors among children and adolescents in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰罗菊; 杨欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解常州市青少年吸烟状况、对烟草的认知情况及影响吸烟行为的因素,为制定控烟策略提供依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,使用“江苏省青少年与烟草调查问卷”,对常州市小学、中学、中专学生共1 050名进行调查.结果 常州市青少年尝试吸烟率为14.48%,男生为22.94%,女生为8.15%,差异有统计学意义(x2=45.39,P<0.05);现在吸烟率为3.05%,其中男生为5.12%,女生为1.50%,差异有统计学意义(x2=11.43,P<0.05).半数以上学生对烟草与健康相关知识和态度较好.大部分学生认同被动吸烟有害健康,但是对被动吸烟损害与主动吸烟损害的认知差异有统计学意义(x2=37.10,P<0.05).学生周围与烟草有关的信息不同,其尝试吸烟率也不同.结论 常州市青少年尝试吸烟年龄较小,中等职业学校是控制吸烟行为的重点.应针对不同年龄青少年开展健康教育活动,教师和家长也应从自身做起,给学生、孩子做好榜样.%Objective To leam the prevalence of smoking among children and adolescents in Changzhou, and to explore the psychosocial factors associated with this behavior, and to provide evidence for developing further tobacco control strategies. Methods A total of 1 050 students from primary, secondary, technical secondary school were selected by stratified cluster sampling to conduct questionnaire survey. Results A total of 1 050 valid questionnaires were collected. About 22. 94% of boys and 8. 15% of girls reported having ever tried smoking (χ2 =45. 39 ,P<0.05) .current smoking rate was 3.05% , 5. 12% for boys and 1.50% for girls(χ2 = 11.43, P<0.05). More than half of the students had a correct understanding on tobacco and health-related knowledge and attitudes. Most students agreed that passive smoking harmful to health, but the understanding on damage passive smoking and smoking awareness of the damage were different(χ2 =37. 10,P<0.05 ). Students

  16. Does smoking really protect from recurrent aphthous stomatitis?

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    Faleh A Sawair

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Faleh A SawairFaculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, JordanPurpose: To study the effect of smoking on the prevalence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS and to examine whether intensity and duration of smoking influence RAS lesions.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 1000 students of The University of Jordan, Amman, between May and September 2008. Sociodemographic factors and details about smoking habits and RAS in last 12 months were collected.Results: Annual prevalence (AP of RAS was 37.1%. Tobacco use was common among students: 30.2% were current smokers and 2.8% were exsmokers. AP was not significantly influenced by students’ age, gender, marital status, college, and household income but was significantly affected by place of living (P = 0.02 and presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.03. No significant difference in AP of RAS was found between smokers and nonsmokers. Cigarette smokers who smoked heavily and for a longer period of time had significantly less AP of RAS when compared to moderate smokers and those who smoked for a shorter period of time. The protective effect of smoking was only noticed when there was heavy cigarette smoking (>20 cigarettes/day (P = 0.021 or smoking for long periods of time (>5 years (P = 0.009. Nevertheless, no significant associations were found between intensity or duration of smoking and clinical severity of RAS lesions.Conclusion: The “protective effect” of smoking on RAS was dose- and time-dependent. When lesions are present, smoking had no effect on RAS severity.Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, smoking, prevalence

  17. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

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    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  18. Medical Advice on Smoking: A Current Need Consejo médico en tabaquismo: una necesidad

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    María Magdalena Caro Mantilla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence has currently become a health issue. Although it resembles other addictions in many aspects, it meets some specific features that hinder awareness and eradication by the very smoker. Motivating the patient to act in favor of a change in his lifestyle is essential in any medical intervention. In this paper we clarify motivational strategies for a more effective intervention based on knowledge of how people change their behavioral patterns according to their expectations, whether they are sufficiently encouraged and if the professional has the necessary therapeutic tools in the context of health care.La dependencia tabáquica es sin dudas un problema de salud en la actualidad y aunque se asemeja en muchos aspectos al resto de las adicciones, reúne algunas características específicas que dificultan la toma de conciencia y su erradicación por parte del fumador. Motivar al paciente para que actúe a favor de un cambio en su estilo de vida es esencial en cualquier intervención médica. En este trabajo se esclarecen estrategias motivacionales para hacer más efectiva esa intervención a partir del conocimiento de cómo las personas modifican sus patrones comportamentales en función de sus expectativas, si estas son suficientemente incentivadas y el profesional cuenta con las herramientas terapéuticas necesarias en el marco del proceso de atención médica.

  19. Common misconceptions and future intention to smoke among secondary school students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caszo, Brinnell; Khair, Muhammad; Mustafa, Mohd Habbib; Zafran, Siti Nor; Syazmin, Nur; Safinaz, Raja Nor Intan; Gnanou, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking among secondary school children continues to remain unchanged over the last 3 decades even though awareness regarding the health effects of smoking is increasing. Common misconceptions about smoking and parental influence could be factors influencing future intentions to smoke among these students. Hence, we looked at the common misconceptions as well as student perceptions about their future intention to smoke among Form 4 students in Shah Alam, Malaysia. This study was conducted by distribution of a questionnaire developed as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to Form 4 student in 3 schools at Shah Alam. Prevalence of smoking (current smokers) was 7.5%. Almost half of the children came from families where one or both parents smoked and a third of the parents had no discussion regarding consequences of smoking with them. A large number of students were classified as "triers" as they had tried smoking and were unsure of whether they would not be smoking in the future. Contrary to our expectations, students generally felt smoking did make one feel more uncomfortable and helped one to reduce body weight. Most students seemed to be aware of the ill-effects of smoking on health. They felt they had received adequate information from school regarding the effects on smoking on health. Our study showed that even though Form 4 students in Shah Alam were knowledgeable about ill-effects of smoking and were taught so as part of their school curriculum, the prevalence of smoking was still high. Students in the "trier group" represent a potential group of future smokers and strategies targeting tobacco control may be aimed at tackling these vulnerable individuals. Efforts are also needed to help educate secondary school children about common misconceptions and dispel myths associated with cigarette smoking.

  20. Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s−1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s−1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ≤ 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ≤ 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165

  1. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

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    Mohammad Jamshidi Ardeshiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6% and 0.3% (0.2-0.5% respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  2. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi Ardeshiri, Mohammad; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Feizi Masouleh, Mehran; Feizi Masouleh, Mehrdad; Kiani, Arda; Fakhri, Mohammad

    2013-08-07

    Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females) in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6%) and 0.3% (0.2-0.5%) respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  3. Differences in the Prevalence of Obesity, Smoking and Alcohol in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

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    Elie S Al Kazzi

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate and standardized recording of leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical records have downstream effects on research based on administrative databases. The measurement of healthcare is increasingly based on risk-adjusted outcomes derived from coded comorbidities in these databases. However inaccurate or haphazard assessment of risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical record codes can have tremendous implications for quality improvement and healthcare reform.We aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse of a large administrative database with a direct data collection survey.We used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes for four leading risk factors in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS to compare them with a direct survey in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS in 2011. After confirming normality of the risk factors, we calculated the national and state estimates and Pearson's correlation coefficient for obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse between NIS and BRFSS.Compared with direct participant questioning in BRFSS, NIS reported substantially lower prevalence of obesity (p<0.01, overweight (p<0.01, and alcohol abuse (p<0.01, but not tobacco use (p = 0.18. The correlation between NIS and BRFSS was 0.27 for obesity (p = 0.06, 0.09 for overweight (p = 0.55, 0.62 for tobacco use (p<0.01 and 0.40 for alcohol abuse (p<0.01.The prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse based on codes is not consistent with prevalence based on direct questioning. The accuracy of these important measures of health and morbidity in databases is critical for healthcare reform policies.

  4. Healthy and unhealthy assimilation: country of origin and smoking behavior among immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Leigh Ann

    2014-12-01

    Smoking rates in the country of origin were used to empirically examine whether immigrants converge toward natives' level of smoking prevalence with assimilation. Results show that assimilation is associated with a lower likelihood of ever quitting smoking for immigrants from countries with lower smoking rates relative to the USA and a higher likelihood for immigrants from countries with higher smoking rates, but for current or ever smoking, the estimated effects of assimilation are statistically insignificant. Although these findings demonstrate that health assimilation depends on the country of origin, the extent to which this pattern of assimilation is due to peer influence, differences in responsiveness to anti-smoking interventions such as taxes or smoke-free air restrictions, and/or other factors remains unclear because of the limitations of this study.

  5. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

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    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  6. Reactivity to smoking- and food-related cues in currently dieting and non-dieting young women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that young women dieters who smoke experience greater cigarette cravings in the presence of food-related related cues. The aim of this experiment was to examine reactivity to both smoking-related and water cues by dieting and non-dieting women smokers in the presence or absence of food cues. Eighteen female undergraduates attended two sessions (food present and food absent). At each session, participants were presented with a cigarette and water cue in a counterbalanced order. Pre- and post-cue measures included the brief version of the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, heart rate and self-reported mood. All smokers showed enhanced reactivity (increased craving and heart rate) to smoking versus water cues. For dieters there was a larger increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food, whereas for non-dieters there was a smaller increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food. Mood and appetite ratings were not significantly affected by either cue type or session. The results suggest that cue reactivity to smoking-related cues is modulated by the presence of incentive stimuli relevant to the individual.

  7. Patterns of Water-Pipe and Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Schoolchildren: Irbid Longitudinal Smoking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Al Ali, Radwan; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use remains a major public health problem worldwide. Water-pipe smoking is spreading rapidly and threatening to undermine the successes achieved in tobacco control. Methods: A school-based longitudinal study in the city of Irbid, Jordan, was performed from 2008 to 2010. All seventh-grade students in 19 randomly selected schools, out of a total of 60 schools in the city, were enrolled at baseline and surveyed annually. Results: Of the 1781 students enrolled at baseline 1,701 (95.5%) were still in the study at the end of the second year of follow-up (869 boys, median age at baseline 13 years). Ever and current water-pipe smoking were higher than those of cigarette smoking at baseline (ever smoking: 25.9% vs. 17.6% and current smoking: 13.3% vs. 5.3% for water-pipe and cigarette smoking, respectively; p pipe–only smokers at baseline were twice as likely to become current cigarette smokers after 2 years compared with never smokers (relative risk (RR) = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.4). A similar pattern was observed for cigarette-only smokers at baseline (RR = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.9, 4.8). Conclusions: Prevalence of water-pipe and cigarette smoking increased dramatically over the 2-year follow-up period with similar patterns in boys and girls, although girls had lower prevalence in all categories. Water-pipe smoking at baseline predicted the progress to cigarette smoking in the future and vice versa. PMID:22140149

  8. Association of media literacy with cigarette smoking among youth in Jujuy, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M Victoria; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Primack, Brian A; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Mejia, Raul M; Gregorich, Steven E; Alderete, Ethel

    2012-05-01

    Latin America has the highest prevalence of tobacco use by youth. Higher media literacy, defined as the ability to analyze and evaluate media messages, has been associated with lower smoking among youth in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine whether media literacy related to smoking is independently associated with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of mostly indigenous youth in Jujuy, Argentina. In 2006, a self-administered survey was conducted among 10th grade students sampled from 27 randomly selected urban and rural schools in Jujuy. Survey items measured smoking behavior (ever, never, and current), susceptibility to future smoking among never-smokers (definitely not accept a cigarette from a friend or to smoke in the future), 5 items assessing smoking media literacy (SML), and risk factors for smoking. Of the 3,470 respondents, 1,170 (34%) reported having smoked in the previous 30 days (current). Of the 1,430 students who had never smoked, 912 (64%) were susceptible to future smoking. High media literacy was present in 38%. Using multiple logistic regression, fully adjusted models showed that high media literacy was significantly associated as a protective factor of being a current smoker (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67-0.97) and of being susceptible to future smoking (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.58-0.92) among those who had never smoked. Among youth in Jujuy, higher SML was significantly associated with both lower current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Teaching SML may be a valuable component in a prevention intervention in this population.

  9. Chronic bronchitis and current smoking are associated with more goblet cells in moderate to severe COPD and smokers without airflow obstruction.

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    Victor Kim

    Full Text Available Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB, independent of airflow obstruction.We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane.Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19 were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19, current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12 were compared to those without CB (n = 26, the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD.Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD.

  10. Association between Family Structure, Parental Smoking, Friends Who Smoke, and Smoking Behavior in Adolescents with Asthma

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    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations show that the smoking prevalence among asthmatic adolescents is higher than among healthy adolescents, and the causes that lead these asthmatic adolescents to smoke are unclear. We investigated the association between family structure, parental smoking, smoking friends, and smoking in asthmatic adolescents (n = 6,487. After adjusting for sex and age, logistic regression analyses showed that nonintact family structure, parental smoking, and smoking friends are associated with smoking in adolescents with and without asthma. Asthmatic adolescents who reside in the household of a nonintact family have a 1.90 times greater risk of smoking compared with those who live with both biological parents. It is important that parents who have children with asthma be made aware that the presence of smokers in the home and adolescent fraternization with smoking friends not only favor the worsening of asthma, but also induce the habit of smoking.

  11. An Association between Emotional Responsiveness and Smoking Behavior

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    Robert D. Keeley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotional responsiveness (ER has been theorized to play a protective role in pathways to tobacco initiation, regular use, and dependence, yet a possible association between ER and smoking behavior has not been studied. Our aim was to test whether measuring ER to a neutral stimulus was associated with decreased odds of current smoking. Methods. We measured ER and smoking status (current, former, and never in two datasets: a cross-sectional dataset of persons with diabetes (n=127 and a prospective dataset of depressed patients (n=107 from an urban primary care system. Because there were few former smokers in the datasets, smoking status was dichotomized (current versus former/never and measured at baseline (cross-sectional dataset or at 36 weeks after-baseline (prospective dataset. ER was ascertained with response to a neutral facial expression (any ER versus none. Results. Compared to their nonresponsive counterparts, adjusted odds of current smoking were lower among participants endorsing emotional responsiveness in both the cross-sectional and prospective datasets (ORs = .29 and .32, P’s <.02, resp.. Discussion. ER may be protective against current smoking behavior. Further research investigating the association between ER and decreased smoking may hold potential to inform treatment approaches to improve smoking prevalence.

  12. To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Srivastava, Vinay

    2014-05-01

    Premalignant oral lesions are usually associated with noxious oral addiction habits. These habits are common in both, high as well as low socioeconomic status but education status of parent and patients significantly affects the development of noxious oral addictions. A total of 872 patients (cases and controls) were included in the study. Social class was determined as per modified Prasad's classification (1970) with price index correction of 2004. Prevalence of lichen planus, to be only 0.4 and 2.6% present in groups III and IV of cases, and submucous fibrosis (SMF) - stromal one lanocytic foci - was 2.4% in male (group III) whereas it was not found in female cases (group IV). Teenagers having higher frequency and longer duration of noxious habits were more prone for development of premalignant lesions. 0.6% of leukoplakia, 0.3% erythroplakia, 0.7% lichen planus and 0.7% submucous fibrosis were present in 872 observed patients of control and cases. How to cite this article: Srivastava VK. To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):86-92.

  13. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  14. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-09-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour.

  15. Prevalence, putative mechanisms, and current management of sleep problems during chemotherapy for cancer

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    Palesh O

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxana Palesh,1 Luke Peppone,2 Pasquale F Innominato,3–5 Michelle Janelsins,2 Monica Jeong,1 Lisa Sprod,7 Josee Savard,6 Max Rotatori,1 Shelli Kesler,1 Melinda Telli,1 Karen Mustian21Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 3INSERM, UMRS 776, Biological Rhythms and Cancers, Villejuif, France; 4Faculty of Medicine, Universite Paris Sud, le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; 5APHP, Chronotherapy Unit, Department of Oncology, Paul Brousse Hospital, Villejuif, France; 6Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 7University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC, USAAbstract: Sleep problems are highly prevalent in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This article reviews existing evidence on etiology, associated symptoms, and management of sleep problems associated with chemotherapy treatment during cancer. It also discusses limitations and methodological issues of current research. The existing literature suggests that subjectively and objectively measured sleep problems are the highest during the chemotherapy phase of cancer treatments. A possibly involved mechanism reviewed here includes the rise in the circulating proinflammatory cytokines and the associated disruption in circadian rhythm in the development and maintenance of sleep dysregulation in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Various approaches to the management of sleep problems during chemotherapy are discussed with behavioral intervention showing promise. Exercise, including yoga, also appear to be effective and safe at least for subclinical levels of sleep problems in cancer patients. Numerous challenges are associated with conducting research on sleep in cancer patients during chemotherapy treatments and they are discussed in this review. Dedicated intervention trials, methodologically sound and sufficiently powered, are needed to test current and novel treatments of sleep problems in cancer patients

  16. Survey on Smoking Prevalence and Analysis of its Influencing Factors among Middle School Students in Shandong Province%山东省中学生吸烟状况调查及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏霞; 孙桐; 康殿民

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解山东省中学生吸烟状况及相关因素,为有效开展中学生控烟工作提供依据.方法 于2008年4-5月,采用分层随机抽样的方法,抽取山东省经济较发达、中等发达和欠发达城市各1座作为监测城市,每座监测城市随机抽取初中、高中、职业高中(职高)各3所,使用北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所编制的“中国青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”,对9 272名中学生进行自填匿名问卷集体调查.结果 山东省中学生的尝试吸烟率为34.85%,现在吸烟率为12.97%,被动吸烟率为52.47%.非条件Logistic分析显示,男生、职高学生、所在城市较发达、自感学习成绩较差、母亲文化水平低和其他家庭类型是吸烟的危险因素.结论 山东省中学生吸烟问题较为严重,应积极采取措施进行有效干预.%Objective To study the prevalence of smoking and its influential factors among middle school students in Shandong. Methods A survey with self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 9 272 middle school students selected at random from each three schools of primary schools, high middle schools and vocational high schools of three cities with different economic levels in Shandong province. Results The response rate was 95.7%(8 873/9 272). Rates of attempting smoking and current smoking of middle school students in Shandong were 34.85% and 12.97%, respectively; the rate of passive smoking was 52.47%. Multivariate unconditional Logistic regression analysis showed that rates of smoking were higher in males, vocational high school students, students who self-reported poor performance in studying, students coming from more developed cities, students whose mothers had low education level and students coming from other types of familes. Conclusion Rates of smoking among middle school students were higher in Shandong than in some of other cities. It suggested that tobacco control among middle school students should

  17. Characterising the Smoking Status and Quit Smoking Behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers in South Australia

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    Lauren Maksimovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs in South Australia (SA, Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5% included quitters (22.4% and never smokers (27.1%. Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking.

  18. Current Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Injecting Drug Users: A Mini Systematic Review of Prevalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Shafquat Mohammed; Banik, Gouri Rani; Khan, Sabina; Rashid, Harunor; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) is a major public health concern. It is important to know the current burden of HCV infection among IDUs for targeted public health interventions in this high risk population. We systematically reviewed the published literature on prevalence of HCV infections among IDUs between January 1989 and April 2014. Sixty studies met the inclusion criteria for the review and subsequent analysis. Among the selected studies 26,311 IDUs were assessed for HCV infection of which 16,231 were positive, giving an overall prevalence of 61.7% (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 61.1-62.3%). Of the selected studies, 21 were from Asia, 20 from Europe, 13 from Americas, 5 from Australia and one from Africa. Combined regional estimates of HCV prevalence among IDUs showed that Africa has the highest mean prevalence of HCV among IDUs (97.3%, 95% CI 95.5-98.4%), however, this estimate was based only on one study from Mauritius. Europe has the second highest mean prevalence (65.9%, 95% CI 64.9-66.9%) followed by Australia (56.5%, 95% CI 53.8-59.2%). Our review suggests that the prevalence of HCV among IDUs is significantly high. There are very limited data from African nations. More comprehensive understanding of HCV epidemiology among IDUs including the risk behaviours are needed for this high risk group.

  19. Ambient wood smoke exposure and respiratory symptoms in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C M; Dharmage, S C; Matheson, M; Gras, J L; Markos, J; Mészáros, D; Hopper, J; Walters, E H; Abramson, M J

    2010-12-15

    Wood smoke exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, with much of the current research focused on wood smoke from domestic heating and cooking. This study examined the association between respiratory symptoms and outdoor wood smoke in Launceston, Tasmania, where ~30% of homes use wood burners for domestic heating. This ecological study examined data from participants of the 2004 Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study postal survey and compared the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in Launceston (n=601) with that in Hobart (n=1071), a larger Tasmanian city with much less wood smoke. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations of interest while adjusting for gender, atopy, history of allergic disease and current smoking status. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between Launceston and Hobart. Two subgroup analyses, which examined participants with pre-existing chronic respiratory disease, and those who reported actively using a wood burner in their home, also did not find significant differences. Any impact of wood smoke on non-specific respiratory symptoms might have been overshadowed by other important determinants of respiratory health, such as vehicle exhaust and tobacco smoking, or were too small to have been detected. However, the lack of detectable differences in symptom prevalence might also reflect the success of regulatory action by local governments to reduce wood smoke emissions in Launceston. The results of other epidemiological studies support an association between ambient wood smoke exposure and adverse respiratory health. Further investigations of wood smoke exposure in Australian settings are needed to investigate the lack of significant associations found in this study, especially studies of indoor air quality and health impacts in children and elderly populations.

  20. Prevalence of undiagnosed airflow obstruction among people with a history of smoking in a primary care setting

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sau Nga Fu,1 Wai Cho Yu,2 Carlos King-Ho Wong,3 Margaret Choi-Hing Lam1 1Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, Kowloon West Cluster, Hospital Authority, 2Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR Purpose: The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence of undiagnosed airflow obstruction (AO) among subjects with a history of...

  1. Effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking behaviour in England in the 18 months following implementation.

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    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE. In total there are 54,333 respondents from 2003-2008. Logit and linear regression models were used to examine the effect of the legislation on smoking prevalence and the number of cigarettes smoked daily among continuing smokers which took the underlying trend into account. Our finding suggest that smoking prevalence (current smoker decreased from 25% in 2003 to 21% in 2008 (AOR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, P<0.01 and the mean number of cigarettes consumed daily by smokers decreased from 14.1 in 2003 to 13.1 in 2008 (coefficient for time trend = -0.28±0.06 SE cig/day per year, P<0.01. After adjusting for these trends the introduction of smoke-free legislation was not associated with additional reductions in smoking prevalence (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94-1.11, P = 0.596 or daily cigarette use in smokers (0.42±0.28 SE; P = 0.142. The percentage of respondents reporting smoking 'at work' and 'inside pubs or bars' decreased significantly from 14% to 2% (p<0.001 and from 34% to 2% (p<0.001, respectively, after the legislation. The percentage reporting smoking 'inside restaurants, cafes, or canteens' decreased significantly from 9% to 1% (p<0.001 and 'inside their home' decreased significantly from 65% to 55% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: There is widespread compliance with the smoke-free legislation in England, which has led to large drops in indoor smoking in all venues, including at home. Declines in smoking prevalence and consumption continued along existing trends; they

  2. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  3. Three-year follow-up of attitudes and smoking behaviour among hospital nurses following enactment of France's national smoke-free workplace law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Nadia; Maurel-Donnarel, Elodie; Baumstarck-Barrau, Karine; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated among hospital nurses the smoking status, knowledge and attitudes regarding smoking cessation services, and smoking behaviour 3years after the implementation of smoke-free workplace law (decree no. 2006-1386). A descriptive study was undertaken in a public referral hospital in the South of France. Between February and April 2010, a questionnaire was distributed to the nurses. Data on demographic information, smoking status, behaviour and attitudes regarding smoking addiction, and knowledge regarding smoking cessation services were collected. Changes in nurses' smoking habits were studied through a former study conducted in this hospital a year after the law had come into effect. Three years after the enactment of the smoking ban, 30% (30% in 2008) reported themselves as current smokers, 26% (25% in 2008) as ex-smokers and 44% (45% in 2008) as non-smokers. Among smokers, 72% (68% in 2008) declared they had decreased tobacco consumption during working hours and 50% (29% in 2008) daily cigarette consumption. The majority of nurses (88%) supported the smoke-free law. A higher percentage of smokers than non smokers have knowledge of smoking cessation services. The smoking prevalence among hospital nurses seemed to have remained constant between 2008 and 2010 despite a better compliance with the law. France's national smoke-free workplace law is associated with a reduction in tobacco consumption and exposure to second-hand smoke in nurses but not smoking prevalence. The other measures of the MPOWER package have to be reinforced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalencia de tabaquismo durante el embarazo en mujeres chilenas de bajo nivel socioeconómico Prevalence of tobacco smoking during pregnancy in Chilean women of low socioeconomic status

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    Javier Mallol V

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El tabaquismo en mujeres jóvenes en edad fértil ha aumentado en los últimos años en países en desarrollo, pero su prevalencia en mujeres embarazadas de bajos recursos económicos es virtualmente desconocida. Este estudio describe la prevalencia del tabaquismo durante el embarazo en una muestra aleatoria de 400 madres de bajo nivel socioeconómico, atendidas en el Hospital El Pino, Santiago Sur, Chile. La prevalencia de tabaquismo durante el embarazo fue 28%. Un alto porcentaje (59% de madres embarazadas que nunca habían fumado, estuvieron expuestas al humo del tabaco en sus hogares. No hubo una diferencia significativa entre los dos grupos en el peso, talla, puntaje de Apgar, o edad gestacional. Los recién nacidos (RN de madres que eran fumadoras antes del embarazo presentaron menor peso de nacimiento que los RN de madres no fumadoras (p = 0,04 y mayor frecuencia de RN pequeños para edad gestacional (p = 0,02. La prevalencia de tabaquismo durante el embarazo en madres de bajo nivel socioeconómico es alta y similar a las encontradas en mujeres embarazadas de países desarrollados. Una alta proporción de las madres embarazadas tanto fumadoras como no fumadoras está expuesta al humo de tabaco en sus hogaresTobacco smoking has increased among young women in reproductive age from developing countries but its prevalence during pregnancy is virtually unknown. This study describes the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in a random sample of 400 mothers of low socioeconomic status from South-Santiago, Chile. The prevalence of active tobacco smoking during pregnancy was 28%. Fifty-nine percent of mothers who had never smoked were exposed to intra-domiciliary tobacco smoke during pregnancy. There was no significant difference in birth weight, height, and Apgar score between exposed and non-exposed groups. However, the newborns from mothers who were active smokers previous to pregnancy presented lower birth weight (p = 0.04 and higher

  5. Current smoking status may be associated with overt albuminuria in female patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

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    Okada Kenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few clinical reports that have compared the association between cigarette smoking and microangiopathy in Asian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between urinary protein concentrations and smoking and gender-based risk factors among patients with T1DM. Methods A cross-sectional study of 259 patients with T1DM (men/women = 90/169; mean age, 50.7 years who visited our hospital for more than 1 year between October 2010 and April 2011 was conducted. Participants completed a questionnaire about their smoking habits. Patient characteristics included gender, age, body mass index, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, lipid parameters, and microangiopathy. Diabetic nephropathy (DN was categorized as normoalbuminuria (NA, microalbuminuria (MA, or overt albuminuria (OA on the basis of the following urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR levels: NA, ACR levels less than 30 mg/g creatinine (Cr; MA, ACR levels between 30 and 299 mg/g Cr; and OA, ACR levels over 300 mg/g Cr. Results The percentages of current nonsmokers and current smokers with T1DM were 73.0% (n = 189 and 27.0% (n = 70, respectively. In addition, the percentage of males was higher than that of females (52.2% versus 13.6% in the current smoking population. The percentage of DN was 61.8% (n = 160 in patients with NA, 21.6% (n = 56 in patients with MA, and 16.6% (n = 43 in patients with OA. The percentage of males among OA patients was also higher than that of females (24.4% versus 12.4%. However, current smoking status was associated with OA in females with T1DM only [unadjusted odds ratio (OR, 4.13; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.45–11.73, P P  Conclusions Based on our results in this cross-sectional study of Asian patients with T1DM, smoking might be a risk factor for OA among female patients. Further research is needed of these gender-specific results.

  6. Smoking habits, awareness of risks, and attitude towards tobacco control policies among medical students in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Michelle G; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Bandele, Emmanuel O

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P students participated in the study with a response rate of 89.2%. The mean age (years) was 21.4 ± 3. Rate of ever smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.

  7. Tobacco smoking among Portuguese high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, A; Machado, A P; Barros, H

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioural patterns, and determinants of smoking among a large sample of high-school students from Porto, the second largest city in Portugal, information on sociodemographic characteristics and personal history of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and illicit drug use was obtained from 2974 students, aged 12-19 years (48.7% female, 51.3% male), using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to estimate the association between smoking and the characteristics evaluated. Overall, 35.8% students had never smoked, 39.4% had tried it ("experimental" smokers) but were not smokers, 3.3% were former smokers, 6.6% occasional smokers, and 14.9% regular smokers. The mean age for starting smoking was 13.4 +/- 2.1 years for males and 13.4 +/- 1.6 years for females. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among males than females, but the difference was not significant. Male students were significantly more likely to smoke more cigarettes per day than were females. The prevalence of smoking was significantly associated with the following variables: being aged > 12 years; having parents who had attended school for academic performance (OR = 1.74 for one or two failures and OR = 2.27 for more than two failures at school); and consumption of coffee (OR = 2.90), alcohol (OR = 3.53), or illicit drugs (OR = 6.69). The prevalence of smoking among adolescents increased with age. There is therefore a need for school-based tobacco prevention programmes which also deal with family influences on smoking.

  8. Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic. A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, having parents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, family problems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively). There is a high prevalence of shisha smoking and a poor knowledge about its impact on health among medical students. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha

  9. The status of tobacco use and knowledge, and attitudes relating to smoking among female students in a Bengbu medical school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Qi; Cuizhu Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To learn the status of tobacco use, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female students in Bengbu Medical College. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, questionnaires were completed by 634 female students in the medical college in 2007,including the prevalence of current smoking, their knowledge of the effects of tobacco use on health, and attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women. Results: Only 6.9% of female medical students were former smokers, and 4.9% of them were current smokers. There was no significant difference in the current smoking rate among the students from each department surveyed. Female students from urban areas were more likely to be current or attempted smokers than those from rural areas. The proportion of the students who were aware of the health risks of smoking was less than 45%. The students from the Department of Nursing had more knowledge regarding the harmful health effects of smoking than those from the other departments. There was no significant difference in attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women among the students from each department. Compared with female students from rural areas, the female students from urban areas were significantly more likely to think that a young woman who smoked was cool, mature and charming. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence of the female students in Bengbu Medical College is high. They are not aware of the smoking related risks and have erroneous beliefs and perceptions about female smoking behaviors.

  10. 'Smoking kills' vs. 'Smoking makes restless': Effectiveness of different warning labels on smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Ritter, S.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Müller, B.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Warning labels on cigarette packages rely on the negative health aspects of smoking. For smokers, however, smoking is related to positive as well as to negative outcomes. Positive smoking outcomes are shown to be crucial in activating smoking behaviour. Thus, this study compared current health warni

  11. Cigarette brand preference as a function of price among smoking youths in Canada: are they smoking premium, discount or native brands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, S T; Ahmed, R; Barisic, A; Murnaghan, D; Manske, S

    2009-12-01

    Given that little is known about the price-related cigarette brand preferences of youths, the current study seeks to characterise cigarette brand preferences and examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands among Canadian youths who are current smokers. This study used nationally representative data collected from 71,003 grade 5-12 students as part of the 2006-7 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers, logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands relative to premium cigarette brands. In 2006, premium cigarettes were the most prevalent brand of cigarette youths report usually smoking (49.4%); a substantial number of youths do report usually smoking either discount (12.9%) or native (9.3%) cigarette brands. Occasional smokers were more likely to report usually smoking premium cigarettes whereas daily smokers were more likely to report smoking either discount or native cigarettes. In particular, discount and native brands appear to be appealing among smoking youths with less spending money or those who are heavier smokers compared to youths smoking premium brands. Discount and native cigarette brands are commonly used by a substantial number of smoking youths in Canada. Additional research is required to better understand the reasons behind different cigarette brand preferences and how youths are able to access premium, discount and illicit native cigarettes. Moreover, ongoing surveillance of the cigarette brand preferences of youths is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  12. [Trends in smoking in an urban population over recent decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartoll, Xavier; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-06

    The objective of this study is to describe the distribution of smoking in the population and to assess changes and trends over recent decades. Cross sectional study in a sample of the non-institutionalized resident population (n=3,509) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) using data from persons over 14 years of age from the health survey of 2011, and assessing trends for 1983-2011 using previous surveys. Dependent variables are having ever been a smoker, having quit, being a current smoker, and smoking daily. Independent variables include sex, age, and time. Prevalence and proportions are estimated, stratifying or adjusting for age. The prevalence of daily smokers is 18.8% in 2011: 22.2% for men and 15.9% for women. The age groups with higher smoking prevalence are 25-34 years for men and 15-24 for women. From 1983 to 2011 the reduction among men has been intense, and for women the prevalence has been decreasing since the survey of 2000. Among smokers, the proportion of both genders who do not smoke daily has increased. The smoking epidemic over the last years shows promising trends. The data do not lend support to the hardening hypothesis for current smokers. Smokers are a shrinking minority, although to improve public health it would be desirable to speed the process of change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of smoking and factors affecting smoking behaviour during pregnancy: A sample from Tekirdağ/Gebelikte sigara içme prevalansı ve sigara içme davranışını etkileyen etmenler: Tekirdağ örneği

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Levent Cem; Varol Saraçoğlu, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    AbstractObjective: Smoking during pregnancy leads to serious health problems in the mother and the foetus. In our study, we determined the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy and associated factors in Tekirdağ. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009 in, Tekirdağ. The sample size was calculated as 762 pregnant women. A probability sampling technique was used for sampling; the response rate was 98.3%. Results: The rates for daily and occasional smokers, respectively, wer...

  14. Subclinical mastitis in machine milked dairy farms in Punjab: prevalence, distribution of bacteria and current antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Q. Mir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis, a complex disease, even at subclinical stage has a major economic impact on the dairy industry. The disease pattern at machine milking which has recently been introduced in Indian system is to be studied. Therefore the present study was conducted to see the prevalence, distribution and sensitivity pattern of bacteria at subclinical level in machine milked dairy farms in Punjab state. Materials and Methods: The study involved 10 machine milked dairy cow herds in Ludhiana, Patiala, Moga, Bathinda and Ferozpur districts of Punjab. A total 218 HF × Sahiwal cross-bred dairy cow in milk were studied. About 872 quarter foremilk samples were collected to observe the prevalence of disease, distribution of udder pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Results: Prevalence of specific subclinical mastitis was 57.80 % and 30.73% on animal and quarter basis respectively. In specific subclinical mastitis Staphylococci (41.04% were the main organisms while in case of latent infections Corynebacteria (36.81% were found to be chief isolates. Erythromycin, Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin were found to be most sensitive, and Streptomycin was found to be the least sensitive in vitro antibiotic. Conclusion: Staphylococci were the main organisms in specific subclinical mastitis while Corynebacteria were found to be chief isolates in case of latent infections. Erythromycin, Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin were found to be most sensitive, and Streptomycin was found to be the least sensitive in vitro antibiotic.

  15. Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009: a population-based time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sadarangani, Manish; Omar, Omar; Yu, Ly-Mee; Mølbak, Kåre; Howitz, Michael; Olcén, Per; Haglund, Margaretha; van der Ende, Arie; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in the population and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among children under 5 years of age. Design Retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. Poisson regression controlled for confounding factors. Setting Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009. Population Total population of approximately 35 million people in these four countries. Data sources Data were collected from the Ministries of Health, National Statistics Bureaus and other relevant national institutes. Results In Norway, there was a significant positive relationship between the annual prevalence of daily smokers among individuals aged 25–49 years and the incidence of IMD in children under 5 years of age, unadjusted (RR=1.04–1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, p<0.001) and after adjustment for time of year (quarter), incidence of influenza-like illness and household crowding (RR=1.05–1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09, p<0.001). Depending on age group, the risk of IMD increased by 5.2–6.9% per 1% increase in smoking prevalence among individuals aged 25–49 years in adjusted analyses. Using limited datasets from the three other countries, unadjusted analysis showed positive associations between IMD in children related to older smokers in Sweden and the Netherlands and negative associations related to younger smokers in Sweden. However, there were no demonstrable associations between incidence of IMD and prevalence of smoking, after adjustment for the same confounding variables. Conclusions The reduced incidence of IMD in Norway between 1975 and 2009 may partly be explained by the reduced prevalence of smoking during this period. High-quality surveillance data are required to confirm this in other countries. Strong efforts to reduce smoking in the whole population including targeted campaigns to reduce smoking among adults may have a role to play in the prevention of IMD in children

  16. Media exposure and smoking intention in adolescents: a moderated mediation analysis from a cultivation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Salmon, Charles T; Pang, Joyce S; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2015-02-01

    The study tested a moderated mediation model to examine the mechanisms underlying the link between media exposure and adolescent smoking intention by utilizing a modification of cultivation theory. A total of 12,586 non-current smoker adolescents in California were included in the analysis. Results showed that media exposure was positively related to smoking intention via perceived prevalence of peer smoking when friend disapproval of cigarette use was low. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms regarding the media effects on smoking intention, but the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small effect size.

  17. The Influence of Discrimination on Smoking Cessation among Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Adams, Claire E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although studies have shown a cross-sectional link between discrimination and smoking, the prospective influence of discrimination on smoking cessation has yet to be evaluated. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of everyday and major discrimination on smoking cessation among Latinos making a quit attempt. Methods: Participants were 190 Spanish speaking smokers of Mexican Heritage recruited from the Houston, TX metropolitan area who participated in the study between 2009 and 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of everyday and major discrimination with smoking abstinence at 26 weeks post-quit. Results: Most participants reported at least some everyday discrimination (64.4%), and at least one major discrimination event (56%) in their lifetimes. Race/ethnicity/nationality was the most commonly perceived reason for both everyday and major discrimination. Everyday discrimination was not associated with post-quit smoking status. However, experiencing a greater number of major discrimination events was associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence, OR = .51, p = .004, and continuous smoking abstinence, OR = .29, p = .018, at 26 weeks post-quit. Conclusions: Findings highlight the high frequency of exposure to discrimination among Latinos, and demonstrate the negative impact of major discrimination events on a smoking cessation attempt. Efforts are needed to attenuate the detrimental effects of major discrimination events on smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:24485880

  18. [The current prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among teenagers and young asymptomatic Chilean women justifies the periodic surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Milena; Ralph, Constanza; García, Patricia; Cuello, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection constitutes the most common sexual transmitted disease (STD) among young women. International studies demonstrate that prevalence changes over time and also according to places. To estimate the prevalence of this infection among asymptomatic Chilean women (15 to 24 years old) and correlating with risk factor occurrence. Transversal cohort study to identify C. trachomatis infection through a diagnostic kit designed to detect and amplify cryptic plasmid DNA by quantitative PCR from endocervical sample. 181 women were screened during the period of study. The overall prevalence estimate was 5.5% and founding significant estimate variations (0% to 14.6%) between recruiting centers. There was difference in number of sexual partners (4.1 vs 2.5; p<0.05) between positive and negative women. No difference was observed in age of first coitus, STD history, the use of barrier method or socioeconomic level. However, the probability of being carrier increases as greater is the number of sexual partners, especially when the use of barrier method is low. The latest is not related to the socioeconomic level. One of 12 to 18 women at this age range will have asymptomatic infection. The current prevalence and its variability substantiates the C. trachomatis screening and periodic surveillance.

  19. Prevalência do tabagismo em adultos residentes nas capitais dos estados e no Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2008 Prevalence of smoking among adults residing in the Federal District of Brasília and in the state capitals of Brazil, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de tabagismo na população adulta do Brasil e propor recomendações para a redução do uso do tabaco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, que incluiu uma amostra da população (18 anos ou mais residente nas capitais dos 26 estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal. Considerou-se para a determinação da amostra um intervalo de confiança de 95% e um erro amostral de 2%. Os participantes foram selecionados e entrevistados por meio do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL. Foram realizadas estimativas referentes à proporção de fumantes e o consumo de cigarros/dia conforme variáveis sociodemográficas. Adicionalmente, calculou-se a razão de prevalência de tabagismo entre homens e mulheres. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 16,1% (20,5% no sexo masculino e 12,4% no sexo feminino. A proporção de adultos que declararam fumar > 20 cigarros ao dia foi de 4,9%, sendo maior no sexo masculino (6,5% vs. 3,6%. Houve maior prevalência de tabagismo entre indivíduos com menor escolaridade (OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoking in the adult population of Brazil, in order to propose recommendations for the reduction of tobacco use. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study including a sample composed of residents (> 18 years of age of the capital cities of 26 Brazilian states and in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil. For the determination of sample size, a 95% confidence interval and a 2% sample error were defined. The participants were selected and interviewed by means of the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL, Telephone-based System for the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases.The proportion of smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated and

  20. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C;

    2009-01-01

    previously been demonstrated among Danish construction workers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of chromium allergy among patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007 in Denmark. Furthermore, to determine causative exposures in patients with chromium allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 16,228) and charts from patients with chromium allergy were reviewed. Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of chromium allergy decreased significantly from...

  1. The Association Between Smoking Tobacco After a Diagnosis of Diabetes and the Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Korean Male Population

    OpenAIRE

    Yeom, Hyungseon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Suh, Il

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Smoking is known to be associated with nephropathy in patients with diabetes. The distinct effects of smoking before and after diabetes has been diagnosed, however, are not well characterized. We evaluated the association of cigarette smoking before and after a diagnosis of diabetes with the presence of diabetic nephropathy. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2011-2013 editions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 629 male patients diagnosed wi...

  2. Current status of prenatal diagnosis in Cuba: causes of low prevalence of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, L A; Hechavarría-Estenoz, D; de la Torre, M E; Pimentel-Benitez, H; Hernández-Gil, J; Perez, B; Barrios-Martínez, A; Morales-Rodriguez, E; Soriano-Torres, M; Garcia, M; Suarez-Mayedo, U; Cedeño-Aparicio, N; Blanco, I; Díaz-Véliz, P; Vidal-Hernández, B; Mitjans-Torres, M; Miñoso, S; Alvarez-Espinosa, D; Reyes-Hernández, E; Angulo-Cebada, E; Torres-Palacios, M; Lozano-Lezcano, L; Lima-Rodriguez, U; Mayeta, M; Noblet, M; Benítez, Y; Lardoeyt-Ferrer, R; Yosela-Martin, S; Carbonell, P; Pérez-Ramos, M; de León, N; Perez, M; Carbonell, J

    2014-11-01

    To analyze trends in cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis in Cuba and to analyze possible causes leading to a low Down syndrome prevalence in a country where the triple test is not available. An analysis of the Cuban program in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis from 1984 to 2012 was conducted. Results are described, with particular emphasis on indications, abnormal results, types of invasive procedures, and terminations of pregnancy. Cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic analyses (n = 75,095) were conducted; maternal age was the indication for 77.9% of the amniocenteses and chorionic villus samplings. The detection rate of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies was 2.3% for maternal age and increased to 8-9% for other indications. When a chromosomal abnormality was identified, 88.5% terminated the pregnancy. In 2002, the live birth prevalence of Down syndrome was 8.4 per 10,000 live births, and in 2012, 7 per 10,000. Prenatal diagnosis in Cuba has contributed to a significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations. The impact increased because of the demographic trends of the population, the high index of terminations of pregnancy, and the establishment of a network of cytogenetic laboratories throughout Cuba. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The link between smoking status and co-morbid conditions in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Pamela; Flick, Louise; Salter, Amber; Dixon, David; Jensen, Mark P

    2017-03-23

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) comorbidities and quality of life (QOL) may be affected by tobacco use. To evaluate the associations between smoking status, in particular quit attempts, and comorbidities among individuals with MS. We used a web-based survey to obtain cross-sectional data from 335 individuals with MS who were members of the Gateway Chapter of the National MS Society email registry. We then examined the associations between smoking variables (current use, frequency, and quit attempts) and comorbidities. The prevalence of participants who ever smoked was 50%, which is greater than that reported for the general population; 20% were current smokers. Migraine headaches were associated with current use and everyday smoking, and those with recent failed quit attempts had a higher prevalence of depression than those who were current smokers but who did not attempt to quit or had successfully quit in the past year. Given the associations between smoking and comorbidities in individuals with MS, health care providers should both (1) assess smoking history and quit attempts, and (2) encourage individuals with MS who smoke to become non-smokers and refer for treatment, as indicated. In order to increase the chances that individuals will be successful in becoming non-smokers, clinicians would do well to also assess and treat depression in their patients who smoke and are also depressed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. An analysis of global youth tobacco survey for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio; Yehadji, Degninou

    2016-01-22

    Smoking is a global public health concern. Timor-Leste is facing a rapidly growing epidemic of tobacco use. The trend of smoking in Timor-Leste seems to be increasing and the magnitude of the problem affects people who smoke before reaching adulthood. One of the factors implicated in the continuously rising trend of smoking among young people in Timor-Leste is clearly due to unavailability of restrictive laws and regulations. Therefore, our study sought to analyze available dataset from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in order to lower smoking risks among young people in Timor-Leste. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2009 GYTS in Timor-Leste. The 2009 GYTS assessed 1657 in-school students aged 13-15 years for current smoking prevalence and determinants of tobacco use. We used IBM SPSS version 21 software to analyze the data. Frequency analyses were computed to identify demographic characteristics of study participants. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each demographic characteristic as well as each independent variable and the outcome of being current smokers. Out of 1657 in-school students, 51 % were of ages less than 15; 53 % were girls; and 45 % were in grade 2. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was found to be 51 %. The prevalence of current smoking among in-school students increased with ages (from 46 % in less than 15 to 57 % in 15 plus). Boys were more likely to be smokers than girls (59 % versus 28 %). Significant factors positively associated with current smoking included parental smoking; closed-peer smoking; number of days people smoked in the house; having family discussion about harmful effects of smoking; being smoking in areas such as school, public places and home; and having seen cigarette advertisements on billboard. Timor-Leste has higher prevalence of cigarette smoking among minors, especially among boys. Our analysis

  5. Prevalência do tabagismo e associação com o uso de outras drogas entre escolares do Distrito Federal Prevalence of smoking and its association with the use of other drugs among students in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cardoso Rodrigues

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo e sua associação com o uso de outras drogas entre escolares, do ensino fundamental e médio, do Distrito Federal (DF. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico, tendo como população de referência escolares do DF. Nossa amostra consistiu de 2.661 alunos com idades entre 9 e 19 anos de todas as séries do ensino fundamental II e do ensino médio que responderam a um questionário padrão. Os resultados foram analisados por gênero e tipo de rede escolar. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre escolares do DF foi de 10,5%, sendo observada uma associação entre o uso do cigarro e o uso de álcool e outras drogas. CONCLUSÕES: O tabagismo é uma porta de entrada para o uso de outras drogas.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking, as well as to determine the association between smoking and the use of other drugs, among middle and high school students in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil. METHODS: Epidemiological study involving a reference population of students in the District. Our sample comprised 2,661 students from 9 to 19 years of age, in all middle and high school grades. All participating students completed a standard questionnaire. Results were analyzed by gender and type of school (public or private. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among students in the District was 10.5%. Smoking was found to be associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a gateway to the use of other drugs.

  6. Reactions to smoke-free public policies and smoke-free home policies in the Republic of Georgia: results from a 2014 national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Topuridze, Marina; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Shishniashvili, Maia; Kegler, Michelle C

    2016-05-01

    We examined receptivity to public smoke-free policies and smoke-free home status among adults in the Republic of Georgia. In Spring 2014, we conducted a national household survey of 1163 adults. Our sample was on average 42.4 years old, 51.1 % male, and 43.2 % urban. Current smoking prevalence was 54.2 % in men and 6.5 % in women. Notably, 42.2 % reported daily secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe). Past week SHSe was 29.9 % in indoor public places and 33.0 % in outdoor public places. The majority reported no opposition to public smoke-free policies. Correlates of greater receptivity to public policies included being older, female, and a nonsmoker. Past week SHSe in homes was 54.2 %; 38.8 % reported daily SHSe at home. Only 14.3 % reported complete smoke-free home policies; 39.0 % had partial policies. The only correlate of allowing smoking in the home was being a smoker. Among smokers, correlates of allowing smoking in the home were being male and lower confidence in quitting. SHSe is prevalent in various settings in Georgia, requiring efforts to promote support for public smoke-free policies and implementation of personal policies.

  7. Investigation of cigarette smoking among male schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundong Jiang

    Full Text Available Male schizophrenia patients are known to have a heavier smoking pattern compared with the general population. However, the mechanism for this association is not known, though hypothesis that smoking could alleviate symptomatology of schizophrenia and reduce side effects of antipsychotics has been suggested. The aims of this study were to validate the heavier smoking pattern among male schizophrenia patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms for the association. To enhance the reliability of the study, we recruited two large independent samples with 604 and 535 male Chinese schizophrenia patients, and compared their smoking pattern with that of 535 healthy male controls recruited from general population. Validated multiple indicators and multiple causes structure equation model and regression models were used to investigate the association of smoking with factors of schizophrenia symptomatology and with the usage of antipsychotics and their extra-pyramidal side effects (EPS. Schizophrenia patients had significantly heavier smoking pattern compared with healthy controls in our sample (42.4% vs. 16.8%, p<0.001 for current smoking prevalence; 23.5% vs. 43.3%, p<0.001 for smoking cessation rate; 24.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.001 for heavy smoker proportion. Their smoking status was also found to be consistently and significantly associated with reduced negative factor scores for schizophrenia symptomatology (β = -0.123, p = 0.051 for sample-A; β = -0.103, p = 0.035 for sample-B; β = -0.082, p = 0.017 for the combined sample. However, no significant association was found between smoking and antipsychotics usage or risk of EPS. These results support that smoking is associated with improved negative symptoms, which could account for the heavier smoking pattern among schizophrenia patients.

  8. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study...... at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. SETTING: Twenty-nine European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking...... vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should...

  9. Prevalence of smoking and tobacco control environment among middle school personnel in Shanghai%上海市中学教职员工吸烟现状及学校控烟环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静芬; 何亚平; 李娜; 蔡泳; 陶婧婧; 马进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyse the prevalence of smoking and tobacco control environment among middle school personnel in Shanghai. Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted, and 2 696 personnel were selected from 38 middle schools (28 junior middle schools, 7 senior high schools and 3 vocational schools) in 4 districts of Shanghai. On-the-spot questionnaire survey was conducted, which was concerned with smoking condition, knowledge and attitude, tobacco control training and tobacco control environment in schools, and the survey findings were statistically analysed. Results The prevalence of smoking among school personnel was 13. 2% . The prevalence of smoking in males was significantly higher than that in females (35. 9% vs 1. 6% , P < 0. 001) . The prevalence of smoking increased with age, and the prevalence of smoking in males aged more than 40 was significantly higher than that in males aged less than 40 (P <0. 001). For males, the prevalence of smoking in teachers (30.2%) was significantly lower than those in administrative staff (45. 6% ) and staff on other positions (50.0%)(P<0. 001) . Only 64. 1 % of respondents were aware of the harm of smoking such as addiction, lung cancer and cardiac diseases, and the percent of smokers was significantly lower than that of non-smokers (43. 1% vs 67. 3% , P < 0. 001) . Only 54. 5% of respondents believed that smoking ban was thoroughly implemented in their schools, and the smoking rate in schools with strict smoking ban was significantly lower than that in schools without strict smoking ban (9. 8% vs 14. 0% , P < 0. 05) . About 41. 7% of smokers reported that they had smoked in schools in the past year. Conclusion The smoking rate among middle school personnel in Shanghai is lower than that of adult population in China. Promotion should be implemented among school personnel to increase their awareness of harm of smoking and to improve their tobacco control skills, especially for males aged more

  10. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Tabagismo na coorte de nascimentos de 1982: da adolescência à vida adulta, Pelotas, RS Tabaquismo en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982: de la adolescencia a la vida adulta, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Smoking prevalence in the 1982 birth cohort: from adolescence to adult life, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M B Menezes

    2008-12-01

    2000-1. En el seguimiento de 2005, la variable dependiente fue tabaquismo actual. El análisis ajustado fue realizado por medio de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Las prevalencias de tabaquismo entre hombres fueron de 5,9%, 20,2% y 27,6% en los seguimientos de 1997, 2000-1 y 2005, respectivamente. Los respectivos valores para las mujeres fueron 9,3%, 27,5% y 23,6%. La edad promedio de inicio de fumar fue de 15,1 años (dp=2,5. En el análisis multivariable, menor escolaridad materna, baja renta familiar en 1982, haber sido pobre durante todo el período acompañado y el fumar de la madre durante el embarazo estuvieron significativamente asociados con mayores prevalencias de fumar en ambos sexos. El color de la piel no blanca se asoció con mayor riesgo de fumar entre las mujeres. El amamantamiento no mostró asociación con el tabaquismo. En las mujeres, el fumar estuvo inversamente asociado con el peso al nacer en el análisis bruto, pero perdió la significancia en el ajustado. CONCLUSIONES: La mayor concentración de tabaquismo en los grupos más pobres sugiere que conductas como el combate al fumar en la gestación y el aumento de precio del cigarro podrían tener importante impacto poblacional.OBJECTIVE: To assess smoking prevalence in adolescents and young adults of a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Prospective birth cohort study of infants born in 1982, in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and interviewed in 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005. In the 1997 and 2000-2001 follow-up visits, the outcome studied was smoking, defined as the consumption of at least one cigarette in the previous week. In the 2005 follow-up visit, the dependent variable was current smoking. Adjusted analysis was performed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Smoking prevalences among males were 5.9%, 20.2% and 27.6% in the 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005 follow-up visits, respectively. Among females, respective values were 9.3%, 27.5% and 23.6%. Mean age of smoking onset was 15.1 years (SD=2

  13. Current trends in the prevalence of Cryptococcus gattii in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinel-Ingroff A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ana Espinel-Ingroff,1 Sarah E Kidd21VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA, USA; 2National Mycology Reference Center, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: The incidence of Cryptococcus gattii infections in both Canada and the United States (US is provided in this literature review beyond the British Columbia (BC outbreak (1999–2013. Based on a search of the literature, case reports of C. gattii human infections including the prevalent molecular genotypes causing these infections in both Canada and the US have been documented since the C. gattii outbreak in BC. The literature reveals that: i although C. gattii infections continue to be reported in both countries, the preliminary overall number of confirmed C. gattii infections may be decreasing in both Canada and the US (~23 cases each in 2012 versus ~17 and 20 cases, respectively in 2013; ii C. gattii genotype distribution is region-dependent; iii C. gattii is more frequently isolated from infections in the immunocompromised host (including acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS] infection than previously expected; iv although pulmonary disease is higher than in C. neoformans infections, central nervous system disease is also reported among patients infected with C. gattii.Keywords: C. gattii, human infections, incidence, molecular epidemiology, United States, Canada 

  14. Design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce smoking among 13 to 15-year olds, the X:IT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Ringgaard, Lene Winther;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent smoking is still highly prevalent in Denmark. One in four 13-year olds indicates that they have tried to smoke, and one in four 15-year olds answer that they smoke regularly. Smoking is more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in Denmark as well...... among 13 to 15-year olds by 25%. METHODS/DESIGN: The X:IT study is based on the Theory of Triadic Influences. The theory organizes factors influencing adolescent smoking into three streams: cultural environment, social situation, and personal factors. We added a fourth stream, the community aspects...... in preventing smoking among adolescents. Program implementation is thoroughly evaluated to be able to add to the current knowledge of the importance of implementation. X:IT creates the basis for thorough effect and process evaluation, focusing on various social groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled...

  15. [Influence of family environment and social group on smoking among Brazilian youth aged 15 to 24 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2011-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of smoking among Brazilian youth, examining individual, family, and social group factors associated with this habit. Data from youth aged 15 to 24 years living in 17 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, obtained from the Household Survey on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases and Reported Morbidity carried out in 2002 and 2003 by the National Cancer Institute was analyzed. Individual variables (sex, age, schooling, alcohol consumption, self-rated health, physical activity, current school attendance), family variables (age and education of head of household and father, mother, or sibling smoking), and social group variables (best friend smoking, most friends smoking, boyfriend/girlfriend smoking) were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to evaluate the factors associated with smoking were used. Considering the effect of the sampling design, smoking prevalence was 12.8%, ranging from 6.8% in Aracaju to 24.1% in Porto Alegre. The following factors were predictors of smoking: male sex, older age, less schooling, not attending school at the time of the survey, poorer health perception, and alcohol consumption. Peer smoking (friends or boyfriend/girlfriend) and smoking among family members (father/mother or sibling) were associated with smoking. There was an effect of parental birth cohort on smoking, with a higher prevalence of smoking among youth whose parents were born in the 1930s. Individual characteristics and the influence of peers and family were relevant for smoking by the youth. Increasing the dialogue among teenagers, school, schoolmates, friends, and parents could lead to a reduction of substance use among youth.

  16. Rescuers at risk: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of the worldwide current prevalence and correlates of PTSD in rescue workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, William; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Marques-Portella, Carla; Luz, Mariana Pires; Neylan, Thomas C; Marmar, Charles R; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor

    2012-06-01

    We sought to estimate the pooled current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers and to determine the variables implicated in the heterogeneity observed among the prevalences of individual studies. A systematic review covering studies reporting on the PTSD prevalence in rescue teams was conducted following four sequential steps: (1) research in specialized online databases, (2) review of abstracts and selection of studies, (3) review of reference list, and (4) contact with authors and experts. Prevalence data from all studies were pooled using random effects model. Multivariate meta-regression models were fitted to identify variables related to the prevalences heterogeneity. A total of 28 studies, reporting on 40 samples with 20,424 rescuers, were selected. The worldwide pooled current prevalence was 10%. Meta-regression modeling in studies carried out in the Asian continent had, on average, higher estimated prevalences than those from Europe, but not higher than the North American estimates. Studies of ambulance personnel also showed higher estimated PTSD prevalence than studies with firefighters and police officers. Rescue workers in general have a pooled current prevalence of PTSD that is much higher than that of the general population. Ambulance personnel and rescuers from Asia may be more susceptible to PTSD. These results indicate the need for improving pre-employment strategies to select the most resilient individuals for rescue work, to implement continuous preventive measures for personnel, and to promote educational campaigns about PTSD and its therapeutic possibilities.

  17. Smoking Patterns and Smoking Cessation Willingness—A Study among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence and tobacco use patterns among adult social assistance beneficiaries and their interest in quitting. The results are based on data collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted among adults in the Piotrkowski district. A sample of 3636 social assistance beneficiaries produced a total of 1817 respondents who completed face-to-face questionnaires. Overall, 37.1% of the respondents, including 52.8% men and 29.6% women, were current smokers. Over one third of the smokers reported their willingness to quit. In the study population, several characteristics were significantly associated with the current daily smoking: male gender, low educational attainment, unemployment or temporary employment, lack of awareness of smoking-associated health risks, use of e-cigarettes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. The intention to quit smoking among the daily smokers was positively correlated with their awareness of smoking-associated health risks, lack of previous quit attempts, and low exposure to ETS. Smoking prevalence among social assistance recipients tends to be higher than in the general population, but more than half of the smokers are willing to quit. There is an urgency to develop policies tailored to the needs of these disadvantaged population groups.

  18. Smoking Patterns and Smoking Cessation Willingness-A Study among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Katarzyna; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-01-27

    This study examines the prevalence and tobacco use patterns among adult social assistance beneficiaries and their interest in quitting. The results are based on data collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted among adults in the Piotrkowski district. A sample of 3636 social assistance beneficiaries produced a total of 1817 respondents who completed face-to-face questionnaires. Overall, 37.1% of the respondents, including 52.8% men and 29.6% women, were current smokers. Over one third of the smokers reported their willingness to quit. In the study population, several characteristics were significantly associated with the current daily smoking: male gender, low educational attainment, unemployment or temporary employment, lack of awareness of smoking-associated health risks, use of e-cigarettes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The intention to quit smoking among the daily smokers was positively correlated with their awareness of smoking-associated health risks, lack of previous quit attempts, and low exposure to ETS. Smoking prevalence among social assistance recipients tends to be higher than in the general population, but more than half of the smokers are willing to quit. There is an urgency to develop policies tailored to the needs of these disadvantaged population groups.

  19. Quality of Life in Chronic Pancreatitis is Determined by Constant Pain, Disability/Unemployment, Current Smoking, and Associated Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicado, Jorge D; Amann, Stephen T; Anderson, Michelle A; Abberbock, Judah; Sherman, Stuart; Conwell, Darwin L; Cote, Gregory A; Singh, Vikesh K; Lewis, Michele D; Alkaade, Samer; Sandhu, Bimaljit S; Guda, Nalini M; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Tang, Gong; Baillie, John; Brand, Randall E; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Forsmark, Christopher E; Banks, Peter A; Slivka, Adam; Wilcox, C Mel; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj

    2017-04-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) has a profound independent effect on quality of life (QOL). Our aim was to identify factors that impact the QOL in CP patients. We used data on 1,024 CP patients enrolled in the three NAPS2 studies. Information on demographics, risk factors, co-morbidities, disease phenotype, and treatments was obtained from responses to structured questionnaires. Physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS, respectively) scores generated using responses to the Short Form-12 (SF-12) survey were used to assess QOL at enrollment. Multivariable linear regression models determined independent predictors of QOL. Mean PCS and MCS scores were 36.7±11.7 and 42.4±12.2, respectively. Significant (Punemployment (5.1), current smoking (2.9 points), and medical co-morbidities. Significant (Punemployment (2.4 points). In women, disability/unemployment resulted in an additional 3.7 point reduction in MCS score. Final multivariable models explained 27% and 18% of the variance in PCS and MCS scores, respectively. Etiology, disease duration, pancreatic morphology, diabetes, exocrine insufficiency, and prior endotherapy/pancreatic surgery had no significant independent effect on QOL. Constant pain, pain-related disability/unemployment, current smoking, and concurrent co-morbidities significantly affect the QOL in CP. Further research is needed to identify factors impacting QOL not explained by our analyses.

  20. Smoking cessation is followed by a sharp but transient rise in the incidence of overt autoimmune hypothyroidism – A population‐based, case–control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    habits were verified by measuring urinary cotinine (a nicotine metabolite). Incident hypothyroidism was very common in people who had recently stopped smoking: OR vs never smokers (95%‐CI); quit smoking 10 years, 0·76 (0·38–1·51). Results were consistent in both sexes and irrespective of age. Within two......‐fold increased the first 2 years after cessation of smoking. Clearly, smoking cessation is vital to prevent death and severe disease. However, awareness of hypothyroidism should be high in people who have recently quit smoking, and virtually any complaint should lead to thyroid function testing.......Current smoking is associated with a low prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies. On the other hand, smoking withdrawal enhances thyroid autoantibody level and may be a risk factor for the development of hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to assess the association between smoking habits...

  1. Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreras Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation. Methods We developed a dynamic model describing the evolution of current, former, and never smokers. We estimated probabilities of smoking cessation by fitting the model with observed smoking prevalence in Italy, 1986-2009. Results Annual cessation probabilities were higher than 5% only in elderly persons and in women aged Conclusions Over the last 20 years, cessation probabilities among Italian smokers, particularly for those aged 30-59 years, have been very low and stalled. Quitting in Italy is considered as a practicable strategy only by women in the age of pregnancy and by elderly persons, when it’s likely that symptoms of tobacco-related diseases have already appeared. In order to increase cessation probabilities, smoking cessation treatment policies (introducing total reimbursement of cessation treatments, with a further development of quitlines and smoking cessation services should be empowered and a country-wide mass media campaign targeting smokers aged 30-59 years and focusing on promotion of quitting should be implemented.

  2. Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E

    2013-02-01

    Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Of the 1,696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32-4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28-2.06) among FSWs. Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

  3. [Environmental dependence of cigarette smoking among adolescents of upper-secondary schools in Poland in 2005. Initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Małkowska, Agnieszka; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the current smoking status among adolescents of upper-secondary schools in Poland and to examine potential relationships between environmental factors (place of living and school type) and current cigarette smoking, smoking experimentation and age of first cigarette. Questionnaire survey was conducted in February - March 2005 as a project: "Health perception, life satisfaction and health behavior of upper-secondary school pupils in Poland in psychosocial and economical determinants' context". The data was collected from representative sample of pupils in Poland (N=3123), Ist and IIIrd grade students at upper-secondary schools of different school types. Almost 3/4 adolescents had reported the attempts of smoking, 1/4 declared current smoking. The smoking prevalence among boys was higher than among girls, among older pupils (18 y.) than younger (16y.) and among students living in towns. Especially there was a significant difference of rate of smoking among young women from towns than from rural areas. Special risk group of cigarette smoking were pupils of basic vocational schools. Risk of current smoking was more than 4 times higher among them, than among pupils from general secondary schools. Strategies aimed at influencing smoking behavior need to be directed especially to basic vocational schools students and girls in towns.

  4. The importance of resilience and stress to maintaining smoking abstinence and cessation: a qualitative study in Australia with people diagnosed with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Muller, Robert; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2011-05-01

    This study explored stress in relation to smoking and how non-smokers (never-smoked and ex-smokers) are 'resilient' to smoking in a population where there is a high prevalence of smoking (people diagnosed with depression). In-depth oral history interviews were conducted with 34 adult participants from metropolitan Adelaide, and who were medically diagnosed with depression. Participants were recruited according to their smoking status (currently smoking, ex-smoker, and never-smoked). Smoking was taken-up and maintained for a number of reasons that included perceived high levels of stress. Resilience to stress in relation to smoking was also a major theme. Non-smoking participants tended to be more resilient to stress. Ex-smokers were able to quit for a number of varied reasons during critical transition points in their lives. The never-smoked participants reported successful strategies to cope with stress but not all of them were necessarily healthy. There was often interplay between external factors and the individual's internal properties that led to a building or an erosion of resilience. Smokers and ex-smokers have indicated a strong relationship between stress and tobacco use. Ex-smokers and the never-smoked participants have demonstrated how being 'resilient' to stress can be important to smoking abstinence. The finding that external factors can interact with internal properties to build resilience in relation to stress and smoking is important for policy and practice.

  5. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries.

  6. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  7. Major Disease Prevalence and Menstrual Characteristics in Infertile Female Korean Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12.7%, 45.7%, 0.9%, and 40.6%, respectively. Primary infertility was more frequent in secondhand smokers. Causes of infertility were similar among current, secondhand, and never smokers. Current smokers were less educated (P infertility and diabetes mellitus were significantly different according to smoking status among infertile women. PMID:28049245

  8. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    OpenAIRE

    Soule, Eric K.; Lipato, Thokozeni; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due t...

  9. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  10. Divergent socio-economic gradients in smoking by type of tobacco use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, D J; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    We describe the relationship between socio-economic status and current bidi or cigarette smoking among Indian men aged ≥15 years. The prevalence of bidi smoking was 13.7% (95%CI 13.3-14.1) and that of cigarette smoking was 6.3% (95%CI 6.1-6.6). bidi smoking was concentrated among the socio-economically disadvantaged, while cigarette smoking was common among men with higher status occupations and greater levels of education and household wealth. This suggests that India has not transitioned to the later stages of the tobacco epidemic, and underscores the need for prevention and control strategies adapted to current patterns of consumption across socio-economic groups in India.

  11. Current smoking is associated with a poor visual acuity improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmoon; Song, Su Jeong; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the risk factors that may influence visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined. From 2008 to 2012, 420 patients (448 eyes) with exudative AMD were prospectively registered at Seoul National University Hospital. From this group of patients, 125 eyes were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3 consecutive IVR injections. The visual acuity (VA) was evaluated at baseline and 1 month after the third ranibizumab injection. To evaluate the risk factors associated with VA improvement after IVR, patient demographic data and systemic risk factors were analyzed. Patients were divided into a poor VA improvement group and a good VA improvement group, with reference to the median visual improvement in all eyes. Among 125 eyes, 66 eyes (52.8%) were included in the responder group and 59 eyes (47.2%) in the non-responder group. The median VA improvement after 3 monthly ranibizumab injections was -0.05 logMAR. Multivariate analyses revealed that current smoking (adjusted OR, 7.540; 95% CI, 1.732-32.823) was independently associated with poor VA improvement after IVR treatment for exudative AMD. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for lower VA gains with IVR treatment for exudative AMD.

  12. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  13. Smoking Trends among U.S. Latinos, 1998-2013: The Impact of Immigrant Arrival Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostean, Georgiana; Ro, Annie; Fleischer, Nancy L

    2017-03-02

    Few studies examine nativity disparities in smoking in the U.S., thus a major gap remains in understanding whether immigrant Latinos' smoking prevalence is stable, converging, or diverging, compared with U.S.-born Latinos. This study aimed to disentangle the roles of period changes, duration of U.S. residence, and immigrant arrival cohort in explaining the gap in smoking prevalence between foreign-born and U.S.-born Latinos. Using repeated cross-sectional data spanning 1998-2013 (U.S. National Health Interview Survey), regressions predicted current smoking among foreign-born and U.S.-born Latino men and women (n = 12,492). We contrasted findings from conventional regression analyses that simply include period and duration of residence effects, to two methods of assessing arrival cohort effects: the first accounted for baseline differences in smoking among arrival cohorts, while the second examined smoking probabilities by tracking foreign-born arrival cohorts as they increase their duration of U.S. residence. Findings showed that Latino immigrants maintained lower prevalence of current smoking compared with U.S.-born Latinos over the period 1998-2013, and that longer duration of U.S. residence is associated with lower odds of smoking among men. Two findings are particularly novel: (1) accounting for immigrant arrival cohort dampens the overall protective effect of duration of residence among men; and (2) the earliest arrival cohort of Latino immigrant men experienced the steepest decline in smoking over duration of U.S. residence. Results have methodological and theoretical implications for smoking studies and the Latino mortality paradox.

  14. Smoking among construction workers: the nonlinear influence of the economy, cigarette prices, and antismoking sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bacic, Janine; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Catalano, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on the influence of macroeconomic environments on smoking among blue-collar workers, a group with high smoking prevalence and that is especially vulnerable to the effects of changing economic circumstances. Using data from 52,418 construction workers in the Tobacco Use Supplement to the United States Current Population Survey, we examined the association of labor market shock, cigarette prices, and state antismoking sentiments with smoking status and average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Data analysis included the use of multiple linear and logistic regressions, which employed the sampling and replicate weights to account for sampling design. Unemployed, American-Indian, lower-educated and lower-income workers had higher smoking rates. Labor market shock had a quadratic association, which was non-significant for smoking status and significant for number of cigarettes. The association of cigarette prices with smoking status became non-significant after adjusting for state-level antismoking sentiment. State-level antismoking sentiment had significant quadratic association with smoking status among employed workers and significant quadratic association with number of cigarettes for all smokers. The study highlights how both workplace-based smoking cessation interventions and antismoking sentiments could further contribute to disparities in smoking by employment status.

  15. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solesse Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1 to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2 to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3 to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4 to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in the smokers' environments. A representative sample of French population was defined using the quota method. The identified cohort of smokers was assessed, in terms of smoking behaviour, previous quit attempts, and intention to quit smoking. Results A response rate of 66% for the screening enabled to identify a representative sample of the French population (N = 3 889 comprising 809 current smokers (21%. A majority of current smokers (63% had made an attempt to quit smoking. Main reasons for having made the last attempt were cost (44%, social pressure (39%, wish to improve physical fitness (36%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (24%, and weariness of smoking (21%. Few attempts (16% were encouraged by a physician. In those who used some kind of support (38%, NRT was the mostly used. Relapse was triggered by craving (45%, anxiety/stress (34%, a significant life event (21, weight gain (18%, and irritability (16%. Depression was rarely quoted (5%. Forty percent of smokers declared they intended to quit smoking permanently. Main reasons were cost (65%, physical fitness improvement (53%, fear of a future smoking-related disease (43%, weariness of tobacco (34%, and social pressure (30%. Using a smoking cessation treatment was considered by 43% of smokers that intended to quit. Barriers to smoking cessation were mainly fear of increased stress (62%, irritability (51%, and anxiety (42%, enjoying smoking (41%, and weight concerns (33%. Conclusion Smoking prevalence

  16. Dental Practitioners and Smoking Cessation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Keogan

    2015-10-01