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Sample records for current sheet magnetic

  1. Magnetic configurations of the tilted current sheets in magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the geometrical structures of tilted current sheet and tail flapping waves have been analysed based on multiple spacecraft measurements and some features of the tilted current sheets have been made clear for the first time. The geometrical features of the tilted current sheet revealed in this investigation are as follows: (1 The magnetic field lines (MFLs in the tilted current sheet are generally plane curves and the osculating planes in which the MFLs lie are about vertical to the equatorial plane, while the normal of the tilted current sheet leans severely to the dawn or dusk side. (2 The tilted current sheet may become very thin, the half thickness of its neutral sheet is generally much less than the minimum radius of the curvature of the MFLs. (3 In the neutral sheet, the field-aligned current density becomes very large and has a maximum value at the center of the current sheet. (4 In some cases, the current density is a bifurcated one, and the two humps of the current density often superpose two peaks in the gradient of magnetic strength, indicating that the magnetic gradient drift current is possibly responsible for the formation of the two humps of the current density in some tilted current sheets. Tilted current sheets often appear along with tail current sheet flapping waves. It is found that, in the tail flapping current sheets, the minimum curvature radius of the MFLs in the current sheet is rather large with values around 1 RE, while the neutral sheet may be very thin, with its half thickness being several tenths of RE. During the flapping waves, the current sheet is tilted substantially, and the maximum tilt angle is generally larger than 45°. The phase velocities of these flapping waves are several tens km/s, while their periods and wavelengths are several tens of minutes, and several earth radii, respectively. These tail flapping events generally last several hours and occur

  2. Nonlinear Evolution of Magnetic Islands in the Magnetopause Current Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianminWANG; ZuyinPU

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution of magnetic islands produced by time-dependent magnetic reconnection in the magnetopause current sheet is studied.It is shown that the magnetic islands are unstable against the interference from external disturbances.Their structure can be destroyed by medium and small-scale solar wind turbulences,leading to stochastic magnetic reconnection and the formation of irregular small0scale structures in magnetospheric boundary regions.

  3. Unsteady magnetic reconnection in laboratory experiments with current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anna

    2009-11-01

    According to present notion, unsteady magnetic reconnection in current sheets (CS) is basic to dramatic natural phenomena: solar and stellar flares, substorms in the Earth and other planetary magnetospheres, as well as to disruptive instabilities in tokamak plasmas. We present a review of laboratory experiments studying evolution of CS formed in 3D and 2D magnetic configurations with an X line, in the CS-3D device. Usually CS exists during an extended period in a metastable stage, without essential changes of its structure and parameters. Under certain conditions this stage may be suddenly interrupted by unsteady phase of magnetic reconnection, which manifests itself in a rapid change of the magnetic field topology, current redistribution, excitation of pulsed electric fields, and other dynamic effects. The unsteady phase results in effective conversion of magnetic energy into the energy of plasma and accelerated particles, and may finally bring about the CS disruption. In the context of the solar flares, a metastable CS is associated with a pre-flare situation, while CS disruption -- with the flare itself. The physical mechanisms triggering the unsteady magnetic reconnection in the laboratory produced current sheets are discussed. Supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project # 09-02-00971).

  4. Magnetic guide field generation in collisionless current sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Baumjohann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In thin (Δ< few λi collisionless current sheets in a space plasma like the magnetospheric tail or magnetopause current layer, magnetic fields can grow from thermal fluctuation level by the action of the non-magnetic Weibel instability (Weibel, 1959. The instability is driven by the counter-streaming electron inflow from the "ion diffusion" (ion inertial Hall region into the inner current (electron inertial region after thermalisation by the two-stream instability. Under magnetospheric tail conditions it takes ~50 e-folding times (~100 s for the Weibel field to reach observable amplitudes |bW|~1 nT. In counter-streaming inflows these fields are of guide field type.

  5. Continuous development of current sheets near and away from magnetic nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.

    2016-04-01

    The presented computations compare the strength of current sheets which develop near and away from the magnetic nulls. To ensure the spontaneous generation of current sheets, the computations are performed congruently with Parker's magnetostatic theorem. The simulations evince current sheets near two dimensional and three dimensional magnetic nulls as well as away from them. An important finding of this work is in the demonstration of comparative scaling of peak current density with numerical resolution, for these different types of current sheets. The results document current sheets near two dimensional magnetic nulls to have larger strength while exhibiting a stronger scaling than the current sheets close to three dimensional magnetic nulls or away from any magnetic null. The comparative scaling points to a scenario where the magnetic topology near a developing current sheet is important for energetics of the subsequent reconnection.

  6. Current sheets at three-dimensional magnetic nulls: Effect of compressibility

    CERN Document Server

    Pontin, D I; Galsgaard, K

    2007-01-01

    The nature of current sheet formation in the vicinity of three-dimensional magnetic null points is investigated. The particular focus is upon the effect of the compressibility of the plasma on the qualitative and quantitative properties of the current sheet. It is found that as the incompressible limit is approached, the collapse of the null point is suppressed, and instead an approximately planar current sheet aligned to the fan plane is present. Both the peak current and peak reconnection rate are reduced. The results imply that previous analytical solutions for steady-state reconnection at fan current sheets are dynamically accessible, while spine current sheet solutions are not.

  7. The effect of diffusion on the current-sheet speed in a magnetically driven shock tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.; Popovic, M.; Korsbech, Uffe

    1970-01-01

    The lowering of the current-sheet speed in a magnetically driven shock tube is attributed to the diffusion effect of the current and not to the anchoring of a large fraction of the total current near the driving end.......The lowering of the current-sheet speed in a magnetically driven shock tube is attributed to the diffusion effect of the current and not to the anchoring of a large fraction of the total current near the driving end....

  8. Spontaneous current sheets in magnetic fields with applications to stellar X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Eugene N

    1994-01-01

    Expanding upon the ideas first proposed in his seminal book Cosmical Magnetic Fields, Eugene N. Parker here offers the first in-depth treatment of the magnetohydrodynamic theory of spontaneous magnetic discontinuities. In detailing his theory of the spontaneous formation of tangential discontinuities (current sheets) in a magnetic field embedded in highly conducting plasma, Parker shows how it can be used to explain the activity of the external magnetic fields of planets, stars, interstellar gas clouds, and galaxies, as well as the magnetic fields in laboratory plasmas. Provocative and fascinating, Spontaneous Current Sheets in Magnetic Fields presents a bold new theory that will excite interest and discussion throughout the space physics community.

  9. Numerical analysis of the current sheet near a magnetic null line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brushlinskii, K.V.; Zaborov, A.M.; Syrovatskii, S.I.

    1980-03-01

    A mathematical model is constructed for the two-dimensional MHD plasma flow near a magnetic null line in a perturbing electric field. A numerical study is also carried out. This type of flow is the key element of the reconnection of magnetic lines of force and is being studied in connection with the mechanism for solar flares, the magnetospheres of planes, and certain questions in thermonuclear fusion. The results show that during this flow a nearly steady-state current sheet forms with a characteristic two-dimensional configuration. The sheet has four outgrowths corresponding to slow MHD shock waves. The geometric shape of the sheet and the maximum current in it are determined primarily by the plasma conductivity. The dependence of the sheet properties on the gas pressure is very weak. The thermal conditions in the flow, which are related to the heat conduction and radiation, strongly affect the plasma density distribution on the current sheet.

  10. Magnetic Reconnection Onset via Disruption of a Forming Current Sheet by the Tearing Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, D A; Loureiro, N F

    2016-03-11

    The recent realization that Sweet-Parker current sheets are violently unstable to the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability implies that such current sheets cannot occur in real systems. This suggests that, in order to understand the onset of magnetic reconnection, one needs to consider the growth of the tearing instability in a current layer as it is being formed. Such an analysis is performed here in the context of nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamics for a generic time-dependent equilibrium representing a gradually forming current sheet. It is shown that two onset regimes, single-island and multi-island, are possible, depending on the rate of current sheet formation. A simple model is used to compute the criterion for transition between these two regimes, as well as the reconnection onset time and the current sheet parameters at that moment. For typical solar corona parameters, this model yields results consistent with observations.

  11. Current sheets at three-dimensional magnetic nulls: Effect of compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, D. I.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Galsgaard, K.

    2007-05-01

    The nature of current sheet formation in the vicinity of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic null points is investigated. The particular focus is upon the effect of the compressibility of the plasma on the qualitative and quantitative properties of the current sheet. An initially potential 3D null is subjected to shearing perturbations, as in a previous paper [Pontin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 052106 (2007)]. It is found that as the incompressible limit is approached, the collapse of the null point is suppressed and an approximately planar current sheet aligned to the fan plane is present instead. This is the case regardless of whether the spine or fan of the null is sheared. Both the peak current and peak reconnection rate are reduced. The results have a bearing on previous analytical solutions for steady-state reconnection in incompressible plasmas, implying that fan current sheet solutions are dynamically accessible, while spine current sheet solutions are not.

  12. Current sheet formation and non-ideal behaviour at three-dimensional magnetic null points

    CERN Document Server

    Pontin, D I; Galsgaard, K

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the evolution of the magnetic field, and of current sheet formation, at three-dimensional (3D) magnetic null points is investigated. A kinematic example is presented which demonstrates that there is no possible choice of boundary conditions which renders the evolution of the field ideal at the null, when the ratios of the null eigenvalues are time-dependent. Resistive MHD simulations are described which demonstrate that this evolution is generic. A 3D null is subjected to boundary driving by shearing motions, and it is shown that a current sheet localised at the null is formed. The qualitative and quantitative properties of the current sheet are discussed. Accompanying the sheet development is the growth of a localised parallel electric field, one of the signatures of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the relevance of the results to a recent theory of turbulent reconnection are discussed.

  13. Numerical study of magnetic reconnection process near in- terplanetary current sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The third order accurate upwind compact difference scheme has been applied to the numerical study of the magnetic reconnection process possibly occurring near the interplanetary current sheet, under the framework of the two-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Our results here show that the driven reconnection near the current sheet can occur within 10-30 min for the interplanetary high magnetic Reynolds number, RM =2 000-10 000, the stable magnetic reconnection structure can be formed in hour-order of magnitude, and there are some ba- sic properties such as the multiple X-line reconnections, vortical velocity structures, filament current systems, split-ting and collapse of the high-density plasma bulk. These results are helpful in understanding and identifying the magnetic reconnection phenomena near the interplanetary current sheets.

  14. Observational Study on Current Sheet of Magnetic Reconnection in Two Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang-wei, Cai; Ning, Wu; Jun, Lin

    2016-07-01

    The coronal magnetic configuration behind coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can commonly be stretched severely, thus to push the magnetic fields with opposite polarities to approach each other, and to form a current sheet of magnetic reconnection. The current sheet in solar eruptions is not only an important region to convert the magnetic free energy into thermal energy, plasma kinetic energy, and energetic particle beams, but also plays a role to connect CMEs and flares. In the CME events of 2003 January 3 and 2003 November 4, the development of current sheet has been observed in both cases. We have investigated the dynamic features and physical properties of current sheet in the two events, based on the data of LASCO (Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph) and UVCS (Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer) on board of SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), and the Hα data from BBSO (Big Bear Solar Observatory) and YNAO (Yunnan Astronomical Observatory). The existence of ions with a high degree of ionization, such as Fe+17 and Si+11, indicates a high temperature up to 3×106 ∼5×106 K in the region of current sheet. A direct measurement shows that the thickness of current sheet varies between 1.3×104 and 1.1×105 km, which increases first and then decreases with time. Using the CHIANTI code (v.7.1), we have further calculated the average values of electron temperature and corresponding emission measure (EM) respectively to be 3.86×106 K and 6.1×1024 cm-5 in the current sheet of the 2003 January 3 event. We also find that the current sheet twisted forth and back quasi-periodically during the eruption event on 2003 November 4 by analyzing the observational data from SOHO/UVCS.

  15. A Tailward Moving Current Sheet Normal Magnetic Field Front Followed by an Earthward Moving Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Moore, T. E.; Walsh, B. M.; Baishev, D. G.; Moiseyev, A. V.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Yumoto, K.

    2014-01-01

    A case study is presented using measurements from the Cluster spacecraft and ground-based magnetometers that show a substorm onset propagating from the inner to outer plasma sheet. On 3 October 2005, Cluster, traversing an ion-scale current sheet at the near-Earth plasma sheet, detected a sudden enhancement of Bz, which was immediately followed by a series of flux rope structures. Both the local Bz enhancement and flux ropes propagated tailward. Approximately 5 min later, another Bz enhancement, followed by a large density decrease, was observed to rapidly propagate earthward. Between the two Bz enhancements, a significant removal of magnetic flux occurred, possibly resulting from the tailward moving Bz enhancement and flux ropes. In our scenario, this flux removal caused the magnetotail to be globally stretched so that the thinnest sheet formed tailward of Cluster. The thinned current sheet facilitated magnetic reconnection that quickly evolved from plasma sheet to lobe and generated the later earthward moving dipolarization front (DF) followed by a reduction in density and entropy. Ground magnetograms located near the meridian of Cluster's magnetic foot points show two-step bay enhancements. The positive bay associated with the first Bz enhancement indicates that the substorm onset signatures propagated from the inner to the outer plasma sheet, consistent with the Cluster observation. The more intense bay features associated with the later DF are consistent with the earthward motion of the front. The event suggests that current disruption signatures that originated in the near-Earth current sheet propagated tailward, triggering or facilitating midtail reconnection, thereby preconditioning the magnetosphere for a later strong substorm enhancement.

  16. Suppression of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Asymmetric Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the suppression of asymmetric reconnection in the limit where the diamagnetic drift speed >> Alfven speed and the magnetic shear angle is moderate. We demonstrate that the slippage between electrons and the magnetic flux mitigates the suppression and can even result in fast reconnection that lacks one of the outflow jets. Through comparing a case where the diamagnetic drift is supported by the temperature gradient with a companion case that has a density gradient instead, we identify a robust suppression mechanism. The drift of the x-line is slowed down locally by the asymmetric nature of the x-line, and then the x-line is run over and swallowed by the faster-moving following flux.

  17. Magnetic reconnection and tearing in a 3D current sheet about a solar coronal null

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, David; Wyper, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic null points are ubiquitous in the solar corona and in any generic mixed-polarity magnetic field. We discuss the nature of flux transfer during reconnection an isolated coronal null point, that occurs across the fan plane when a current sheet forms about the null. We then go on to discuss the breakup of the current sheet via a non-linear tearing-type instability and show that the instability threshold corresponds to a Lundquist number comparable to the 2D case. We also discuss the resulting topology of the magnetic field, which involves a layer in which open and closed magnetic fields are effectively mixed, with implications for particle transport.

  18. "Ideally" unstable current sheets and the triggering of fast magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Tenerani, Anna; Pucci, Fulvia; Landi, Simone; Rappazzo, Antonio Franco

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is thought to be the dynamical mechanism underlying many explosive phenomena observed both in space and in the laboratory, though the question of how fast magnetic reconnection is triggered in such high Lundquist ($S$) number plasmas has remained elusive. It has been well established that reconnection can develop over timescales faster than those predicted traditionally once kinetic scales are reached. It has also been shown that, within the framework of resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), fast reconnection is achieved for thin enough sheets via the onset of the so-called plasmoid instability. The latter was discovered in studies specifically devoted to the Sweet-Parker current sheet, either as an initial condition or an apparent transient state developing in nonlinear studies. On the other hand, a fast tearing instability can grow on an ideal, i.e., $S$-independent, timescale (dubbed "ideal" tearing) within current sheets whose aspect ratio scales with the macroscopic Lundquist number...

  19. Secondary magnetic islands generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a reconnecting current sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermo, R L; Drake, J F; Swisdak, M

    2012-06-22

    Magnetic islands or flux ropes produced by magnetic reconnection have been observed on the magnetopause, in the magnetotail, and in coronal current sheets. Particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection with a guide field produce elongated electron current layers that spontaneously produce secondary islands. Here, we explore the seed mechanism that gives birth to these islands. The most commonly suggested theory for island formation is the tearing instability. We demonstrate that in our simulations these structures typically start out, not as magnetic islands, but as electron flow vortices within the electron current sheet. When some of these vortices first form, they do not coincide with closed magnetic field lines, as would be the case if they were islands. Only after they have grown larger than the electron skin depth do they couple to the magnetic field and seed the growth of finite-sized islands. The streaming of electrons along the magnetic separatrix produces the flow shear necessary to drive an electron Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and produce the initial vortices. The conditions under which this instability is the dominant mechanism for seeding magnetic islands are explored.

  20. 3-d resistive MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection and the tearing mode instability in current sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, G C; Pelletier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in many astrophysical processes where high energy emission is observed, e.g. particle acceleration, relativistic accretion powered outflows, pulsar winds and probably in dissipation of Poynting flux in GRBs. The magnetic field acts as a reservoir of energy and can dissipate its energy to thermal and kinetic energy via the tearing mode instability. We have performed 3d nonlinear MHD simulations of the tearing mode instability in a current sheet. Results from a temporal stability analysis in both the linear regime and weakly nonlinear (Rutherford) regime are compared to the numerical simulations. We observe magnetic island formation, island merging and oscillation once the instability has saturated. The growth in the linear regime is exponential in agreement with linear theory. In the second, Rutherford regime the island width grows linearly with time. We find that thermal energy produced in the current sheet strongly dominates the kinetic energy. Finally preliminary ...

  1. Magnetotail Current Sheet Thinning and Magnetic Reconnection Dynamics in Global Modeling of Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetotail current sheet thinning and magnetic reconnection are key elements of magnetospheric substorms. We utilized the global MHD model BATS-R-US with Adaptive Mesh Refinement developed at the University of Michigan to investigate the formation and dynamic evolution of the magnetotail thin current sheet. The BATSRUS adaptive grid structure allows resolving magnetotail regions with increased current density up to ion kinetic scales. We investigated dynamics of magnetotail current sheet thinning in response to southwards IMF turning. Gradual slow current sheet thinning during the early growth phase become exponentially fast during the last few minutes prior to nightside reconnection onset. The later stage of current sheet thinning is accompanied by earthward flows and rapid suppression of normal magnetic field component $B-z$. Current sheet thinning set the stage for near-earth magnetic reconnection. In collisionless magnetospheric plasma, the primary mechanism controlling the dissipation in the vicinity of the reconnection site is non-gyrotropic effects with spatial scales comparable with the particle Larmor radius. One of the major challenges in global MHD modeling of the magnetotail magnetic reconnection is to reproduce fast reconnection rates typically observed in smallscale kinetic simulations. Bursts of fast reconnection cause fast magnetic field reconfiguration typical for magnetospheric substorms. To incorporate nongyritropic effects in diffusion regions we developed an algorithm to search for magnetotail reconnection sites, specifically where the magnetic field components perpendicular to the local current direction approaches zero and form an X-type configuration. Spatial scales of the diffusion region and magnitude of the reconnection electric field are calculated self-consistently using MHD plasma and field parameters in the vicinity of the reconnection site. The location of the reconnection sites and spatial scales of the diffusion region are updated

  2. Instability of current sheets with a localized accumulation of magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    2015-06-01

    The longstanding problem of whether a current sheet with curved magnetic field lines associated with a small "normal" Bz component is stable is investigated using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations, employing closed boundary conditions analogous to those normally assumed in energy principle calculations. Energy principle arguments [Sitnov and Schindler, Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L08102 (2010)] have suggested that an accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of a thin current sheet could produce a tearing instability. Two classes of such current sheet configurations are probed: one with a monotonically increasing Bz profile and the other with a localized Bz "hump." The former is found to be stable (in 2D) over any reasonable time scale, while the latter is prone to an ideal-like instability that shifts the hump peak in the direction of the curvature normal and erodes the field on the opposite side. The growth rate of this instability is smaller by an order of magnitude than previous suggestions of an instability in an open system. An example is given that suggests that such an unstable hump configuration is unlikely to be produced by external driving of a current sheet with no Bz accumulation even in the presence of open boundary conditions.

  3. Observations of Thin Current Sheets in the Solar Wind and Their Role in Magnetic Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dorelli, J.; Sahraoui, F.; Gurgiolo, C. A.; Karimabadi, H.; Mozer, F.; Wendel, D. E.; TenBarge, J.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2013-12-01

    A recent analysis of 450 vec/s resolution data from the STAFF search-coil magnetometer on board Cluster has revealed, for the first time, the presence of thin current sheets and discontinuities from the proton Larmor scale down to the electron Larmor scale in the solar wind. This is in the range of scales where a cascade of energy consistent with highly oblique kinetic Alfvénic fluctuations (KAW), eventually dissipated by electron Landau damping, has been detected. The current sheets have been found to have a size between 20-200 km, indicating that they are very localized. We will compare the observations with results coming from 2D Hall MHD, Gyrokinetic, and full Particle-in-Cell turbulence simulations. Preliminary work has highlighted promising qualitative agreement between the properties of the structures observed in the Cluster data and the current sheets generated in the simulations. With the aim of investigating the role played by those structures in dissipating the magnetic energy in the solar wind, E●J has been computed within each magnetic discontinuity. This has been made possible via a combined analysis of both STAFF-SC magnetic field data and the electric field data from the Electric Fields and Wave instrument (EFW). We describe procedures used to reduce the noise in the EFW data. The results obtained represent an effort to clarify the processes involved in the dissipation of magnetic energy in the solar wind.

  4. Current sheet flapping motions in the tailward flow of magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming; Volwerk, Martin; Vörös, Zoltán.; Ma, Xuanye; Wang, Shui

    2016-08-01

    The feature and origin of current sheet flapping motions are one of most interesting issues of magnetospheric dynamics. In this paper we report the flapping motion of the current sheet detected in the tailward flow of a magnetic reconnection event on 7 February 2009. This flapping motion with frequency about 12 mHz was accompanied by magnetic turbulence. The observations by the tail-elongated fleet of five Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes indicate that these flapping oscillations were rather confined within the tailward flow than were due to a global process. This flapping motion could be due to the instability driven by the free energy associated with the ion temperature anisotropy in the tailward flow. Our observations indicate that the flapping motion in the tailward flow could have a different generation mechanism with that in the earthward flow.

  5. Influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V., E-mail: galya-ostr@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Markov, V. S.; Frank, A. G., E-mail: annfrank@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium plasma in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations with X-type singular lines is studied by the methods of holographic interferometry and magnetic measurements. Significant differences in the structures of plasma and current sheets formed at close parameters of the initial plasma and similar configurations of the initial magnetic fields are revealed.

  6. Measurement of ion velocity profiles in a magnetic reconnection layer via current sheet jogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G.; Yoo, J.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Dorfman, S.; Lawrence, E.; Myers, C.; Tharp, T.

    2011-10-01

    In many laboratory plasmas, constructing stationary Langmuir and Mach probe arrays with resolution on the order of electron skin depth is technically difficult, and can introduce significant plasma perturbations. However, complete two- dimensional profiles of plasma density, electron temperature, and ion flow are important for studying the transfer of energy from magnetic fields to particles during magnetic reconnection. Through the use of extra ``Shaping Field'' coils in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the inward motion of the current sheet in the reconnection layer can be accelerated, or ``jogged,'' allowing the measurement of different points across the sheet with stationary probes. By acquiring data from Langmuir probes and Mach probes at different locations in the MRX with respect to the current sheet center, profiles of electron density and temperature and a vector plot of two-dimensional ion velocity in the plane of reconnection are created. Results from probe measurements will be presented and compared to profiles generated from computer simulation.

  7. Reconnection at three dimensional magnetic null points: Effect of current sheet asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyper, P. F.; Jain, Rekha

    2013-05-01

    Asymmetric current sheets are likely to be prevalent in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas with complex three dimensional (3D) magnetic topologies. This work presents kinematic analytical models for spine and fan reconnection at a radially symmetric 3D null (i.e., a null where the eigenvalues associated with the fan plane are equal) with asymmetric current sheets. Asymmetric fan reconnection is characterized by an asymmetric reconnection of flux past each spine line and a bulk flow of plasma across the null point. In contrast, asymmetric spine reconnection is characterized by the reconnection of an equal quantity of flux across the fan plane in both directions. The higher modes of spine reconnection also include localized wedges of vortical flux transport in each half of the fan. In this situation, two definitions for reconnection rate become appropriate: a local reconnection rate quantifying how much flux is genuinely reconnected across the fan plane and a global rate associated with the net flux driven across each semi-plane. Through a scaling analysis, it is shown that when the ohmic dissipation in the layer is assumed to be constant, the increase in the local rate bleeds from the global rate as the sheet deformation is increased. Both models suggest that asymmetry in the current sheet dimensions will have a profound effect on the reconnection rate and manner of flux transport in reconnection involving 3D nulls.

  8. Reconnection at three dimensional magnetic null points: Effect of current sheet asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyper, P. F.; Jain, Rekha [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Asymmetric current sheets are likely to be prevalent in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas with complex three dimensional (3D) magnetic topologies. This work presents kinematic analytical models for spine and fan reconnection at a radially symmetric 3D null (i.e., a null where the eigenvalues associated with the fan plane are equal) with asymmetric current sheets. Asymmetric fan reconnection is characterized by an asymmetric reconnection of flux past each spine line and a bulk flow of plasma across the null point. In contrast, asymmetric spine reconnection is characterized by the reconnection of an equal quantity of flux across the fan plane in both directions. The higher modes of spine reconnection also include localized wedges of vortical flux transport in each half of the fan. In this situation, two definitions for reconnection rate become appropriate: a local reconnection rate quantifying how much flux is genuinely reconnected across the fan plane and a global rate associated with the net flux driven across each semi-plane. Through a scaling analysis, it is shown that when the ohmic dissipation in the layer is assumed to be constant, the increase in the local rate bleeds from the global rate as the sheet deformation is increased. Both models suggest that asymmetry in the current sheet dimensions will have a profound effect on the reconnection rate and manner of flux transport in reconnection involving 3D nulls.

  9. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a current-vortex sheet at a 3D magnetic null

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyper, P. F.; Pontin, D. I.

    2013-03-01

    We report here, for the first time, an observed instability of a Kelvin-Helmholtz nature occurring in a fully three-dimensional (3D) current-vortex sheet at the fan plane of a 3D magnetic null point. The current-vortex layer forms self-consistently in response to foot point driving around the spine lines of the null. The layer first becomes unstable at an intermediate distance from the null point, with the instability being characterized by a rippling of the fan surface and a filamentation of the current density and vorticity in the shear layer. Owing to the 3D geometry of the shear layer, a branching of the current filaments and vortices is observed. The instability results in a mixing of plasma between the two topologically distinct regions of magnetic flux on either side of the fan separatrix surface, as flux is reconnected across this surface. We make a preliminary investigation of the scaling of the system with the dissipation parameters. Our results indicate that the fan plane separatrix surface is an ideal candidate for the formation of current-vortex sheets in complex magnetic fields and, therefore, the enhanced heating and connectivity change associated with the instabilities of such layers.

  10. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a current-vortex sheet at a 3D magnetic null

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyper, P. F. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Pontin, D. I. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    We report here, for the first time, an observed instability of a Kelvin-Helmholtz nature occurring in a fully three-dimensional (3D) current-vortex sheet at the fan plane of a 3D magnetic null point. The current-vortex layer forms self-consistently in response to foot point driving around the spine lines of the null. The layer first becomes unstable at an intermediate distance from the null point, with the instability being characterized by a rippling of the fan surface and a filamentation of the current density and vorticity in the shear layer. Owing to the 3D geometry of the shear layer, a branching of the current filaments and vortices is observed. The instability results in a mixing of plasma between the two topologically distinct regions of magnetic flux on either side of the fan separatrix surface, as flux is reconnected across this surface. We make a preliminary investigation of the scaling of the system with the dissipation parameters. Our results indicate that the fan plane separatrix surface is an ideal candidate for the formation of current-vortex sheets in complex magnetic fields and, therefore, the enhanced heating and connectivity change associated with the instabilities of such layers.

  11. Reconnection at 3D Magnetic Null Points: Effect of Current Sheet Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Wyper, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric current sheets are likely to be prevalent in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas with complex three dimensional (3D) magnetic topologies. This work presents kinematic analytical models for spine and fan reconnection at a symmetric 3D null with asymmetric current sheets. Asymmetric fan reconnection is characterized by an asymmetric reconnection of flux past each spine line and a bulk flow of plasma across the null point. In contrast, asymmetric spine reconnection is inherently equal and opposite in how flux is reconnected across the fan plane. The higher modes of spine reconnection also include localized wedges of vortical flux transport in each half of the fan. In this situation, two definitions for reconnection rate become appropriate: a local reconnection rate quantifying how much flux is genuinely reconnected across the fan plane and a global rate associated with the net flux driven across each semi-plane. Through a scaling analysis it is shown that when the ohmic dissipation in the layer ...

  12. Electrodynamics in a Very Thin Current Sheet Leading to Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Deverapalli, Chakri; Khazanov, George

    2006-01-01

    We study the formation of a very thin current sheet (CS) and associated plasma electrodynamics using three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell simulations with ion to electron mass ratio M/m=1836. The CS is driven by imposed anti-parallel magnetic fields. The noteworthy features of the temporal evolution of the CS are the following: (i) Steepening of the magnetic field profile B,(z) in the central part of the CS, (ii) Generation of three-peak current distribution with the largest peak in the CS center as B,(z) steepens, (iii) Generation of converging electric fields forming a potential well in the CS center in which ions are accelerated. (iv) Electron and ion heating in the central part of the CS by current-driven instabilities (CDI). (v) Re-broadening of the CS due to increased kinetic plasma pressure in the CS center. (vi) Generation of electron temperature anisotropy with temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field being larger than the parallel one. (vii) Current disruption by electron trapping in an explosively growing electrostatic instability (EGEI) and electron tearing instability (ETI). (viii)The onset of EGEI coincides with an increase in the electron temperature above the temperature of the initially hot ions as well as the appearance of new shear in the electron drift velocity. (ix) Bifurcation of the central CS by the current disruption. (x) Magnetic reconnection (MR) beginning near the null in B, and spreading outward. (xi) Generation of highly energized electrons reaching relativistic speeds and having isotropic pitch-angle distribution in the region of reconnected magnetic fields. We compare some of these features of the current sheet with results from laboratory and space experiments.

  13. Electrodynamics in a very thin current sheet leading to magnetic reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Singh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the formation of a very thin current sheet (CS and associated plasma electrodynamics using three-dimensional (3-D particle-in-cell simulations with ion to electron mass ratio M/m=1836. The CS is driven by imposed anti-parallel magnetic fields. The noteworthy features of the temporal evolution of the CS are the following: (i Steepening of the magnetic field profile Bx(z in the central part of the CS, (ii Generation of three-peak current distribution with the largest peak in the CS center as Bx(z steepens, (iii Generation of converging electric fields forming a potential well in the CS center in which ions are accelerated. (iv Electron and ion heating in the central part of the CS by current-driven instabilities (CDI. (v Re-broadening of the CS due to increased kinetic plasma pressure in the CS center. (vi Generation of electron temperature anisotropy with temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field being larger than the parallel one. (vii Current disruption by electron trapping in an explosively growing electrostatic instability (EGEI and electron tearing instability (ETI. (viiiThe onset of EGEI coincides with an increase in the electron temperature above the temperature of the initially hot ions as well as the appearance of new shear in the electron drift velocity. (ix Bifurcation of the central CS by the current disruption. (x Magnetic reconnection (MR beginning near the null in Bx and spreading outward. (xi Generation of highly energized electrons reaching relativistic speeds and having isotropic pitch-angle distribution in the region of reconnected magnetic fields. We compare some of these features of the current sheet with results from laboratory and space experiments.

  14. The Onset of Magnetic Reconnection: Tearing Instability in Current Sheets with a Guide Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldorff, Lars K. S.; Klimchuk, James A.; Leake, James E.; Knizhnik, Kalman

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection is fundamental to many solar phenomena, ranging from coronal heating, to jets, to flares and CMEs. A poorly understood yet crucial aspect of reconnection is that it does not occur until magnetic stresses have built to sufficiently high levels for significant energy release. If reconnection were to happen too soon, coronal heating would be weak and flares would be small. As part of our program to study the onset conditions for magnetic reconnection, we have investigated the instability of current sheets to tearing. Surprisingly little work has been done on this problem for sheets that include a guide field, i.e., for which the field rotates by less than 180 degrees. This is the most common situation on the Sun. We present numerical 3D resistive MHD simulations of several sheets and show how the behavior depends on the shear angle (rotation). We compare our results to the predictions of linear theory and discuss the nonlinear evolution in terms of plasmoid formation and the interaction of different oblique tearing modes. The relevance to the Sun is explained.

  15. Explosive Magnetic Reconnection in Double-current Sheet Systems: Ideal versus Resistive Tearing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Hubert

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic reconnection associated with the tearing instability occurring in double-current sheet systems is investigated within the framework of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. A special emphasis on the existence of fast and explosive phases is taken. First, we extend the recent theory on the ideal tearing mode of a single-current sheet to a double-current layer configuration. A linear stability analysis shows that, in long and thin systems with (length to shear layer thickness) aspect ratios scaling as {S}L9/29 (S L being the Lundquist number based on the length scale L), tearing modes can develop on a fast Alfvénic timescale in the asymptotic limit {S}L\\to ∞ . The linear results are confirmed by means of compressible resistive MHD simulations at relatively high S L values (up to 3× {10}6) for different current sheet separations. Moreover, the nonlinear evolution of the ideal double tearing mode (IDTM) exhibits a richer dynamical behavior than its single-tearing counterpart, as a nonlinear explosive growth violently ends up with a disruption when the two current layers interact trough the merging of plasmoids. The final outcome of the system is a relaxation toward a new state, free of magnetic field reversal. The IDTM dynamics is also compared to the resistive double tearing mode dynamics, which develops in similar systems with smaller aspect ratios, ≳ 2π , and exhibits an explosive secondary reconnection, following an initial slow resistive growth phase. Finally, our results are used to discuss the flaring activity in astrophysical magnetically dominated plasmas, with a particular emphasis on pulsar systems.

  16. Heating Mechanisms in the Low Solar Atmosphere through Magnetic Reconnection in Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun; Roussev, Ilia I.; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2016-12-01

    We simulate several magnetic reconnection processes in the low solar chromosphere/photosphere; the radiation cooling, heat conduction and ambipolar diffusion are all included. Our numerical results indicate that both the high temperature (≳8 × 104 K) and low temperature (˜104 K) magnetic reconnection events can happen in the low solar atmosphere (100-600 km above the solar surface). The plasma β controlled by plasma density and magnetic fields is one important factor to decide how much the plasma can be heated up. The low temperature event is formed in a high β magnetic reconnection process, Joule heating is the main mechanism to heat plasma and the maximum temperature increase is only several thousand Kelvin. The high temperature explosions can be generated in a low β magnetic reconnection process, slow and fast-mode shocks attached at the edges of the well developed plasmoids are the main physical mechanisms to heat the plasma from several thousand Kelvin to over 8 × 104 K. Gravity in the low chromosphere can strongly hinder the plasmoid instability and the formation of slow-mode shocks in a vertical current sheet. Only small secondary islands are formed; these islands, however, are not as well developed as those in the horizontal current sheets. This work can be applied to understand the heating mechanism in the low solar atmosphere and could possibly be extended to explain the formation of common low temperature Ellerman bombs (˜104 K) and the high temperature Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) bombs (≳8 × 104) in the future.

  17. Three-dimensional evolution of a relativistic current sheet: triggering of magnetic reconnection by the guide field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenitani, S; Hoshino, M

    2005-08-26

    The linear and nonlinear evolution of a relativistic current sheet of pair (e(+/-)) plasmas is investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. In a Harris configuration, it is obtained that the magnetic energy is fast dissipated by the relativistic drift kink instability (RDKI). However, when a current-aligned magnetic field (the so-called "guide field") is introduced, the RDKI is stabilized by the magnetic tension force and it separates into two obliquely propagating modes, which we call the relativistic drift-kink-tearing instability. These two waves deform the current sheet so that they trigger relativistic magnetic reconnection at a crossover thinning point. Since relativistic reconnection produces a lot of nonthermal particles, the guide field is of critical importance to study the energetics of a relativistic current sheet.

  18. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a current-vortex sheet at a 3D magnetic null

    CERN Document Server

    Wyper, P F

    2013-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, an observed instability of a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) nature occurring in a fully three-dimensional (3D) current-vortex sheet at the fan plane of a 3D magnetic null point. The current-vortex layer forms self-consistently in response to foot point driving around the spine lines of the null. The layer first becomes unstable at an intermediate distance from the null point, with the instability being characterized by a rippling of the fan surface and a filamentation of the current density and vorticity in the shear layer. Owing to the 3D geometry of the shear layer, a branching of the current filaments and vortices is observed. The instability results in a mixing of plasma between the two topologically distinct regions of magnetic flux on either side of the fan separatrix surface, as flux is reconnected across this surface. We make a preliminary investigation of the scaling of the system with the dissipation parameters. Our results indicate that the fan plane separatrix surface is...

  19. Small-scale magnetic islands in the solar wind and their role in particle acceleration. Part 1: Dynamics of magnetic islands near the heliospheric current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Khabarova, O; Li, G; Roux, J A le; Webb, G M; Dosch, A; Malandraki, O E

    2015-01-01

    Increases of ion fluxes in the keV-MeV range are sometimes observed near the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) during periods when other sources are absent. These resemble solar energetic particle (SEP) events, but the events are weaker and apparently local. Conventional explanations based on either shock acceleration of charged particles or particle acceleration due to magnetic reconnection at interplanetary current sheets are not persuasive. We suggest instead that recurrent magnetic reconnection occurs at the HCS and smaller current sheets in the solar wind (Zharkova & Khabarova 2012), of which a consequence is particle energization by the dynamically evolving secondary current sheets and magnetic islands (Zank et al. 2014; Drake et al. 2006a). The effectiveness of the trapping and acceleration process associated with magnetic islands depends in part on the topology of the HCS. We show that the HCS possesses ripples superimposed on the large-scale flat or wavy structure. We conjecture that the ripples c...

  20. Macroscopic fields in thin ferromagnetic sheets taking into account eddy currents and Landau-Lifshitz magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Luc; Olyslager, Frank; Melkebeek, Jan

    2004-05-01

    The paper deals with a numerical model for the evaluation of the electromagnetic behavior in thin magnetic sheets. Therefore, we consider Maxwell's equations together with a nonlinear magnetic constitutive law described by the Landau-Lifshitz equation. We present a suitable numerical approximation based upon a finite element-finite difference method. At each time step in the numerical scheme, the magnetization dynamics is calculated analytically by introducing for each finite element node a transformation towards a local coordinate system.

  1. Laboratory study of magnetic reconnection with a density asymmetry across the current sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Myers, Clayton E; Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-08-29

    The effects of a density asymmetry across the current sheet on anti-parallel magnetic reconnection are studied systematically in a laboratory plasma. Despite a significant density ratio of up to 10, the in-plane magnetic field profile is not significantly changed. On the other hand, the out-of-plane Hall magnetic field profile is considerably modified; it is almost bipolar in structure with the density asymmetry, as compared to quadrupolar in structure with the symmetric configuration. Moreover, the ion stagnation point is shifted to the low-density side, and the electrostatic potential profile also becomes asymmetric with a deeper potential well on the low-density side. Nonclassical bulk electron heating together with electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range is observed near the low-density-side separatrix. The dependence of the ion outflow and reconnection electric field on the density asymmetry is measured and compared with theoretical expectations. The measured ion outflow speeds are about 40% of the theoretical values.

  2. Forced current sheet structure, formation and evolution: application to magnetic reconnection in the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Domrin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available By means of a simulation model, the earlier predicted nonlinear kinetic structure, a Forced Kinetic Current Sheet (FKCS, with extremely anisotropic ion distributions, is shown to appear as a result of a fast nonlinear process of transition from a previously existing equilibrium. This occurs under triggering action of a weak MHD disturbance that is applied at the boundary of the simulation box. In the FKCS, current is carried by initially cold ions which are brought into the CS by convection from both sides, and accelerated inside the CS. The process then appears to be spontaneously self-sustained, as a MHD disturbance of a rarefaction wave type propagates over the background plasma outside the CS. Comparable to the Alfvénic discontinuity in MHD, transformation of electromagnetic energy into the energy of plasma flows occurs at the FKCS. But unlike the MHD case, ``free" energy is produced here: dissipation should occur later, through particle interaction with turbulent waves generated by unstable ion distribution being formed by the FKCS action. In this way, an effect of magnetic field ``annihilation" appears, required for fast magnetic reconnection. Application of the theory to observations at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail is considered.

  3. Ion motion in the current sheet with sheared magnetic field – Part 1: Quasi-adiabatic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory of trapped ion motion in the magnetotail current sheet with a constant dawn–dusk component of the magnetic field. Particle trajectories are described analytically using the quasi-adiabatic invariant corresponding to averaging of fast oscillations around the tangential component of the magnetic field. We consider particle dynamics in the quasi-adiabatic approximation and demonstrate that the principal role is played by large (so called geometrical jumps of the quasi-adiabatic invariant. These jumps appear due to the current sheet asymmetry related to the presence of the dawn–dusk magnetic field. The analytical description is compared with results of numerical integration. We show that there are four possible regimes of particle motion. Each regime is characterized by certain ranges of values of the dawn–dusk magnetic field and particle energy. We find the critical value of the dawn–dusk magnetic field, where jumps of the quasi-adiabatic invariant vanish.

  4. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  5. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields --- II. Flux Rope Eruptions With Current Sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. Especially, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. The released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares. The flux rope would go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is ...

  6. Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. II. Flux rope eruptions with current sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yu, Cong, E-mail: muduri@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: cyu@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Object, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2014-11-20

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of a CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. In particular, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. This released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares, and the flux rope would, therefore, go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is inconsistent with the radio afterglow. Fortunately, in the latter case, i.e., the catastrophic escape, the flux rope could escape the magnetar and go to infinity in a dynamical way. This is more consistent with radio afterglow observations of giant flares. We find that the minor radius of the flux rope has important implications for its eruption. Flux ropes with larger minor radii are more prone to erupt. We stress that the CS provides an ideal place for magnetic reconnection, which would further enhance the energy release during eruptions.

  7. Plasmoid ejection and secondary current sheet generation from magnetic reconnection in laser-plasma interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Li; Wang, Shou-Jun; Lu, Quan-Ming; Huang, Can; Yuan, Da-Wei; Liu, Xun; Lin, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Yu-Tong; Wei, Hui-Gang; Zhong, Jia-Yong; Shi, Jian-Rong; Jiang, Shao-En; Ding, Yong-Kun; Jiang, Bo-Bin; Du, Kai; He, Xian-Tu; Yu, M Y; Liu, C S; Wang, Shui; Tang, Yong-Jian; Zhu, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Gang; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2012-05-25

    Reconnection of the self-generated magnetic fields in laser-plasma interaction was first investigated experimentally by Nilson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 255001 (2006)] by shining two laser pulses a distance apart on a solid target layer. An elongated current sheet (CS) was observed in the plasma between the two laser spots. In order to more closely model magnetotail reconnection, here two side-by-side thin target layers, instead of a single one, are used. It is found that at one end of the elongated CS a fanlike electron outflow region including three well-collimated electron jets appears. The (>1 MeV) tail of the jet energy distribution exhibits a power-law scaling. The enhanced electron acceleration is attributed to the intense inductive electric field in the narrow electron dominated reconnection region, as well as additional acceleration as they are trapped inside the rapidly moving plasmoid formed in and ejected from the CS. The ejection also induces a secondary CS.

  8. Effects on magnetic reconnection of a density asymmetry across the current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Tanaka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The magnetopause (MP reconnection is characterized by a density asymmetry across the current sheet. The asymmetry is expected to produce characteristic features in the reconnection layer. Here we present a comparison between the Cluster MP crossing reported by Retinò et al. (2006 and virtual observations in two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results. The simulation, which includes the density asymmetry but has zero guide field in the initial condition, has reproduced well the observed features as follows: (1 The prominent density dip region is detected at the separatrix region (SR on the magnetospheric (MSP side of the MP. (2 The intense electric field normal to the MP is pointing to the center of the MP at the location where the density dip is detected. (3 The ion bulk outflow due to the magnetic reconnection is seen to be biased towards the MSP side. (4 The out-of-plane magnetic field (the Hall magnetic field has bipolar rather than quadrupolar structure, the latter of which is seen for a density symmetric case. The simulation also showed rich electron dynamics (formation of field-aligned beams in the proximity of the separatrices, which was not fully resolved in the observations. Stepping beyond the simulation-observation comparison, we have also analyzed the electron acceleration and the field line structure in the simulation results. It is found that the bipolar Hall magnetic field structure is produced by the substantial drift of the reconnected field lines at the MSP SR due to the enhanced normal electric field. The field-aligned electrons at the same MSP SR are identified as the gun smokes of the electron acceleration in the close proximity of the X-line. We have also analyzed the X-line structure obtained in the simulation to find that the density asymmetry leads to a steep density gradient in the in-flow region, which may lead to a non-stationary behavior of the X-line when three-dimensional freedom is taken into account.

  9. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  10. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS: Cluster Observation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves around Magnetic Null Point in Thin Current Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-You; Deng, Xiao-Hua; Zhou, Meng; Yuan, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jing-Fang; Lin, Xi; Lin, Min-Hui; Fu, Song

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are observed in the vicinity of the magnetic null of the widely studied magnetic reconnection taking place at the near-earth tail when current sheet becomes dramatic thinning during substorm time on 1 October 2001. We use the Imada method for the 2-D reconnection model and study the characteristics of ESWs near the X-line region and the magnetic null points. The result shows that the amplitude of the observed ESWs in the vicinity of X-line region ranges from 0.1 mV/m to 5 mV/m, and the amplitude is larger near the magnetic null points. The generation mechanism and the role of ESWs associated with magnetic reconnection are also discussed.

  11. Compensation of the Persistent Current Multipoles in the LHC Dipoles by making the Coil Protection Sheet from Soft Magnetic Material

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, C

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a scheme for compensating the persistent current multipole errors of the LHC dipoles by making the coil protection sheets from soft magnetic material of 0.5 mm thickness. The material properties assumed in this study are those of iron sheets with a very low content of impurities (99.99% pure Fe). The non-linearities in the upramp cycle on the b3 multipole component can be reduced by the factor of four (while decreasing the b5 variation by the factor of two. Using sheets of slightly different thicknesses offers a tuning possibility for the series magnet coils and can compensate deviations arising from cables of different suppliers. The calculation method is based on a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors and an M(B) - iteration using the method of coupled boundary elements - finite elements (BEM - FEM). It is now possible to compute persistent current multipole errors of geometries with arbitrarily shaped iron yokes and thin layers of soft magnetic material such as tunin...

  12. Origin of the warped heliospheric current sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, J.M.; Hoeksema, J.T.; Scherrer, P.H.

    1980-08-01

    The warped heliospheric current sheet for early 1976 is calculated from the observed photospheric magnetic field by a potential field method. Comparisons with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field polarity for early 1976 obtained at several locations in the heliosphere by Helios 1, Helios 2, Pioneer 11, and at the earth show a rather detailed agreement between the computed current sheet and the observations. It appears that the large-scale structure of the warped heliospheric current sheet is determined by the structure of the photospheric magnetic field and that ballerina skirt effects may add small-scale ripples.

  13. Origin of the warped heliospheric current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-08-01

    The warped heliospheric current sheet for early 1976 is calculated from the observed photospheric magnetic field by a potential field method. Comparisons with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field polarity for early 1976 obtained at several locations in the heliosphere by Helios 1, Helios 2, Pioneer 11, and at the earth show a rather detailed agreement between the computed current sheet and the observations. It appears that the large-scale structure of the warped heliospheric current sheet is determined by the structure of the photospheric magnetic field and that 'ballerina skirt' effects may add small scale ripples.

  14. Effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the current sheets developing in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the plasma of the current sheets that form in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line is studied by holographic interferometry. The evolution of the plasma sheets that develop in an initial low-density plasma, where a gas is mainly ionized by a pulse current passing through the plasma and initiating the formation of a current sheet, has been comprehensively studied for the first time. At the early stage of evolution, the spatial structure of such a plasma sheet differs substantially from the classic current sheets forming in a dense plasma. Nevertheless, extended plasma sheets with similar parameters form eventually irrespective of the initial plasma density.

  15. Reconnection in thin current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Pucci, Fulvia; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    It has been widely believed that reconnection is the underlying mechanism of many explosive processes observed both in nature and laboratory, but the question of reconnection speed and initial trigger have remained mysterious. How is fast magnetic energy release triggered in high Lundquist (S) and Reynolds (R) number plasmas?It has been shown that a tearing mode instability can grow on an ideal timescale, i.e., independent from the the Lundquist number, once the current sheet thickness becomes thin enough, or rather the inverse aspect ratio a/L reaches a scale a/L~S-1/3. As such, the latter provides a natural, critical threshold for current sheets that can be formed in nature before they disrupt in a few Alfvén time units. Here we discuss the transition to fast reconnection extended to simple viscous and kinetic models and we propose a possible scenario for the transition to explosive reconnection in high-Lundquist number plasmas, that we support with fully nonlinear numerical MHD simulations of a collapsing current sheet.

  16. The effect of wall friction on the current-sheet speed of a magnetically driven shock tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of wall friction on the current-sheet speed is examined by taking some plausible forms of the friction into consideration. The analysis shows that the current-sheet always attains a steady state regardless of the types of friction concerned. It further shows that the experimentally...... observed velocity limitation of the current-sheet at discharge conditions of high voltage and low pressure might be attributed to a friction drag varying linearly with the driving current and the current-sheet speed....

  17. Magnetic Reconnection in the Heliospheric Current Sheet: The Implications of the Different Environments Seen by the VoyagerSpacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisdak, M. M.; Drake, J. F.; Opher, M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic field abutting the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is primarily in the azimuthal direction, either east-to-west or west-to-east. Mis-alignment of the solar rotational and magnetic axesleads to the characteristic ballerina-skirt shape of the HCS and during the solar cycle there can be large excursions in the sheet's latitudinal extent. Voyager 2's observations of energetic electrondropouts are related to its crossing of this boundary. Magnetic reconnection is also thought to occur as the HCS compresses and narrows between the termination shock and the heliopause. Near theequator the two HCS field alignments are present in roughly equal amounts, while near the edges the distribution can be considerably skewed. This will lead to substantial differences in the environmentsof the two Voyager spacecraft since Voyager 1 is north of the equator, but firmly in the sector region, while Voyager 2 is south of the equator and skirting the edges of the sector region. We presentparticle-in-cell simulations demonstrating the consequences of the reconnection of asymmetric amounts of flux. In particular, we will discuss Voyager 2's remaining time in the heliosphere -- including theimplications for the solar wind velocity, energetic particle transport, and the expected structure of Voyager 2's heliopause crossing -- and compare it with the data collected from Voyager 1.

  18. Fluctuation dynamics in reconnecting current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stechow, Adrian; Grulke, Olaf; Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki; Klinger, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    During magnetic reconnection, a highly localized current sheet forms at the boundary between opposed magnetic fields. Its steep perpendicular gradients and fast parallel drifts can give rise to a range of instabilities which can contribute to the overall reconnection dynamics. In two complementary laboratory reconnection experiments, MRX (PPPL, Princeton) and VINETA.II (IPP, Greifswald, Germany), magnetic fluctuations are observed within the current sheet. Despite the large differences in geometries (toroidal vs. linear), plasma parameters (high vs. low beta) and magnetic configuration (low vs. high magnetic guide field), similar broadband fluctuation characteristics are observed in both experiments. These are identified as Whistler-like fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range that propagate along the current sheet in the electron drift direction. They are intrinsic to the localized current sheet and largely independent of the slower reconnection dynamics. This contribution characterizes these magnetic fluctuations within the wide parameter range accessible by both experiments. Specifically, the fluctuation spectra and wave dispersion are characterized with respect to the magnetic topology and plasma parameters of the reconnecting current sheet.

  19. Heating mechanisms in the low solar atmosphere through magnetic reconnection in current sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei; Roussev, Ilia I; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    We simulate several magnetic reconnection processes in the low solar chromosphere/photosphere, the radiation cooling, heat conduction and ambipolar diffusion are all included. Our numerical results indicate that both the high temperature($ \\gtrsim 8\\times10^4$~K) and low temperature($\\sim 10^4$~K) magnetic reconnection events can happen in the low solar atmosphere ($100\\sim600$~km above the solar surface). The plasma $\\beta$ controlled by plasma density and magnetic fields is one important factor to decide how much the plasma can be heated up. The low temperature event is formed in a high $\\beta$ magnetic reconnection process, Joule heating is the main mechanism to heat plasma and the maximum temperature increase is only several thousand Kelvin. The high temperature explosions can be generated in a low $\\beta$ magnetic reconnection process, slow and fast-mode shocks attached at the edges of the well developed plasmoids are the main physical mechanisms to heat the plasma from several thousand Kelvin to over $8...

  20. Laboratory Study Of Magnetic Reconnection With A Density Asymmetry Across The Current Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Joseph; Yamada, Massaaki; Ji, Hantao; Meyers,, Clayton E.; Jara-Almonte,; Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-04-18

    The effects of an upstream density asymmetry on magnetic reconnection are studied systematically in a laboratory plasma. Despite a significant upstream density asymmetry of up to 10, the reconnecting magnetic field pro file is not signifi cantly changed. On the other hand, the out-of-plane magnetic field profile is considerably modified; it is almost bipolar in structure with the density asymmetry, as compared to the quadrupolar structure in the symmetric configuration. The in-plane ion flow pattern and the electrostatic potential pro file are also affected by the density asymmetry. Strong bulk electron heating is observed near the low-density-side separatrix together with electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range. The dependence of the ion outflow and reconnection electric field on the density asymmetry is measured and compared with theoretical expectations.

  1. Physics of the magnetotail current sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J. (Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The Earth's magnetotail plays an important role in the solar-wind--magnetosphere coupling. At the midplane of the magnetotail is a current sheet where the dominant magnetic field component reverses sign. The charged particle motion in and near the current sheet is collisionless and nonintegrable, exhibiting chaotic scattering. The current understanding of the dynamical properties of the charged particle motion is discussed. In particular, the relationships between particle dynamics and global attributes of the system are elucidated. Geometrical properties of the phase space determine important physical observables on both micro- and macroscales.

  2. Evolution and structure of the plasma of current sheets forming in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line at low initial gas ionization and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the experimental data obtained by holographic interferometry in our work [1] makes it possible to explain most of the observed specific features of the structure and evolution of the plasma sheets developing in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a null line in a plasma with a low initial degree of ionization (≈10-4). The following two processes are shown to play a key role here: additional gas ionization in an electric field and the peculiarities of plasma dynamics in a current sheet expanding in time.

  3. Plasma Relaxation Dynamics Moderated by Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-10-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor-relaxed equilibrium model all these constraints are relaxed save for global magnetic flux and helicity. A Lagrangian is presented that leads to a new variational formulation of magnetized fluid dynamics, relaxed MHD (RxMHD), all static solutions of which are Taylor equilibrium states. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-relaxed MHD (MRxMHD), is developed. These concepts are illustrated using a simple two-region slab model similar to that proposed by Hahm and Kulsrud--the formation of an initial shielding current sheet after perturbation by boundary rippling is calculated using MRxMHD and the final island state, after the current sheet has relaxed through a reconnection sequence, is calculated using RxMHD. Australian Research Council Grant DP110102881.

  4. Radiating Current Sheets in the Solar Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    An MHD model of a Hydrogen plasma with flow, an energy equation, NLTE ionization and radiative cooling, and an Ohm's law with anisotropic electrical conduction and thermoelectric effects is used to self-consistently generate atmospheric layers over a $50$ km height range. A subset of these solutions contain current sheets, and have properties similar to those of the lower and middle chromosphere. The magnetic field profiles are found to be close to Harris sheet profiles, with maximum field strengths $\\sim 25-150$ G. The radiative flux $F_R$ emitted by individual sheets is $\\sim 4.9 \\times 10^5 - 4.5 \\times 10^6$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-s$^{-1}$, to be compared with the observed chromospheric emission rate of $\\sim 10^7$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-s$^{-1}$. Essentially all emission is from regions with thicknesses $\\sim 0.5 - 13$ km containing the neutral sheet. About half of $F_R$ comes from sub-regions with thicknesses 10 times smaller. A resolution $\\lesssim 5-130$ m is needed to resolve the properties of the sheets. The sheets...

  5. Thin current sheets in the deep geomagnetic tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, T.I. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)); Baker, D.N.; Owen, C.J. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Gosling, J.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Murphy, N. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1993-11-19

    The ISEE-3 magnetic field and plasma electron data from Jan-March 1983 have been searched to study thin current sheets in the deep tail region. 33 events were selected where the spacecraft crossed through the current sheet from lobe to lobe within 15 minutes. The average thickness of the observed current sheets was 2.45R[sub E], and in 24 cases the current sheet was thinner than 3.0R[sub E]; 6 very thin current sheets (thickness [lambda] < 0.5R[sub E]) were found. The electron data show that the very thin current sheets are associated with considerable temperature anisotropy. On average, the electron gradient current was [approximately]17% of the total current, whereas the current arising from the electron temperature anisotropy varied between 8-45% of the total current determined from the lobe field magnitude. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  6. The origin of the warped heliospheric current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    1980-03-01

    The warped heliospheric current sheet in early 1976 was calculated from the observed photospheric magnetic field using a potential field method. Comparisons with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field polarity in early 1976 obtained at several locations in the heliosphere at Helios 1, Helios 2, Pioneer 11 and Earth show a rather detailed agreement between the computed current sheet and the observations. It appears that the large scale structure of the warped heliospheric current sheet is determined by the structure of the photospheric magnetic field, and that "ballerina skirt" effects may add small scale ripples.

  7. Local structure of the magnetotail current sheet: 2001 Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Runov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty rapid crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by the Cluster spacecraft during July-October 2001 at a geocentric distance of 19 RE are examined in detail to address the structure of the current sheet. We use four-point magnetic field measurements to estimate electric current density; the current sheet spatial scale is estimated by integration of the translation velocity calculated from the magnetic field temporal and spatial derivatives. The local normal-related coordinate system for each case is defined by the combining Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA and the curlometer technique. Numerical parameters characterizing the plasma sheet conditions for these crossings are provided to facilitate future comparisons with theoretical models. Three types of current sheet distributions are distinguished: center-peaked (type I, bifurcated (type II and asymmetric (type III sheets. Comparison to plasma parameter distributions show that practically all cases display non-Harris-type behavior, i.e. interior current peaks are embedded into a thicker plasma sheet. The asymmetric sheets with an off-equatorial current density peak most likely have a transient nature. The ion contribution to the electric current rarely agrees with the current computed using the curlometer technique, indicating that either the electron contribution to the current is strong and variable, or the current density is spatially or temporally structured.

  8. Criticality and turbulence in a resistive magnetohydrodynamic current sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Alexander J; Uritsky, Vadim M

    2017-02-01

    Scaling properties of a two-dimensional (2d) plasma physical current-sheet simulation model involving a full set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with current-dependent resistivity are investigated. The current sheet supports a spatial magnetic field reversal that is forced through loading of magnetic flux containing plasma at boundaries of the simulation domain. A balance is reached between loading and annihilation of the magnetic flux through reconnection at the current sheet; the transport of magnetic flux from boundaries to current sheet is realized in the form of spatiotemporal avalanches exhibiting power-law statistics of lifetimes and sizes. We identify this dynamics as self-organized criticality (SOC) by verifying an extended set of scaling laws related to both global and local properties of the current sheet (critical susceptibility, finite-size scaling of probability distributions, geometric exponents). The critical exponents obtained from this analysis suggest that the model operates in a slowly driven SOC state similar to the mean-field state of the directed stochastic sandpile model. We also investigate multiscale correlations in the velocity field and find them numerically indistinguishable from certain intermittent turbulence (IT) theories. The results provide clues on physical conditions for SOC behavior in a broad class of plasma systems with propagating instabilities, and suggest that SOC and IT may coexist in driven current sheets which occur ubiquitously in astrophysical and space plasmas.

  9. Criticality and turbulence in a resistive magnetohydrodynamic current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Alexander J.; Uritsky, Vadim M.

    2017-02-01

    Scaling properties of a two-dimensional (2d) plasma physical current-sheet simulation model involving a full set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with current-dependent resistivity are investigated. The current sheet supports a spatial magnetic field reversal that is forced through loading of magnetic flux containing plasma at boundaries of the simulation domain. A balance is reached between loading and annihilation of the magnetic flux through reconnection at the current sheet; the transport of magnetic flux from boundaries to current sheet is realized in the form of spatiotemporal avalanches exhibiting power-law statistics of lifetimes and sizes. We identify this dynamics as self-organized criticality (SOC) by verifying an extended set of scaling laws related to both global and local properties of the current sheet (critical susceptibility, finite-size scaling of probability distributions, geometric exponents). The critical exponents obtained from this analysis suggest that the model operates in a slowly driven SOC state similar to the mean-field state of the directed stochastic sandpile model. We also investigate multiscale correlations in the velocity field and find them numerically indistinguishable from certain intermittent turbulence (IT) theories. The results provide clues on physical conditions for SOC behavior in a broad class of plasma systems with propagating instabilities, and suggest that SOC and IT may coexist in driven current sheets which occur ubiquitously in astrophysical and space plasmas.

  10. Bashful Ballerina: Southward shifted Heliospheric Current Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursula, K.; Hiltula, T.

    It is known since long (Rosenberg and Coleman, 1969) that one of the two sectors of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observed at the Earth's orbit dominates at high heliographic latitudes during solar minimum times, reflecting the poloidal structure of the global solar magnetic field at these times. Here we find that while this latitudinal variation of the dominant IMF sector around the solar equator is valid for both solar hemispheres during the last four solar minima covered by direct observations, it is systematically more strongly developed in the northern heliographic hemisphere. This implies that the average heliospheric current sheet is shifted or coned southward during solar minimum times, suggesting that the temporary southward shift of the heliosheet found earlier by Ulysses observations in 1995 is a persistent pattern. This also implies that the open solar magnetic field is north-south asymmetric at these times, suggesting that the solar dynamo has an asymmetric component. Accordingly, the Sun with the heliosheet is like a bashful ballerina who is repeatedly trying to push her excessively high flaring skirt downward. However, the effective shift at 1 AU is only a few degrees, allowing the Rosenberg-Coleman rule to be valid, on an average, in both hemispheres during solar minima.

  11. Current-sheet formation in incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Victor P.

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of axisymmetric, as well as helical, frozen-in vortex structures is investigated by the Hamiltonian method in the framework of ideal incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics. For description of current-sheet formation from a smooth initial magnetic field, local and nonl......The nonlinear dynamics of axisymmetric, as well as helical, frozen-in vortex structures is investigated by the Hamiltonian method in the framework of ideal incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics. For description of current-sheet formation from a smooth initial magnetic field, local...

  12. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  13. Current Sheets in the Heliosheath: Voyager 1, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    We identified all of the current sheets for which we have relatively complete and accurate magnetic field (B) data from Voyager 1 (V1) from days of year (DOYs) 1 to 331, 2009, which were obtained deep in the heliosheath between 108.5 and 111.8 AU. Three types of current sheets were found: (1) 15 proton boundary layers (PBLs), (2) 10 and 3 magnetic holes and magnetic humps, respectively, and (3) 3 sector boundaries. The magnetic field strength changes across PBL, and the profile B(t) is linearly related to the hyperbolic tangent function, but the direction of B does not change. For each of the three sector boundaries, B rotated in a plane normal to the minimum variance direction, and the component of B along the minimum variance direction was zero within the uncertainties, indicating that the sector boundaries were tangential discontinuities. The structure of the sector boundaries was not as simple as that for PBLs. The average thickness of magnetic holes and humps (approx.30 RL) was twice that of the PBLs (approx.15 RL). The average thickness of the current sheets associated with sector boundaries was close to the thickness of the PBLs. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that magnetic holes and humps are solitons, which are initiated by the mirror mode instability, and evolve by nonlinear kinetic plasma processes to pressure balanced structures maintained by magnetization currents and proton drift currents in the gradients of B.

  14. Solar wind and substorm excitation of the wavy current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C.; Lester, M.; Fear, R. C.; Lucek, E.; Dandouras, I.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Singer, H.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-06-01

    Following a solar wind pressure pulse on 3 August 2001, GOES 8, GOES 10, Cluster and Polar observed dipolarizations of the magnetic field, accompanied by an eastward expansion of the aurora observed by IMAGE, indicating the occurrence of two substorms. Prior to the first substorm, the motion of the plasma sheet with respect to Cluster was in the ZGSM direction. Observations following the substorms show the occurrence of current sheet waves moving predominantly in the -YGSM direction. Following the second substorm, the current sheet waves caused multiple current sheet crossings of the Cluster spacecraft, previously studied by Zhang et al. (2002). We further this study to show that the velocity of the current sheet waves was similar to the expansion velocity of the substorm aurora and the expansion of the dipolarization regions in the magnetotail. Furthermore, we compare these results with the current sheet wave models of Golovchanskaya and Maltsev (2005) and Erkaev et al. (2008). We find that the Erkaev et al. (2008) model gives the best fit to the observations.

  15. Solar wind and substorm excitation of the wavy current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a solar wind pressure pulse on 3 August 2001, GOES 8, GOES 10, Cluster and Polar observed dipolarizations of the magnetic field, accompanied by an eastward expansion of the aurora observed by IMAGE, indicating the occurrence of two substorms. Prior to the first substorm, the motion of the plasma sheet with respect to Cluster was in the ZGSM direction. Observations following the substorms show the occurrence of current sheet waves moving predominantly in the −YGSM direction. Following the second substorm, the current sheet waves caused multiple current sheet crossings of the Cluster spacecraft, previously studied by Zhang et al. (2002. We further this study to show that the velocity of the current sheet waves was similar to the expansion velocity of the substorm aurora and the expansion of the dipolarization regions in the magnetotail. Furthermore, we compare these results with the current sheet wave models of Golovchanskaya and Maltsev (2005 and Erkaev et al. (2008. We find that the Erkaev et al. (2008 model gives the best fit to the observations.

  16. Electron currents supporting the near-Earth magnetotail during current sheet thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Liu, J.; Runov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Formation of intense, thin current sheets (i.e., current sheet thinning) is a critical process for magnetospheric substorms, but the kinetic physics of this process remains poorly understood. Using a triangular configuration of the three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft at the end of 2015 we investigate field-aligned and transverse currents in the magnetotail current sheet around 12 Earth radii downtail. Combining the curlometer technique with direct measurements of ion and electron velocities, we demonstrate that intense, thin current sheets supported by strong electron currents form in this region. Electron field-aligned currents maximize near the neutral plane Bx˜0, attaining magnitudes of ˜20 nA/m2. Carried by hot (>1 keV) electrons, they generate strong magnetic shear, which contributes up to 20% of the vertical (along the normal direction to the equatorial plane) pressure balance. Electron transverse currents, on the other hand, are carried by the curvature drift of anisotropic, colder (<1 keV) electrons and gradually increase during the current sheet thinning. In the events under consideration the thinning process was abruptly terminated by earthward reconnection fronts which have been previously associated with tail reconnection further downtail. It is likely that the thin current sheet properties described herein are similar to conditions further downtail and are linked to the loss of stability and onset of reconnection there. Our findings are likely applicable to thin current sheets in other geophysical and astrophysical settings.

  17. Thickness of Heliospheric Current and Plasma Sheets: Dependence on Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Smith, E. J.; Winterhalter, D.; McComas, D. J.; Skoug, R. M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Smith, C. W.

    2005-05-01

    Heliospheric current sheets (HCS) are well defined structures that separate the interplanetary magnetic fields with inverse polarities. Surrounded by heliospheric plasma sheets (HPS), the current sheets stretch throughout the heliosphere. Interesting questions that still remain unanswered include how the thickness of these structures will change along the distance? And what determines the thickness of these structures? To answer these fundamental questions, we have carried out a study of the HCS and HPS using recent Ulysses data near 5 AU. When the results were compared with earlier studies at 1 AU using ISEE-3 data, they were surprising and unexplained. Although the plasma sheet grew thicker, the embedded current sheet grew thinner! Using data under the same (or very similar) circumstances, we have extended the analysis in two ways. First, the same current-plasma sheets studied at 5 AU have been identified at 1 AU using ACE data. Second, data obtained while Ulysses was en-route to Jupiter near 3 AU have been analyzed. This three-point investigation reveals the thickness variation along the distance and enables the examination of the controller of this variation.

  18. A Catapult (Slingshot) Current Sheet Relaxation Model for Substorm Triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the results of our superposed epoch analysis of Geotail data, we have proposed a catapult (slingshot) current sheet relaxation model in which earthward flows are produced in the central plasma sheet (CPS) due to the catapult (slingshot) current sheet relaxation, together with the rapid enhancement of Poynting flux toward the CPS in the lobe around X ~ -15 Re about 4 min before the substrom onset. These earthward flows are characterized by plasma pressure decrease and large amplitude magnetic field fluctuations. When these flows reach X ~ 12Re in the magnetotail, they give significant disturbances to the inner magnetosphere to initiate some instability such as a ballooning instability or other instabilities, and the substorm starts in the inner magnetosphere. The occurrence of the magnetic reconnection is a natural consequence of the initial convective earthward flows, because the relaxation of a highly stretched catapult current sheet produces a very thin current at its tailward edge being surrounded by intense magnetic fields which were formerly the off-equatorial lobe magnetic fields. Recently, Nishimura et al. [2010] reported that the substorm onset begins when faint poleward discrete arcs collide with equatorward quiet arcs. The region of earthward convective flows correlatively moves earthward prior to the onset. Thus, this region of the earthward convective flows seems to correspond to the faint poleward discrete arcs. Interestingly, our statistical analysis shows that the earthward convective flows are not produced by the magnetic reconnection, but they are attributed to the dominance of the earthward JxB force over the tailward pressure associated with the progress of the plasma sheet thinning.

  19. Dynamic of Current Sheets and Their Associated Particle Energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makwan, Kirit [Univ. Chicago; Li, Xiaocan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhandrin, Vladimir [Univ. Washington; Daughton, William Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-08-19

    Magnetic reconnection in current sheets has relevance to Earth's magnetosphere, solar flares, high-energy astrophysics (pulsar wind nebula (e.g. Crab Nebula), gamma-ray bursts, black hole jets), and laboratory plasma/fusion. Data are shown for several cases with varying values of configuration energy Ec and β. Several conclusions were drawn: Depending on the “configuration energy”, the formation, shape, and lifetime of current sheets can vary. Plasma condition (configuration, β, driving, etc.) strongly affect the efficiency of particle acceleration. For low β and general “configuration energy”, particle heating is expected. For low β, large and long-lived current sheets, it is possible to produce highly non-thermal particles via collisionless plasmoid reconnection.

  20. Collisionless reconnection: Mechanism of self-ignition in thin current sheets

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous onset of magnetic reconnection in thin plane collisionless current sheets is shown to result from a thermal-anisotropy driven non-relativistic magnetic electron Weibel-mode, generating seed-magnetic field X-points in the centre of the current layer. The proposed mechanism is of larger generality. It also works in the presence of magnetic guide fields.

  1. Collisionless reconnection: mechanism of self-ignition in thin plane homogeneous current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treumann, R. A.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.

    2010-10-01

    The spontaneous onset of magnetic reconnection in thin plane collisionless current sheets is shown to result from a thermal-anisotropy driven non-relativistic magnetic electron Weibel-mode, generating seed-magnetic field X-points in the centre of the current layer. The proposed mechanism is of larger generality. It also works in the presence of magnetic guide fields.

  2. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA << 1, but also for MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex

  3. THIN CURRENT SHEETS AND ASSOCIATED ELECTRON HEATING IN TURBULENT SPACE PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasapis, A.; Retinò, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Canu, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, F-91128 (France); Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Sundkvist, D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Greco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria (Italy); Sorriso-Valvo, L., E-mail: alexandros.chasapis@lpp.polytechnique.fr [IMIP-CNR, U.O.S. LICRYL di Cosenza (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Intermittent structures, such as thin current sheets, are abundant in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that such current sheets are important sites of energy dissipation and particle heating occurring at kinetic scales. However, direct evidence of dissipation and associated heating within current sheets is scarce. Here, we show a new statistical study of local electron heating within proton-scale current sheets by using high-resolution spacecraft data. Current sheets are detected using the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method which identifies regions of strong intermittency. We find that strong electron heating occurs in high PVI (>3) current sheets while no significant heating occurs in low PVI cases (<3), indicating that the former are dominant for energy dissipation. Current sheets corresponding to very high PVI (>5) show the strongest heating and most of the time are consistent with ongoing magnetic reconnection. This suggests that reconnection is important for electron heating and dissipation at kinetic scales in turbulent plasmas.

  4. 3-D Magnetospheric Field and Plasma Containing Thin Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, S.; Cheng, C. Z.; Maezawa, K.; Wing, S.

    2002-05-01

    In this study we present fully-3D self-consistent solutions of the magnetosphere by using observation-based plasma pressure distributions and computational boundary conditions based on the T96 magnetospheric field model. The pressure profiles we use are either taken directly from observations (GEOTAIL pressure data in the plasma sheet and DMSP ionospheric pressure) or empirical (Spence-Kivelson formula for pressure on the midnight equatorial line). The 3-D solutions involve solving 2 coupled elliptic equations in a flux coordinate systems, with the magnetic field expressed by two Euler potentials and using appropriate boundary conditions for both the closed- and open-field regions derived from the empirical field model. We look into how the self-consistent magnetic field and current structures change under different external conditions, and we discuss the appearance of thin cross-tail current sheets during disturbed magnetospheric times.

  5. Generation of sheet currents by high frequency fast MHD waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of fast magnetosonic waves of high frequency propagating into an axisymmetric equilibrium plasma is studied. By using the methods of weakly nonlinear geometrical optics, it is shown that the perturbation travels in the equatorial plane while satisfying a transport equation which enables us to predict the time and location of formation of shock waves. For plasmas of large magnetic Prandtl number, this would result into the creation of sheet currents which may give rise to magnetic reconnection and destruction of the original equilibrium. - Highlights: • Regular solutions of quasilinear hyperbolic systems may evolve into shocks. • The shock location is found for high frequency fast MHD waves. • The result is applied to static axisymmetric equilibria. • The previous process may lead to the formation of sheet currents and destruction of the equilibrium.

  6. Current-sheet formation in incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, V P

    2002-04-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of axisymmetric, as well as helical, frozen-in vortex structures is investigated by the Hamiltonian method in the framework of ideal incompressible electron magnetohydrodynamics. For description of current-sheet formation from a smooth initial magnetic field, local and nonlocal nonlinear approximations are introduced and partially analyzed that are generalizations of the previously known exactly solvable local model neglecting electron inertia.

  7. Solar Energetic Particle Transport Near a Heliospheric Current Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battarbee, Markus; Dalla, Silvia; Marsh, Mike S.

    2017-02-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs), a major component of space weather, propagate through the interplanetary medium strongly guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In this work, we analyze the implications that a flat Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) has on proton propagation from SEP release sites to the Earth. We simulate proton propagation by integrating fully 3D trajectories near an analytically defined flat current sheet, collecting comprehensive statistics into histograms, fluence maps, and virtual observer time profiles within an energy range of 1-800 MeV. We show that protons experience significant current sheet drift to distant longitudes, causing time profiles to exhibit multiple components, which are a potential source of confusing interpretations of observations. We find that variation of the current sheet thickness within a realistic parameter range has little effect on particle propagation. We show that the IMF configuration strongly affects the deceleration of protons. We show that in our model, the presence of a flat equatorial HCS in the inner heliosphere limits the crossing of protons into the opposite hemisphere.

  8. The origin of the warped heliospheric current sheet. Scientific technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, J.M.; Scherrer, P.H.; Hoeksema, J.T.

    1980-03-01

    The warped heliospheric current sheet in early 1976 is calculated from the observed photospheric magnetic field using a potential field method. Comparisons with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field polarity in early 1976 obtained at several locations in the heliosphere at Helios I, Helios II, Pioneer XI and Earth show a rather detailed agreement between the computed current sheet and the observations. It appears that the large-scale structure of the warped heliospheric current sheet is determined by the structure of the photospheric magnetic field, and that 'ballerina skirt' effects may add small-scale ripples.

  9. Spatial Offsets in Flare-CME Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, John C.; Giordano, Silvio; Ciaravella, Angela

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays an integral part in nearly all models of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The reconnection heats and accelerates the plasma, produces energetic electrons and ions, and changes the magnetic topology to form magnetic flux ropes and to allow CMEs to escape. Structures that appear between flare loops and CME cores in optical, UV, EUV, and X-ray observations have been identified as current sheets and have been interpreted in terms of the nature of the reconnection process and the energetics of the events. Many of these studies have used UV spectral observations of high temperature emission features in the [Fe xviii] and Si xii lines. In this paper, we discuss several surprising cases in which the [Fe xviii] and Si xii emission peaks are spatially offset from each other. We discuss interpretations based on asymmetric reconnection, on a thin reconnection region within a broader streamer-like structure, and on projection effects. Some events seem to be easily interpreted as the projection of a sheet that is extended along the line of sight that is viewed an angle, but a physical interpretation in terms of asymmetric reconnection is also plausible. Other events favor an interpretation as a thin current sheet embedded in a streamer-like structure.

  10. Collisionless reconnection: Mechanism of self-ignition in thin current sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Treumann, R A; Baumjohann, W

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous onset of magnetic reconnection in thin collisionless current sheets is shown to result from a thermal-anisotropy driven magnetic Weibel-mode, generating seed-magnetic field {\\sf X}-points in the centre of the current layer.

  11. Morphology and Density Structure of Post-CME Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrsnak, B.; Poletto, G.; Vujic, E.; Vourlidas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is believed to drag and open the coronal magnetic field, presumably leading to the formation of a large-scale current sheet and field relaxation by magnetic reconnection. This paper analyzes the physical characteristics of ray-like coronal features formed in the aftermath of CMEs, to confirm whether interpreting such phenomena in terms of a reconnecting current sheet is consistent with observations. Methods: The study focuses on UVCS/SOHO and LASCO/SOHO measurements of the ray width, density excess, and coronal velocity field as a function of the radial distance. The morphology of the rays implies that they are produced by Petschek-like reconnection in the large-scale current sheet formed in the wake of CME. The hypothesis is supported by the flow pattern, often showing outflows along the ray, and sometimes also inflows into the ray. The inferred inflow velocities range from 3 to 30 km/s, and are consistent with the narrow opening-angle of rays, which add up to a few degrees. The density of rays is an order of magnitude higher than in the ambient corona. The model results are consistent with the observations, revealing that the main cause of the density excess in rays is a transport of the dense plasma from lower to higher heights by the reconnection outflow.

  12. Thin Current Sheets and Associated Electron Heating in Turbulent Space Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, A.; Retinò, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Sundkvist, D.; Greco, A.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Canu, P.

    2015-05-01

    Intermittent structures, such as thin current sheets, are abundant in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that such current sheets are important sites of energy dissipation and particle heating occurring at kinetic scales. However, direct evidence of dissipation and associated heating within current sheets is scarce. Here, we show a new statistical study of local electron heating within proton-scale current sheets by using high-resolution spacecraft data. Current sheets are detected using the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method which identifies regions of strong intermittency. We find that strong electron heating occurs in high PVI (>3) current sheets while no significant heating occurs in low PVI cases (5) show the strongest heating and most of the time are consistent with ongoing magnetic reconnection. This suggests that reconnection is important for electron heating and dissipation at kinetic scales in turbulent plasmas.

  13. Heliospheric current sheet inclinations at Venus and Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ma

    Full Text Available We investigate the inclinations of heliospheric current sheet at two sites in interplanetary space, which are generated from the same solar source. From the data of solar wind magnetic fields observed at Venus (0.72 AU and Earth (1 AU during December 1978-May 1982 including the solar maximum of 1981, 54 pairs of candidate sector boundary crossings are picked out, of which 16 pairs are identified as sector boundaries. Of the remainder, 12 pairs are transient structures both at Venus and Earth, and 14 pairs are sector boundaries at one site and have transient structures at the other site. It implies that transient structures were often ejected from the coronal streamer belt around the solar maximum. For the 16 pairs of selected sector boundaries, we determine their normals by using minimum variance analysis. It is found that most of the normal azimuthal angles are distributed between the radial direction and the direction perpendicular to the spiral direction both at Venus and Earth. The normal elevations tend to be smaller than ~ 45° with respect to the solar equatorial plane, indicating high inclinations of the heliospheric current sheet, in particular at Earth. The larger scatter in the azimuth and elevation of normals at Venus than at Earth suggests stronger effects of the small-scale structures on the current sheet at 0.72 AU than at 1 AU. When the longitude difference between Venus and Earth is small (<40° longitudinally, similar or the same inclinations are generally observed, especially for the sector boundaries without small-scale structures. This implies that the heliospheric current sheet inclination tends to be maintained during propagation of the solar wind from 0.72 AU to 1 AU. Detailed case studies reveal that the dynamic nature of helmet streamers causes variations of the sector boundary structure.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields; sources of solar wind

  14. Drift modes of a quasi-two-dimensional current sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Malova, Kh. V.; Popov, V. Yu.; Zelenyi, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Stability of a plasma configuration consisting of a thin one-dimensional current sheet embedded into a two-dimensional background current sheet is studied. Drift modes developing in plasma as unstable waves along the current direction are considered. Dispersion relations for kink and sausage perturbation modes are obtained depending on the ratio of parameters of thin and background current sheets. It is shown that the existence of the background sheet results in a decrease in the instability growth rates and a significant increase in the perturbation wavelengths. The role of drift modes in the excitation of oscillations observed in the current sheet of the Earth's magnetotail is discussed.

  15. Catapult current sheet relaxation model confirmed by THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.; Nose, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we show the result of superposed epoch analysis on the THEMIS probe data during the period from November, 2007 to April, 2009 by setting the origin of time axis to the substorm onset determined by Nishimura with THEMIS all sky imager (THEMS/ASI) data (http://www.atmos.ucla.edu/~toshi/files/paper/Toshi_THEMIS_GBO_list_distribution.xls). We confirmed the presence of earthward flows which can be associated with north-south auroral streamers during the substorm growth phase. At around X = -12 Earth radii (Re), the northward magnetic field and its elevation angle decreased markedly approximately 4 min before substorm onset. A northward magnetic-field increase associated with pre-onset earthward flows was found at around X = -17Re. This variation indicates the occurrence of the local depolarization. Interestingly, in the region earthwards of X = -18Re, earthward flows in the central plasma sheet (CPS) reduced significantly about 3min before substorm onset. However, the earthward flows enhanced again at t = -60 sec in the region around X = -14 Re, and they moved toward the Earth. At t = 0, the dipolarization of the magnetic field started at X ~ -10 Re, and simultaneously the magnetic reconnection started at X ~ -20 Re. Synthesizing these results, we can confirm the validity of our catapult current sheet relaxation model.

  16. Current sheet flapping in the near-Earth magnetotail: peculiarities of propagation and parallel currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, Egor V.; Artemyev, Anton V.; Petrukovich, Anatoly A.; Nakamura, Rumi

    2016-09-01

    We consider series of tilted current sheet crossings, corresponding to flapping waves in the near-Earth magnetotail. We analyse Cluster observations from 2005 to 2009, when spacecraft visited the magnetotail neutral plane near X ∈ [ - 17, - 8], Y ∈ [ - 16, - 2] RE (in the GSM system). Large separation of spacecraft allows us to estimate both local and global properties of flapping current sheets. We find significant variation in flapping wave direction of propagation between the middle tail and flanks. Th series of tilted current sheets represent the system of periodic, almost parallel currents with typical thickness of current filaments about L = 0.4 RE. The earthward gradients of Bz magnetic field are reduced within this current system in comparison with the gradients in the quiet near-Earth magnetotail. The wavelength (i.e. a distance between two crossings of current sheets with the same orientations) of the flapping waves is larger than 2πL for most of observations. The velocity of flapping wave propagation is about ion bulk velocity and is significantly lower than the velocity of ion drift relative to electrons. We discuss possible drivers of flapping and estimate the amplitude of the total parallel current generated by flapping waves.

  17. Reconnection current sheet structure in a turbulent medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Vishniac

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of turbulence, magnetic field lines lose their dynamical identity and particles entrained on field lines diffuse through space at a rate determined by the amplitude of the turbulence. In previous work (Lazarian and Vishniac, 1999; Kowal et al., 2009; Eyink et al., 2011 we showed that this leads to reconnection speeds which are independent of resistivity. In particular, in Kowal et al. (2009 we showed that numerical simulations were consistent with the predictions of this model. Here we examine the structure of the current sheet in simulations of turbulent reconnection. Laminar flows consistent with the Sweet-Parker reconnection model produce very thin and well ordered currents sheets. On the other hand, the simulations of Kowal et al. (2009 show a strongly disordered state even for relatively low levels of turbulence. Comparing data cubes with and without reconnection, we find that large scale field reversals are the cumulative effect of many individual eddies, each of which has magnetic properties which are not very different from turbulent eddies in a homogeneous background. This implies that the properties of stationary and homogeneous MHD turbulence are a reasonable guide to understanding turbulence during large scale magnetic reconnection events. In addition, dissipation and high energy particle acceleration during reconnection events take place over a macroscopic volume, rather than being confined to a narrow zone whose properties depend on microscopic transport coefficients.

  18. Modeling the heliospheric current sheet: Solar cycle variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Linker, J. A.; Mikić, Z.

    2002-07-01

    In this report we employ an empirically driven, three-dimensional MHD model to explore the evolution of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) during the course of the solar cycle. We compare our results with a simpler ``constant-speed'' approach for mapping the HCS outward into the solar wind to demonstrate that dynamic effects can substantially deform the HCS in the inner heliosphere (ballerina skirt,'' we discuss an interval approaching the maximum of solar cycle 23 (Carrington rotations 1960 and 1961) when the shape would be better described as ``conch shell''-like. We use Ulysses magnetic field measurements to support the model results.

  19. Formation of the current sheet in a coronal streamer

    CERN Document Server

    Abbo, Lucia; Lionello, Roberto; Mikić, Zoran; Riley, Pete

    2011-01-01

    The present work is on the study of a coronal streamer observed in March 2008 at high spectral and spatial resolution by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) onboard SOHO. On the basis of a spectroscopic analysis of the O VI doublet, the solar wind plasma parameters are inferred in the extended corona. The analysis accounts for the coronal magnetic topology, extrapolated through a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic model. The results of the analysis show indications on the formation of the current sheet, one of the source regions of the slow coronal wind.

  20. Magnetic current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  1. Pulsar Wind Nebulae as Cosmic Pevatrons: A Current Sheet's Tale

    CERN Document Server

    Arons, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    I outline, from a theoretical and somewhat personal perspective, significant features of Pulsar Wind Nebulae as Cosmic Accelerators. I discuss recent studies of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe). I pay special attention to the recently discovered gamma ray flares in the Crab Nebula's emission, focusing on the possibility, raised by the observations, that the accelerating electric field exceeds the magnetic field, suggesting that reconnection in the persistent current layer (a current sheet) plays a significant role in the behavior of this well studied Pevatron. I address the present status of the termination shock model for the particle accelerator that converts the wind flow energy to the observed non thermal particle spectra, concluding that it has a number of major difficulties related to the transverse magnetic geometry of the shock wave. I discuss recent work on the inferred pair outflow rates, which are in excess of those predicted by existing theories of pair creation, and use those results to point out that ...

  2. Nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional instabilities of thin and thick electron scale current sheets: Plasmoid formation and current filamentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg [Max Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-Von-Liebig-Weg-3, Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/ω{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ∼5 d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.

  3. Collisionless reconnection: mechanism of self-ignition in thin plane homogeneous current sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous onset of magnetic reconnection in thin plane collisionless current sheets is shown to result from a thermal-anisotropy driven non-relativistic magnetic electron Weibel-mode, generating seed-magnetic field X-points in the centre of the current layer. The proposed mechanism is of larger generality. It also works in the presence of magnetic guide fields.

  4. Current sheets with inhomogeneous plasma temperature: Effects of polarization electric field and 2D solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapano, F., E-mail: menacata3@gmail.com; Zimbardo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: ante0226@gmail.com; Vasko, I. Y. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    We develop current sheet models which allow to regulate the level of plasma temperature and density inhomogeneities across the sheet. These models generalize the classical Harris model via including two current-carrying plasma populations with different temperature and the background plasma not contributing to the current density. The parameters of these plasma populations allow regulating contributions of plasma density and temperature to the pressure balance. A brief comparison with spacecraft observations demonstrates the model applicability for describing the Earth magnetotail current sheet. We also develop a two dimensional (2D) generalization of the proposed model. The interesting effect found for 2D models is the nonmonotonous profile (along the current sheet) of the magnetic field component perpendicular to the current sheet. Possible applications of the model are discussed.

  5. Dynamo-driven plasmoid formation from a current-sheet instability

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, F

    2016-01-01

    Axisymmetric current-carrying plasmoids are formed in the presence of nonaxisymmetric fluctuations during nonlinear three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations in a global toroidal geometry. We utilize the helicity injection technique to form an initial poloidal flux in the presence of a toroidal guide field. As helicity is injected, two types of current sheets are formed from 1) the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region (primary reconnecting current sheet), and 2) the poloidal flux compression near the plasma edge (edge current sheet). We first find that nonaxisymmetic fluctuations arising from the current-sheet instability isolated near the plasma edge have tearing parity but can nevertheless grow fast (on the poloidal Alfven time scale). These modes saturate by breaking up the current sheet. Second, for the first time a dynamo poloidal flux amplification is observed at the reconnetion site (in the region of the oppositely directed magnetic field). This fluctuation-induced flux amplificatio...

  6. In situ observations of ion scale current sheet and associated electron heating in Earth's magnetosheath turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Retinò, Alessandro; Sahraoui, Fouad; Greco, Antonella; Vaivads, Andris; Sundkvist, David; Canu, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in thin current sheets that form in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that turbulent reconnection contributes to the dissipation of magnetic field energy and results in particle heating and non-thermal acceleration. Yet in situ measurements are required to determine its importance as a dissipation mechanism at those scales. The Earth's magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel shock is a turbulent near-Earth environment that offers a privileged environment for such a study. Here we present a study of the properties of thin current sheets by using Cluster data. We studied the distribution of the current sheets as a function of their magnetic shear angle, the PVI index and the electron heating. The properties of the observed current sheets were different for high shear (θ > 90 degrees) and low shear current sheets (θ < 90 degrees). These high-shear current sheets account for about ˜ 20% of the total and have an average thickness comparable to the ion inertial length. Enhancement of electron temperature within these current sheets suggest that they are important for local electron heating and energy dissipation.

  7. Current Sheet Formation in a Conical Theta Pinch Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.

    2008-01-01

    Data from an inductive conical theta pinch accelerator are presented to gain insight into the process of inductive current sheet formation in the presence of a preionized background gas produced by a steady-state RF-discharge. The presence of a preionized plasma has been previously shown to allow for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerator concepts, leading to greater accelerator efficiencies at lower power levels. Time-resolved magnetic probe measurements are obtained for different background pressures and pulse energies to characterize the effects of these parameters on current sheet formation. Indices are defined that describe time-resolved current sheet characteristics, such as the total current owing in the current sheet, the time-integrated total current ('strength'), and current sheet velocity. It is found that for a given electric field strength, maximums in total current, strength, and velocity occur for one particular background pressure. At other pressures, these current sheet indices are considerably smaller. The trends observed in these indices are explained in terms of the principles behind Townsend breakdown that lead to a dependence on the ratio of the electric field to the background pressure. Time-integrated photographic data are also obtained at the same experimental conditions, and qualitatively they compare quite favorably with the time-resolved magnetic field data.

  8. Analogies between Jovian magnetodisk and heliospheric current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Roman; Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi

    Recently due to the development of spatial missions the famous model by E. Parker [1] faced with some problems, such as the effect of magnetic flux excess and the existence of latitude component of magnetic field [2]. Thus the incomplete knowledge about large scale current system of heliospheric current sheet (HCS) motivated us to construct and investigate the self-consistent axisymmetric stationary MHD model of HCS and to compare it with earlier presented model of Jupiterian magnetodisk [3]. Both HCS and magnetodisk have inner plasma sources (i.e. the Sun in case of HCS and satellite Io in case of Jupiter); also they depend on the centrifugal force at small distances and on corotation processes. They both have strong radial component of current density, thin elongated structure etc. Thus in the frame of the MHD model we have calculated for HCS the parallel currents (analogous to Jovian Birkeland currents) and we obtained the latitude component of the magnetic field. The results of the model allowed us to explain the magnetic flux excess by the existence of the self-consistent HCS magnetic field. The decrease of radial magnetic field from the distance from the Sun as the power -5/3 obtained by numerical calculations is in good agreement with experimental data. Generally this model can be applied for the quiet period of the low solar activity when the perturbation of HCS structure named “ballerina skirt” does not play any role. References: 1. Parker E. N., Astrophys. J., V. 128, 664, pp. 664-676, 1958. 2. Khabarova O. V., Астрономический журнал, V. 90, №11, pp. 919-935, 2013. 3. Kislov R.A. et al., Bull. MSU, Physics and Astron., 2013

  9. Magnetic turbulence in the plasma sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Vörös, Z; Nakamura, R; Runov, A; Zhang, T L; Eichelberger, H U; Treumann, R A; Georgescu, E; Balogh, A; Klecker, B; R`eme, H

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic turbulence observed by the Cluster spacecraft in the plasma sheet is investigated by means of a wavelet estimator suitable for detecting distinct scaling characteristics even in noisy measurements. The spectral estimators used for this purpose are affected by a frequency dependent bias. The variances of the wavelet coefficients, however, match the power-law shaped spectra, which makes the wavelet estimator essentially unbiased. These scaling characteristics of the magnetic field data appear to be essentially non-steady and intermittent. The scaling properties of bursty bulk flow (BBF) and non-BBF associated magnetic fluctuations are analysed with the aim of understanding processes of energy transfer between scales. Small-scale ($\\sim 0.08-0.3$ s) magnetic fluctuations having the same scaling index $\\alpha \\sim 2.6$ as the large-scale ($\\sim 0.7-5$ s) magnetic fluctuations occur during BBF-associated periods. During non-BBF associated periods the energy transfer to small scales is absent, ...

  10. Simulation of the dynamics in the magnetotail current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Ojeda, Arian; Calzadilla, Alexander; Savio, Siomel; Alazo, Katy

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics in the magnetosphere current sheet was simulated following transformations to the rectangular NxM array of cells (cellular automaton) originally proposed by Koselov and Koselova (2002). The magnetosphere part of the modeling system was organized as a rectangular arrangement of cells with a stored energy, a local redistribution of the energy will exist when a value threshold is exceeded in one of the cells. We assume that the threshold value in each cell depends on external control parameter which influences the long boundaries of the rectangular array (40x80). The model dynamics controlled by the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) as well as analogies between the model transient processes and the observed substorm auroral activations are discussed. The Bz correspond to temporary windows of the solar wind for a group of magnetic clouds and plasmoids. The model simulates organized patterns in the energy distribution. The function of distribution of probability (or PDF) of the siz...

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.

  13. In Situ Observations of Ion Scale Current Sheets and Associated Electron Heating in Turbulent Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, A.; Retino, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Greco, A.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Sundkvist, D. J.; Canu, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present a statistical study of ion-scale current sheets in turbulent space plasma. The study was performed using in situ measurements from the Earth's magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel shock. Intermittent structures were identified using the Partial Variance of Increments method. We studied the distribution of the identified structures as a function of their magnetic shear angle, the PVI index and the electron heating. The properties of the observed current sheets were different for high (>3) and low (3) structures that accounted for ~20% of the total. Those current sheets have high magnetic shear (>90 degrees) and were observed mostly in close proximity to the bow shock with their numbers reducing towards the magnetopause. Enhancement of the estimated electron temperature within these current sheets suggest that they are important for local electron heating and energy dissipation.

  14. Detection of thin current sheets and associated reconnection in the Earth's turbulent magnetosheath using cluster multi-point measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Retino, Alessandro; Sahraoui, Fouad; Greco, Antonella; Vaivads, Andris; Sundkvist, David; Canu, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in turbulent plasma within a large number of volume-filling thin current sheets and is one major candidate for energy dissipation of turbulent plasma. Such dissipation results in particle heating and non-thermal particle acceleration. In situ observations are needed to study the detailed properties of thin current sheets and associated reconnection, in order to determine its importance as a dissipation mechanism at small scales. In particular, multi-point measurements are crucial to unambiguously identify spatial scales (e.g current sheet thickness) and estimate key quantities such as E*J. Here we present a study of the properties of thin current sheets detected in the Earths magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel shock by using Cluster spacecraft data. The current sheets were detected by the rotation of the magnetic field as computed by four-point measurements. We study the distribution of current sheets as a function of the magnetic shear angle θ, their duration and the waiting time between consecutive current sheets. We found that high shear (θ > 90 degrees) current sheets show different properties with respect to low shear current sheets (θ < 90 degrees). These high-shear current sheets account for about ˜ 20% of the total and have an average thickness comparable to the ion inertial length. We also compare our four-point detection method with other single-point methods (e.g. Partial Variance of Increments - PVI) and we discuss the results of such comparison.

  15. Global properties of magnetotail current sheet flapping: THEMIS perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Runov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of magnetic field oscillations with an amplitude of up to 30 nT and a time scale of 30 min was detected by four of the five THEMIS spacecraft in the magnetotail plasma sheet. The probes P1 and P2 were at X=−15.2 and −12.7 RE and P3 and P4 were at X=−7.9 RE. All four probes were at −6.5>Y>−7.5 RE (major conjunction. Multi-point timing analysis of the magnetic field variations shows that fronts of the oscillations propagated flankward (dawnward and Earthward nearly perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic maximum variation (B1 at velocities of 20–30 km/s. These are typical characteristics of current sheet flapping motion. The observed anti-correlation between ∂B1/∂t and the Z-component of the bulk velocity make it possible to estimate a flapping amplitude of 1 to 3 RE. The cross-tail scale wave-length was found to be about 5 RE. Thus the flapping waves are steep tail-aligned structures with a lengthwise scale of >10 RE. The intermittent plasma motion with the cross-tail velocity component changing its sign, observed during flapping, indicates that the flapping waves were propagating through the ambient plasma. Simultaneous observations of the magnetic field variations by THEMIS ground-based magnetometers show that the flapping oscillations were observed during the growth phase of a substorm.

  16. Understanding the focusing of charged particle for 2D sheet beam in a cusped magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Tusharika S; Reddy, K T V

    2016-01-01

    The requirement of axial magnetic field for focusing and transportation of sheet beam using cusped magnets is less as compared to solenoid magnetic fields which is uniform. There is often some confusion about how a cusped magnetic field focuses high current density sheet beam because it is generally understood that non-uniform magnetic field cannot guide the particle beam along its axis of propagation .In this paper, we perform simple analysis of the dynamics of sheet beam in a cusped magnetic field with single electron model and emphasize an intuitive understanding of interesting features (as beam geometry, positioning of permanent magnets, particle radius,particle velocity,radius of curvature of particle inside cusped magnetic field)

  17. The Dynamical Generation of Current Sheets in Astrophysical Plasma Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Gregory G

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence profoundly affects particle transport and plasma heating in many astrophysical plasma environments, from galaxy clusters to the solar corona and solar wind to Earth's magnetosphere. Both fluid and kinetic simulations of plasma turbulence ubiquitously generate coherent structures, in the form of current sheets, at small scales, and the locations of these current sheets appear to be associated with enhanced rates of dissipation of the turbulent energy. Therefore, illuminating the origin and nature of these current sheets is critical to identifying the dominant physical mechanisms of dissipation, a primary aim at the forefront of plasma turbulence research. Here we present evidence from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations that strong nonlinear interactions between counterpropagating Alfven waves, or strong Alfven wave collisions, are a natural mechanism for the generation of current sheets in plasma turbulence. Furthermore, we conceptually explain this current sheet development in terms of the nonlinear...

  18. Substorm onset: Current sheet avalanche and stop layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    A new scenario is presented for the onset of a substorm and the nature of the breakup arc. There are two main components, current sheet avalanche and stop layer. The first refers to an earthward flow of plasma and magnetic flux from the central current sheet of the tail, triggered spontaneously or by some unknown interaction with an auroral streamer or a suddenly appearing eastward flow at the end of the growth phase. The second offers a mechanism to stop the flow abruptly at the interface between magnetosphere and tail and extract momentum and energy to be partially processed locally and partially transmitted as Poynting flux toward the ionosphere. The stop layer has a width of the order of the ion inertial length. The different dynamics of the ions entering freely and the magnetized electrons create an electric polarization field which stops the ion flow and drives a Hall current by which flow momentum is transferred to the magnetic field. A simple formalism is used to describe the operation of the process and to enable quantitative conclusions. An important conclusion is that by necessity the stop layer is also highly structured in longitude. This offers a natural explanation for the coarse ray structure of the breakup arc as manifestation of elementary paths of energy and momentum transport. The currents aligned with the rays are balanced between upward and downward directions. While the avalanche is invoked for explaining the spontaneous substorm onset at the inner edge of the tail, the expansion of the breakup arc for many minutes is taken as evidence for a continued formation of new stop layers by arrival of flow bursts from the near-Earth neutral line. This is in line with earlier conclusions about the nature of the breakup arc. Small-scale structure, propagation speed, and energy flux are quantitatively consistent with observations. However, the balanced small-scale currents cannot constitute the substorm current wedge. The source of the latter must be

  19. Low frequency eigenmodes of thin anisotropic current sheets and Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zelenyi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The eigenmodes of low frequency perturbations of thin anisotropic current sheets with a finite value of the normal magnetic field, are investigated in this paper. It is shown that two possible polarizations of symmetric and asymmetric modes (sausage and kink exist where the growth rate of instabilities is positive. In addition, we demonstrate that a tearing instability might have a positive growth rate in thin anisotropic current sheets. The class of relatively fast wavy flapping oscillations observed by Cluster is described. The main direction of wave motion coincides with the direction of the current and the typical velocity of this motion is comparable with the plasma drift velocity in the current sheet. The comparison of these characteristics with theoretical predictions of the model of anisotropic thin current sheets, demonstrates that, in principle, the theory adequately describes the observations.

  20. Thin current sheets in collisionless plasma: Equilibrium structure, plasma instabilities, and particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyi, L. M.; Malova, H. V.; Artemyev, A. V.; Popov, V. Yu.; Petrukovich, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15

    The review is devoted to plasma structures with an extremely small transverse size, namely, thin current sheets that have been discovered and investigated by spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetotail in the last few decades. The formation of current sheets is attributed to complicated dynamic processes occurring in a collisionless space plasma during geomagnetic perturbations and near the magnetic reconnection regions. The models that describe thin current structures in the Earth's magnetotail are reviewed. They are based on the assumption of the quasi-adiabatic ion dynamics in a relatively weak magnetic field of the magnetotail neutral sheet, where the ions can become unmagnetized. It is shown that the ion distribution can be represented as a function of the integrals of particle motion-the total energy and quasi-adiabatic invariant. Various modifications of the initial equilibrium are considered that are obtained with allowance for the currents of magnetized electrons, the contribution of oxygen ions, the asymmetry of plasma sources, and the effects related to the non-Maxwellian particle distributions. The theoretical results are compared with the observational data from the Cluster spacecraft mission. Various plasma instabilities developing in thin current sheets are investigated. The evolution of the tearing mode is analyzed, and the parameter range in which the mode can grow are determined. The paradox of complete stabilization of the tearing mode in current sheets with a nonzero normal magnetic field component is thereby resolved based on the quasi-adiabatic model. It is shown that, over a wide range of current sheet parameters and the propagation directions of large-scale unstable waves, various modified drift instabilities-kink and sausage modes-can develop in the system. Based on the concept of a turbulent electromagnetic field excited as a result of the development and saturation of unstable waves, a mechanism for charged particle

  1. Metastability of collisionless current sheets. Hannes Alfven Lecture on behalf of Albert Galeev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, L.; Galeev, A.

    2009-04-01

    Complicated magnetic configurations containing numerous magnetic field reversals are widespread in nature. Each of such reversals is supported by corresponding current sheet (CS) which could often have very small thickness comparable to ion skin depth. Since the beginning of Space Age "in situ" investigations of current sheets in the Earth's magnetosphere (magnetopause and magnetotail) acquired one of the highest priorities in national space programs and became one of the cornerstones of various international activities, like ISTP, IACG, and ILWS, which appeared to be very effective. Intense theoretical efforts were undertaken by theorists all over the world to develop both equilibrium models of current sheets and analyze its stability and further nonlinear evolution. Lack of collisions and smallness of many characteristic scales in comparison with ion Larmor radius made an application of straightforward MHD approach dramatically questionable. Professor Alfven was one of the first who suggested in 1968 simple but very physical self-consistent particle model of CS. One of the most intriguing features of current sheets in collisionless plasma is their ability to accumulate tremendous amounts of magnetic energy (1015 J for magnetospheric substorms , 1024 J for solar flare associated sheets) and then suddenly sometimes almost explosively release them. We will demonstrate in this talk that such METASTABILITY is a principal intrinsic feature of current sheets in hot plasma. Very intense theoretical debates of 80-ies and late 90-ies resulted in some consensus that current sheets with the small component of magnetic field normal to their plane become overstable for spontaneous reconnection (i.e. versus the development of ion tearing mode). Analysis of INTERBALL and especially 4- point CLUSTER data have shown that real current sheets observed in the Earth's magnetotail very rarely resemble simplistic HARRIS current sheets which have been used for an early stability

  2. Flapping current sheet motions in magnetotail excited by non-adiabatic ions: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The current sheet is a crucial region of the magnetotail, where energy reserve and release take place. The origin of the up-down motions of the current sheet, referred to as flapping motions, is among the most fundamental issues of magnetotail dynamics. Observational evidences suggest that the flapping motion is a kind of internal excited kink-like waves, but its particular propagating features such as the low phase speeds and the propagating direction from the tail center toward flanks do not match any local generation mechanisms previously established so far. Here we report observations of the current sheet flapping motions induced by non-adiabatic ions in the magnetic field configurations with a finite guiding component, whose population present periodic hemispherical asymmetries. Three type of current sheet flapping event in this paper will be discussed. This current sheet flapping phenomenon implies that the excitation mechanism of the current sheet flapping motions is a self-circulation process between the non-adiabatic ion population and the current sheet equilibrium itself.

  3. The current sheet tiled and non-adiabatic ions effect on the flapping motion in magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, XinHua

    2016-04-01

    The current sheet is a crucial region of the magnetotail, where energy reserve and release take place. The origin of the up-down motions of the current sheet, referred to as flapping motions, is among the most fundamental issues of magnetotail dynamics. Observational evidences suggest that the flapping motion is a kind of internal excited kink-like waves, but its particular propagating features such as the low phase speeds and the propagating direction from the tail center toward flanks do not match any local generation mechanisms previously established so far. Here we report observations of the current sheet flapping motions induced by non-adiabatic ions in the magnetic field configurations with a finite guiding component, whose population present periodic hemispherical asymmetries. These flapping motion current sheet cases often observed tiled. The current sheet flapping phenomenon implies that the excitation mechanism of the current sheet flapping motions is a self-circulation process between the non-adiabatic ion population and the current sheet equilibrium itself.

  4. Structure and evolution of the current sheet by multi-spacecraft observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Geophysics; Russell, C.T. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics; Gosling, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    On April 22, 1979, from 0840 to 1018 UT, ISEE 1, ISEE 2 and IMP 8 were all in or near the magnetotail current sheet at 17 Re, 16 Re and 35 Re respectively while ISEE 3 monitored the solar wind 206 Re upstream of the Earth. A global perspective of the four spacecraft observations and of the ground magnetic records is presented in this paper. The hyperbolic tangent current sheet model of Harris has been used to calculate the current sheet thickness and to analyze the plasma distribution in the vertical direction. It is found that during this event the current sheet thickness varied from 2.5 Re to 1.5 Re for northward IMF but thinned abruptly to 0.5 Re when the IMF turned southward.

  5. Kink-like mode of a double gradient instability in a compressible plasma current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovinskiy, D.B.; Ivanova, V.V.; Erkaev, N.V.; Semenov, V.S.; Ivanov, I.B.; Biernat, H.K.; Zellinger, M.

    2011-01-01

    A linear MHD instability of the electric current sheet, characterized by a small normal magnetic field component, varying along the sheet, is investigated. The tangential magnetic field component is modeled by a hyperbolic function, describing Harris-like variations of the field across the sheet. For this problem, which is formulated in a 3D domain, the conventional compressible ideal MHD equations are applied. By assuming Fourier harmonics along the electric current, the linearized 3D equations are reduced to 2D ones. A finite difference numerical scheme is applied to examine the time evolution of small initial perturbations of the plasma parameters. This work is an extended numerical study of the so called “double gradient instability”, – a possible candidate for the explanation of flapping oscillations in the magnetotail current sheet, which has been analyzed previously in the framework of a simplified analytical approach for an incompressible plasma. The dispersion curve is obtained for the kink-like mode of the instability. It is shown that this curve demonstrates a quantitative agreement with the previous analytical result. The development of the instability is investigated also for various enhanced values of the normal magnetic field component. It is found that the characteristic values of the growth rate of the instability shows a linear dependence on the square root of the parameter, which scales uniformly the normal component of the magnetic field in the current sheet. PMID:22053125

  6. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  7. Mercury's Magnetospheric Cusps and Cross-Tail Current Sheet: Structure and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Gang Kai

    Mercury has proven to be a unique natural laboratory for space plasma processes. Mercury's magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between its intrinsic planetary magnetic field and the supersonic solar wind. The structure of Mercury's magnetosphere is very similar to Earth's; yet the results from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury have shown that the spatial and temporal scales of magnetospheric processes are very different at Mercury. In this thesis, we analyze in situ observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft to characterize and understand the dynamic physical plasma processes occurring in Mercury's magnetosphere. We identified and analyzed 345 plasma filaments in Mercury's northern magnetospheric cusp to determine their physical properties. Cusp plasma filaments are magnetic structures that are identified on the basis of their characteristic 2-3 seconds long decrease in magnetic field intensity. Our analysis indicates that these cusp filaments are cylindrical flux tubes filled with plasma, which causes a diamagnetic decrease in the magnetic field inside the flux tube. MESSENGER observations of flux transfer events (FTEs) and cusp filament suggests that cusp filaments properties are the low-altitude extension of FTEs formed at Mercury's dayside magnetopause. We examined 319 central plasma sheet crossings observed by MESSENGER. Using a Harris model, we determined the physical properties of Mercury's cross-tail current sheet. Analysis of BZ in the current sheet indicated that MESSENGER usually crossed the current sheet sunward of the Near Mercury Neutral Line. Magnetohydrodynamics-based analysis using the MESSENGER magnetic field and plasma measurements suggests that heavy planetary ions and/or ion temperature anisotropy may be important in maintaining radial stress balance within Mercury's central plasma sheet. We report the observation of significant dawn-dusk variation in Mercury's cross-tail current sheet with thicker, lower plasma beta dawn side current

  8. Self-similar current sheet collapse triggered by "ideal" tearing

    CERN Document Server

    Tenerani, Anna; Rappazzo, Antonio Franco; Pucci, Fulvia

    2015-01-01

    We study the onset and evolution of fast reconnection via the "ideal: tearing mode instability within a collapsing current sheet at high Lundquist numbers ($S\\gg10^4$). As the collapse proceeds, fast reconnection is triggered well before a Sweet-Parker type configuration can form: after the linear phase of the initial instability, X-points collapse and reform nonlinearly, a hierarchy of "ideal" tearing modes repeating faster and faster on current sheets at ever smaller scales. We present a simple model describing the self-similar evolution which explains both the timescale of the disruption of the initial sheet and the consequent turbulent spectra.

  9. Observations of the Formation, Development, and Structure of a Current Sheet in an Eruptive Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Seaton, Daniel B; Darnel, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    We present AIA observations of a structure we interpret as a current sheet associated with an X4.9 flare and coronal mass ejection that occurred on 2014~February~25 in NOAA Active Region 11990. We characterize the properties of the current sheet, finding that the sheet remains on the order of a few thousand km thick for much of the duration of the event and that its temperature generally ranged between $8-10\\,\\mathrm{MK}$. We also note the presence of other phenomena believed to be associated with magnetic reconnection in current sheets, including supra-arcade downflows and shrinking loops. We estimate that the rate of reconnection during the event was $M_{A} \\approx 0.004-0.007$, a value consistent with model predictions. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this event for reconnection-based eruption models.

  10. Observations of the Formation, Development, and Structure of a Current Sheet in an Eruptive Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; Bartz, Allison E.; Darnel, Jonathan M.

    2017-02-01

    We present Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of a structure we interpret as a current sheet associated with an X4.9 flare and coronal mass ejection that occurred on 2014 February 25 in NOAA Active Region 11990. We characterize the properties of the current sheet, finding that the sheet remains on the order of a few thousand kilometers thick for much of the duration of the event and that its temperature generally ranged between 8 and 10 MK. We also note the presence of other phenomena believed to be associated with magnetic reconnection in current sheets, including supra-arcade downflows and shrinking loops. We estimate that the rate of reconnection during the event was MA ≈ 0.004–0.007, a value consistent with model predictions. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this event for reconnection-based eruption models.

  11. High-latitude Conic Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga V.; Malova, Helmi V.; Kislov, Roman A.; Zelenyi, Lev M.; Obridko, Vladimir N.; Kharshiladze, Alexander F.; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Sokół, Justyna M.; Grzedzielski, Stan; Fujiki, Ken'ichi

    2017-02-01

    We provide observational evidence for the existence of large-scale cylindrical (or conic-like) current sheets (CCSs) at high heliolatitudes. Long-lived CCSs were detected by Ulysses during its passages over the South Solar Pole in 1994 and 2007. The characteristic scale of these tornado-like structures is several times less than a typical width of coronal holes within which the CCSs are observed. CCS crossings are characterized by a dramatic decrease in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. Ulysses crossed the same CCS at different heliolatitudes at 2-3 au several times in 1994, as the CCS was declined from the rotation axis and corotated with the Sun. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole, and its structure was strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. Restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles in both 1994 and 2007. Such separators exist only during solar minima. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis confirms the presence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. Energetic particle flux enhancements up to several MeV/nuc are observed at edges of the CCSs. We built simple MHD models of a CCS to illustrate its key features. The CCSs may be formed as a result of nonaxiality of the solar rotation axis and magnetic axis, as predicted by the Fisk-Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and coworkers.

  12. Dynamo-driven plasmoid formation from a current-sheet instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, F.

    2016-12-01

    Axisymmetric current-carrying plasmoids are formed in the presence of nonaxisymmetric fluctuations during nonlinear three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations in a global toroidal geometry. We utilize the helicity injection technique to form an initial poloidal flux in the presence of a toroidal guide field. As helicity is injected, two types of current sheets are formed from (1) the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region (primary reconnecting current sheet), and (2) the poloidal flux compression near the plasma edge (edge current sheet). We first find that nonaxisymmetric fluctuations arising from the current-sheet instability isolated near the plasma edge have tearing parity but can nevertheless grow fast (on the poloidal Alfven time scale). These modes saturate by breaking up the current sheet. Second, for the first time, a dynamo poloidal flux amplification is observed at the reconnection site (in the region of the oppositely directed magnetic field). This fluctuation-induced flux amplification increases the local Lundquist number, which then triggers a plasmoid instability and breaks the primary current sheet at the reconnection site. The plasmoids formation driven by large-scale flux amplification, i.e., a large-scale dynamo, observed here has strong implications for astrophysical reconnection as well as fast reconnection events in laboratory plasmas.

  13. Exploring reconnection, current sheets, and dissipation in a laboratory MHD turbulence experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) can serve as a testbed for studying MHD turbulence in a controllable laboratory setting, and in particular, explore the phenomena of reconnection, current sheets and dissipation in MHD turbulence. Plasma with turbulently fluctuating magnetic and velocity fields can be generated using a plasma gun source and launched into a flux-conserving cylindrical tunnel. No background magnetic field is applied so internal fields are allowed to evolve dynamically. Point measurements of magnetic and velocity fluctuations yield broadband power-law spectra with a steepening breakpoint indicative of the onset of a dissipation scale. The frequency range at which this steepening occurs can be correlated to the ion inertial scale of the plasma, a length which is characteristic of the size of current sheets in MHD plasmas and suggests a connection to dissipation. Observation of non-Gaussian intermittent jumps in magnetic field magnitude and angle along with measurements of ion temperature bursts suggests the presence of current sheets embedded within the turbulent plasma, and possibly even active reconnection sites. Additionally, structure function analysis coupled with appeals to fractal scaling models support the hypothesis that current sheets are associated with dissipation in this system.

  14. Formation and Reconnection of Three-Dimensional Current Sheets in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun s corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to apply directly the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of 2D reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet- Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection

  15. Deuton-M Magnetic Tapes and Sheets for Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic stripe is one of the major applications of magnetic materials. As a key component of the present card technologies magnetic stripes play reliable components for electronic data interchange in worldwide electronic payment systems such as financial cards, transit tickets and phone cards, etc. Magnetic stripes are available in various coercivity materials, widths, lengths, structures and colors with each types of transferable, lamination and pressure sensitive magnetic tapes of Deuton-M. Manufacturing process, structure and characteristics of Deuton-M magnetic tape and sheet are described.

  16. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet pil

  17. INDUCTION HEATING OF NON-MAGNETIC SHEET METALS IN THE FIELD OF A FLAT CIRCULAR MULTITURN SOLENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of electromagnetic processes in the system for induction heating presented by a flat circular multiturn solenoid positioned above a plane of thin sheet non-magnetic metal has been conducted. The calculated dependences for the current induced in a metal sheet blank and ratio of transformation determined have been obtained. The maximal value of the transformation ratio with regard to spreading the eddy-currents over the whole area of the sheet metal has been determined.

  18. Field reversing magnetotail current sheets: earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    This dissertation examines the field reversing magnetotail current sheets at the earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner. In the near earth study a new analysis technique is developed to calculate the detailed current density distributions within the cross tail current sheet for the first time. This technique removes the effects of a variable sheet velocity by inverting intersatellite timings between the co-orbiting satellites ISEE-1 and -2. Case studies of three relatively geomagnetically quiet crossings are made; sheet thicknesses and peak current densities are approx.1-5 x 10/sup 4/ km and approx.5-50 nA/m/sup 2/. Current density distributions reveal a high density central region, lower density shoulders, and considerable fine structure throughout. In the Venus study another new analysis technique is developed to reconstruct the average tail configuration from a correlation between field magnitude and draping angle in a large statistical data set. In the comet study, high resolution magnetic field and plasma electron data from the ICE traversal of Giacobini-Zinner are combined for the first time to determine the tail/current sheet geometry and calculate certain important but unmeasured local ion and upstream properties. Pressure balance across the tail gives ion temperatures and betas of approx.1.2 x 10/sup 5/ K and approx.40 in the center of the current sheet to approx.1 x 10/sup 6/ K and approx.3 in the outer lobes. Axial stress balance shows that the velocity shear upstream near the nucleus is >6 (approx.1 at ICE), and that a region of strongly enhanced mass loading (ion source rate approx.24 times that upstream from lobes) exists upstream from the current sheet. The integrated downtail mass flux is approx.2.6 x 10/sup 26/ H/sub 2/O+/sec, which is only approx.1% of the independently determined total cometary efflux. 79 refs., 37 figs.

  19. Electron surfing acceleration in a current sheet of flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A model of electron acceleration in a current sheet of flares is studied by the analytical approximation solution and the test particle simulation. The electron can be trapped in a potential of propagating electrostatic wave. The trapped electron moving with the phase velocity vp of wave may be effectively accelerated by evc p× Bz force along the outflow direction in the current sheet, if a criterion condition K > 0 for electron surfing acceleration is satisfied. The electron will be accelerated continuously until the electron detrap from the wave potential at the turning point S.

  20. Thin current sheets caused by plasma flow gradients in space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickeler, D.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2011-12-01

    To understand complex space plasma systems like the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, we need to have a good knowledge of the slowly evolving equilibrium state. The slow change of external constraints on the system (for example boundary conditions or other external parameters) lead in many cases to the formation of current sheets. These current sheets can trigger micro-instabilities, which cause resistivity on fluid scales. Consequently resistive instabilities like magnetic reconnection can occur and the systems evolves dynamically. Therefore such a picture of quasi-magneto-hydro-static changes can explain the quasy-static phase of many space plasma before an eruption occurs. Within this work we extend the theory by the inclusion of a nonlinear stationary plasma flows. Our analysis shows that stationary plasma flows with strong flow gradients (for example the solar wind magnetosphere coupling) can be responsible for the existence or generation of current sheets.

  1. Multiple current sheet systems in the outer heliosphere: Energy release and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, David; Matteini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In the outer heliosphere, beyond the solar wind termination shock, it is expected that the warped heliospheric current sheet forms a region of closely-packed, multiple, thin current sheets. Such a system may be subject to the ion-kinetic tearing instability, and hence generate magnetic islands and hot populations of ions associated with magnetic reconnection. Reconnection processes in this environment have important implications for local particle transport, and for particle acceleration at reconnection sites and in turbulence. We study this complex environment by means of three-dimensional hybrid simulations over long time scales, in order to capture the evolution from linear growth of the tearing instability to a fully developed turbulent state at late times. The final state develops from the highly ordered initial state via both forward and inverse cascades. Component and spectral anisotropy in the magnetic fluctuations is present when a guide field is included. The inclusion of a population of new-born in...

  2. Active current sheets and hot flow anomalies in Mercury's bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Uritsky, V M; Boardsen, S A; Sundberg, T; Raines, J M; Gershman, D J; Collinson, G; Sibeck, D; Khazanov, G V; Anderson, B J; Korth, H

    2013-01-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) represent a subset of solar wind discontinuities interacting with collisionless bow shocks. They are typically formed when the normal component of motional (convective) electric field points toward the embedded current sheet on at least one of its sides. The core region of an HFA contains hot and highly deflected ion flows and rather low and turbulent magnetic field. In this paper, we report first observations of HFA-like events at Mercury identified over a course of two planetary years. Using data from the orbital phase of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, we identify a representative ensemble of active current sheets magnetically connected to Mercury's bow shock. We show that some of these events exhibit unambiguous magnetic and particle signatures of HFAs similar to those observed earlier at other planets, and present their key physical characteristics. Our analysis suggests that Mercury's bow shock does not only mediate the flo...

  3. Current-sheet formation in 3D ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer; Marliani

    2000-05-22

    The evolution of current density and vorticity in the ideal, inviscid incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions is studied numerically. Highly effective resolutions are obtained by adaptive structured mesh refinement techniques. We report on results for three different initial conditions showing similar behavior: in the early stage of the evolution a fast increase in vorticity and current density is observed. Thereafter, the evolution towards nearly two-dimensional current sheets results in a depletion of nonlinearity.

  4. Magnetic configuration of the distant plasma sheet - ISEE 3 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Daly, P. W.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Lepping, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the IMF orientation and magnitude and substorm activity on the magnetic configuration of the central plasma sheet at 20-240 earth radii down the geomagnetic tail is investigated on the basis of ISEE-3 data. The results are presented graphically, and high-speed antisolar bulk flows threaded by southward magnetic fields are shown to be present in the distant plasma sheet after periods of substorm activity and southward IMF Bz. The effective dayside reconnection efficiency is estimated as 25 + or - 4 percent, in good agreement with theoretical models.

  5. Properties of current sheet thinning at x ˜- 10 to -12 RE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Petrokovich, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We report on Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations of current sheet thinning in Earth's magnetotail at around x =- 10 to -12 Earth radii. The THEMIS spacecraft configuration in October-December 2015 allows us to construct both gradients that contribute to the cross-tail current density jy=μ0-1(∂Bx/∂z-∂Bz/∂x) (GSM coordinates). For 17 events when the spacecraft observed a gradual Bz decrease and jy increase, we find the following average scaling relations: for the current density jy˜Bz-7/4, for the lobe magnetic field BL˜Bz-1/4, and for the plasma density ni˜Bz-3/4. We show that the temperature of ions and electrons decreases and the plasma pressure gradient ∂p/∂x rapidly increases during current sheet thinning. The scale Lx=(∂lnp/∂x)-1 decreases a few thousand kilometers. We also consider current carriers in thinning current sheets: both ion and electron current-dominated current sheets, preferentially located near dusk and midnight, respectively, are found.

  6. The role of oxygen ions in the formation of a bifurcated current sheet in the magnetotail

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, S; Zimbardo, G; Veltri, P

    2010-01-01

    Cluster observations in the near-Earth magnetotail have shown that sometimes the current sheet is bifurcated, i.e. it is divided in two layers. The influence of magnetic turbulence on ion motion in this region is investigated by numerical simulation, taking into account the presence of both protons and oxygen ions. The magnetotail current sheet is modeled as a magnetic field reversal with a normal magnetic field component $B_n$, plus a three-dimensional spectrum of magnetic fluctuations $\\delta {\\bf B}$, which represents the observed magnetic turbulence. The dawn-dusk electric field E$_y$ is also included. A test particle simulation is performed using different values of $\\delta {\\bf B}$, E$_y$ and injecting two different species of particles, O$^+$ ions and protons. O$^+$ ions can support the formation of a double current layer both in the absence and for large values of magnetic fluctuations ($\\delta B/B_0 = 0.0$ and $\\delta B/B_0 \\geq 0.4$, where B$_0$ is the constant magnetic field in the magnetospheric l...

  7. Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

    2013-01-01

    A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

  8. Additional acceleration of solar-wind particles in current sheets of the heliosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharkova, V. [Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics and Information Systems; Khabarova, O. [RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow (Russian Federation). Heliophysical Lab.

    2015-09-01

    Particles of fast solar wind in the vicinity of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) or in a front of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) often reveal very peculiar energy or velocity profiles, density distributions with double or triple peaks, and well-defined streams of electrons occurring around or far away from these events. In order to interpret the parameters of energetic particles (both ions and electrons) measured by the WIND spacecraft during the HCS crossings, a comparison of the data was carried out with 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the relevant magnetic topology (Zharkova and Khabarova, 2012). The simulations showed that all the observed particle-energy distributions, densities, ion peak velocities, electron pitch angles and directivities can be fitted with the same model if the heliospheric current sheet is in a status of continuous magnetic reconnection. In this paper we present further observations of the solar-wind particles being accelerated to rather higher energies while passing through the HCS and the evidence that this acceleration happens well before the appearance of the corotating interacting region (CIR), which passes through the spacecraft position hours later. We show that the measured particle characteristics (ion velocity, electron pitch angles and the distance at which electrons are turned from the HCS) are in agreement with the simulations of additional particle acceleration in a reconnecting HCS with a strong guiding field as measured by WIND. A few examples are also presented showing additional acceleration of solarwind particles during their passage through current sheets formed in a front of ICMEs. This additional acceleration at the ICME current sheets can explain the anticorrelation of ion and electron fluxes frequently observed around the ICME's leading front. Furthermore, it may provide a plausible explanation of the appearance of bidirectional ''strahls'' (field-aligned most

  9. Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale. Theoretical investigations, in situ spacecraft and rocket missions, and laboratory studies form an essential triad for understanding the variety of current sheet phenomena found in space plasmas. In the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA, the formation dynamics, equilibrium state, and wave-mediated disruptions of current sheets can be studied with great spatial and temporal resolution using a variety of probes as well as non-invasive laser induced fluorescence and other optical diagnostics. The LAPD is aptly suited for studying current sheets flowing in a magnetized background plasma which is capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The cylindrical device is 20m long and one meter in diameter with a solenoidal magnetic field as high as 3000 Gauss. For the parameters in this experiment, the plasma column is ten shear Alfvén wavelengths along the field and 100 electron inertial lengths (δe) (or 200 ρi) in the perpendicular direction. An electron current sheet is created in the plasma by placing a thin copper plate in the plasma column at one end of the device and pulsing this plate positive with respect to the chamber wall. The current sheet extends for the length of the device and has an initial cross-field size of roughly 45 δe by 0.5δe. A parallel flow of ions is observed with similar dimensions and moves in the same direction as the electrons in the current sheet with a velocity of 0.2 times the ion sound speed. A much weaker sheared perpendicular flow is also measured. Cross-sections of the ion flow are measured at several axial locations over a distance of six meters. Second, as the ion flow increases in magnitude, a much broader (8ρi) density depletion (n=0.25nO) develops around the flow. The gradient scale length of the depletion shortens until the spontaneous growth of drift waves occurs. This disrupts the electron current and ion flow, and leads to cross-field transport of

  10. Cluster and TC-1 observation of magnetic holes in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Sun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic holes with relatively small scale sizes, detected by Cluster and TC-1 in the magnetotail plasma sheet, are studied in this paper. It is found that these magnetic holes are spatial structures and they are not magnetic depressions generated by the flapping movement of the magnetotail current sheet. Most of the magnetic holes (93% were observed during intervals with Bz larger than Bx, i.e. they are more likely to occur in a dipolarized magnetic field topology. Our results also suggest that the occurrence of these magnetic holes might have a close relationship with the dipolarization process. The magnetic holes typically have a scale size comparable to the local proton Larmor radius and are accompanied by an electron energy flux enhancement at a 90° pitch angle, which is quite different from the previously observed isotropic electron distributions inside magnetic holes in the plasma sheet. It is also shown that most of the magnetic holes occur in marginally mirror-stable environments. Whether the plasma sheet magnetic holes are generated by the mirror instability related to ions or not, however, is unknown. Comparison of ratios, scale sizes and propagation direction of magnetic holes detected by Cluster and TC-1, suggests that magnetic holes observed in the vicinity of the TC-1 orbit (~7–12 RE are likely to be further developed than those observed by Cluster (~7–18 RE.

  11. An Intrinsically Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection Process in a Generalized Harris Sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ping; Wang, Zechen; Bonofiglo, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    A magnetic reconnection process in the generalized Harris sheet has been revealed to be intrinsically three-dimensional both geometrically and dynamically despite the spatial invariance of the original current sheet in the equilibrium current direction. The spatial distribution and structure of the quasi-separatrix layers, as well as their temporal emergence and evolution, indicate that the associated magnetic reconnection can only occur in a three-dimensional geometry which is irreducible to a two-dimensional reconnection process. Such a three-dimensional reconnection process is induced by the nonlinear development of an ideal MHD ballooning instability in the generalized Harris sheet, which is itself an intrinsically three-dimensional dynamic process.

  12. Current-voltage characteristics of borophene and borophane sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi Vishkayi, Sahar; Bagheri Tagani, Meysam

    2017-08-16

    Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical research on a monolayer of boron atoms, borophene, the current-voltage characteristics of three different borophene sheets, 2Pmmn, 8Pmmn, and 8Pmmm, are calculated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Borophene sheets with two and eight atoms in a unit cell are considered. Their band structure, electron density, and structural anisotropy are analyzed in detail. The results show that the 8Pmmn and 8Pmmm structures that have eight atoms in the unit cell have less anisotropy than 2Pmmn. In addition, although 8Pmmn shows a Dirac cone in the band structure, its current is lower than that of the other two. We also consider a fully hydrogenated borophene, borophane, and find that the hydrogenation process reduces the structural anisotropy and the current significantly. Our findings reveal that the current-voltage characteristics of the borophene sheets can be used to detect the type and the growth direction of the sample because it is strongly dependent on the direction of the electron transport, anisotropy, and details of the unit cell of the borophene.

  13. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry and Current Sheet Trajectory of a Conical Theta Pinch Pulsed Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Bonds, Kevin W.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented demonstrating the e ect of inductive coil geometry and current sheet trajectory on the exhaust velocity of propellant in conical theta pinch pulsed induc- tive plasma accelerators. The electromagnetic coupling between the inductive coil of the accelerator and a plasma current sheet is simulated, substituting a conical copper frustum for the plasma. The variation of system inductance as a function of plasma position is obtained by displacing the simulated current sheet from the coil while measuring the total inductance of the coil. Four coils of differing geometries were employed, and the total inductance of each coil was measured as a function of the axial displacement of two sep- arate copper frusta both having the same cone angle and length as the coil but with one compressed to a smaller size relative to the coil. The measured relationship between total coil inductance and current sheet position closes a dynamical circuit model that is used to calculate the resulting current sheet velocity for various coil and current sheet con gura- tions. The results of this model, which neglects the pinching contribution to thrust, radial propellant con nement, and plume divergence, indicate that in a conical theta pinch ge- ometry current sheet pinching is detrimental to thruster performance, reducing the kinetic energy of the exhausting propellant by up to 50% (at the upper bound for the parameter range of the study). The decrease in exhaust velocity was larger for coils and simulated current sheets of smaller half cone angles. An upper bound for the pinching contribution to thrust is estimated for typical operating parameters. Measurements of coil inductance for three di erent current sheet pinching conditions are used to estimate the magnetic pressure as a function of current sheet radial compression. The gas-dynamic contribution to axial acceleration is also estimated and shown to not compensate for the decrease in axial electromagnetic acceleration

  14. Three-dimensional particle simulation of plasma instabilities and collisionless reconnection in a current sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya [Theory and Computer Simulation Center, National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Generation of anomalous resistivity and dynamical development of collisionless reconnection in the vicinity of a magnetically neutral sheet are investigated by means of a three-dimensional particle simulation. For no external driving source, two different types of plasma instabilities are excited in the current layer. The lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI) is observed to grow in the periphery of current layer in an early period, while a drift kink instability (DKI) is triggered at the neutral sheet in a late period as a result of the nonlinear deformation of the current sheet by the LHDI. A reconnection electric field grows at the neutral sheet in accordance with the excitation of the DKI. When an external driving field exists, the convective electric field penetrates into the current layer through the particle kinetic effect and collisionless reconnection is triggered by the convective electric field earlier than the DKI is excited. It is also found that the anisotropic ion distribution is formed through the anomalous ion heating by the DKI. (author)

  15. Plasmoid formation in the elongated current sheet during transient CHI on HIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Fujita, Akihiro; Matsui, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Naoyuki; Kanki, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The Transient-Coaxial Helicity Injection (T-CHI) is a promising candidate for the non-inductive plasma start-up on Spherical Torus (ST). The problem of the flux closure in the T-CHI is important and related to understand the physics of fast magnetic reconnection. The recent MHD simulation (F. Ebrahimi and R. Raman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 205003 (2015)) on T-CHI for NSTX predicts the formation and breakup of an elongated Sweet-Parker (S-P) current sheet and a transient to plasmoid instability. According to this simulation, the reconnection rate based on the plasmoid instability is faster than that by S-P model and becomes nearly independent of the Lundquist number S. In this meeting, we will present that the formation of multiple X-points and plasmoids has been observed in T-CHI start-up plasmas on HIST. The stronger external guide (toroidal) magnetic field makes plasma less compressible, leading to slower reconnection time and longer current sheet. The experimental observation shows that 2/3 plasmoids are generated in the elongated current sheet with the narrow width comparable to the ion skin depth or the ion sound gyro-radius. The small plasmoids develop to a large-scale flux structure due to a current inward diffusion during the decay phase.

  16. Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianlian; Guo, Liwei; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Lin, Jingjing; Huang, Jiao; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The magnetism of graphene has remained divergent and controversial due to absence of reliable experimental results. Here we show the intrinsic magnetism of graphene edge states revealed based on unidirectional aligned graphene sheets derived from completely carbonized SiC crystals. It is found that ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and diamagnetism along with a probable superconductivity exist in the graphene with irregular zigzag edges. A phase diagram is constructed to show the evolution of the magnetism. The ferromagnetic ordering curie-temperature of the fundamental magnetic order unit (FMOU) is 820 ± 80 K. The antiferromagnetic ordering Neel temperature of the FMOUs belonging to different sublattices is about 54 ± 2 K. The diamagnetism is similar to that of graphite and can be well described by the Kotosonov's equation. Our experimental results provide new evidences to clarify the controversial experimental phenomena observed in graphene and contribute to a deeper insight into the nature of magnetism in graphene based system.

  17. Heliospheric current sheet and its interaction with solar cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malova, Helmi; Popov, Victor; Grigorenko, Elena; Dunko, Andrey; Petrukovich, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    We investigated effects resulting from the interaction of solar cosmic rays (SCR) with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) in the solar wind. Self-consistent kinetic model of the HCS is developed, where ions demonstrate quasi-adiabatic dynamics. HCS is considered as the equilibrium embedded current structure, where the two main kinds of plasma with different temperatures give the main contribution to the current (low-energy background plasma and SCR). It is shown that HCS is a relatively thin multiscale configuration of the current sheet, embedded in a thicker plasma layer. The taking into account of SCR particles in HCS could lead to a change of its structure and to enhancement of its properties such as the embedding and multi-scaling. Parametric family of solutions is considered where the current balance in HCS is provided at different temperatures of SCR and different concentrations of high-energy plasma. Concentrations of SCR are determined which may contribute to the thickening of the HCS that can be observed in satellite studies. The possibility to apply this modeling for the explanation of experimental observations is considered.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Current Sheet Formation in a Quasi-Separatrix Layer using Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Effenberger, Frederic; Arnold, Lukas; Grauer, Rainer; Dreher, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The formation of a thin current sheet in a magnetic quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) is investigated by means of numerical simulation using a simplified ideal, low-$\\beta$, MHD model. The initial configuration and driving boundary conditions are relevant to phenomena observed in the solar corona and were studied earlier by Aulanier et al., A&A 444, 961 (2005). In extension to that work, we use the technique of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to significantly enhance the local spatial resolution of the current sheet during its formation, which enables us to follow the evolution into a later stage. Our simulations are in good agreement with the results of Aulanier et al. up to the calculated time in that work. In a later phase, we observe a basically unarrested collapse of the sheet to length scales that are more than one order of magnitude smaller than those reported earlier. The current density attains correspondingly larger maximum values within the sheet. During this thinning process, which is finally limite...

  19. The uncertainties of magnetic properties measurements of electrical sheet steel

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlers, H

    2000-01-01

    In this work, uncertainties in measurements of magnetic properties of Epstein- and single-sheet samples have been determined according to the 'Guide To The Expression Of Uncertainty In Measurement', [International Organization for Standardization (1993)]. They were calculated for the results at predicted values of parameters taking into account the non-linear dependences. The measurement results and the uncertainties are calculated simultaneously by a computer program.

  20. Instabilities of collisionless current sheets revisited: the role of anisotropic heating

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, P A; Büchner, J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of the anisotropic heating on the spontaneous instability and evolution of thin Harris-type collisionless current sheets, embedded in antiparallel magnetic fields. In particular, we explore the influence of the macroparticle shape-function using a 2D version of the PIC code ACRONYM. We also investigate the role of the numerical collisionality due to the finite number of macroparticles in PIC codes. It is shown that it is appropriate to choose higher order shape functions of the macroparticles compared to a larger number of macroparticles per cell. This allows to estimate better the anisotropic electron heating due to the collisions of macroparticles in a PIC code. Temperature anisotropies can stabilize the tearing mode instability and trigger additional current sheet instabilities. We found a good agreement between the analytically derived threshold for the stabilization of the anisotropic tearing mode and other instabilities, either spontaneously developing or initi...

  1. Physics and Dynamics of Current Sheets in Pulsed Plasma Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    pulsed plasma thruster. A simple experiment would involve measuring the impulse bit of a coaxial gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster operated in both positive...Princeton, NJ, 2002. [2] J. Marshal. Performance of a hydromagnetic plasma gun . The Physics of Fluids, 3(1):134–135, January-February 1960. [3] R.G. Jahn...Jahn and K.E. Clark. A large dielecteic vacuum facility. AIAA Jour- nal, 1966. [16] L.C. Burkhardt and R.H. Lovberg. Current sheet in a coaxial plasma

  2. Double peak structure and diamagnetic wings of the magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zimbardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent Cluster observations in the magnetotail at about 20 Earth radii downtail have unambiguously shown that sometimes the current sheet is bifurcated, i.e. it is divided in two layers. We report numerical simulations of the ion dynamics in a quasi-neutral sheet in the presence of magnetic turbulence, which is often observed in the magnetotail, and for various anisotropies of the ion distribution function. Ions are injected at the boundary of the simulation box with a velocity distribution corresponding to a shifted Maxwellian. The simulation parameters, are adjusted to be similar to those of Cluster observations. We find that even for moderate fluctuation levels, the computed current density profile develops a double peak, in agreement with the observations. By varying the anisotropy of the injected distribution function, we are able to reproduce, for weak anisotropy, the magnetic field overshoots which are sometimes observed prior to magnetotail traversals. Therefore, we suggest an ion current profile with a double peak due to magnetic turbulence, and with possible diamagnetic current wings, present in the case of weak anisotropy of the ion distribution function.

  3. On the radial force balance in the quiet time magnetotail current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.

    2016-05-01

    Using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions spacecraft observations of the quite magnetotail current sheet within the r∈[9,35]RE region (r is the radial distance from Earth and RE is Earth's radius), we investigate the thermal plasma pressure distribution along the magnetotail. Taking advantage of flapping motions of an ensemble of current sheets at various distances, we estimate the current density magnitude jy (in GSM coordinates). Comparing the tension force jyBz (Bz is the magnetic field component) with the radial gradient of the plasma pressure demonstrates that this gradient is only a small fraction, ˜10-15%, of the Ampere force exerted on the cross-tail current, in the r > 15RE region. We also estimate the contribution of the electron temperature anisotropy to the pressure balance: in the r > 15RE region the corresponding force can balance only 10-15% of the observed tension force jyBz. Thus, we conclude that about 70% of the tension force is not balanced by the combination of isotropic radial pressure gradient or the electron anisotropy. We discuss mechanisms that could be responsible for balancing the magnetotail current sheet.

  4. Thin and superthin ion current sheets. Quasi-adiabatic and nonadiabatic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zelenyi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin anisotropic current sheets (CSs are phenomena of the general occurrence in the magnetospheric tail. We develop an analytical theory of the self-consistent thin CSs. General solitions of the Grad-Shafranov equation are obtained in a quasi-adiabatic approximation which neglects the jumps of the sheet adiabatic invariant Iz This is possible if the anisotropy of the initial distribution function is not too strong. The resulting structure of the thin CSs is interpreted as a sum of negative dia- and positive paramagnetic currents flowing near the neutral plane. In the immediate vicinity of the magnetic field reversal region the paramagnetic current arising from the meandering motion of the ions on Speiser orbits dominates. The maximum CS thick-ness is achieved in the case of weak plasma anisotropy and is of the order of the thermal ion gyroradius outside the sheet. A unified picture of thin CS scalings includes both the quasi-adiabatic regimes of weak and strong anisotropies and the nonadiabatic limit of super-strong anisotropy of the source ion distribution. The later limit corresponds to the case of almost field-aligned initial distribution, when the ratio of the drift velocity outside the CS to the thermal ion velocity exceeds the ratio of the magnetic field outside the CS to its value in-side the CS (vD/vT> B0/Bn. In this regime the jumps of Iz, become essential, and the current sheet thickness is approaching to some small but finite value, which depends upon the parameter Bn /B0. Convective electric field increases the effective anisotropy of the source distribution and might produce the essential CS thinning which could have important implications for the sub-storm dynamics.

  5. Heliospheric current sheet and effects of its interaction with solar cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malova, H. V.; Popov, V. Yu.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Dunko, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of interaction of solar cosmic rays (SCRs) with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) in the solar wind are analyzed. A self-consistent kinetic model of the HCS is developed in which ions with quasiadiabatic dynamics can present. The HCS is considered an equilibrium embedded current structure in which two main plasma species with different temperatures (the low-energy background plasma of the solar wind and the higher energy SCR component) contribute to the current. The obtained results are verified by comparing with the results of numerical simulations based on solving equations of motion by the particle tracing method in the given HCS magnetic field with allowance for SCR particles. It is shown that the HCS is a relatively thin multiscale current configuration embedded in a thicker plasma layer. In this case, as a rule, the shear (tangential to the sheet current) component of the magnetic field is present in the HCS. Taking into account high-energy SCR particles in the HCS can lead to a change of its configuration and the formation of a multiscale embedded structure. Parametric family of solutions is considered in which the current balance in the HCS is provided at different SCR temperatures and different densities of the high-energy plasma. The SCR densities are determined at which an appreciable (detectable by satellites) HCS thickening can occur. Possible applications of this modeling to explain experimental observations are discussed.

  6. Superconductivity and magnetic short-range order in the system with a Pd sheet sandwiched between graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masatsugu [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6016 (United States); Suzuki, Itsuko S [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6016 (United States); Walter, Juergen [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6016 (United States)

    2004-02-18

    Pd-metal graphite (Pd-MG) has a layered structure, where each Pd sheet is sandwiched between adjacent graphene sheets. The DC magnetization and AC magnetic susceptibility of Pd-MG have been measured using a SQUID magnetometer. Pd-MG undergoes a superconducting transition at T{sub c} (= 3.63 {+-} 0.04 K). The superconductivity occurs in the Pd sheets. The irreversibility between {chi}{sub ZFC} and {chi}{sub FC} occurs well above T{sub c}. The susceptibility {chi}{sub FC} obeys a Curie-Weiss behaviour with a negative Curie-Weiss temperature (-13.1 {<=}{theta} {<=}-5.4 K). The growth of magnetic order is limited by the disordered nature of nanographites, forming magnetic short-range order at low temperature in the graphene sheets.

  7. High current density sheet-like electron beam generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow-Miller, Cora; Korevaar, Eric; Schuster, John

    Sheet electron beams are very desirable for coupling to the evanescent waves in small millimeter wave slow-wave circuits to achieve higher powers. In particular, they are critical for operation of the free-electron-laser-like Orotron. The program was a systematic effort to establish a solid technology base for such a sheet-like electron emitter system that will facilitate the detailed studies of beam propagation stability. Specifically, the effort involved the design and test of a novel electron gun using Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) as the thermionic cathode material. Three sets of experiments were performed to measure beam propagation as a function of collector current, beam voltage, and heating power. The design demonstrated its reliability by delivering 386.5 hours of operation throughout the weeks of experimentation. In addition, the cathode survived two venting and pump down cycles without being poisoned or losing its emission characteristics. A current density of 10.7 A/sq cm. was measured while operating at 50 W of ohmic heating power. Preliminary results indicate that the nearby presence of a metal plate can stabilize the beam.

  8. Current leads and magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    1993-10-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS's), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been active in a broad spectrum of activities in developing these materials for applications. Work at every stage of development has involved industrial collaboration in order to accelerate commercialization. While most of the development work has been devoted to improving the properties of current-carrying wires, some effort has been devoted to applications that can utilize HTS's with properties available now or in the near future. In this paper, advances made in the area of current leads and magnetic bearings are discussed.

  9. Force-free collisionless current sheet models with non-uniform temperature and density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Allanson, O.

    2017-09-01

    We present a class of one-dimensional, strictly neutral, Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium distribution functions for force-free current sheets, with magnetic fields defined in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions, extending the results of Abraham-Shrauner [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102117 (2013)] to allow for non-uniform density and temperature profiles. To achieve this, we use an approach previously applied to the force-free Harris sheet by Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)]. In one limit of the parameters, we recover the model of Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)], while another limit gives a linear force-free field. We discuss conditions on the parameters such that the distribution functions are always positive and give expressions for the pressure, density, temperature, and bulk-flow velocities of the equilibrium, discussing the differences from previous models. We also present some illustrative plots of the distribution function in velocity space.

  10. A Theoretical Model of Pinching Current Sheet in Low-beta Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Takeshige, Satoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important physical process in various explosive phenomena in the universe. In the previous studies, it was found that fast re- connection takes place when the thickness of a current sheet becomes on the order of a microscopic length such as the ion larmor radius or the ion inertial length. In this study, we investigated the pinching process of a current sheet by the Lorentz force in a low-{\\beta} plasma using one-dimensional magnetohydrodynam- ics (MHD) simulations. It is known that there is an exact self-similar solution for this problem that neglects gas pressure. We compared the non-linear MHD dynamics with the analytic self-similar solution. From the MHD simulations, we found that with the gas pressure included the implosion process deviates from the analytic self-similar solution as t {\\rightarrow} t 0, where t 0 is the explosion time when the thickness of a current sheet of the analytic solution becomes 0. We also found a pair of MHD fast-mode shocks are generated and propaga...

  11. Polarized synchrotron emission from the equatorial current sheet in gamma-ray pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Benoît; Philippov, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    Polarization is a powerful diagnostic tool to constrain the site of the high-energy pulsed emission and particle acceleration in gamma-ray pulsars. Recent particle-in-cell simulations of pulsar magnetosphere suggest that high-energy emission results from particles accelerated in the equatorial current sheet emitting synchrotron radiation. In this study, we re-examine the simulation data to compute the phase-resolved polarization properties. We find that the emission is mildly polarized and that there is an anticorrelation between the flux and the degree of linear polarization (on-pulse: ~15%, off-pulse: ~30%). The decrease of polarization during pulses is mainly attributed to the formation of caustics in the current sheet. Each pulse of light is systematically accompanied by a rapid swing of the polarization angle due to the change of the magnetic polarity when the line of sight passes through the current sheet. The optical polarization pattern observed in the Crab can be well-reproduced for a pulsar inclinat...

  12. The Role of Current Sheets in Solar Eruptive Events: An ISSI International Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven T.; Poletto, Giannina

    2006-01-01

    Current sheets (CSs) are a prerequisite for magnetic reconnection. An International Space Science Institute (ISSI, of Bern, Switzerland) research team will work to empirically define current sheet properties in the solar atmosphere and their signatures in the interplanetary medium, and to understand their role in the development of solar eruptive events. The project was inspired by recently acquired ground and space based observations that reveal CS signatures at the time of flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), in the chromosphere, in the corona and in the interplanetary medium. At the same time, theoretical studies predict the formation of CSs in different models and configurations, but theories and observational results have not yet developed an interaction efficient enough to allow us to construct a unified scenario. The team will generate synergy between observers, data analysts, and theoreticians, so as to enable a significant advance in understanding of current sheet behavior and properties. A further motivation for studying CSs is related to the expected electric fields in CSs that may be the source of solar energetic particles (SEPs). The team has 14 members from Europe and the US. The first meeting is in October 2006 and the second is late in 2007.

  13. Radiation from a current sheet at the interface between a conventional medium and anisotropic negative refractive medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuan You

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the radiation from a current sheet at the interface between semiinfinite isotropic positive refractive medium and anisotropic negative refractive medium. The distribution of the electric and magnetic fields in two regions and Poynting vectors associated with propagating and evanescent waves are calculated. The reasons for the singularity of the electric or magnetic field are briefly provided if the waves are evanescent in two media.

  14. Numerical experiments on the detailed energy conversion and spectrum studies in a corona current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei; Mei, Zhixing; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the energy conversion and spectra in a corona current sheet by 2.5-dimensional MHD numerical simulations. Numerical results show that many Petschek-like fine structures with slow-mode shocks mediated by plasmoid instabilities develop during the magnetic reconnection process. The termination shocks can also be formed above the primary magnetic island and at the head of secondary islands. These shocks play important roles in generating thermal energy in a corona current sheet. For a numerical simulation with initial conditions close to the solar corona environment, the ratio of the generated thermal energy to the total dissipated magnetic energy is around $1/5$ before secondary islands appear. After secondary islands appear, the generated thermal energy starts to increase sharply and this ratio can reach a value about $3/5$. In an environment with a relatively lower plasma density and plasma $\\beta$, the plasma can be heated to a much higher temperature. After secondary islands appear, t...

  15. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  16. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  17. MHD Flow with Hall current and Joule Heating Effects over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasacharya, D.; Jagadeeshwar, P.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the influence of Hall current and Joule heating on flow, heat and mass transfer over an exponentially stretching sheet in a viscous fluid. Using similarity transformations the governing nonlinear coupled equations are converted into ordinary differential equations. These equations are linearized using the successive linearization method and then solved using the Chebyshev pseudo spectral method. The influence of magnetic parameter, Hall parameter, suction/injection parameter and slip parameter on the physical quantities are presented graphically. The obtained results are compared with the previously published results for special cases.

  18. Existence of three-dimensional ideal-magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with current sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizu, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Hudson, S. R.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Lazerson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    We consider the linear and nonlinear ideal plasma response to a boundary perturbation in a screw pinch. We demonstrate that three-dimensional, ideal-MHD equilibria with continuously nested flux-surfaces and with discontinuous rotational-transform across the resonant rational-surfaces are well defined and can be computed both perturbatively and using fully nonlinear equilibrium calculations. This rescues the possibility of constructing MHD equilibria with current sheets and continuous, smooth pressure profiles. The results predict that, even if the plasma acts as a perfectly conducting fluid, a resonant magnetic perturbation can penetrate all the way into the center of a tokamak without being shielded at the resonant surface.

  19. Properties and Distribution of Current Sheets in Accretion Disk Coronae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Begelman, M. C.; Simon, J. B.; Beckwith, K.

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical models involving the interplay of a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk embedded in an extended coronal atmosphere may describe black hole X-ray binaries across all spectral states. Buoyant magnetic field generated in the accretion disk is continuously supplied to the corona by a dynamo process driven by the magnetorotational instability. This rising field leads to the formation of a magnetic pressure-dominated, low-density, geometrically thick corona where substantial accretion energy is dissipated, likely by collisionless magnetic reconnection, perhaps even generating outflows. Despite the potential importance of magnetic reconnection in shaping the energetics and kinematics of the corona, studies of multiple reconnection sites in a large volume are currently prohibited by the computational expense required to properly treat the microphysical nature of reconnection. Under the assumption that coronal structure is determined by ideal magnetohydrodynamics, we analyze local simulations of accretion disks (i.e., shearing boxes) performed with the ATHENA code, where the spatial domains are extended to capture 'mesoscale' structures that are dynamically important in accretion disk evolution. We employ a location routine to identify zones of enhanced current density, which trace likely sites of magnetic reconnection. We describe the positions, orientations, sizes, shapes, strengths, and kinematics of these regions and correlate them with the spatial distribution of numerical dissipation. Statistical distributions of these various properties of current density zones are presented to determine the heights within the corona that contribute most to the dissipation rate, the flow properties associated with reconnection sites, and representative parameters for future large volume reconnection simulations.

  20. LASCO White-Light Observations of Eruptive Current Sheets Trailing CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David F.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-12-01

    Many models of eruptive flares or coronal mass ejections (CMEs) involve formation of a current sheet connecting the ejecting CME flux rope with a magnetic loop arcade. However, there is very limited observational information on the properties and evolution of these structures, hindering progress in understanding eruptive activity from the Sun. In white-light images, narrow coaxial rays trailing the outward-moving CME have been interpreted as current sheets. Here, we undertake the most comprehensive statistical study of CME-rays to date. We use SOHO/LASCO data, which have a higher cadence, larger field of view, and better sensitivity than any previous coronagraph. We compare our results to a previous study of Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) CMEs, in 1984 - 1989, having candidate magnetic disconnection features at the CME base, about half of which were followed by coaxial bright rays. We examine all LASCO CMEs during two periods of minimum and maximum activity in Solar Cycle 23, resulting in many more events, ˜130 CME-rays, than during SMM. Important results include: The occurrence rate of the rays is ˜11 % of all CMEs during solar minimum, but decreases to ˜7 % at solar maximum; this is most likely related to the more complex coronal background. The rays appear on average 3 - 4 hours after the CME core, and are typically visible for three-fourths of a day. The mean observed current sheet length over the ray lifetime is ˜12 R_{⊙}, with the longest current sheet of 18.5 R_{⊙}. The mean CS growth rates are 188 km s^{-1} at minimum and 324 km s^{-1} at maximum. Outward-moving blobs within several rays, which are indicative of reconnection outflows, have average velocities of ˜350 km s^{-1} with small positive accelerations. A pre-existing streamer is blown out in most of the CME-ray events, but half of these are observed to reform within ˜1 day. The long lifetime and long lengths of the CME-rays challenge our current understanding of the evolution of the magnetic

  1. Novel magnetic indenter for rheological analysis of thin biological sheet for regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageshima, Masami; Maruyama, Toshiro; Akama, Tomoya; Nakamura, Tomoyuki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method is proposed for analyzing the mechanical properties of a thin sheet of cells or extracellular matrix cultured for regenerative medicine. A steel sphere is mounted onto the center of the sheet sample, placed over a circular aperture, and a loading force is exerted via an electromagnet with well-regulated current while the displacement of the sample center is optically detected. Details of the instrument and its performance are described. Loading and unloading experiment with stepwise magnetic force revealed that creep response of each of the cell sheet and matrix sheet can be expressed as a combination of a quasi-instantaneous deformation and two delayed elastic responses having different retardation times. The retardation time exhibited an increasing trend with the loading force. Close analysis of loading-force dependence and reversibility of the derived mechanical parameters revealed that these deformation modes are not independent but flexibly switches to each other depending on load magnitude and loading history. The cell sheet sample exhibited remarkable irreversibility between loading and unloading responses, which is attributed to response of the live cells to the sustained loading.

  2. Thin current sheets caused by plasma flow gradients in space and astrophysical plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Strong gradients in plasma flows play a major role in space and astrophysical plasmas. A typical situation is that a static plasma equilibrium is surrounded by a plasma flow, which can lead to strong plasma flow gradients at the separatrices between field lines with different magnetic topologies, e.g., planetary magnetospheres, helmet streamers in the solar corona, or at the boundary between the heliosphere and interstellar medium. Within this work we make a first step to understand the influence of these flows towards the occurrence of current sheets in a stationary state situation. We concentrate here on incompressible plasma flows and 2-D equilibria, which allow us to find analytic solutions of the stationary magnetohydrodynamics equations (SMHD. First we solve the magnetohydrostatic (MHS equations with the help of a Grad-Shafranov equation and then we transform these static equilibria into a stationary state with plasma flow. We are in particular interested to study SMHD-equilibria with strong plasma flow gradients perpendicular to separatrices. We find that induced thin current sheets occur naturally in such situations. The strength of the induced currents depend on the Alfvén Mach number and its gradient, and on the magnetic field.

  3. 3D reconnection due to oblique modes: a simulation of Harris current sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lapenta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations in three dimensions of a Harris current sheet with mass ratio, mi/me = 180, and current sheet thickness, pi/L = 0.5, suggest the existence of a linearly unstable oblique mode, which is independent from either the drift-kink or the tearing instability. The new oblique mode causes reconnection independently from the tearing mode. During the initial linear stage, the system is unstable to the tearing mode and the drift kink mode, with growth rates that are accurately described by existing linear theories. How-ever, oblique modes are also linearly unstable, but with smaller growth rates than either the tearing or the drift-kink mode. The non-linear stage is first reached by the drift-kink mode, which alters the initial equilibrium and leads to a change in the growth rates of the tearing and oblique modes. In the non-linear stage, the resulting changes in magnetic topology are incompatible with a pure tearing mode. The oblique mode is shown to introduce a helical structure into the magnetic field lines.

  4. Mercury's cross-tail current sheet: Structure, X-line location and stress balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James A.; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim M.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Sun, Wei-Jie; Gershman, Daniel J.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Genestreti, Kevin J.; Smith, Andy W.

    2017-01-01

    The structure, X-line location, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stress balance of Mercury's magnetotail were examined between -2.6 MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) measurements from 319 central plasma sheet (CPS) crossings. The mean plasma β in the CPS calculated from MESSENGER data is 6. The CPS magnetic field was southward (i.e., tailward of X-line) 2-18% of the time. Extrapolation of downtail variations in BZ indicates an average X-line location at -3 RM. Modeling of magnetic field measurements produced a cross-tail current sheet (CS) thickness, current density, and inner CS edge location of 0.39 RM, 92 nA/m2 and -1.22 RM, respectively. Application of MHD stress balance suggests that heavy planetary ions may be important in maintaining stress balance within Mercury's CPS. Qualitative similarities between Mercury's and Earth's magnetotail are remarkable given the differences in upstream conditions, internal plasma composition, finite gyro-radius scaling, and Mercury's lack of ionosphere.

  5. Magnetic Properties and Workability of 6.5% Si Steel Sheet Manufactured by Siliconizing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A siliconizing process to manufacture 6.5% Si steel sheet has been developed. Electric compo nents, such as transformers and reactors are made easily from 6.5% Si steel sheet. However, improved workability is desirable to increase the applications. Therefore the improvement of workability of 6.5% Si steel sheet was investigated, and the results were obtained as follows: (a) workability of 6.5% Si steel sheet is deteriorated by grain boundary oxidization, (b) grain boundary oxidization can be restrained by the addition of C. Workability and magnetic properties of 6.5% Si steel sheet with C addition are discussed. Furthermore, it was found that the work ability of high Si steel sheet was improved remarkably by varying the Si content gradient along the thickness without deterioration of high frequency magnetic properties. This newly developed magnetic gradient high Si steel sheet is also discussed.

  6. The penetration of ions into the magnetosphere through the magnetopause turbulent current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taktakishvili

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of numerical modeling of magnetosheath ion motion in the magnetopause current sheet (MCS in the presence of magnetic fluctuations. Our model of magnetic field turbulence has a power law spectrum in the wave vector space, reaches maximum intensity in the center of MCS, and decreases towards the magnetosheath and magnetosphere boundaries. We calculated the density profile across the MCS. We also calculated the number of particles entering the magnetosphere, reflected from the magnetopause and escaping from the flanks, as a function of the fluctuation level of the turbulence and magnetic field shear parameter. All of these quantities appeared to be strongly dependent on the fluctuation level, but not on the magnetic field shear parameter. For the highest fluctuation levels the number of particles entering the magnetosphere does not exceed 15% of the total number of particles launched from the magnetosheath side of the MCS; the modeling also reproduced the effective reflection of the magnetosheath flow from very high levels of magnetic fluctuations.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; turbulence

  7. Research Program of International Geophysical Year (Igy-1957 Have Ended In the Millennium Beginning By Discovery of the Theoretical Current Sheets in the Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We declare about the discovery in the Nature of theoretical current sheets by S. I. Syrovatskij. The first “natural” current sheet was discovered in flare spectrum, calculated and researched experimentally. The current sheets (CS are found in chromosphere and downward levels in optical range data. The main problem of physics of solar flares has been solved. Magnetic field energy is a primary source of active processes in solar plasma. Current sheet (CS of S. I. Syrovatskij is the mechanism of magnetic energy transformation into plasma energy. The current sheet is not discovered in a flare, as expected. As a matter of fact, solar flare is in itself a current sheet, its direct observed development in chromosphere plasma. Continuous current sheet radiation is the «black» (BLF and the «white» (WLF flare (like light of Sun photosphere. It is the negative hydrogen ion excitation upon reaching hydrogen plasma density of ˃5 1017 cm -3

  8. Controlling magnetism of MoS2 sheets by embedding transition-metal atoms and applying strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yungang; Su, Qiulei; Wang, Zhiguo; Deng, Huiqiu; Zu, Xiaotao

    2013-11-14

    Prompted by recent experimental achievement of transition metal (TM) atoms substituted in MoS2 nanostructures during growth or saturating existing vacancies (Sun et al., ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 3506; Deepak et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 12549), we explored, via density functional theory, the magnetic properties of a series of 3d TM atoms substituted in a MoS2 sheet, and found that Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn substitutions can induce magnetism in the MoS2 sheet. The localizing unpaired 3d electrons of TM atoms respond to the introduction of a magnetic moment. Depending on the species of TM atoms, the substituted MoS2 sheet can be a metal, semiconductor or half-metal. Remarkably, the applied elastic strain can be used to control the strength of the spin-splitting of TM-3d orbitals, leading to an effective manipulation of the magnetism of the TM-substituted MoS2 sheet. We found that the magnetic moment of the Mn- and Fe-substituted MoS2 sheets can monotonously increase with the increase of tensile strain, while the magnetic moment of Co-, Ni-, Cu- and Zn-substituted MoS2 sheets initially increases and then decreases with the increase of tensile strain. An instructive mechanism was proposed to qualitatively explain the variation of magnetism with elastic strain. The finding of the magnetoelastic effect here is technologically important for the fabrication of strain-driven spin devices on MoS2 nanostructures, which allows us to go beyond the current scope limited to the spin devices within graphene and BN-based nanostructures.

  9. Statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet:Cluster observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.REME; E.LUCEK

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the flapping motion of the earth’s magnetotail current sheet is one of the most important problems in the magnetotail dynamics.Using Cluster data,we make a statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet of 2001 and 2003.We calculate the velocities of the magnetotail current sheet using new methods and obtain the distribution of the magnetotail current sheet velocities in the X-Y plane in GSE coordinate system.Our results show that although most of the current sheets were propagating toward the tail flanks and those of the exceptions lay in dusk side,which is consistent with previous studies,the proportions of the current sheet which were propagating toward midnight (where |YGSE|=0) were higher than those in previous studies.Motions of the current sheet in the middle area (|YGSE|<8 Re) of the magnetotail are investigated.Relatively high value of the Z component of the velocity further confirms that the middle area of the magnetotail might be a source region for the motion of the current sheets which were propagating towards the tail flanks.According to our case studies,the way the current sheets propagated toward midnight area differs significantly from that toward dusk and dawn side,from which we infer that there might be two different kinds of current sheet motions originated from different sources.The statistical results of this paper may give some clues for further studies on the origin of the flapping motion of the magnetotail current sheet.

  10. Kinetic thin current sheets: their formation in relation to magnetotail mesoscale turbulent dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kropotkin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of the magnetotail plasma sheet (PS features nonlinear structures on two totally different scales. There are very thin current sheets (CS on kinetic scale of the ion gyroradius. And there are intense plasma flow and magnetic field variations on mesoscales (a few earth radii; those are interpreted as mostly 2-D MHD turbulence. On the other hand, the specific nature of slow large scale magnetotail evolution leads to large differences in the PS properties and those of the lobe plasma. As a result, while fast reconnection bursts in the tail provide quasi-stationary fast mesoscale reconfigurations in the lobes, they cannot however be accompanied by restructuring of CS on the same fast time scale. Violations of force balance in the PS are thus generated. Simulation using a hybrid code and starting with such imbalance, provides an evidence of very thin kinetic CS structures formation, embedded into the much thicker PS. The momentum balance gets locally restored by means of ion acceleration up to the Alfvénic velocity. The process provides an effective mechanism for transformation of magnetic energy accumulated in the magnetotail, into energy of plasma flows. The fast flows may drive turbulence on shorter spatial scales. In their turn, these motions may serve as an origin for new neutral line generation, and reconnection. Application to substorm phenomenology is discussed.

  11. Visco-resistive plasmoid instability in Sweet-Parker current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Daniela; Comisso, Luca

    2016-10-01

    The linear analysis by Loureiro et al. is generalized to investigate the plasmoid instability in visco-resistive Sweet-Parker sheets. We cover both the linear and nonlinear growth of the plasmoids. The linear growth rate and the wavenumber scale as S 1 / 4 (1 +Pm)- 5 / 8 and S 3 / 8 (1 +Pm)- 3 / 16 with respect to the Lundquist number S and the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. The growth of the plasmoids slows down from an exponential growth to an algebraic growth when they enter into the nonlinear regime. The time-scale of the nonlinear growth of the plasmoids is found to be τNL S - 3 / 16 (1 +Pm)19/32τA , L . We also discuss how the plasmoid instability can enable fast magnetic reconnection in visco-resistive plasmas. In this regime, the global reconnection rate is shown to be 0.01vA , uBu (1 +Pm)- 1 / 2. The same author will present another poster in a closely related topic: ``Generalized Plasmoid Instability in Time Evolving Current Sheets''. Hence, we request the committee to ensure that these 2 posters are placed alongside each other.

  12. Three Magnetic Direct-Current Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Stagg, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Three direct-current-measuring circuits based on magnetic (transformer) coupling, with periodic reset of magnetic flux to reverse saturation. Unidirectional and bidirectional versions demonstrated. Offers greater realibility and lower power consumption.

  13. Investigation of scaling properties of a thin current sheet by means of particle trajectories study

    CERN Document Server

    Sasunov, Yu L; Alexeev, I I; Belenkaya, E S; Semenov, V S; Kubyshkin, I V; Mingalev, O V

    2015-01-01

    A thin current sheet (TCS), with the width of an order of thermal proton gyroradius, appears a fundamental physical object which plays an important role in structuring of major magnetospheric current systems (magnetotail, magnetodisk, etc.). The TCSs are nowadays under extensive study by means of space missions and theoretical models. We consider a simple model of the TCS separating two half-spaces occupied by a homogenous magnetic field of opposite sign tangential to the TCS; a small normal component of the magnetic field is prescribed. An analytical solution for the electric current and plasma density in the close vicinity of the TCS has been obtained and compared with numerical simulation. The number density and the electric current profiles have two maxima each. The characteristic spatial scale $z_S$ of the maxima location was investigated as a function of initial pitch-angle of an incoming charge particle. The effect of the thermal dispersion of the incoming proton beam have been taken into consideration...

  14. A Two-Fluid Study of Oblique Tearing Modes in a Force-Free Current Sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Akcay, Cihan; Lukin, Vyacheslav S; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic simulations have demonstrated that three-dimensional reconnection in collisionless regimes proceeds through the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes, which are generated due to the growth of tearing instabilities at multiple resonance surfaces. Since kinetic simulations are intrinsically expensive, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of reduced two-fluid models to capture this complex evolution, particularly, in the strong guide field regime, where two-fluid models are better justified. With this goal in mind, this paper compares the evolution of the collisionless tearing instability in a force-free current sheet with a two-fluid model and fully kinetic simulations. Our results indicate that the most unstable modes are oblique for guide fields larger than the reconnecting field, in agreement with the kinetic results. The standard two-fluid tearing theory is extended to address the tearing instability at oblique angles. The resulting theory yields a flat oblique spectrum and underest...

  15. X-ray emission from the base of a current sheet in the wake of a CME

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Lin, Robert P

    2011-01-01

    Following a CME which started on 2002 November 26, RHESSI, the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, observed for 12 hours an X-ray source above the solar limb, at altitudes between 0.1 and 0.3 RS above the photosphere. The GOES baseline was remarkably high throughout this event. The X-ray source's temperature peaked around 10-11 MK, and its emission measure increased throughout this time interval. Higher up, at 0.7 RS, hot (initially >8 MK) plasma has been observed by UVCS on SoHO for 2.3 days. This hot plasma was interpreted as the signature of a current sheet trailing the CME (Bemporad et al. 2006). The thermal energy content of the X-ray source is more than an order of magnitude larger than in the current sheet. Hence, it could be the source of the hot plasma in the current sheet, although current sheet heating by magnetic reconnection within it cannot be discounted. To better characterize the X-ray spectrum, we have used novel techniques (back-projection based and visibility-based) for long inte...

  16. Low-Power Magnetic Current Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current sensed via saturable-core reactor. Transducer senses direct current magnetically, providing isolation between input and output. Detecting-and-isolating element saturable reactor, where input current passes through one-turn control coil. Provides output of 0 to 3 Vdc for input current of 0 to 15 Adc and consumes power of 22 mW at 10 Adc input. Input sensed magnetically, output electrically isolated from input.

  17. Effects of heat current on magnetization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Francesco Antonio; Brechet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    The work is aimed at investigating the interplay between spin dynamics and heat currents in single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The irreversible thermodynamics for a continuous medium predicts that a thermal gradient, in the presence of magnetization waves, produces a magnetic induction field, thus a magnetic analog of the well-known Seebeck effect. Time-resolved transmission measurements revealed a change in the attenuation of magnetization waves propagating along the thermal gradient when the gradient is reversed. This magnetic damping change can be accounted for by the Magnetic Seebeck effect. In order to characterize this effect further, we have conducted studies on magnetization dynamic in YIG single crystal samples placed in various geometrical configurations, e.g. with YIG disks in which magnetic vortices might be present. Various magnetic resonance schemes were used, e.g. local probes and cavities.

  18. PHYSICAL BASES OF SYSTEMS CREATION FOR MAGNETIC-IMPULSIVE ATTRACTION OF THIN-WALLED SHEET METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the physical base of systems creating for the thin-walled sheet metals magnetic pulse attraction. Some practical realization models of the author’s suggestions are represented.

  19. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Himadri R., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  20. Plasmoid and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in Sweet-Parker current sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, N F; Schekochihin, A A; Uzdensky, D A

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) linear theory of the instability of Sweet-Parker (SP) current sheets is developed in the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. A local analysis is performed taking into account the dependence of a generic equilibrium profile on the outflow coordinate. The plasmoid instability [Loureiro et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 100703 (2007)] is recovered, i.e., current sheets are unstable to the formation of a large-wave-number chain of plasmoids (k(max)L(CS)~S(3/8), where k(max) is the wave number of fastest growing mode, S=L(CS)V(A)/η is the Lundquist number, L(CS) is the length of the sheet, V(A) is the Alfvén speed, and η is the plasma resistivity), which grows super Alfvénically fast (γ(max)τ(A)~S(1/4), where γ(max) is the maximum growth rate, and τ(A)=L(CS)/V(A)). For typical background profiles, the growth rate and the wave number are found to increase in the outflow direction. This is due to the presence of another mode, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which is triggered at the periphery of the layer, where the outflow velocity exceeds the Alfvén speed associated with the upstream magnetic field. The KH instability grows even faster than the plasmoid instability γ(max)τ(A)~k(max)L(CS)~S(1/2). The effect of viscosity (ν) on the plasmoid instability is also addressed. In the limit of large magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm=ν/η, it is found that γ(max)~S(1/4)Pm(-5/8) and k(max)L(CS)~S(3/8)Pm(-3/16), leading to the prediction that the critical Lundquist number for plasmoid instability in the Pm>1 regime is S(crit)~10(4)Pm(1/2). These results are verified via direct numerical simulation of the linearized equations, using an analytical 2D SP equilibrium solution.

  1. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  2. Current Sheet Structures Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope during a Flux Rope Eruption on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    We use the TESIS EUV telescope to study the current sheet signatures observed during flux rope eruption. The special feature of the TESIS telescope was its ability to image the solar corona up to a distance of 2 {R}⊙ from the Sun’s center in the Fe 171 Å line. The Fe 171 Å line emission illuminates the magnetic field lines, and the TESIS images reveal the coronal magnetic structure at high altitudes. The analyzed coronal mass ejection (CME) had a core with a spiral—flux rope—structure. The spiral shape indicates that the flux rope radius varied along its length. The flux rope had a complex temperature structure: cold legs (70,000 K, observed in He 304 Å line) and a hotter core (0.7 MK, observed in Fe 171 Å line). Such a structure contradicts the common assumption that the CME core is a cold prominence. When the CME impulsively accelerated, a dark double Y-structure appeared below the flux rope. The Y-structure timing, location, and morphology agree with the previously performed MHD simulations of the current sheet. We interpreted the Y-structure as a hot envelope of the current sheet and hot reconnection outflows. The Y-structure had a thickness of 6.0 Mm. Its length increased over time from 79 Mm to more than 411 Mm.

  3. Changes in thickness of magnetized composites due to current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, S.

    1998-02-01

    The pinch magnitude in monolithic metal conductors and ferromagnetics was estimated in this paper. The conditions for the material were formulated so that the pinch which occurs in it could reach the magnitude useful for applications. The way of production of a special composite with a laminar structure was described. The composite consists of sheets of copper foil separating the layers of the elastic ferromagnet which was made by the dispersion of hard magnetic particles in silicon. Using a measuring system containing a Michelson interferometer, measurements of changes were made in the thickness of the produced composite samples during the electric current flow. The obtained results were discussed.

  4. Non-oriented electrical sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissonneau, Pierre

    1984-02-01

    After placing the economic and technological importance of non-oriented magnetic sheets on the same level as that of grain-oriented sheets, the recent stages in the history of non-oriented sheets are recalled. The progress made in the knowledge of the physics of magnetism now allows the functions of the principal properties of non-oriented sheets to be analyzed. Current production of non-oriented sheets is marked by an evolution towards a split of the market between top-grade sheets, which could still be improved significantly, and lower grades, for which the cost of production continues to be practically the only determining factor.

  5. 3D electrostatic gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion simulation of lower-hybrid drift instability of Harris current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The eigenmode stability properties of three-dimensional lower-hybrid-drift-instabilities (LHDI) in a Harris current sheet with a small but finite guide magnetic field have been systematically studied by employing the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with a realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio mi/me . In contrast to the fully kinetic PIC simulation scheme, the fast electron cyclotron motion and plasma oscillations are systematically removed in the GeFi model, and hence one can employ the realistic mi/me . The GeFi simulations are benchmarked against and show excellent agreement with both the fully kinetic PIC simulation and the analytical eigenmode theory. Our studies indicate that, for small wavenumbers, ky, along the current direction, the most unstable eigenmodes are peaked at the location where k →.B → =0 , consistent with previous analytical and simulation studies. Here, B → is the equilibrium magnetic field and k → is the wavevector perpendicular to the nonuniformity direction. As ky increases, however, the most unstable eigenmodes are found to be peaked at k →.B → ≠0 . In addition, the simulation results indicate that varying mi/me , the current sheet width, and the guide magnetic field can affect the stability of LHDI. Simulations with the varying mass ratio confirm the lower hybrid frequency and wave number scalings.

  6. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description.

  7. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  8. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  9. Facile fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs using nanopatterned cell sheets and magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Nisa; Choi, Eunpyo; Perla, Mikael; Park, Jungyul; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2017-02-01

    We report a simple and versatile method for in vitro fabrication of scaffold-free tissue-engineered constructs with predetermined cellular alignment, by combining magnetic cell levitation with thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) based cell sheet engineering technique. The TNFS based nanotopography provides contact guidance cues for regulation of cellular alignment and enables cell sheet transfer, while magnetic nanoparticles facilitate the magnetic levitation of the cell sheet. The temperature-mediated change in surface wettability of the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), substratum enables the spontaneous detachment of cell monolayers, which can then be easily manipulated through use of a ring or disk shaped magnet. Our developed platform could be readily applicable to production of tissue-engineered constructs containing complex physiological structures for the study of tissue structure-function relationships, drug screening, and regenerative medicine.

  10. Facile fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs using nanopatterned cell sheets and magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Nisa; Choi, Eunpyo; Perla, Mikael; Park, Jungyul; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2017-02-17

    We report a simple and versatile method for in vitro fabrication of scaffold-free tissue-engineered constructs with predetermined cellular alignment, by combining magnetic cell levitation with thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) based cell sheet engineering technique. The TNFS based nanotopography provides contact guidance cues for regulation of cellular alignment and enables cell sheet transfer, while magnetic nanoparticles facilitate the magnetic levitation of the cell sheet. The temperature-mediated change in surface wettability of the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), substratum enables the spontaneous detachment of cell monolayers, which can then be easily manipulated through use of a ring or disk shaped magnet. Our developed platform could be readily applicable to production of tissue-engineered constructs containing complex physiological structures for the study of tissue structure-function relationships, drug screening, and regenerative medicine.

  11. Disruption of sheet-like structures in Alfvénic turbulence by magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a mechanism whereby the intense, sheet-like structures naturally formed by dynamically aligning Alfvénic turbulence are destroyed by magnetic reconnection at a scale \\hat{λ }_D, larger than the dissipation scale predicted by models of intermittent, dynamically aligning turbulence. The reconnection process proceeds in several stages: first, a linear tearing mode with N magnetic islands grows and saturates, and then the X-points between these islands collapse into secondary current sheets, which then reconnect until the original structure is destroyed. This effectively imposes an upper limit on the anisotropy of the structures within the perpendicular plane, which means that at scale \\hat{λ }_D the turbulent dynamics change: at scales larger than \\hat{λ }_D, the turbulence exhibits scale-dependent dynamic alignment and a spectral index approximately equal to -3/2, while at scales smaller than \\hat{λ }_D, the turbulent structures undergo a succession of disruptions due to reconnection, limiting dynamic alignment, steepening the effective spectral index and changing the final dissipation scale. The scaling of \\hat{λ }_D with the Lundquist (magnetic Reynolds) number S_{L_\\perp } depends on the order of the statistics being considered, and on the specific model of intermittency; the transition between the two regimes in the energy spectrum is predicted at approximately \\hat{λ }_D˜ S_{L_\\perp }^{-0.6}. The spectral index below \\hat{λ }_D is bounded between -5/3 and -2.3. The final dissipation scale is at \\hat{λ }_{η ,∞}˜ S_{L_\\perp }^{-3/4}, the same as the Kolmogorov scale arising in theories of turbulence that do not involve scale-dependent dynamic alignment.

  12. Experiments with Coler magnetic current apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T.

    Experiments with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" (magnetic current apparatus) were conducted. The replica was built at the same institute at the Technical University of Berlin where the original was tested by Prof. Kloss in 1925. The details of the setup will be presented in this paper. The investigation of the Coler device was done with modern methods. The output was measured with a digital multi meter (DMM) and a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The results of the measurements will be presented. Did Coler convert vacuum fluctuations via magnetic, electric and acoustic resonance into electricity? There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field radiation energy. The magnetic moment of the electron is in part an energy exchange with the radiation field. The energy output of the Coler apparatus is measured. Furthermore the dynamics of the ferromagnetic magnets that Coler reported as the working principle of his device was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the spectroscopy mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The magnetic and acoustic resonance was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The connection between ZPE and magnetism will be discussed as well as the perspective of using magnetic systems as a means to convert vacuum fluctuations into usable electricity.

  13. A computational model for He{sup +} ions in a magnetized sheet plasma: comparative analysis between model and experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blantocas, Gene Q. [West Visayas State Univ., Lapaz, Iloilo City (Philippines); Ramos, Henry J. [Univ. of the Phillippines, College of Science, National Inst. of Physics, Deliman Quezon City (Philippines); Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Dept. of Engineering, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    An E x B probe was used to extract He{sup +} ions from a magnetized steady sheet plasma. Plasma parameters T{sub e}, n{sub e} and extracted He{sup +} ion current were analyzed vis-a-vis a modified Saha population density equation of the collisional-radiative model. Numerical calculations show that at low discharge currents and in the hot electron region of the sheet plasma, relative densities of He{sup +} ions show some degree of correlation with ion current profiles established experimentally using the E x B probe. Both experimental and computational results indicate a division of the plasma into two distinct regions each with different formation mechanisms of He{sup +} ions. (author)

  14. Simulating the Thinning Magnetotail Current Sheet During a Substorm Growth Phase with the Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, C. L.; Crabtree, C. E.; Chen, M.; Guild, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling the progression of the magnetotail configuration during a substorm growth phase is challenging because the current sheet becomes very thin, and is difficult to resolve while keeping the problem computationally tractable. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have dealt with this problem in various ways, and many claim to be driven by physical rather than numerical considerations. The Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) is not an MHD model, and has advantages and disadvantages compared to MHD. The notable advantages are the characterization of the full energy distribution of the plasma (including the associated gradient/curvature drift), as well as its generally more comprehensive treatment of the electrodynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The disadvantages include the bounce-averaging of plasma drift, which limits the domain to closed field lines, and the assumption of slow flow relative to the Alfvén speed. The RCM-E has been used in the past to model a substorm growth phase, but its assumptions do not allow it to properly treat the onset mechanism or the formation of x-lines. It can simulate the approach to onset, but is limited by its ability to resolve the thinning current sheet. In this presentation, we present advances in the technique used to calculate the self-consistent magnetic field, which allows us to resolve thinner current sheets than were previously possible. We combine this with a generalized ballooning mode analysis of specific flux tubes in order to assess the stability of the magnetotail to substorm onset.

  15. Two-dimensional stress—magnetization effects of grain-oriented silicon steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akihiko; Murashige, Shinichi; Uehara, Yuji

    1994-05-01

    Changes in the magnetization vector due to tensile stress under a constant magnetic field for grain-oriented silicon-iron sheet strip samples cut at various angles from the rolling direction have been investigated. In a low magnetic field, where the magnetization is less than 1.5 T, the magnetization vector lies in the direction of the sample length and the magnetization decreases with the application of tension. Beyond that magnetic field, the magnetization vector showed a two-dimensional hysteresis loop due to the application of tension. The maximum transverse magnetization change appeared in a 10° sample, where the rotation angle of the magnetization vector was 2.5°.

  16. Current filaments in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martines, E.; Vianello, N.; Sundkvist, D.;

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurements of current density perturbations associated with non-linear phenomena in magnetized plasmas can be carried out using in situ magnetic measurements. In this paper we report such measurements for three different kinds of phenomena. Current density fluctuations in the edge density...... gradient region of a fusion plasma confined in reversed field pinch configuration and in a density gradient region in the Earth magnetosphere are measured and compared, showing that in both environments they can be attributed to drift-Alfvén vortices. Current structures associated with reconnection events...

  17. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  18. Current and future darkening of the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Marco; Stroeve, Julienne; Fettweis, Xavier; Warren, Stephen; Doherty, Sarah; Noble, Erik; Alexander, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Surface melting over the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) promotes snow grains growth, reducing albedo and further enhancing melting through the increased amount of absorbed solar radiation. Using a combination of remote sensing data and outputs of a regional climate model, we show that albedo over the GIS decreased significantly from 1996 to 2012. Further, we show that most of this darkening can be accounted for by enhanced snow grain growth and the expansion of areas where bare ice is exposed, both of which are driven by increases in snow warming. An analysis of the impact of light-absorbing impurities on albedo trends detected from spaceborne measurements was inconclusive because the estimated impact for concentrations of impurities of order of magnitude found in Greenland is within the albedo uncertainty retrievable from space-based instruments. However, neither models nor observations show an increase in pollutants (black carbon and associated organics) in the atmosphere over the GIS in this time period. Additionally, we could not identify trends in the number of fires over North America and Russia, assumed to be among the sources of soot for Greenland. We did find that a 'dark band' of tilted ice plays a crucial role in decreasing albedo along the west margin, and there is some indication that dust deposition to the GIS may be decreasing albedo in this region but this is not conclusive. In addition to looking at the direct impact of impurities on albedo, we estimated the impact of impurities on albedo via their influence on grain growth and found it is relatively small (~ 1- 2 %), though more sophisticated analysis needs to be carried out. Projections obtained under different warming scenarios consistently point to a continued darkening, with anomalies in albedo driven solely by the effects of climate warming of as much as -0.12 along the west margin of the GIS by the end of this century (with respect to year 2000). Projected darkening is likely underestimated

  19. Geothermal Heat Flux Underneath Ice Sheets Estimated From Magnetic Satellite Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox Maule, Cathrine; Purucker, M.E.; Olsen, Nils

    The geothermal heat flux is an important factor in the dynamics of ice sheets, and it is one of the important parameters in the thermal budgets of subglacial lakes. We have used satellite magnetic data to estimate the geothermal heat flux underneath the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland....... By using satellite data, we are able to make heat flux maps covering the entire Antarctic continent and all of Greenland. We find that the heat flux varies from less than 50 to more than 150~mW/m2 underneath the ice sheets. To validate our results, we have compared our heat flux estimate with geologic...

  20. The generation of rapid solar flare hard X-ray and microwave fluctuations in current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    The generation of rapid fluctuations, or spikes, in hard X-ray and microwave bursts via the disruption of electron heating and acceleration in current sheets is studied. It is found that 20 msec hard X-ray fluctuations can be thermally generated in a current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is highly anomalous, the plasma density in the emitting region is relatively high, and the volume of the emitting region is greater than that of the current sheet. A specific mechanism for producing the fluctuations, involving heating in the presence of ion acoustic turbulence and a constant driving electric field, and interruption of the heating by a strong two-stream instability, is discussed. Variations upon this mechanism are also discussed. This mechanism also modulates electron acceleration, as required for the microwave spike emission. If the hard X-ray emission at energies less than approx. 1000 keV is nonthermal bremsstrahlung, the coherent modulation of electron acceleration in a large number of current sheets is required.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIALITIES TO SET AUTOMATICALLY AMPLITUDE VALUES OF MAGNETIC INDUCTION WHILE MEASURING MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRICAL-SHEET STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Branovitsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems relating to an automation of measurement of magnetic characteristics of electrical-sheet steel have been considered in the paper. The paper investigates efficiency of an application of some well-known iterative methods for setting the required amplitude value of a magnetic induction of the material to be tested. It is shown that the most efficient method providing a fast and stable convergence of an iterative process while testing either textured or isotropic electrical-sheet steel is a parabola method.

  2. A two-fluid study of oblique tearing modes in a force-free current sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Cihan, E-mail: akcay@lanl.gov; Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lukin, Vyacheslav S. [National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Liu, Yi-Hsin [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Kinetic simulations have demonstrated that three-dimensional reconnection in collisionless regimes proceeds through the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes, which are generated due to the growth of tearing instabilities at multiple resonance surfaces. Since kinetic simulations are intrinsically expensive, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of reduced two-fluid models to capture this complex evolution, particularly, in the strong guide field regime, where two-fluid models are better justified. With this goal in mind, this paper compares the evolution of the collisionless tearing instability in a force-free current sheet with a two-fluid model and fully kinetic simulations. Our results indicate that the most unstable modes are oblique for guide fields larger than the reconnecting field, in agreement with the kinetic results. The standard two-fluid tearing theory is extended to address the tearing instability at oblique angles. The resulting theory yields a flat oblique spectrum and underestimates the growth of oblique modes in a similar manner to kinetic theory relative to kinetic simulations.

  3. CURRENT SHEET REGULATION OF SOLAR NEAR-RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON INJECTION HISTORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Vainio, R. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Dalla, S. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire (United Kingdom); Lario, D. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (>50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes (>60 Degree-Sign ) and close to 2 AU. Despite the large latitudinal distance between the two spacecraft, electrons injected near the Sun reached both heliospheric locations. All three events were associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (>212 Degree-Sign ) and fast (>1400 km s{sup -1}) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in situ by the spacecraft to infer the electron injection profile close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions at both low and high latitudes. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at different heliolatitudes for a given event, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.04 AU to 0.27 AU. We find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. We investigate the role that sector boundaries of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) have on determining the characteristics of the electron injection profiles. Extended injection profiles, associated with coronal shocks, are found if the magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft lay in the same magnetic sector as the associated flare, while intermittent sparse injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoints are in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure.

  4. Current Sheet Structures Observed by the TESIS EUV Telescope During A Flux Rope Eruption on the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Reva, Anton; Kuzin, Ssergey

    2016-01-01

    We use the TESIS EUV telescope to study the current sheet signatures observed during flux rope eruption. The special feature of the TESIS telescope was its ability to image the solar corona up to a distance of 2 $R_\\odot$ from the Sun's center in the Fe 171 \\AA\\ line. The Fe 171 \\AA\\ line emission illuminates the magnetic field lines, and the TESIS images reveal the coronal magnetic structure at high altitudes. The analyzed CME had a core with a spiral-flux rope-structure. The spiral shape indicates that the flux rope radius varied along its length. The flux rope had a complex temperature structure: cold legs (70 000 K, observed in He 304 \\AA\\ line) and a hotter core (0.7 MK, observed in Fe 171 \\AA\\ line). Such structure contradicts the common assumption that the CME core is a cold prominence. When the CME impulsively accelerated, a dark double Y-structure appeared below the flux rope. The Y-structure timing, location, and morphology agree with the previously performed MHD simulations of the current sheet. We...

  5. The influence of assist gas on magnetic properties of electrotechnical steel sheets cut with laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaworska-Koniarek, Dominika; Szubzda, Bronisław; Wilczyński, Wiesław; Drosik, Jerzy; Karaś, Kazimierz

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the influence of assist gas (air and nitrogen) during laser cutting on magnetization, magnetic permeability and loss characteristics of non-oriented electrical steels. The research was made on an non-oriented M330-50A grade electrical steels by means of single sheet tester. In order to enhance the effect of cutting and the same degradation zone on magnetic properties, strips with different width were achieved. Measurements results indicate that application of air as assist gas has more destructive effect on magnetic properties of electrical steels than nitrogen one.

  6. Evidence for two separate heliospheric current sheets of cylindrical shape during MID-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.-M. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Muglach, K., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: pyoung@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov [Code 674, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    During the reversal of the Sun's polar fields at sunspot maximum, outward extrapolations of magnetograph measurements often predict the presence of two or more current sheets extending into the interplanetary medium, instead of the single heliospheric current sheet (HCS) that forms the basis of the standard 'ballerina skirt' picture. By comparing potential-field source-surface models of the coronal streamer belt with white-light coronagraph observations, we deduce that the HCS was split into two distinct structures with circular cross sections during mid-2012. These cylindrical current sheets were centered near the heliographic equator and separated in longitude by roughly 180°; a corresponding four-sector polarity pattern was observed at Earth. Each cylinder enclosed a negative-polarity coronal hole that was identifiable in extreme ultraviolet images and gave rise to a high-speed stream. The two current sheet systems are shown to be a result of the dominance of the Sun's nonaxisymmetric quadrupole component, as the axial dipole field was undergoing its reversal during solar cycle 24.

  7. Evidence for Two Separate Heliospheric Current Sheets of Cylindrical Shape During Mid-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Young, P. R.; Muglach, K.

    2014-01-01

    During the reversal of the Sun's polar fields at sunspot maximum, outward extrapolations of magnetograph measurements often predict the presence of two or more current sheets extending into the interplanetary medium, instead of the single heliospheric current sheet (HCS) that forms the basis of the standard "ballerina skirt" picture. By comparing potential-field source-surface models of the coronal streamer belt with white-light coronagraph observations, we deduce that the HCS was split into two distinct structures with circular cross sections during mid-2012. These cylindrical current sheets were centered near the heliographic equator and separated in longitude by roughly 180° a corresponding four-sector polarity pattern was observed at Earth. Each cylinder enclosed a negative-polarity coronal hole that was identifiable in extreme ultraviolet images and gave rise to a high-speed stream. The two current sheet systems are shown to be a result of the dominance of the Sun's nonaxisymmetric quadrupole component, as the axial dipole field was undergoing its reversal during solar cycle 24.

  8. MHD flow and heat transfer due to the axisymmetric stretching of a sheet with induced magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    El-Mistikawy, Tarek M A

    2016-01-01

    The full MHD equations, governing the flow due to the axisymmetric stretching of a sheet in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, can be cast in a self similar form. This allows evaluation of the induced magnetic field and its effect on the flow and heat transfer. The problem involves three parameters- the magnetic Prandtl number, the magnetic interaction number, and the Prandtl number. Numerical solutions are obtained for the velocity field, the magnetic field, and the temperature, at different values of the magnetic Prandtl number and the magnetic interaction number. The contributions of the viscous dissipation, Joule heating, and streamwise diffusion to the heat flux toward the sheet are assessed.

  9. Optimal Magnetic Field Shielding Method by Metallic Sheets in Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs such as the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines, thin metallic sheets are often used to shield magnetic field leakage in high power applications of wireless power transfer (WPT systems based on magnetic field coupling. However, the metals in the vicinity of the WPT coils cause the decrease of self and mutual inductances and increase of effective series resistance; as such, the electric performance including transmission power and the efficiency of the system is affected. With the research objective of further investigating excellent shielding effectiveness associated with system performance, the utilization of the optimal magnetic field shielding method by metallic sheets in magnetic field coupling WPT is carried out in this paper. The circuit and 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA models are combined to predict the magnetic field distribution and electrical performance. Simulation and experiment results show that the method is very effective by obtaining the largest possible coupling coefficient of the WPT coils within the allowable range and then reducing the value nearest to and no smaller than the critical coupling coefficient via geometric unbroken metallic sheets. The optimal magnetic field shielding method which considers the system efficiency, transmission power, transmission distance, and system size is also achieved using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results can benefit WPT by helping to achieve efficient energy transfer and safe use in metal shielded equipment.

  10. Analysis of an eddy-current brake considering finite radius and induced magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kapjin; Park, Kyihwan

    2002-11-01

    Since the eddy-current problem usually depends on the geometry of the moving conductive sheet and the pole shape, there is no general method to find an analytical solution. The analysis of the eddy currents in a rotating disk with an electromagnet is performed in the case of time-invariant field with the consideration of the boundary conditions of the rotating disk and induced magnetic flux. First, the concept of Coulomb's law and the method of images are introduced with the consideration of the boundary conditions. Second, the induced magnetic flux density is calculated by using Ampere's law. Third, the net magnetic flux density is introduced by defining the magnetic Reynolds number Rm as the ratio of the induced magnetic flux density to the applied magnetic flux density. Finally, the braking torque is calculated by applying the Lorentz force law and the computed results are compared with experimental ones.

  11. Hysteresis-controlled instability waves in a scale-free driven current sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Uritsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric dynamics is a complex multiscale process whose statistical features can be successfully reproduced using high-dimensional numerical transport models exhibiting the phenomenon of self-organized criticality (SOC. Along this line of research, a 2-dimensional driven current sheet (DCS model has recently been developed that incorporates an idealized current-driven instability with a resistive MHD plasma system (Klimas et al., 2004a, b. The dynamics of the DCS model is dominated by the scale-free diffusive energy transport characterized by a set of broadband power-law distribution functions similar to those governing the evolution of multiscale precipitation regions of energetic particles in the nighttime sector of aurora (Uritsky et al., 2002b. The scale-free DCS behavior is supported by localized current-driven instabilities that can communicate in an avalanche fashion over arbitrarily long distances thus producing current sheet waves (CSW. In this paper, we derive the analytical expression for CSW speed as a function of plasma parameters controlling local anomalous resistivity dynamics. The obtained relation indicates that the CSW propagation requires sufficiently high initial current densities, and predicts a deceleration of CSWs moving from inner plasma sheet regions toward its northern and southern boundaries. We also show that the shape of time-averaged current density profile in the DCS model is in agreement with steady-state spatial configuration of critical avalanching models as described by the singular diffusion theory of the SOC. Over shorter time scales, SOC dynamics is associated with rather complex spatial patterns and, in particular, can produce bifurcated current sheets often seen in multi-satellite observations.

  12. Development of electric currents in a magnetic field configuration containing a magnetic null point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. C.; Büchner, J.; Otto, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context. In the past the role of magnetic null points in the generation of electric currents was investigated mainly in the close vicinity of the null, with perturbations being applied at nearby boundaries, or for a magnetic null configuration with a dome-shaped fan. In the solar atmosphere, however, electric currents are generated by perturbations originating at the photosphere, far away from coronal 3D nulls, and the occurence of magnetic nulls with a dome-shaped fan is apparently not common. Aims: We investigate the consequences of photospheric motion for the development of electric currents in a coronal magnetic field configuration containing a null, located far away from the boundaries, and the influence of topological structures on the spatial distribution of the currents. Methods: We use a 3D resistive MHD code to investigate the consequences of photospheric plasma motion for the generation of currents in a coronal magnetic field containing a null. The plasma is considered fully compressible and is initially in hydrostatic equilibrium. The initial magnetic field is potential (current free). Results: The photospheric plasma motion causes magnetic field perturbations that propagate to the corona along the field lines at the local Alfvén speed. The Alfvénic wave perturbations correspond to a propagating current directed mainly parallel to the magnetic field. Perpendicular currents connect to return currents to close the current system. The magnetic perturbations eventually reach the vicinity of the null. However, the currents forming in and around the null, near the fan surface or near the spine field lines, are not always the strongest currents developing in the simulation box. In our simulation, the strongest currents develop close to the bottom boundary, where the plasma is moved, and below the null point, in a region where field line connectivity considerably changes. Conclusions: Our simulation shows that the presence of a magnetic null point does not

  13. On the drift-sausage mode in one-dimensional current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Lui, A. T. Y.

    2001-02-01

    This article presents a two-fluid stability analysis of Harris current sheet equilibrium under the assumption of charge quasi-neutrality. It is found that the charge neutrality condition leads to sausage-type fluctuations, which propagate along the direction of the cross-field current flow, hence the drift-sausage mode. It is also shown that solutions which correspond to kink-type perturbations do not exist under the present assumption of charge neutrality. In view of the fact that a substantial body of simulation works exist which report predominantly kink-like perturbations, and that analytical theories which do not assume charge quasi-neutrality predict that the kink-type mode is a dominant unstable mode, it is concluded that the assumption of quasi-neutrality may be a poor choice in describing the stability of Harris current sheet equilibrium.

  14. Antarctic polar plateau vertical electric field variations across heliocentric current sheet crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. B.; Tinsley, B. A.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Troshichev, O. A.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.; Duldig, M. L.; Bering, E. A.; Clem, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    A superposed epoch analysis of variations of the vertical electric field measured at Vostok (78.5°S, 107°E; magnetic latitude 83.6°S) during 1998 2002 heliocentric current sheet (HCS) crossings yields no significant variation other than an association imposed by polar-cap potential differences above the site. This result contradicts published reports of a reduction ˜15% in electric field 1 3 days after HCS crossings, an observation initially made ˜30 years ago. If such a reduction had been caused by reductions in stratospheric ionising radiation, the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) would seem necessary for the occurrence of this effect. PSCs would increase the resistance of the stratosphere thus making ionisation in that region significant in the context of the ionosphere ground current flow, in a manner analogous to the role of volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere in the explanation of the weakening of northern hemisphere winter cyclones associated with HCS crossings, the so-called ‘Wilcox effect’. However, separating the present data to correspond to the likely presence of PSC above Vostok also does not yield the reported reduction. Significant increases or decreases of the vertical electric field emerge from the observations when the HCS crossings are separated into sets depending on whether the solar wind magnetic field changes from ‘toward-to-away’ (increase of ˜11%) and ‘away-to-toward’ (decrease of ˜8%). Polar-cap potential changes above the site, inferred from solar wind parameters using the Weimer model, also show such step functions that reverse with the sign of HCS transition and are broadly consistent with the measured electric field increases or decreases. Remaining differences between the measurements and the model are consistent with a somewhat stronger solar wind speed and/or magnetic activity influence on polar-cap convection above Vostok than is predicted by the model. Variations in ground-level neutron counts, a

  15. Paradigmatic flow for small-scale magnetohydrodynamics: properties of the ideal case and the collision of current sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Brachet, M E; Pouquet, A; Mininni, P D; Rosenberg, D

    2008-12-01

    We propose two sets of initial conditions for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in which both the velocity and the magnetic fields have spatial symmetries that are preserved by the dynamical equations as the system evolves. When implemented numerically they allow for substantial savings in CPU time and memory storage requirements for a given resolved scale separation. Basic properties of these Taylor-Green flows generalized to MHD are given, and the ideal nondissipative case is studied up to the equivalent of 2048;{3} grid points for one of these flows. The temporal evolution of the logarithmic decrements delta of the energy spectrum remains exponential at the highest spatial resolution considered, for which an acceleration is observed briefly before the grid resolution is reached. Up to the end of the exponential decay of delta , the behavior is consistent with a regular flow with no appearance of a singularity. The subsequent short acceleration in the formation of small magnetic scales can be associated with a near collision of two current sheets driven together by magnetic pressure. It leads to strong gradients with a fast rotation of the direction of the magnetic field, a feature also observed in the solar wind.

  16. Peristaltic Pumping near Post-CME Supra-Arcade Current Sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Roger B; McKenzie, David E

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and density near supra-arcade current sheets suggest that plasma on unreconnected field lines may experience some degree of "pre-heating" and "pre-densification" prior to their reconnection. Models of patchy reconnection allow for heating and acceleration of plasma along reconnected field lines but do not offer a mechanism for transport of thermal energy across field lines. Here we present a model in which a reconnected flux tube retracts, deforming the surrounding layer of unreconnected field. The deformation creates constrictions that act as peristaltic pumps, driving plasma flow along affected field lines. Under certain circumstances these flows lead to shocks that can extend far out into the unreconnected field, altering the plasma properties in the affected region. These findings have direct implications for observations in the solar corona, particularly in regard to such phenomena as high temperatures near current sheets in eruptive solar flares and wakes seen in the form of ...

  17. Kinetic model of force-free current sheets with non-uniform temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Vasko, I. Y.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic model of a one-dimensional force-free current sheet (CS) developed recently by Harrison and Neukirch [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 135003 (2009)] predicts uniform distributions of the plasma temperature and density across the CS. However, in realistic physical systems, inhomogeneities of these plasma parameters may arise quite naturally due to the boundary conditions or local plasma heating. Moreover, as the CS spatial scale becomes larger than the characteristic kinetic scales (the regime often referred to as the MHD limit), it should be possible to set arbitrary density and temperature profiles. Thus, an advanced model has to allow for inhomogeneities of the macroscopic plasma parameters across the CS, to be consistent with the MHD limit. In this paper, we generalise the kinetic model of a force-free current sheet, taking into account the inhomogeneity of the density and temperature across the CS. In the developed model, the density may either be enhanced or depleted in the CS central region. The temperature profile is prescribed by the density profile, keeping the plasma pressure uniform across the CS. All macroscopic parameters, as well as the distribution functions for the protons and electrons, are determined analytically. Applications of the developed model to current sheets observed in space plasmas are discussed.

  18. Spectroscopic observations of evolving flare ribbon substructure suggesting origin in current sheet waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Sean R.; Longcope, Dana; Qiu, Jiong

    2015-04-01

    A flare ribbon is the chromospheric image of reconnection at a coronal current sheet. The dynamics and structure of the ribbon can thus reveal properties of the current sheet, including motion of the reconnecting flare loops. We present imaging and spectroscopic observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of the evolution of a flare ribbon at high spatial resolution and time cadence. These reveal small-scale substructure in the ribbon, which manifest as oscillations in both position and Doppler velocities. We consider various alternative explanations for these oscillations, including modulation of chromospheric evaporation flows. Among these we find the best support for some form of elliptical wave localized to the coronal current sheet, such as a tearing mode or Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.IRIS is a NASA Small Explorer mission developed and operated by Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory. This work is supported by contract 8100002702 from Lockheed Martin to Montana State University, a Montana Space Grant Consortium fellowship, and by NASA through HSR.

  19. Magnetic instability induced by tunnel current in single Co nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Birk, F. Tijiwa; Jiang, W.; Davidović, D.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of magnetic hysteresis loops in single Co nanoparticles at dilution refrigerator temperatures are presented. The nanoparticles are in electric contact with bulk Al leads via tunnel junctions. The tunnel current versus magnetic field displays a magnetic hysteresis loop. The magnetic switching field is reduced by current, and the magnetization of the nanoparticle can be switched by applying a voltage pulse, demonstrating that the magnetic stability of the nanoparticle is diminished...

  20. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities and Ion Plasma Parameters in the Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. W.; Guild, T. B.; Lemon, C.; Roeder, J. L.; Le, G.; Schulz, M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent progress in ring current and plasma sheet modeling has shown the importance of a self-consistent treatment of particle transport and magnetic and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. Models with and without self-consistency can lead to significantly different magnitudes and spatial distributions of plasma pressure and magnetic intensity during disturbed times. In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities (GOES and Polar/MFE) and ion densities (LANL/MPA and Polar/CAMMICE) to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet for conditions corresponding to the 11 August 2000 storm using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [Lemon et al., JGR, 2004] with a constant magnetopause location. Using the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 RE as the plasma boundary location in the RCM-E. The simulated ion densities at different magnetic local times agree fairly well with those from the re-analysis model of LANL/MPA densities of O’Brien and Lemon [Space Weather, 2007]. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES satellites at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 RE) and on the Polar satellite. Agreement between the simulated and observed magnetic intensities tends to agree better on the nightside than on the dayside in the inner magnetosphere. In particular, the model cannot account for observed drops in the dayside magnetic intensity during decreases in the solar wind pressure. We will modify the RCM-E to include a time-varying magnetopause location to simulate compressions and expansions associated with variations in the solar wind pressure. We investigate whether this will lead to improved agreement between the simulated and model magnetic intensities.

  1. Interaction of Magnetic Field and Nonlinear Convection in the Stagnation Point Flow over a Shrinking Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady two-dimensional boundary layer stagnation point flow due to a shrinking sheet is analyzed. The combined effects of magnetic field and nonlinear convection are taken into account. The governing equations for the flow are modeled and then simplified using the similarity transformation and boundary layer approach. The numerical solution of the reduced equations is obtained by the second-order finite difference scheme also known as Keller box method. The influence of the pertinent parameters of the problem on velocity and temperature profiles, skin friction, and sheet temperature gradient are presented through the graphs and tables and discussed. The magnetic field and nonlinear convection parameters significantly enhance the solution range.

  2. Modeling the effect of the stress demagnetization phenomenon on the magnetic properties in a no Fe-Si 3% sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhlef Malika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the modeling of the stress demagnetization effect on the magnetic properties in a non-oriented Fe-Si 3% sheet under different external stresses. The magneto-mechanical model used for magnetic hysteresis is based on a model originally formulated by Sablik-Jiles-Atherthon (S.J.A.. This latter has been modified by including both the stress demagnetization factor and the eddy current effects. The influence of the stress demagnetization term SDT on the magnetostrictive behavior of the material is also modeled. The proposed model has been validated by extensive simulations at different stresses, namely compressive and tensile stresses. Simulation results obtained by this model are very close to those published in the literature. Using the proposed model, very satisfactory performance has been achieved.

  3. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  4. O+ ion conic and plasma sheet dynamics observed by Van Allen Probe satellites during the 1 June 2013 magnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, W. J.; Erickson, P. J.; Yang, J.; Foster, J.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-05-01

    The Van Allen Probe satellites were near apogee in the late evening local time sector during the 1 June 2013 magnetic storm's main phase. About an hour after crossing the ring current's "nose structure" into the plasma sheet, the satellites encountered a quasiperiodic sequence of 0.08-3 keV O+ ions. Pitch angle distributions of this population consistently peaked nearly antiparallel to the local magnetic field. We interpret this population as O+ conics originating in the northern ionosphere. Sequences began as fairly steady state conic fluxes with energies in the ~ 80 to 100 eV range. Over about a half hour buildup phase, O+ energies peaked near 1 keV. During subsequent release phases lasting ~ 20 min, O+ energies returned to low-energy starting points. We argue these observations reflect repeated formations and dissolutions of downward, magnetically aligned electric fields (ɛ||) layers trapping O+ conics between mirror points within heating layers below and electrostatic barriers above. Nearly identical variations were observed at the locations of both satellites during 9 of these 13 conic cycles. Phase differences between cycles were observed at both spacecraft during the remaining events. Most "buildup" to "release" phase transitions coincided with AL index minima. However, in situ magnetometer measurements indicate only weak dipolarizations of tail-like magnetic fields. The lack of field-aligned reflected O+ and tail-like magnetic fields suggest that both ionospheres may be active. However, Southern Hemisphere origin conics cannot be observed since they would be isotropized and accelerated during neutral sheet crossings.

  5. Plasmoid and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in Sweet-Parker current sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Loureiro, N F; Uzdensky, D A

    2012-01-01

    A 2D linear theory of the instability of Sweet-Parker (SP) current sheets is developed in the framework of Reduced MHD. A local analysis is performed taking into account the dependence of a generic equilibrium profile on the outflow coordinate. The plasmoid instability [Loureiro et al, Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 14}, 100703 (2007)] is recovered, i.e., current sheets are unstable to the formation of a large-wave-number chain of plasmoids ($k_{\\rm max}\\Lsheet \\sim S^{3/8}$, where $k_{\\rm max}$ is the wave-number of fastest growing mode, $S=\\Lsheet V_A/\\eta$ is the Lundquist number, $\\Lsheet$ is the length of the sheet, $V_A$ is the Alfv\\'en speed and $\\eta$ is the plasma resistivity), which grows super-Alfv\\'enically fast ($\\gmax\\tau_A\\sim S^{1/4}$, where $\\gmax$ is the maximum growth rate, and $\\tau_A=\\Lsheet/V_A$). For typical background profiles, the growth rate and the wave-number are found to {\\it increase} in the outflow direction. This is due to the presence of another mode, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability...

  6. Heat transfer in MHD flow due to a linearly stretching sheet with induced magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    El-Mistikawy, Tarek M A

    2016-01-01

    The full MHD problem of the flow and heat transfer due to a linearly stretching sheet in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is put in a self-similar form. Traditionally ignored physical processes such as induced magnetic field, viscous dissipation, Joule heating, and work shear are included and their importance is established. Cases of prescribed surface temperature, prescribed heat flux, surface feed (injection or suction), velocity slip, and thermal slip are also considered. The problem is shown to admit self similarity. Sample numerical solutions are obtained for chosen combinations of the flow parameters.

  7. Simultaneous observation of the poleward expansion of substorm electrojet activity and the tailward expansion of current sheet disruption in the near-earth magnetotail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.E. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Koskinen, H.E.J.; Pulkkinen, T.I. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Boesinger, T. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)); McEntire, R.W.; Potemra, T.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States))

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on observations of a magnetospheric substorm on June 7, 1985. This event was observed simultaneously by a number of different systems. Particle and magnetic field data were collected by AMPTE/CCE, located near the neutral sheet; magnetic field data was monitored by the EISCAT magnetometer cross; STARE radar data was also collected; and Pi 1 data from Sodankyla. The ground based systems observed the poleward and westward expansion of electrojet activity at the start of the storm. The satellite was able to see the storms onset, and record perturbations in the current sheet at the onset of the substorm, in addition to later perturbations, which the authors argue originates tailward of the satellite. Satellite measurements are shown to occur in conjunction with ground events.

  8. Acceleration and transport of ions in turbulent current sheets: formation of non-maxwelian energy distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to particle acceleration in turbulent current sheet (CS. Our results show that the mechanism of CS particle interaction with electromagnetic turbulence can explain the formation of power law energy distributions. We study the ratio between adiabatic acceleration of particles in electric field in the presence of stationary turbulence and acceleration due to electric field in the case of dynamic turbulence. The correlation between average energy gained by particles and average particle residence time in the vicinity of the neutral sheet is discussed. It is also demonstrated that particle velocity distributions formed by particle-turbulence interaction are similar in essence to the ones observed near the far reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail.

  9. Abatement of segregation with the electro and static magnetic field during twin-roll casting of 7075 alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, X. [The Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Material, Ministry of Education, 317#, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819 Liaoning (China); Xu, G.M., E-mail: Xu_gm@epm.neu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Material, Ministry of Education, 317#, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819 Liaoning (China); Jiang, D.H. [Donggong Information Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou, 510000 Guangdong (China)

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of electromagnetic field on the distribution and composition of precipitates and on the mechanical properties of 7075 rolled sheets. The non-field and field microstructure and the mechanical properties were studied in detail by optical microscope (OM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), multiple sample tensile as well as hardness tests. The Fine and equiaxed grains were obtained when introducing the alternating oscillating electromagnetic field to the twin-roll casting (TRC) process with 0.13 T static magnetic and 386 A alternating current (AC) intensities. Due to a damping effect on the convection generated by applying the electro- and static magnetic fields, the undercooling of the melt decreases and the continuous net-like precipitates are refined and broken remarkably. Especially under oscillating electromagnetic field conditions, the best uniform microstructure without mottled segregation was obtained. In addition, the fields can effectively enhance solute mixing capacity and reduce heat discharge, resulting in the increase of mechanical properties of 7075 sheets in both the longitudinal and long transverse directions. The optimum process in the present study, in which the higher solid solubility in Al matrix and the stronger hardness as well as tensile strength was gained as compared to other rolled specimens, is considered as alternating oscillating TRC process.

  10. Optimized H{sup -} extraction in an argon-magnesium seeded magnetized sheet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguera, Virginia R. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)], E-mail: virginia.noguera@gmail.com; Blantocas, Gene Q. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); West Visayas State University, Lapaz, Iloilo City 5000 (Philippines); Ramos, Henry J. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)

    2008-06-15

    The enhancement and optimization of H{sup -} extraction through argon and magnesium seeding of hydrogen discharges in a magnetized sheet plasma source are reported. The paper first presents the modification of the production chamber into a hexapole multicusp configuration resulting in decreased power requirements, improved plasma confinement and longer filament lifetime. By this, a wider choice of discharge currents for sustained quiescent plasmas is made possible. Second, the method of adding argon to the hydrogen plasma similar to the scheme in Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689] was performed to find the optimum conditions for H{sup -} formation and extraction. Using an E x B probe, H{sup -} yields were investigated at varied argon-hydrogen admixtures, different discharge currents and spatial points relative to the core plasma. The optimum H{sup -} current density extracted at 3.0 cm from the plasma core using 3.0 A plasma current with 10% argon seeding increased by a factor of 2.42 (0.63 A/m{sup 2}) compared to the measurement of Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689]. Third, the argon-hydrogen plasma at the extraction chamber is seeded with magnesium. Mg disk with an effective area of 22 cm{sup 2} is placed at the extraction region's anode biased 175 V with respect to the cathode. With Mg seeding, the optimum H{sup -} current density at the same site and discharge conditions increased by 4.9 times (3.09 A/m{sup 2}). The enhancement effects were analyzed vis-a-vis information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe (electron temperature and density), electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the ensuing dissociative attachment (DA) reaction rates at different spatial points for various plasma discharges and gas ratios. Investigations on the changes in the effective electron temperature and electron density indicate that the enhancement is due to increased density of low

  11. Absorption induced modulation of magnetism in two-dimensional metal-phthalocyanine porous sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2013-05-28

    Metal-phthalocyanine porous sheets have uniformly dispersed metal sites in Pc framework, making absorption happen naturally. Here, we explore the effects of absorption of chlorine atoms on magnetism in transition metal embedded phthalocyanine (poly-TMPc) sheets with TM = Cr, Mn, and Fe. We show that when one Cl is absorbed on the TM, the strong square planar crystal field becomes weak in a square pyramidal configuration and the TM is in the +3 oxidized state, resulting in the magnetic moment of 3, 4, and 5 μB for Cr, Mn, and Fe, respectively, with weak antiferromagnetic couplings. When another Cl is introduced to the TM on the other side, it extracts one electron from the Pc framework making the substrate p-doped. The magnetic coupling is antiferromagnetic for poly-CrPc-2Cl and the poly-FePc-2Cl, while it becomes ferromagnetic for poly-MnPc-2Cl, suggesting that absorption can effectively modulate the bonding environment and tune the magnetic properties of the systems, and the controlled absorption can be used to tailor materials.

  12. THEMIS multispacecraft observations of a reconnecting magnetosheath current sheet with symmetric boundary conditions and a large guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Shay, M. A.; Haggerty, C. C.; Fujimoto, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Mozer, F. S.

    2017-08-01

    We report three spacecraft observations of a reconnecting magnetosheath current sheet with a guide field of unity, with THEMIS D (THD) and THEMIS E (THE)/THEMIS A (THA) observing oppositely directed reconnection exhausts, indicating the presence of an X line between the spacecraft. The near-constant convective speed of the magnetosheath current sheet allowed the direct translation of the observed time series into spatial profiles. THD observed asymmetries in the plasma density and temperature profiles across the exhaust, characteristics of symmetric reconnection with a guide field. The exhausts at THE and THA, on the other hand, were not the expected mirror image of the THD exhaust in terms of the plasma and field profiles. They consisted of a main outflow at the center of the current sheet, flanked by oppositely directed flows at the two edges of the current sheet, suggesting the presence of a second X line, whose outflow wraps around the outflow from the first X line.

  13. The Topological Inner Structure of Chern-Simons Tensor Current and the World-Sheet of Strings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi-Shi; YANG Jie

    2005-01-01

    @@ Using the decomposition theory of U(1) gauge potential and φ-mapping topological current theory, we investigate the topological inner structure of Chern-Simons tensor current. It is proven that the U(1) Chern-Simons tensor current in four-dimensional manifold is just the topological current of creating the string world-sheets.

  14. Chaotic jumps in the generalized first adiabatic invariant in current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittnacher, M. J.; Whipple, E. C.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examines how the changes in the generalized first adiabatic invariant J derived from the separatrix crossing theory can be incorporated into the drift variable approach to generating distribution functions. A method is proposed for determining distribution functions for an ensemble of particles following interaction with the tail current sheet by treating the interaction as a scattering problem characterized by changes in the invariant. Generalized drift velocities are obtained for a 1D tail configuration by using the generalized first invariant. The invariant remained constant except for the discrete changes caused by chaotic scattering as the particles cross the separatrix.

  15. Analysis of induction-type coilgun performance based on cylindrical current sheet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.L.; Levi, E.; Zabar, Z.; Birenbaum, L.; Naot, Y. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on a cylindrical current sheet model for the analysis and design of induction-type coilguns. The paper starts with a derivation of closed-form formulas which relate the dimensions of the gun to the performance expressed in terms of propulsive and local maximum forces on the projectile, power factor and efficiency of the system, thermal stress of the projectile armature, distributions of the flux density around the launcher, and the system parameters in a multisection coilgun. The paper ends with a numerical example.

  16. Analysis of induction-type coilgun performance based on cylindrical current sheet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. L.; Levi, E.; Zabar, Z.; Birenbaum, L.; Naot, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A method which is based on a cylindrical current sheet model for the analysis and design of induction-type coilguns is presented. The work starts with a derivation of closed-form formulas which relate the dimensions of the gun to the performance expressed in terms of propulsive and local maximum forces on the projectile, power factor and efficiency of the system, thermal stress of the projectile armature, distributions of the flux density around the launcher, and the system parameters in a multisection coilgun. A numerical example is given.

  17. Quantization of edge currents along magnetic barriers and magnetic guides

    CERN Document Server

    Dombrowski, N; Raikov, G D

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the edge conductance of particles submitted to an Iwatsuka magnetic field, playing the role of a purely magnetic barrier. We also consider magnetic guides generated by generalized Iwatsuka potentials. In both cases we prove quantization of the edge conductance. Next, we consider magnetic perturbations of such magnetic barriers or guides, and prove stability of the quantized value of the edge conductance. Further, we establish a sum rule for edge conductances. Regularization within the context of disordered systems is discussed as well.

  18. The measurement of magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel - survey on methods and situation of standards

    CERN Document Server

    Sievert, J

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of the different requirements for magnetic measurement techniques for material research, modelling of material properties and grading of the electrical sheet steel for trade purposes is presented. In relation to the main application of laminated electrical steel, this paper deals with AC measurement techniques. Two standard methods, Epstein frame and Single Sheet Tester (SST), producing different results, are used in parallel. This dilemma was analysed in detail. The study leads to a possible solution of the problem, i.e. the possibility of converting the results of one of the two methods into the results of the other in order to satisfy the users of the Epstein method and, at the same time, to improve the acceptance of the more economical SST method.

  19. Internal pinch instability at the edge of an inviscid current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Priede, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis a pinch-type instability in a semi-infinite planar layer of inviscid conducting liquid bounded by solid walls and carrying a uniform electric current. The instability resembles the Tayler instability in astrophysics and can presumably disrupt the operation of the recently developed liquid metal batteries (Wang et al. 2014 Nature 514, 348). We show that the instability in liquid metals, which are relatively poor conductors, significantly differs from that in a well conducting fluid. In the latter, instability is dominated by the current perturbation resulting from the advection of the magnetic field. In the former, the instability is dominated by the magnetic field perturbation resulting from the diffusion of the electric current perturbation. As a result, in liquid metals, instability develops on the magnetic response time scale, which depends on the conductivity, and is much longer than the Alfv\\'en time scale, on which the instability develops in a well conducting flui...

  20. Eddy current testing of metallic sheets with defects using force measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining defects in structures using eddy current methods was investigated. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that the forces generated by the eddy currents and acting back on the magnet system can be used to detect defects in the object. Numerical simulations and experimental investigations have been performed. This novel technique has been found to be sensitive enough to detect even deep defects in an Aluminium bar moving relative to the field-generating magnet system.

  1. 太阳爆发过程中的大尺度磁重联电流片:理论和观测%Large-Scale Reconnecting Current Sheets in Solar Eruptions: Theories and Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宁; 李燕; 沈呈彩; 林隽

    2012-01-01

    从理论和观测两个方面来介绍和讨论出现在太阳爆发过程中的磁重联电流片及其物理本质和动力学特征.首先介绍在理论研究和理论模型中,磁重联电流片是如何在爆发磁结构当中形成并发展的,对观测研究有什么指导意义.然后介绍观测工作是从哪几个方面对理论模型预测的电流片进行证认和研究的.第三,将介绍观测研究给出了哪些过去所没有能够预期的结果,这些结果对深入研究耀斑-CME电流片以及其中的磁重联过程的理论工作有什么重要的、挑战性的意义.第四,讨论最新的与此有关的理论研究和数值实验.最后,对未来的研究方向和重要课题进行综述和展望.%Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process with a rich variety of aspects and applications in astrophysical, space, and laboratory plasmas. It is at the core of many dynamic phenomena in the universe, including solar eruptions, geomagnetic substorms, and tokamak disruption. Most of the universe is in the form of a plasma threaded by a magnetic field. When twisted or sheared, the field lines may reconnect rapidly, converting magnetic energy into heat and kinetic energy. Because these phenomena often occur in environments of very high electric conductivity, the process of energy conversion is usually confined to a small local region, such as an X-type neutral point, a current sheet, or a quasi-separatrix layer. It is traditionally expected that the current sheet is too thin to be observable since its thickness is believed to be roughly the proton Larmor radius, which is about tens of meters in the coronal environment. This view is based on magnetic reconnection on small scales in the laboratory or on quasi-static process in space (with timescale of tens of hours or even a few days). This could be true as well in the solar eruption in the case that the classical Spitzer resistivity dominates the diffusion process. However, CME/fiare current

  2. Micromagnetic modeling of critical current oscillations in magnetic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovchanskiy, I. A.; Bol'ginov, V. V.; Stolyarov, V. S.; Abramov, N. N.; Ben Hamida, A.; Emelyanova, O. V.; Stolyarov, B. S.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Golubov, A. A.; Ryazanov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we propose and explore an effective numerical approach for investigation of critical current dependence on applied magnetic field for magnetic Josephson junctions with in-plane magnetization orientation. This approach is based on micromagnetic simulation of the magnetization reversal process in the ferromagnetic layer with introduced internal magnetic stiffness and subsequent reconstruction of the critical current value using total flux or reconstructed actual phase difference distribution. The approach is flexible and shows good agreement with experimental data obtained on Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic barriers. Based on this approach we have obtained a critical current dependence on applied magnetic field for rectangular magnetic Josephson junctions with high size aspect ratio. We have shown that the rectangular magnetic Josephson junctions can be considered for application as an effective Josephson magnetic memory element with the value of critical current defined by the orientation of magnetic moment at zero magnetic field. An impact of shape magnetic anisotropy on critical current is revealed and discussed. Finally, we have considered a curling magnetic state in the ferromagnetic layer and demonstrated its impact on critical current.

  3. Morphology of magnetically aligning DMPC/DHPC aggregates-perforated sheets, not disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Lorens; Karlsson, Göran; Edwards, Katarina

    2006-03-28

    The morphology of DMPC/DHPC mixtures at total lipid concentration cL = 5% (w/w) and DMPC/DHPC ratio q approximately 3, doped with small amounts of DMPG or CTAB, was investigated. 31P NMR was used to identify the magnetically aligning phase, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) was employed for structural characterization. Magnetic alignment was found to occur between approximately 30 and approximately 45 degrees C, and cryo-TEM showed that the magnetically aligning phase consisted of extended sheets with a lacelike structure. The aggregates are best described as intermediates between two-dimensional networks of flattened, highly branched, cylindrical micelles and lamellar sheets perforated by large irregular holes. DHPC most likely covers the edges of the holes, while DMPC makes up the bilayer bulk of the aggregates. However, 20-43% of the DHPC takes part in the bilayer, corresponding to 6-12% of the bilayer being made up of DHPC. This fraction increases with increasing temperature. At temperatures above 45 degrees C, the aligning phase collapses.

  4. Chaotic scattering of pitch angles in the current sheet of the magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, G. R.; Chen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The modified Harris field model is used to investigate the process of pitch angle scattering by a current sheet. The relationship between the incoming asymptotic pitch angle alpha(in) and the outgoing asymptotic pitch angle alpha(out) is studied from first principles by numerically integrating the equation of motion. Evidence that charged particles undergo chaotic scattering by the current sheet is found. For fixed alpha(in), it is shown that alpha(out) exhibits sensitive dependence on the energy parameter in certain energy ranges. For a fixed energy parameter value in the same energy ranges, alpha(out) sensitively depends on alpha(in). For other energy values, alpha(out) does not show sensitive dependence on alpha(in) for most phase angles. A distribution of alpha(in) is mapped from the asymptotic region to the midplane, and it is found that the resulting particle distribution should have beam structures with well-collimated pitch angles near each resonance energy value. Implications for the particle distribution functions in the earth's magnetotail are discussed.

  5. Current-induced switching in a magnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Quindeau, Andy; Pai, Chi-Feng; Mann, Maxwell; Caretta, Lucas; Tang, Astera S.; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2016-11-01

    The spin Hall effect in heavy metals converts charge current into pure spin current, which can be injected into an adjacent ferromagnet to exert a torque. This spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been widely used to manipulate the magnetization in metallic ferromagnets. In the case of magnetic insulators (MIs), although charge currents cannot flow, spin currents can propagate, but current-induced control of the magnetization in a MI has so far remained elusive. Here we demonstrate spin-current-induced switching of a perpendicularly magnetized thulium iron garnet film driven by charge current in a Pt overlayer. We estimate a relatively large spin-mixing conductance and damping-like SOT through spin Hall magnetoresistance and harmonic Hall measurements, respectively, indicating considerable spin transparency at the Pt/MI interface. We show that spin currents injected across this interface lead to deterministic magnetization reversal at low current densities, paving the road towards ultralow-dissipation spintronic devices based on MIs.

  6. Interaction between Current Imbalance and Magnetization in LHC Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Kuijper, A; den Ouden, A; ten Haken, B; ten Kate, H H J

    2001-01-01

    The quality of the magnetic field in superconducting accelerator magnets is associated with the properties of the superconducting cable. Current imbalances due to coupling currents DI, as large as 100 A, are induced by spatial variations of the field sweep rate and contact resistances. During injection at a constant field all magnetic field components show a decay behavior. The decay is caused by a diffusion of coupling currents into the whole magnet. This results in a redistribution of the transport current among the strands and causes a demagnetization of the superconducting cable. As soon as the field is ramped up again after the end of injection, the magnetization rapidly recovers from the decay and follows the course of the original hysteresis curve. In order to clarify the interactions between the changes in current and magnetization during injection we performed a number of experiments. A magnetic field with a spatially periodic pattern was applied to a superconducting wire in order to simulate the cou...

  7. BLOCKING ALGORITHM FOR CURRENT PROTECTION DURING INRUSH MAGNETIZATION CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents blocking algorithm for current protection during inrush process. The algorithm is based on the evaluation of the ratio of the positive sequence second harmonic current to the negative sequence first harmonic current.

  8. Influence of the mechanical fatigue progress on the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthaus Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the variation of the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel sheets with the fatigue state during cyclic mechanical loading. The obtained results are central to the design of variable drives such as traction drives in electric vehicles in which varying mechanical loads, e.g. in the rotor core (centrifugal forces, alter the magnetic properties. Specimens of non-oriented electrical steel are subject to a cyclically varying mechanical tensile stress with different stress amplitudes and number of cycles. The specimens are characterised magnetically at different fatigue states for different magnetic flux densities and magnetising frequencies. The measurements show a variation in magnetic properties depending on the number of cycles and stress magnitude which can be explained by changes in the material structure due to a beginning mechanical fatigue process. The studied effect is critical for the estimation of the impact of mechanical material fatigue on the operational behaviour of electrical machines. Particularly in electrical machines with a higher speed where the rotor is stressed by high centrifugal forces, material fatigue occurs and can lead to deterioration of the rotor’s stack lamination.

  9. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa2Cu3O7 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B.; Zhou, HU; Fife, A. A.; Cragg, A. R.; Grant, P. D.

    1995-01-01

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B(sub z) (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa2Cu3O7 thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B(sub z) distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B(sub x,y)) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B(sub x,y)/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  10. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia (Canada); Zhou, H. [CTF Systems, Inc., British Columbia (Canada)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B{sub z} (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B{sub z} distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B{sub x,y}) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B{sub x,y}/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  11. Steady Stagnation Point Flow and Heat Transfer Over a Shrinking Sheet with Induced Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD stagnation-point flow of an incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet is studied. The effects of an induced magnetic field and thermal radiation are taken into account. Velocity and thermal slip conditions have also been incorporated in the study. The nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations via the similarity transformation. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically using Newton’s linearization method. Computational results for the variation in velocity, temperature, skin-friction co-efficient and Nusselt number are presented graphically and in tabular form. Study reveals that the surface velocity gradient and heat transfer are enhanced by decreasing magnetic parameter.

  12. Three-dimensional geometry of magnetic reconnection induced by ballooning instability in a generalized Harris sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Sangari, Arash; Wang, Zechen; Bonofiglo, Phillip

    2017-02-01

    We report for the first time the intrinsically three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the magnetic reconnection process induced by ballooning instability in a generalized Harris sheet. The spatial distribution and the structure of the quasi-separatrix layers, as well as their temporal emergence and evolution, indicate that the associated magnetic reconnection can only occur in a 3D geometry, which is irreducible to that of any two-dimensional reconnection process. Such a finding provides a new perspective to the long-standing controversy over the substorm onset problem and elucidates the combined roles of reconnection and ballooning instabilities. It also connects to the universal presence of 3D reconnection processes previously discovered in various natural and laboratory plasmas.

  13. Magnetically Guiding Atoms with Current-Carrying Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 高伟建; 印建平

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel magnetic guide for cold neutral atoms using some current-carrying conductors. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from a V-shaped or U-shaped current-carrying conductor are calculated, and the relationship between the resulting magnetic field and the parameters of the current-carrying conductors is analysed in detail. The result shows that these current-carrying conductors can be used to realize a single or a controllable double magnetic guide of cold atoms in the weak-field-seeking state, and to construct various atom-optical elements, and even to realize a single-mode atomic waveguiding under certain conditions.

  14. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  15. Dynamic Current Sheet Formation and Evolution with Application to Inter-(Super)granular Flow Lanes and Quasi-Homologous Jet Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Justin K.; Velli, M.

    2011-05-01

    The coronal magnetic field structure is an immensely complex system constantly driven away from equilibrium by global drivers such as photospheric flow, flux emergence/cancellation at the lower boundary, helicity injection and transport, etc. In low-beta plasma systems, such as solar corona, the Maxwell stresses dominate forces and therefore the system dynamics. General Poynting stress injection (i.e., flux injection, helicity injection, translational motions, or any combination thereof) results in (possibly large) geometric deformations of the magnetic field, such that the Maxwell stresses distribute as uniformly as possible, constrained by the distorted geometry and topology of the bounding separatricies. Since the topological connectivity is discontinuous across these separatrix surfaces, the magnetic stresses will be discontinuous there as well, manifesting as current sheets within the field. The solar magnetic field undergoes major geometric expansion passing from the photosphere, through the chromosphere, into the corona. No matter the specific details, a mixed polarity distribution at the lower boundary and the divergence-free condition require invariant topological features such as an X-line and separatricies to exist between fields emanating from separate regions of the photosphere. We present the results of fully-3D numerical simulations of a simplified low-beta model of this field expansion. A symmetric injection of Maxwell stresses into this geometry inflates strongly line-tied fields, generating a region of large current densities and magnetic energy dissipation. Elsewhere the injected stresses accumulate along the existing separatricies. There is no evidence of reconnection dynamics until after the initial left-right parity is broken. Once the symmetry breaks, the X-line deforms explosively into a Syrovatskii-type current sheet, leading to a succession of quasi-homologous jet dynamics. The bursty-oscillations of these jets occur as the stresses within

  16. Magnetization of a Current-Carrying Superconducting Disk with B-Dependent Critical Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mahdi; Babaei-Brojeny, Ali A.

    2010-11-01

    In the frame work of the critical state model (CSM), the magnetic response of a thin type-II superconducting disk that carries a radial transport current and is subjected to an applied magnetic field have been studied. To this end, we have studied the process of the magnetic flux-penetration. For a disk initially containing no magnetic flux but carrying a radial current, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, magnetic flux-penetration occurs in three stages: (1) the magnetic flux gradually penetrates from the edges of the disk until an instability occurs, (2) there is a rapid inflow of magnetic flux into the disk’s central region, which becomes resistive, and (3) magnetic flux continues to enter the disk, while persistent azimuthal currents flow in an outer annular region where the net current density is equal to J c . Also the behavior of a current-carrying disk subjected to an AC magnetic field is calculated. The magnetic flux, the current profiles and the magnetization hysteresis loops are calculated for several commonly used J c ( B) dependences. Finally, the results of the applications of the local field-dependent of the critical current density J c ( B) are compared with those obtained from the Bean model.

  17. Polar conic current sheets as sources and channels of energetic particles in the high-latitude heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi; Kislov, Roman; Zelenyi, Lev; Obridko, Vladimir; Kharshiladze, Alexander; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Sokół, Justyna; Grzedzielski, Stan; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Malandraki, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The existence of a large-scale magnetically separated conic region inside the polar coronal hole has been predicted by the Fisk-Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and co-workers (Burger et al., ApJ, 2008). Recently, long-lived conic (or cylindrical) current sheets (CCSs) have been found from Ulysses observations at high heliolatitudes (Khabarova et al., ApJ, 2017). The characteristic scale of these structures is several times lesser than the typical width of coronal holes, and the CCSs can be observed at 2-3 AU for several months. CCS crossings in 1994 and 2007 are characterized by sharp decreases in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole and strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. The finding is confirmed by restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines that reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles both in 1994 and 2007. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis also confirms the existence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. The occurrence of long-lived CCSs in the high-latitude solar wind could shed light on how energetic particles reach high latitudes. Energetic particle enhancements up to tens MeV were observed by Ulysses at edges of CCSs both in 1994 and 2007. In 1994 this effect was clearer, probably due to technical reasons. Accelerated particles could be produced either by magnetic reconnection at the edges of a CCS in the solar corona or in the solar wind. We discuss the role of high-latitude CCSs in propagation of energetic particles in the heliosphere and revisit previous studies of energetic particle enhancements at high heliolatitudes. We also suggest that the existence of a CCS can modify the distribution of the solar wind as a function of heliolatitude and consequently impact ionization

  18. Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Analysis of a Novel Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lu, Kaiyuan; Ye, Yunyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear (MIPMG) is discussed. The focus is on eddy current loss analysis associated to permanent magnets (PMs). A convenient model of MIPMG is provided based on 2-D field-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method for transient eddy...... current analysis. The model takes the eddy current effect of PMs into account in determination of the magnetic field in the air-gap and in the magnet regions. The eddy current losses generated in the magnets are properly interpreted. Design improvements for reducing the eddy current losses are suggested...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF BLOCKING ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMER CURRENT PROTECTIONS IN MAGNETIZING INRUSH CURRENT MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuzovlev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents investigations on blocking  algorithm for transformer  current  protections  during magnetizing  inrush  current. The investigations have shown that the algorithm has high sensitivity and reliably determines magnetizing  inrush current modes.

  20. Magnetization collapse in polycrystalline YBCO under transport current cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, J L [Departamento de Ciencias de la IngenierIa, Universidad de Talca (Chile); Luzuriaga, J [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Instituto Balseiro, UNC (Argentina); BadIa-Majos, A [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada-ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Nieva, G [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Instituto Balseiro, UNC (Argentina); RuIz-Tagle, I [Instituto de QuImica de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca (Chile)

    2006-04-15

    We report measurements of the hysteretic magnetization of YBCO under superimposed transport current cycles, together with numerical simulations of magnetization and current density profiles in the corresponding parallel configuration. Field cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) experiments were carried out on polycrystalline YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} cylinders, with both the applied magnetic field and transport current in the axial direction, and the current cycled several times, around and above the dissipative threshold. As in previously reported multicomponent field configuration experiments, the magnetization is seen to collapse to a more stable state both in FC and ZFC, because of the interplay between the shielding and transport currents. The results of our numerical simulations are in good qualitative agreement with the measurements, and the competition between shielding and transport due to vortex-pinning interactions and equilibrium magnetization effects are shown to play an important role in the range of our experiments.

  1. Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a mold within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. The magnetic fields associated with the currents in the aforementioned coils levitate the molten metal sheet while the mold provides for its lateral and vertical confinement. A leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the molten metal sheet is used to start the casing process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the yoke/coil arrangement and mold and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The yoke/coil arrangement may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of spaced, facing bedstead coils.

  2. Current amplification and magnetic reconnection at a 3D null point. I - Physical characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontin, D I

    2007-01-01

    The behaviour of magnetic perturbations of an initially potential three-dimensional equilibrium magnetic null point are investigated. The basic components which constitute a typical disturbance are taken to be rotations and shears, in line with previous work. The spine and fan of the null point (the field lines which asymptotically approach or recede from the null) are subjected to such rotational and shear perturbations, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. It is found that rotations of the fan plane and about the spine lead to current sheets which are spatially diffuse in at least one direction, and form in the locations of the spine and fan. However, shearing perturbations lead to 3D-localised current sheets focused at the null point itself. In addition, rotations are associated with a growth of current parallel to the spine, driving rotational flows and a type of rotational reconnection. Shears, on the other hand, cause a current through the null which is parallel to the fan plane, and...

  3. Current patterns and orbital magnetism in mesoscopic dc transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Michael; Wilhelm, Jan; Evers, Ferdinand

    2014-09-26

    We present ab initio calculations of the local current density j(r) as it arises in dc-transport measurements. We discover pronounced patterns in the local current density, ring currents ("eddies"), that go along with orbital magnetism. Importantly, the magnitude of the ring currents can exceed the (average) transport current by orders of magnitude. We find associated magnetic fields that exhibit drastic fluctuations with field gradients reaching 1  T nm⁻¹ V⁻¹. The relevance of our observations for spin relaxation in systems with very weak spin-orbit interaction, such as organic semiconductors, is discussed. In such systems, spin relaxation induced by bias driven orbital magnetism competes with relaxation induced by the hyperfine interaction and appears to be of similar strength. We propose a NMR-type experiment in the presence of dc-current flow to observe the spatial fluctuations of the induced magnetic fields.

  4. The effect of Birkeland currents on magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroomian, Vahe; Lyons, Larry R.; Schulz, Michael

    1996-01-01

    A technique was developed for the inclusion of large scale magnetospheric current systems in magnetic field models. The region 1 and 2 Birkeland current systems are included in the source surface model of the terrestrial magnetosphere. The region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents are placed in the model using a series of field aligned, infinitely thin wire segments. The normal component of the magnetic field from these currents is calculated on the surface of the magnetopause and shielded using image current carrying wires placed outside of the magnetosphere. It is found that the inclusion of the Birkeland currents in the model results in a northward magnetic field in the near-midnight tail, leading to the closure of previously open flux in the tail, and a southward magnetic field in the flanks. A sunward shift in the separatrix is observed.

  5. Dependence of anomalous resistivity on bulk drift velocity of electrons in the reconnecting current sheets in solar flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ping Wu; Guang-Li Huang; Hai-Sheng Ji

    2010-01-01

    Anomalous resistivity is critical for triggering fast magnetic reconnection in the nearly collisionless coronal plasma.Its nonlinear dependence on bulk drift velocity is usually assumed in MHD simulations.However,the mechanism for the production of anomalous resistivity and its evolution is still an open question.We numerically solved the one dimension Vlasov equation with the typical solar coronal parameters and realistic mass ratios to infer the relationship between anomalous resistivity and bulk drift velocity of electrons in the reconnecting current sheets as well as its nonlinear characteristics.Our principal findings are summarized as follows: 1)the relationship between the anomalous resistivity and bulk drift velocity of electrons relative to ions may be described as ηmax = 0.03724(vd/ve)5.702 Ω m for vd/ve in the range of 1.4-2.0 and ηmax = 0.8746(vd/ve)1.284 Ωm for vd/ve in the range of 2.5-4.5; 2)if drift velocity is just slightly larger than the threshold of ion-acoustic instability,the anomalous resistivity due to the wave-particle interactions is enhanced by about five orders as compared with classic resistivity due to Coulomb collisions.With the increase of drift velocity from 1.4ve to 4.5ve,the anomalous resistivity continues to increase 100 times; 3)in the rise phase of unstable waves,the anomalous resistivity has the same order as the one estimated from quasi-linear theory; after saturation of unstable waves,the anomalous resistivity decreases at least about one order as compared with its peak value; 4)considering that the final velocity of electrons ejected out of the reconnecting current sheet(RCS)decreases with the distance from the neutral point in the neutral plane,the anomalous resistivity decreases with the distance from the neutral point,which is favorable for the Petschek-like reconnection to take place.

  6. Critical Current Measurements in Commercial Tapes, Coils, and Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.; Soulen, R. J., Jr.; Fuller-Mora, W. W.; Francavilla, T. L.

    1996-03-01

    We have measured a number of tapes, coils, and magnets produced by commercial vendors and determined their properties as functions of magnetic field and temperature. The tapes were measured at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in magnetic fields to 20 tesla and at temperatures of 4.2 K, 27 K, 65 K, and 77 K. For the tapes we report critical currents and current-voltage characteristics. Six inch diameter coils were measured at NRL in zero magnetic field. Critical currents, current-voltage characteristics, and reliability studies are reported for the coils. Larger 10 inch diameter coils, which are to be used in a 200 hp superconducting motor, were also measured and results will be presented. The talk will also review the status of the most recent tests of the superconducting motor.

  7. Earthward electric field and its reversal in the near-Earth current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations (radial distance r from 9 to 35 Earth radii, RE), we investigate ion and electron contributions to the cross-tail current density in the magnetotail current sheet. We analyze plasma pressure measurements (including the contribution from high-energy particles) and estimate the magnitudes of ion and electron diamagnetic drifts. In the downtail, r > 15RE, region, ion (electron) diamagnetic drifts are shown to provide more than 50% (less than 25%) of the cross-tail current density at the neutral plane, Bx=0. Conversely, in the near-Earth region, r≤15RE, the ion (electron) diamagnetic drift contribution to the cross-tail current density is 20% (50%). The directly measured duskward (dawnward) component of the ion (electron) velocity, vyi (-vye), where y is the GSM direction, is very small (quite large) in the downtail region but large (small) in the near-Earth region. This systematic discrepancy between the expected values of vyi, -vye (based on estimates of diamagnetic drifts) and the direct measurements of the velocity, vyi, -vye, is consistent with a contribution to the total velocity by an E × B drift caused by an electric field oriented parallel to the x axis, Ex. To decrease the ion (increase the electron) total drift to agree with the measured flows in the downtail region and increase (decrease) this total drift to match the measurements in the near-Earth region, this Ex would need to be directed earthward at r > 15RE and tailward at r≤15RE. Such an Ex distribution is consistent with the equatorial projection of the Harang discontinuity.

  8. Alfven Waves in a Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer Associated with Near-Tail Magnetic Reconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-Gang; DENG Xiao-Hua; PANG Ye; LI Shi-You; WANG Jing-Fang

    2007-01-01

    We report observations from Geotail satellite showing that large Poynting fluxes associated with Alfven waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer(PSBL) occur in the vicinity of the near-tail reconnection region on 10 December 1996.During the period of large Poynting fluxex,Geotail also observed strong tailward plasma flws.These observations demonstrate the importance of near-tail reconnection process as the energy source of Alfven waves in the PSBL.Strong tailward(Earthward)plasma flows ought to be an important candidate in generating Alfven waves.Furthermore,the strong pertutbations not only of the magnetic field but also of the electric field observed in the PSBL indicate that the PSBL plays an important role in the generation and propagation of the energy flux associated with Alfven waves.

  9. Exploring the role of turbulent acceleration and heating in fractal current sheet of solar flares­ from hybrid particle in cell and lattice Boltzmann virtual test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B.; Lin, J.; Yuan, X.; Li, Y.; Shen, C.

    2016-12-01

    The role of turbulent acceleration and heating in the fractal magnetic reconnection of solar flares is still not clear, especially at the X-point in the diffusion region. At virtual test aspect, it is hardly to quantitatively analyze the vortex generation, turbulence evolution, particle acceleration and heating in the magnetic islands coalesce in fractal manner, formatting into largest plasmid and ejection process in diffusion region through classical magnetohydrodynamics numerical method. With the development of physical particle numerical method (particle in cell method [PIC], Lattice Boltzmann method [LBM]) and high performance computing technology in recently two decades. Kinetic simulation has developed into an effectively manner to exploring the role of magnetic field and electric field turbulence in charged particles acceleration and heating process, since all the physical aspects relating to turbulent reconnection are taken into account. In this paper, the LBM based lattice DxQy grid and extended distribution are added into charged-particles-to-grid-interpolation of PIC based finite difference time domain scheme and Yee Grid, the hybrid PIC-LBM simulation tool is developed to investigating turbulence acceleration on TIANHE-2. The actual solar coronal condition (L≈105Km,B≈50-500G,T≈5×106K, n≈108-109, mi/me≈500-1836) is applied to study the turbulent acceleration and heating in solar flare fractal current sheet. At stage I, magnetic islands shrink due to magnetic tension forces, the process of island shrinking halts when the kinetic energy of the accelerated particles is sufficient to halt the further collapse due to magnetic tension forces, the particle energy gain is naturally a large fraction of the released magnetic energy. At stage II and III, the particles from the energized group come in to the center of the diffusion region and stay longer in the area. In contract, the particles from non energized group only skim the outer part of the

  10. Conductive shield for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Theory and measurements of eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Busch, Sarah; Hatridge, Michael; Öisjöen, Fredrik; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Clarke, John

    2014-03-01

    Eddy currents induced by applied magnetic-field pulses have been a common issue in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, a relatively large prepolarizing field—applied before each signal acquisition sequence to increase the signal—induces currents in the walls of the surrounding conductive shielded room. The magnetic-field transient generated by the eddy currents may cause severe image distortions and signal loss, especially with the large prepolarizing coils designed for in vivo imaging. We derive a theory of eddy currents in thin conducting structures and enclosures to provide intuitive understanding and efficient computations. We present detailed measurements of the eddy-current patterns and their time evolution in a previous-generation shielded room. The analysis led to the design and construction of a new shielded room with symmetrically placed 1.6-mm-thick aluminum sheets that were weakly coupled electrically. The currents flowing around the entire room were heavily damped, resulting in a decay time constant of about 6 ms for both the measured and computed field transients. The measured eddy-current vector maps were in excellent agreement with predictions based on the theory, suggesting that both the experimental methods and the theory were successful and could be applied to a wide variety of thin conducting structures.

  11. Conductive shield for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Theory and measurements of eddy currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenhoven, Koos C J; Busch, Sarah; Hatridge, Michael; Oisjöen, Fredrik; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Clarke, John

    2014-03-14

    Eddy currents induced by applied magnetic-field pulses have been a common issue in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, a relatively large prepolarizing field-applied before each signal acquisition sequence to increase the signal-induces currents in the walls of the surrounding conductive shielded room. The magnetic-field transient generated by the eddy currents may cause severe image distortions and signal loss, especially with the large prepolarizing coils designed for in vivo imaging. We derive a theory of eddy currents in thin conducting structures and enclosures to provide intuitive understanding and efficient computations. We present detailed measurements of the eddy-current patterns and their time evolution in a previous-generation shielded room. The analysis led to the design and construction of a new shielded room with symmetrically placed 1.6-mm-thick aluminum sheets that were weakly coupled electrically. The currents flowing around the entire room were heavily damped, resulting in a decay time constant of about 6 ms for both the measured and computed field transients. The measured eddy-current vector maps were in excellent agreement with predictions based on the theory, suggesting that both the experimental methods and the theory were successful and could be applied to a wide variety of thin conducting structures.

  12. Cardiac magnetic source imaging based on current multipole model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Fa-Kuan; Wang Qian; Hua Ning; Lu Hong; Tang Xue-Zheng; Ma Ping

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the heart current source can be reduced into a current multipole. By adopting three linear inverse methods, the cardiac magnetic imaging is achieved in this article based on the current multipole model expanded to the first order terms. This magnetic imaging is realized in a reconstruction plane in the centre of human heart, where the current dipole array is employed to represent realistic cardiac current distribution. The current multipole as testing source generates magnetic fields in the measuring plane, serving as inputs of cardiac magnetic inverse problem. In the heart-torso model constructed by boundary element method, the current multipole magnetic field distribution is compared with that in the homogeneous infinite space, and also with the single current dipole magnetic field distribution.Then the minimum-norm least-squares (MNLS) method, the optimal weighted pseuDOInverse method (OWPIM), and the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM) are selected as the algorithms for inverse computation based on current multipole model innovatively, and the imaging effects of these three inverse methods are compared. Besides,two reconstructing parameters, residual and mean residual, are also discussed, and their trends under MNLS, OWPIM and OCLIM each as a function of SNR are obtained and compared.

  13. Current state and future perspectives on coupled ice-sheet – sea-level modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.; Stocchi, P.; Whitehouse, P.L.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between ice-sheet growth and retreat and sea-level change has been an established fieldof research for many years. However, recent advances in numerical modelling have shed new light on theprecise interaction of marine ice sheets with the change in near-field sea level, and the

  14. Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James

    1992-01-01

    Eddy current impedance measuring methods have been applied to study the effect that magnetically treated materials have on service life extension. Eddy current impedance measurements have been performed on Nickel 200 specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening. Experimental results have demonstrated a functional relationship between coil impedance, resistance and reactance, and specimens subjected to various engineering processes. It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in a material's electromagnetic properties and does exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic-field processing effect on machine tool service life.

  15. Energy dynamics and current sheet structure in fluid and kinetic simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Makwana, K D; Li, H; Daughton, W; Cattaneo, F

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are performed with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfv\\'{e}n waves, which interfere and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of $k_{\\perp}^{-1.3}$. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of $k_{\\perp}^{-1.5}$ for smaller simulation domain, and $k_{\\perp}^{-1.3}$ for larger domain. We estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. T...

  16. Current Sheets in the Corona and the Complexity of Slow Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind has long been one of the most important problems in solar/heliospheric physics. Two observational constraints make this problem especially challenging. First, the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, unlike the fast wind that originates on open field lines. Second, the slow wind has substantial angular extent, of order 30 degrees, which is much larger than the widths observed for streamer stalks or the widths expected theoretically for a dynamic heliospheric current sheet. We propose that the slow wind originates from an intricate network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that emanate from the polar coronal hole regions. Using topological arguments, we show that these corridors must be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The total solar eclipse in August 2008, near the lowest point of cycle 23 affords an ideal opportunity to test this theory by using the ultra-high resolution Predictive Science's (PSI) eclipse model for the corona and wind. Analysis of the PSI eclipse model demonstrates that the extent and scales of the open-field corridors can account for both the angular width of the slow wind and its closed-field composition. We discuss the implications of our slow wind theory for the structure of the corona and heliosphere at solar minimum and describe further observational and theoretical tests.

  17. Magnetostrictive-piezoelectric magnetic sensor with current excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, J L; López, E; Sanchez, M C; Sanchez, P

    2000-01-01

    A new working configuration for magnetostrictive-piezoelectric magnetic sensors is presented. In this configuration, the excitation is caused using an electrical current flowing through the ferromagnetic sample and the induced signal is sensed in the piezoelectric support as an electrical voltage. This new idea allows a magnetic field detection without any coil and opens a possibility for a future miniaturisation of the sensor.

  18. Magnetization oscillations and waves driven by pure spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V. E.; Urazhdin, S.; de Loubens, G.; Klein, O.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in the studies of pure spin currents-flows of angular momentum (spin) not accompanied by the electric currents-have opened new horizons for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. The main advantage of pure spin current, as compared to the spin-polarized electric current, is the possibility to exert spin transfer torque on the magnetization in thin magnetic films without the electrical current flow through the material. In addition to minimizing Joule heating and electromigration effects, this enables the implementation of spin torque devices based on the low-loss insulating magnetic materials, and offers an unprecedented geometric flexibility. Here we review the recent experimental achievements in investigations of magnetization oscillations excited by pure spin currents in different nanomagnetic systems based on metallic and insulating magnetic materials. We discuss the spectral properties of spin-current nano-oscillators, and relate them to the spatial characteristics of the excited dynamic magnetic modes determined by the spatially-resolved measurements. We also show that these systems support locking of the oscillations to external microwave signals, as well as their mutual synchronization, and can be used as efficient nanoscale sources of propagating spin waves.

  19. Micromagnetic analysis of geometrically controlled current-driven magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Alejos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetization dynamics induced by current pulses in a pair of two “S-shaped” ferromagnetic elements, each one consisting on two oppositely tilted tapered spikes at the ends of a straight section, is theoretically studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. Our results indicate that the magnetization reversal is triggered by thermal activation, which assists the current-induced domain nucleation and the propagation of domain walls. The detailed analysis of the magnetization dynamics reveals that the magnetization switching is only achieved when a single domain wall is nucleated in the correct corner of the element. In agreement with recent experimental studies, the switching is purely dictated by the shape, being independent of the current polarity. The statistical study points out that successful switching is only achieved within a narrow range of the current pulse amplitudes.

  20. Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B

  1. Magnetic topology and current channels in plasmas with toroidal current density inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro, D.; Caldas, I. L.

    2013-10-01

    The equilibrium magnetic field inside axisymmetric plasmas with inversions on the toroidal current density is considered. Previous works have shown that internal regions with negative current density lead to non-nested magnetic surfaces inside the plasma. Following these results, we derive a general expression relating the positive and negative currents inside the non-nested surfaces. This is done in terms of an anisotropy parameter that is model-independent and is based in very general properties of the magnetic field. We demonstrate that the positive currents in axisymmetric islands screen the negative one in the plasma center by reaching about twice its magnitude. Further, we illustrate these results by developing a family of analytical local solutions for the poloidal magnetic field in a region of interest that contains the inverted current. These local solutions exhibit non-nested magnetic surfaces with a combined current of at least twice the magnitude of the negative one, as prescribed from the topological arguments, and allow to study topological transitions driven by geometrical changes in the current profile. To conclude, we discuss the signatures of internal current density inversions in a confinement device and show that magnetic pitch measurements may be inappropriate to differentiate current reversals and small current holes in plasmas.

  2. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques.

  3. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques. PMID:27833119

  4. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W

    2016-11-11

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques.

  5. MHD stagnation point flow toward a linearly-stretching thermally-insulated sheet with induced magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    El-Mistikawy, Tarek M A

    2016-01-01

    The equations governing the magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow toward a non-conducting, thermally insulated, nonporous, linearly stretching sheet are cast in a self similar form. Consistent boundary conditions on the velocity, magnetic field and temperature are invoked. The flow problem involves three parameters- the magnetic Prandtl number, the magnetic interaction number, and the ratio of the stretching rate to the strength of the stagnation point flow. The energy equation includes viscous dissipation and Joule heating, and introduces the Prandtl number as a fourth parameter. Numerical solutions are obtained and sample results are presented.

  6. Model for flow of Casson nanofluid past a non-linearly stretching sheet considering magnetic field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Present work deals with the magneto-hydro-dynamic flow and heat transfer of Casson nanofluid over a non-linearly stretching sheet. Non-linear temperature distribution across the sheet is considered. More physically acceptable model of passively controlled wall nanoparticle volume fraction is accounted. The arising mathematical problem is governed by interesting parameters which include Casson fluid parameter, magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. Numerical solutions are computed through fourth-fifth-order-Runge-Kutta integration approach combined with the shooting technique. Both temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are increasing functions of Casson fluid parameter.

  7. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers-current magnetic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessalova, Valentina; Perov, Nikolai; Rodionova, Valeria

    2016-10-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers-Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10-11 A m2 at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates.

  8. A statistical study of the THEMIS satellite data for plasma sheet electrons carrying auroral upward field-aligned currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Shiokawa, K.; McFadden, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    The magnetospheric electron precipitation along the upward field-aligned currents without the potential difference causes diffuse aurora, and the magnetospheric electrons accelerated by a field-aligned potential difference cause the intense and bright type of aurora, namely discrete aurora. In this study, we are trying to find out when and where the aurora can be caused with or without electron acceleration. We statistically investigate electron density, temperature, thermal current, and conductivity in the plasma sheet using the data from the electrostatic analyzer (ESA) onboard the THEMIS-D satellite launched in 2007. According to Knight (Planet. Space Sci., 1973) and Lyons (JGR, 1980), the thermal current, jth(∝ nT^(1/2) where n is electron density and T is electron temperature in the plasma sheet), represents the upper limit to field aligned current that can be carried by magnetospheric electrons without field-aligned potential difference. The conductivity, K(∝ nT^(-1/2)), represents the efficiency of the upward field-aligned current (j) that the field-aligned potential difference (V) can produce (j=KV). Therefore, estimating jth and K in the plasma sheet is important in understanding the ability of plasma sheet electrons to carry the field-aligned current which is driven by various magnetospheric processes such as flow shear and azimuthal pressure gradient. Similar study was done by Shiokawa et al. (2000) based on the auroral electron data obtained by the DMSP satellites above the auroral oval and the AMPTE/IRM satellite in the near Earth plasma sheet at 10-18 Re on February-June 1985 and March-June 1986 during the solar minimum. The purpose of our study is to examine auroral electrons with pitch angle information inside 12 Re where Shiokawa et al. (2000) did not investigate well. For preliminary result, we found that in the dawn side inner magnetosphere (source of the region 2 current), electrons can make sufficient thermal current without field

  9. Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of nickel 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    Eddy current methods have been applied to characterize the effect of magnetic treatments on component service-life extension. Coil impedance measurements were acquired and analyzed on nickel 200 specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening. Experimental results have demonstrated a functional relationship between coil impedance, resistance and reactance, and specimens subjected to various engineering processes. It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in electromagnetic properties of nickel 200 that then exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic field processing effect on machine-tool service life.

  10. CMEs from AR 10365: Morphology and Physical Parameters of the Ejections and of the Associated Current Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, G.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution and physical parameters of three consecutive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred at the west limb of the Sun on 2003 June 2 at 00:30, 08:54, 16:08 UT, respectively. The Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) CME catalog shows that the CMEs entered the C2 field of view with position angles within a 5° interval. This suggests a common origin for the ejections, to be identified with the magnetic system associated with the active region that lies below the CMEs. The close proximity in time and source location of the events prompted us to analyze LASCO white light data and Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) spectra with the aim of identifying similarities and differences among the three CMEs. It turns out that two of them display the typical three-part structure, while no conclusion can be drawn about the morphology of the third ejection. The CMEs plasma is "cool," i.e., electron temperatures in the CMEs front are of the order of 2 × 105 K, with no significant variation between different events. However, ejection speeds vary by a factor of ~1.5 between consecutive events and electron densities (more precisely emission measures) by a factor of ~6 between the first CME and the second and third CMEs. In the aftermath of all events, we found evidence of current sheets (CSs) both in LASCO and UVCS. We give here the CS physical parameters (electron temperature, density, and kinetic temperature) and follow, in one of the events, their temporal evolution over a 6 hr time interval. A discussion of our results, in the framework of previous findings, concludes the paper.

  11. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, John; Constantinides, Steve

    1997-04-01

    Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at 3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed.

  12. Switching current density reduction in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Chun-Yeol [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-28

    We investigate the switching current density reduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junctions using micromagnetic simulations. We find that the switching current density can be reduced with elongated lateral shapes of the magnetic tunnel junctions, and additional reduction can be achieved by using a noncollinear polarizer layer. The reduction is closely related to the details of spin configurations during switching processes with the additional in-plane anisotropy.

  13. Spin currents and magnetization dynamics in multilayer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bijl, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this Thesis the interplay between spin currents and magnetization dynamics is investigated theoretically. With the help of a simple model the relevant physical phenomena are introduced. From this model it can be deduced that in systems with small spin-orbit coupling, current-induced torques on

  14. Experimental study of nonlinear interaction of plasma flow with charged thin current sheets: 1. Boundary structure and motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amata

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study plasma transport at a thin magnetopause (MP, described hereafter as a thin current sheet (TCS, observed by Cluster at the southern cusp on 13 February 2001 around 20:01 UT. The Cluster observations generally agree with the predictions of the Gas Dynamic Convection Field (GDCF model in the magnetosheath (MSH up to the MSH boundary layer, where significant differences are seen. We find for the MP a normal roughly along the GSE x-axis, which implies a clear departure from the local average MP normal, a ~90 km thickness and an outward speed of 35 km/s. Two populations are identified in the MSH boundary layer: the first one roughly perpendicular to the MSH magnetic field, which we interpret as the "incident" MSH plasma, the second one mostly parallel to B. Just after the MP crossing a velocity jet is observed with a peak speed of 240 km/s, perpendicular to B, with MA=3 and β>10 (peak value 23. The magnetic field clock angle rotates by 70° across the MP. Ex is the main electric field component on both sides of the MP, displaying a bipolar signature, positive on the MSH side and negative on the opposite side, corresponding to a ~300 V electric potential jump across the TCS. The E×B velocity generally coincides with the perpendicular velocity measured by CIS; however, in the speed jet a difference between the two is observed, which suggests the need for an extra flow source. We propose that the MP TCS can act locally as an obstacle for low-energy ions (<350 eV, being transparent for ions with larger gyroradius. As a result, the penetration of plasma by finite gyroradius is considered as a possible source for the jet. The role of reconnection is briefly discussed. The electrodynamics of the TCS along with mass and momentum transfer across it are further discussed in the companion paper by Savin et al. (2006.

  15. Morphology of the ring current derived from magnetic field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Our examination of the 20 years of magnetospheric magnetic field data from ISEE, AMPTE/CCE and Polar missions has allowed us to quantify how the ring current flows and closes in the magnetosphere at a variety of disturbance levels. Using intercalibrated magnetic field data from the three spacecraft, we are able to construct the statistical magnetic field maps and derive 3-dimensional current density by the simple device of taking the curl of the statistically determined magnetic field. The results show that there are two ring currents, an inner one that flows eastward at ~3 RE and a main westward ring current at ~4–7 RE for all levels of geomagnetic disturbances. In general, the in-situ observations show that the ring current varies as the Dst index decreases, as we would expect it to change. An unexpected result is how asymmetric it is in local time. Some current clearly circles the magnetosphere but much of the energetic plasma stays in the night hemisphere. These energetic particles appear not to be able to readily convect into the dayside magnetosphere. During quiet times, the symmetric and partial ring currents are similar in strength (~0.5MA and the peak of the westward ring current is close to local midnight. It is the partial ring current that exhibits most drastic intensification as the level of disturbances increases. Under the condition of moderate magnetic storms, the total partial ring current reaches ~3MA, whereas the total symmetric ring current is ~1MA. Thus, the partial ring current contributes dominantly to the decrease in the Dst index. As the ring current strengthens the peak of the partial ring current shifts duskward to the pre-midnight sector. The partial ring current is closed by a meridional current system through the ionosphere, mainly the field-aligned current, which maximizes at local times near the dawn and dusk. The closure currents flow in

  16. Three-dimensional Geometry of a Current Sheet in the High Solar Corona: Evidence for Reconnection in the Late Stage of the Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Vourlidas, Angelos; Webb, David

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the standard flare model, ray-like structures in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been often interpreted as proxies of the reconnecting current sheet connecting the CME with the postflare arcade. We present the three-dimensional properties of a post-CME ray derived from white light images taken from three different viewing perspectives on 2013 September 21. By using a forward modeling method, the direction, cross section, and electron density are determined within the heliocentric distance range of 5-9 R ⊙. The width and depth of the ray are 0.42 ± 0.08 R ⊙ and 1.24 ± 0.35 R ⊙, respectively, and the electron density is (2.0 ± 0.5) × 104 cm-3, which seems to be constant with height. Successive blobs moving outward along the ray are observed around 13 hr after the parent CME onset. We model the three-dimensional geometry of the parent CME with the Gradual Cylindrical Shell model and find that the CME and ray are coaxial. We suggest that coaxial post-CME rays, seen in coronagraph images, with successive formation of blobs could be associated with current sheets undergoing magnetic reconnection in the late stage of CMEs.

  17. 3D MHD simulation of post--flare supra--arcade downflows in a turbulent current sheet medium

    CERN Document Server

    Cécere, M; Costa, A; Schneiter, M

    2014-01-01

    Supra--arcade downflows (SADs) are sunward, generally dark, plasma density depletions originated above posteruption flare arcades. In this paper using 3D MHD simulations we investigate if the SAD cavities can be produced by a direct combination of the tearing mode and Kelvin--Helmholtz instabilities leading to a turbulent current sheet (CS) medium or if the current sheet is merely the background where SADs are produced triggered by an impulsive deposition of energy. We find that to give account of the observational dark lane structures an addition of local energy provided by a reconnection event is required. This local reconnection can trigger a nonlinear internal wave dynamic, generated by the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves that compose relatively stable voids.

  18. Current-driven filamentation upstream of magnetized relativistic collisionless shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, M; Gremillet, L; Plotnikov, I

    2014-01-01

    The physics of instabilities in the precursor of relativistic collisionless shocks is of broad importance in high energy astrophysics, because these instabilities build up the shock, control the particle acceleration process and generate the magnetic fields in which the accelerated particles radiate. Two crucial parameters control the micro-physics of these shocks: the magnetization of the ambient medium and the Lorentz factor of the shock front; as of today, much of this parameter space remains to be explored. In the present paper, we report on a new instability upstream of electron-positron relativistic shocks and we argue that this instability shapes the micro-physics at moderate magnetization levels and/or large Lorentz factors. This instability is seeded by the electric current carried by the accelerated particles in the shock precursor as they gyrate around the background magnetic field. The compensation current induced in the background plasma leads to an unstable configuration, with the appearance of ...

  19. Acceleration of magnetic dipoles by the sequence of current turns

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    Acceleration of magnetic dipoles is carried out by the running gradient of the magnetic field formed while sequent switching on the current turns. Magnetic dipoles, with a diameter of sixty millimeters and full length one meter, are pre-accelerated by using the gas-dynamic method to speed one kilometer per second, corresponding to the injection rate into the main accelerator. To prevent the turning of the dipoles by one hundred eighty degrees in the field of the accelerating pulse and focus them, the magnetic dipoles are accelerated inside the titanium tube. The magnetic dipoles have mass two kilograms and acquire the finite speed five kilometers per second on the acceleration length three hundreds meters.

  20. Formation of current filaments and magnetic field generation in a quantum current-carrying plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghadosi, M. R.; Majedi, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of filamentation instability and magnetic field in a current-carrying plasma is investigated in the presence of quantum effects using the quantum hydrodynamic model. A new nonlinear partial differential equation is obtained for the spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic field in the diffusion regime. This equation is solved by applying the Adomian decomposition method, and then the profiles of magnetic field and electron density are plotted. It is shown that the saturation time of filamentation instability increases and, consequently, the instability growth rate and the magnetic field amplitude decrease in the presence of quantum effects.

  1. Reconfiguring photonic metamaterials with currents and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, João, E-mail: jpv1f11@orc.soton.ac.uk; Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric, E-mail: erp@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Youngs, Ian J. [Physical Sciences Department, DSTL, Salisbury SP4 0JQ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I., E-mail: niz@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637378 (Singapore)

    2015-03-16

    We demonstrate that spatial arrangement and optical properties of metamaterial nanostructures can be controlled dynamically using currents and magnetic fields. Mechanical deformation of metamaterial arrays is driven by both resistive heating of bimorph nanostructures and the Lorentz force that acts on charges moving in a magnetic field. With electrically controlled transmission changes of up to 50% at sub-mW power levels, our approaches offer high contrast solutions for dynamic control of metamaterial functionalities in optoelectronic devices.

  2. Optimal control of stochastic magnetization dynamics by spin current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2013-05-01

    Fluctuation-induced stochastic magnetization dynamics plays an important role in spintronics devices. Here we propose that it can be optimally controlled by spin currents to minimize or maximize the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional of the system hence to increase or decrease the probability of the large fluctuations. We apply this method to study the thermally activated magnetization switching problem and to demonstrate the merits of the optimal control strategy.

  3. Spatial growth of current-driven instability in relativistic rotating jets and the search for magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandra B; Pino, Elisabete M de Gouveia Dal

    2016-01-01

    Using the three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code RAISHIN, we investigated the influence of radial density profile on the spatial development of the current-driven kink instability along magnetized rotating, relativistic jets. For the purpose of our study, we used a non-periodic computational box, the jet flow is initially established across the computational grid, and a precessional perturbation at the inlet triggers the growth of the kink instability. We studied light as well as heavy jets with respect to the environment depending on the density profile. Different angular velocity amplitudes have been also tested. The results show the propagation of a helically kinked structure along the jet and relatively stable configuration for the lighter jets. The jets appear to be collimated by the magnetic field and the flow is accelerated due to conversion of electromagnetic into kinetic energy. We also identify regions of high current density in filamentary current sheets, indicative of magnetic rec...

  4. Optimization Of Pulsed Current Parameters To Minimize Pitting Corrosion İn Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welded Aısı 304l Sheets Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondapalli Siva Prasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steel sheets have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of components, which require high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance, such as metal bellows used in expansion joints in aircraft, aerospace and petroleum industry. In case of single pass welding of thinner sections of this alloy, Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welding (PCMPAW was found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. This paper highlights the development of empirical mathematical equations using multiple regression analysis, correlating various process parameters to pitting corrosion rates in PCMPAW of AISI 304L sheets in 1 Normal HCl. The experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level central composite rotatable design matrix. A Genetic Algorithm (GA was developed to optimize the process parameters for minimizing the pitting corrosion rates.

  5. A current limiter with superconducting coil for magnetic field shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiho, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Arai, K.; Umeda, M.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kataoka, T.

    2001-05-01

    The magnetic shield type superconducting fault current limiter have been built and successfully tested in ABB corporate research and so on. The device is essentially a transformer in which the secondary winding is the superconducting tube. However, due to the large AC losses and brittleness of the superconducting bulk tube, they have not yet entered market. A current limiter with superconducting coil for the magnetic field shielding is considered. By using the superconducting coil made by the multi-filamentary high Tc superconductor instead of the superconducting bulk tube, the AC losses can be reduced due to the reduced superconductor thickness and the brittleness of the bulk tube can be avoidable. This paper presents a preliminary consideration of the magnetic shield type superconducting fault current limiter with superconducting coil as secondary winding and their AC losses in comparison to that of superconducting bulk in 50 Hz operation.

  6. Magnetization switching in ferromagnets by adsorbed chiral molecules without current or external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Radko, Anna; Vankayala, Kiran; Capua, Eyal; Capua, Amir; Yang, See-Hun; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Parkin, Stuart Stephen Papworth; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2017-01-01

    Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 106 A·cm−2, or about 1 × 1025 electrons s−1 cm−2. This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance. Here we demonstrate magnetization switching of ferromagnetic thin layers that is induced solely by adsorption of chiral molecules. In this case, about 1013 electrons per cm2 are sufficient to induce magnetization reversal. The direction of the magnetization depends on the handedness of the adsorbed chiral molecules. Local magnetization switching is achieved by adsorbing a chiral self-assembled molecular monolayer on a gold-coated ferromagnetic layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results present a simple low-power magnetization mechanism when operating at ambient conditions. PMID:28230054

  7. Magnetization switching in ferromagnets by adsorbed chiral molecules without current or external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Radko, Anna; Vankayala, Kiran; Capua, Eyal; Capua, Amir; Yang, See-Hun; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Parkin, Stuart Stephen Papworth; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2017-02-23

    Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 10(6) A·cm(-2), or about 1 × 10(25) electrons s(-1) cm(-2). This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance. Here we demonstrate magnetization switching of ferromagnetic thin layers that is induced solely by adsorption of chiral molecules. In this case, about 10(13) electrons per cm(2) are sufficient to induce magnetization reversal. The direction of the magnetization depends on the handedness of the adsorbed chiral molecules. Local magnetization switching is achieved by adsorbing a chiral self-assembled molecular monolayer on a gold-coated ferromagnetic layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results present a simple low-power magnetization mechanism when operating at ambient conditions.

  8. Optical properties and magnetic flux-induced electronic band tuning of a T-graphene sheet and nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arka; Nandy, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Arunava; Jana, Debnarayan

    2017-08-16

    Tetragonal graphene (T-graphene) is a theoretically proposed dynamically stable, metallic allotrope of graphene. In this theoretical investigation, a tight binding (TB) model is used to unravel the metal to semiconductor transition of this 2D sheet under the influence of an external magnetic flux. In addition, the environment under which the sheet exposes an appreciable direct band gap of 1.41 ± 0.01 eV is examined. Similarly, the electronic band structure of the narrowest armchair T-graphene nanoribbon (NATGNR) also gets modified with different combinations of magnetic fluxes through the elementary rings. The band tuning parameters are critically identified for both systems. It is observed that the induced band gaps vary remarkably with the tuning parameters. We have also introduced an exact analytical approach to address the band structure of the NATGNR in the absence of any magnetic flux. Finally, the optical properties of the sheet and NATGNR are also critically analysed for both parallel and perpendicular polarizations with the help of density functional theory (DFT). Our study predicts that this material and its nanoribbons can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Lithology and chronology of ice-sheet fluctuations (magnetic susceptibility of cores from the western Ross Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of the marine geology part of WAIS include reconstructing the chronology and areal extent of ice-sheet fluctuations and understanding the climatic and oceanographic influences on ice-sheet history. As an initial step toward attaining these goals, down-core volume magnetic susceptibility (MS) logs of piston cores from three N-S transects in the western Ross Sea are compared. The core transects are within separate petrographic provinces based on analyses of till composition. The provinces are thought to reflect the previous locations of ice streams on the shelf during the last glaciation. Magnetic susceptibility is a function of magnetic mineral composition, sediment texture, and sediment density. It is applied in the western Ross Sea for two purposes: (1) to determine whether MS data differentiates the three transects (i.e., flow lines), and thus can be used to make paleodrainage reconstructions of the late Wisconsinan ice sheet; and (2) to determine whether the MS data can aid in distinguishing basal till diamictons from diamictons of glacial-marine origin and thus, aid paleoenvironmental interpretations. A comparison of the combined data of cores in each transect is presented.

  10. Magnetic force microscopy/current contrast imaging: A new technique for internal current probing of ICs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Dodd, B.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This invited paper describes recently reported work on the application of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image currents in IC conductors [1]. A computer model for MFM imaging of IC currents and experimental results demonstrating the ability to determine current direction and magnitude with a resolution of {approximately} 1 mA dc and {approximately} 1 {mu}A ac are presented. The physics of MFM signal generation and applications to current imaging and measurement are described.

  11. Effects of magnetic islands on bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, G.; Lin, Z.

    2017-03-01

    The effects of magnetic islands on electron bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas are studied using gyrokinetic simulations. The magnetic islands cause little changes of the bootstrap current level in the banana regime because of trapped electron effects. In the plateau regime, the bootstrap current is completely suppressed at the island centers due to the destruction of trapped electron orbits by collisions and the flattening of pressure profiles by the islands. In the collisional regime, small but finite bootstrap current can exist inside the islands because of the pressure gradients created by large collisional transport across the islands. Finally, simulation results show that the bootstrap current level increases near the island separatrix due to steeper local density gradients.

  12. Investigation of the longitudinal magnetic field effect on dynamic response of viscoelastic graphene sheet based on sinusoidal shear deformation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour; Jalaei, M. H.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of a longitudinal magnetic field on the dynamic response of single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) resting on viscoelastic foundation based on the nonlocal sinusoidal shear deformation theory. The present model is capable of capturing both small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effects of nanoplate, and does not require shear correction factors. The material properties of graphene sheet are assumed orthotropic viscoelastic using Kelvin-Voigt model. Utilizing Hamilton's principle governing equations of motion are derived and solved analytically. The parametric study is conducted, focusing on the remarkable effects of the magnetic field, structural damping, stiffness and damping coefficient of the foundation, nonlocal parameter, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the dynamic response of the SLGS. Results indicate that the longitudinal magnetic field exerted on the SLGS decreases the amplitude of dynamic response. In addition, it is observed that the magnetic field effect on the dynamic response is more distinguished as the nonlocal parameter increases while by increasing the foundation and structural damping coefficients, this effect diminishes. The results of this study can be used in design and manufacturing of nanomechanical devices in the presence of magnetic field as a parametric controller.

  13. Investigation of the longitudinal magnetic field effect on dynamic response of viscoelastic graphene sheet based on sinusoidal shear deformation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour, E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalaei, M.H. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of a longitudinal magnetic field on the dynamic response of single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) resting on viscoelastic foundation based on the nonlocal sinusoidal shear deformation theory. The present model is capable of capturing both small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effects of nanoplate, and does not require shear correction factors. The material properties of graphene sheet are assumed orthotropic viscoelastic using Kelvin-Voigt model. Utilizing Hamilton's principle governing equations of motion are derived and solved analytically. The parametric study is conducted, focusing on the remarkable effects of the magnetic field, structural damping, stiffness and damping coefficient of the foundation, nonlocal parameter, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the dynamic response of the SLGS. Results indicate that the longitudinal magnetic field exerted on the SLGS decreases the amplitude of dynamic response. In addition, it is observed that the magnetic field effect on the dynamic response is more distinguished as the nonlocal parameter increases while by increasing the foundation and structural damping coefficients, this effect diminishes. The results of this study can be used in design and manufacturing of nanomechanical devices in the presence of magnetic field as a parametric controller.

  14. Experimental study of nonlinear interaction of plasma flow with charged thin current sheets: 2. Hall dynamics, mass and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding with the analysis of Amata et al. (2005, we suggest that the general feature for the local transport at a thin magnetopause (MP consists of the penetration of ions from the magnetosheath with gyroradius larger than the MP width, and that, in crossing it, the transverse potential difference at the thin current sheet (TCS is acquired by these ions, providing a field-particle energy exchange without parallel electric fields. It is suggested that a part of the surface charge is self-consistently produced by deflection of ions in the course of inertial drift in the non-uniform electric field at MP. Consideration of the partial moments of ions with different energies demonstrates that the protons having gyroradii of roughly the same size or larger than the MP width carry fluxes normal to MP that are about 20% of the total flow in the plasma jet under MP. This is close to the excess of the ion transverse velocity over the cross-field drift speed in the plasma flow just inside MP (Amata et al., 2005, which conforms to the contribution of the finite-gyroradius inflow across MP. A linkage through the TCS between different plasmas results from the momentum conservation of the higher-energy ions. If the finite-gyroradius penetration occurs along the MP over ~1.5 RE from the observation site, then it can completely account for the formation of the jet under the MP. To provide the downstream acceleration of the flow near the MP via the cross-field drift, the weak magnetic field is suggested to rotate from its nearly parallel direction to the unperturbed flow toward being almost perpendicular to the accelerated flow near the MP. We discuss a deceleration of the higher-energy ions in the MP normal direction due to the interaction with finite-scale electric field bursts in the magnetosheath flow frame, equivalent to collisions, providing a charge separation. These effective collisions, with a nonlinear frequency proxy of the order of the proton

  15. Effect of severe plastic deformation on the specific heat and magnetic properties of cold rolled Gd sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskaev, S.; Skokov, K.; Khovaylo, V.; Buchelnikov, V.; Pellenen, A.; Karpenkov, D.; Ulyanov, M.; Bataev, D.; Usenko, A.; Lyange, M.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2015-03-01

    We report on specific heat and magnetic properties of thin Gd sheets obtained by means of a cold rolling technique. At temperatures well below Curie temperature TC, the cold rolling has a minor impact on the specific heat Cp. However, a well defined λ-type anomaly of Cp seen in the vicinity of TC in a polycrystalline Gd sample is markedly suppressed in the severely deformed samples. Depression of the λ peak is due to a large decrease of magnetization that presumably originates in a local magnetic anisotropy induced by the severe plastic deformation. Results of calculation of magnetocaloric effect from the Cp and magnetization data indicate that the magnetocaloric effect gradually decreases as the degree of plastic deformation increases. This trend is further confirmed by the direct measurements of the adiabatic temperature change ΔTad.

  16. Toward the production of 50 000 tonnes of low-carbon steel sheet for the LHC superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Babic, S; Beckers, F; Brixhe, F; Peiro, G; Verbeeck, T

    2002-01-01

    A total of 50 000 tonnes of low-carbon steel sheet has been ordered for the LHC main magnets. After three years of production, about 10 000 tonnes of steel sheet have been produced by Cockerill-Sambre Groupe Usinor. This paper gives a summary of the manufacturing process and improvements implemented as well as an overview of the difficulties encountered during this production. Preliminary statistics obtained for the mechanical and magnetic steel properties are presented. (6 refs).

  17. Towards the production of 50'000 tonnes of low-carbon steel sheet for the LHC superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Babic, S; Brixhe, F; Comel, S; Peiro, G; Verbeeck, T

    2002-01-01

    A total of 50'000 tonnes of low-carbon steel sheet has been ordered for the LHC main magnets. After three years of production, about 10'000 tonnes of steel sheet have been produced by Cockerill-Sambre Groupe Usinor. This paper gives a summary of the manufacturing process and improvements implemented as well as an overview of the difficulties encountered during this production. Preliminary statistics obtained for the mechanical and magnetic steel properties are presented.

  18. Modeling the current distribution in HTS tapes with transport current and applied magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazawa, Takashi; Rabbers, Jan-Jaap; Shevchenko, Oleg A.; Haken, ten Bennie; Kate, ten Herman H.J.; Maeda, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    A numerical model is developed for the current distribution in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape, (Bi,Pb)2Sr2 Ca2Cu3Ox-Ag, subjected to a combination of a transport current and an applied magnetic field. This analysis is based on a two-dimensional formulation of Maxwell's equations in te

  19. Field-aligned currents observed by MMS in the near-Earth plasma sheet during large-scale substorm dipolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Giles, Barbara; Le Contel, Olivier; Stawarz, Julia; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Artemyev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    During substorms significant energy conversion has been reported to take place at the sharp dipolarization front in the flow braking region where the probability of observing bursty bulk flows (BBFs) significantly drops. On 10 August 2016, MMS traversed the pre-midnight near-Earth plasma sheet when dipolarization disturbances were detected in an extended nightside local time region by Cluster, Geotail, GOES 13, 14 and 15, and the Van Allen Probes. In an expanding plasma sheet during the dipolarization, MMS detected sub-ion scale field-aligned current layers that are propagating both Earthward (equatorward) as well as tailward (outward). These multi-scale multi-point observations enable a unique investigation of both the meso-scale evolution of the disturbances and the detailed kinetic structures of the fronts and boundaries relevant to the dipolarizations.

  20. Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets are available in both English and Spanish and can be downloaded for free. Currently available ... Antiviral Medications to Treat or Prevent Influenza (the Flu) PDF | Espanol PDF Apremilast (Otezla®) PDF | Espanol PDF ...

  1. Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Analysis of a Novel Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lu, Kaiyuan; Ye, Yunyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear (MIPMG) is discussed. The focus is on eddy current loss analysis associated to permanent magnets (PMs). A convenient model of MIPMG is provided based on 2-D field-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method for transient eddy...

  2. Tuning Coler Magnetic Current Apparatus with Magneto-Acoustic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    An attempt was made to tune the Coler magnetic current apparatus with the magneto acoustic resonance of the magnetic rods. Measurements with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" were conducted. In order to tune the acoustic, magnetic and electric resonance circuits of the Coler device the magneto-acoustic resonance was measured with a frequency scan through a function generator and a lock-in amplifier. The frequency generator was powering a driving coil, while the lock-in was connected to a pickup coil. Both coils were placed on a magnetic rod. Resonances were observed up to the 17th harmonic. The quality Q of the observed resonances was 270. To study the magneto-acoustic resonance in the time domain a pair of Permendur rods were employed. The magneto-acoustic resonances of the Permendur rods were observed with an oscilloscope. Spectra of the magneto acoustic resonance were measured for the Permendur rods and for a Coler replica magnet in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 380 kHz. The next step was to bring the resonances of the Permendur rods close together so that they overlap. The 10thharmonic was chosen because it was close to the 180 kHz that Hans Coler related to ferromagnetism. Further more magneto-acoustic coupling between the Permendur rods was studied. Finally the question was explored if Hans Coler converted vacuum fluctuations via magnetic and acoustic resonance into electricity. There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field zero point energy (ZPE). An outlook is given on next steps in the experiments to unveil the working mechanism of the Coler magnetic current apparatus.

  3. Currents between tethered electrodes in a magnetized laboratory plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on important plasma physics issues of electrodynamic tethers were performed. These included current propagation, formation of wave wings, limits of current collection, nonlinear effects and instabilities, charging phenomena, and characteristics of transmission lines in plasmas. The experiments were conducted in a large afterglow plasma. The current system was established with a small electron-emitting hot cathode tethered to an electron-collecting anode, both movable across the magnetic field and energized by potential difference up to V approx.=100 T(sub e). The total current density in space and time was obtained from complete measurements of the perturbed magnetic field. The fast spacecraft motion was reproduced in the laboratory by moving the tethered electrodes in small increments, applying delayed current pulses, and reconstructing the net field by a linear superposition of locally emitted wavelets. With this technique, the small-amplitude dc current pattern is shown to form whistler wings at each electrode instead of the generally accepted Alfven wings. For the beam electrode, the whistler wing separates from the field-aligned beam which carries no net current. Large amplitude return currents to a stationary anode generate current-driven microinstabilities, parallel electric fields, ion depletions, current disruptions and time-varying electrode charging. At appropriately high potentials and neutral densities, excess neutrals are ionized near the anode. The anode sheath emits high-frequency electron transit-time oscillations at the sheath-plasma resonance. The beam generates Langmuir turbulence, ion sound turbulence, electron heating, space charge fields, and Hall currents. An insulated, perfectly conducting transmission line embedded in the plasma becomes lossy due to excitation of whistler waves and magnetic field diffusion effects. The implications of the laboratory observations on electrodynamic tethers in space are discussed.

  4. Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.

  5. Gravito-magnetic currents in the inflationary universe from WIMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Jesus Martin; Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2014-09-15

    Using the Weitzenboeck representation of a Riemann-flat 5D spacetime, we study the possible existence of primordial gravito-magnetic currents from Gravito-electromagnetic Inflation (GEMI). We found that these currents decrease exponentially in the Weitzenboeck representation, but they are null in a Levi-Civita representation because we are dealing with a 5D Riemann-flat spacetime without structure or torsion. (orig.)

  6. Current-induced magnetization dynamics in disordered itinerant ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tserkovnyak, Y.; Skadsem, H.J.; Brataas, A.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current-driven magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic metals is studied in a self-consistent adiabatic local-density approximation in the presence of spin-conserving and spin-dephasing impurity scattering. Based on a quantum kinetic equation, we derive Gilbert damping and spin-transfer torques ente

  7. Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kellendonk, J

    2003-01-01

    For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.

  8. Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zheng-Chuan, E-mail: wangzc@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zheng, Qing-Rong [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Zheng-Gang [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Electronics, Electric and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Su, Gang, E-mail: gsu@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-04-17

    The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs.

  9. Magnetic field effect on second order slip flow of nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet with thermal radiation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hakeem, A. K.; Vishnu Ganesh, N.; Ganga, B.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic field effect on a steady two dimensional laminar radiative flow of an incompressible viscous water based nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet with second order slip boundary condition is investigated both analytically and numerically. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of Lie symmetry group transformations. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using hyper-geometric function and numerically by the fourth order Runge-Kutta method with the shooting technique. A unique exact solution exists for momentum equation in stretching sheet case and dual solutions are obtained for shrinking sheet case which has upper and lower branches. It is found that the lower branch solution vanishes in the presence of higher magnetic field. The velocity and temperature profiles, the local skin friction coefficient and the reduced Nusselt number are examined and discussed for different spherical nanoparticles such as Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Al2 O3 and TiO2. A comparative study between the previously published results and the present analytical and numerical results for a special case is found to be in good agreement.

  10. Current induced perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy racetrack memory with magnetic field assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Klein, J.-O.; Chappert, C.; Ravelosona, D. [IEF, University of Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France); UMR8622, CNRS, Orsay 91405 (France); Zhao, W. S., E-mail: weisheng.zhao@u-psud.fr [IEF, University of Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France); UMR8622, CNRS, Orsay 91405 (France); Electronics and Information Engineering School, University of Beihang, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-01-20

    High current density is indispensable to shift domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires, which limits the using of racetrack memory (RM) for low power and high density purposes. In this paper, we present perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy (PMA) Co/Ni RM with global magnetic field assistance, which lowers the current density for DW motion. By using a compact model of PMA RM and 40 nm design kit, we perform mixed simulation to validate the functionality of this structure and analyze its density potential. Stochastic DW motion behavior has been taken into account and statistical Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out to evaluate its reliability performance.

  11. Flexible bacterial cellulose / permalloy nanocomposite xerogel sheets – Size scalable magnetic actuator-cum-electrical conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Thiruvengadam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Permalloy nanoparticles containing bacterial cellulose hydrogel obtained after reduction was compressed into a xerogel flexible sheet by hot pressing at 60 ° C at different pressures. The permalloy nanoparticles with an ordered structure have a bimodal size distribution centered around 25 nm and 190 nm. The smaller nanoparticles are superparamagnetic while the larger particles are ferromagnetic at room temperature. The sheets have a room temperature magnetisation of 20 emug-1 and a coercivity of 32 Oe. The electrical conductivity of the flexible sheets increases with hot pressing pressure from 7 Scm-1 to 40 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  12. Spin currents and magnon dynamics in insulating magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kouki; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Nambu–Goldstone theorem provides gapless modes to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems. The Nambu–Goldstone bosons in insulating magnets are called magnons or spin-waves and play a key role in magnetization transport. We review here our past works on magnetization transport in insulating magnets and also add new insights, with a particular focus on magnon transport. We summarize in detail the magnon counterparts of electron transport, such as the Wiedemann–Franz law, the Onsager reciprocal relation between the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, the Hall effects, the superconducting state, the Josephson effects, and the persistent quantized current in a ring to list a few. Focusing on the electromagnetism of moving magnons, i.e. magnetic dipoles, we theoretically propose a way to directly measure magnon currents. As a consequence of the Mermin–Wagner–Hohenberg theorem, spin transport is drastically altered in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) spin-1/2 chains; where the Néel order is destroyed by quantum fluctuations and a quasiparticle magnon-like picture breaks down. Instead, the low-energy collective excitations of the AF spin chain are described by a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL) which provides the spin transport properties in such antiferromagnets some universal features at low enough temperature. Finally, we enumerate open issues and provide a platform to discuss the future directions of magnonics.

  13. Relation between the ring current and the tail current during magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kalegaev

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of the magnetospheric large-scale current systems during storms by using three different magnetospheric magnetic field models: the paraboloid, event-oriented, and Tsyganenko T01 models. We have modelled two storm events, one moderate storm on 25-26 June 1998, when Dst reached -120nT and one intense storm on 21-23 October 1999, when Dst dropped to -250nT. We compare the observed magnetic field from GOES 8, GOES 9, and GOES 10, Polar and Geotail satellites with the magnetic field given by the three models to estimate their reliability. All models demonstrated quite good agreement with observations. Since it is difficult to measure exactly the relative contributions from different current systems to the Dst index, we compute the contributions from ring, tail and magnetopause currents given by the three magnetic field models. We discuss the dependence of the obtained contributions to the Dst index in relation to the methods used in constructing the models. All models show a significant tail current contribution to the Dst index, comparable to the ring current contribution during moderate storms. The ring current becomes the major Dst source during intense storms.

  14. Ionospheric midlatitude electric current density inferred from multiple magnetic satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.; Beggan, C.; Olsen, N.; Spain, T.; Aruliah, A.

    2013-09-01

    A method for inferring zonal electric current density in the mid-to-low latitude F region ionosphere is presented. We describe a method of using near-simultaneous overflights of the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites to define a closed circuit for an application of Ampère's integral law to magnetic data. Zonal current density from sources in only the region between the two satellites is estimated for the first time. Six years of mutually available vector magnetic data allows overlaps spanning the full 24 h range of local time twice. Solutions are computed on an event-by-event basis after correcting for estimates of main and crustal magnetic fields. Current density in the range ±0.1 μA/m2 is resolved, with the distribution of electric current largely matching known features such as the Appleton anomaly. The currents appear unmodulated at times of either high-negative Dst or high F10.7, which has implications for any future efforts to model their effects. We resolve persistent current intensifications between geomagnetic latitudes of 30 and 50° in the postmidnight, predawn sector, a region typically thought to be relatively free of electric currents. The cause of these unexpected intensifications remains an open issue. We compare our results with current density predictions made by the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere model, a self-consistent, first-principles, three-dimensional numerical dynamic model of ionospheric composition and temperatures. This independent validation of our current density estimates highlights good agreement in the broad spatiotemporal trends we identify, which increases confidence in our results.

  15. Ionospheric midlatitude electric current density inferred from multiple magnetic satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2013-01-01

    A method for inferring zonal electric current density in the mid-to-low latitude F region ionosphere is presented. We describe a method of using near-simultaneous overflights of the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites to define a closed circuit for an application of Ampère's integral law to magnetic data....... Zonal current density from sources in only the region between the two satellites is estimated for the first time. Six years of mutually available vector magnetic data allows overlaps spanning the full 24 h range of local time twice. Solutions are computed on an event-by-event basis after correcting...... for estimates of main and crustal magnetic fields. Current density in the range ±0.1 μA/m2 is resolved, with the distribution of electric current largely matching known features such as the Appleton anomaly. The currents appear unmodulated at times of either high-negative Dst or high F10.7, which has...

  16. Exact temporal eddy current compensation in magnetic resonance imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morich, M A; Lampman, D A; Dannels, W R; Goldie, F D

    1988-01-01

    A step-response method has been developed to extract the properties (amplitudes and decay time constants) of intrinsic-eddy-current-sourced magnetic fields generated in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging systems when pulsed field gradients are applied. Exact compensation for the eddy-current effect is achieved through a polynomial rooting procedure and matrix inversion once the 2 N properties of the N-term decay process are known. The output of the inversion procedure yields the required characteristics of the filter for spectrum magnitude and phase equalization. The method is described for the general case along with experimental results for one-, two-, and three-term inversions. The method's usefulness is demonstrated for the usually difficult case of long-term (200-1000-ms) eddy-current compensation. Field-gradient spectral flatness measurements over 30 mHz-100 Hz are given to validate the method.

  17. Reflective all-fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Han, Qun; Liu, Tiegen; Chen, Yaofei; Zhang, Rongxiang

    2014-08-01

    A reflective all-fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid (MF) is reported. The MF is used as the cladding of a piece of no-core fiber which is spliced between two sections of singlemode fiber to form a singlemode-multimode-singlemode structure. An intensity based interrogation scheme with a superluminescent diode as the light source and the dual-balanced detection method is used in the sensing system. The influence of the direction of the magnetic field on the sensitivity of the sensor is also experimentally investigated and analyzed.

  18. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  19. Nonlocal vibration of axially moving graphene sheet resting on orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation under longitudinal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour; Haghparast, E.; BabaAkbar Zarei, H.

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) subjected to magnetic field is investigated. Orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation is developed to consider the influences of orthotropy angle, damping coefficient, normal and shear modulus. Third order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton's principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, magnetic field, orthotropic viscoelastic surrounding medium, thickness and aspect ratio of SLGS on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving SLGS is strongly dependent on the moving speed. Therefore, the critical speed of moving SLGS can be improved by applying magnetic field. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels in nanoscale.

  20. Nonlocal vibration of axially moving graphene sheet resting on orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation under longitudinal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour, E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghparast, E.; BabaAkbar Zarei, H. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) subjected to magnetic field is investigated. Orthotropic visco-Pasternak foundation is developed to consider the influences of orthotropy angle, damping coefficient, normal and shear modulus. Third order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton’s principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, magnetic field, orthotropic viscoelastic surrounding medium, thickness and aspect ratio of SLGS on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving SLGS is strongly dependent on the moving speed. Therefore, the critical speed of moving SLGS can be improved by applying magnetic field. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels in nanoscale.

  1. Role of magnetic field fluctuations in the Evolution of the kappa Distribution Functions in the Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Cristobal; Antonova, Elizaveta; Stepanova, Marina; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The evolution with the distance to Earth of ion and electron distribution functions in the plasma sheet, approximated by kappa distributions, was studied by Stepanova and Antonova (2015, JGRA 120). Using THEMIS data for 5 events of satellite alignments along the tail, covering between 5 and 30 Earth radii, they found that the kappa parameter increases tailwards, for both ions and electrons. In this work we analyse the magnetic fluctuations present in THEMIS data for the same 5 events. The aim is to explore the hypothesis proposed by Navarro et al. (2014, PRL 112), for solar wind plasmas, that the observed magnetic fluctuations could be closely related to spontaneous fluctuations in the plasma, if this can be described by stable distributions. Here we present our first results on the correlation between the spectral properties of the magnetic fluctuations and the observed parameters of the kappa distributions for different distances from Earth.

  2. The three-dimensional evolution of ion-scale current sheets: tearing and drift-kink instabilities in the presence of proton temperature anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Gingell, Peter; Matteini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional hybrid simulations of the evolution of ion-scale current sheets, with an investigation of the role of temperature anisotropy and associated kinetic instabilities on the growth of the tearing instability and particle heating. We confirm the ability of the ion cyclotron and firehose instabilities to enhance or suppress reconnection, respectively. The simulations demonstrate the emergence of persistent three-dimensional structures, including patchy reconnection sites and the fast growth of a narrow-band drift-kink instability, which suppresses reconnection for thin current sheets with weak guide fields. Potential observational signatures of the three-dimensional evolution of solar wind current sheets are also discussed. We conclude that kinetic instabilities, arising from non-Maxwellian ion populations, are significant to the evolution of three-dimensional current sheets, and two-dimensional studies of heating rates by reconnection may therefore over-estimate the ability of...

  3. Effects of annealing on the structure and magnetic properties of Fe–Si–Cr flakes and composite sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Pyungwoo, E-mail: pwjang@cju.ac.kr [College of Science and Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju 360-764 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sujin [College of Science and Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju 360-764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Dongwoo; Lee, Kyungsub [Changsung Corp., Pyeongtaek 451-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Gas atomized Fe–Si–Cr powder was used in the application of a bypass sheet in near field communication. The powder was ball-milled, annealed at different temperatures and then manufactured to the sheet. Changes in microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated by XRD, VSM and an impedance analyzer. The as-milled Fe–Si–Cr flake consisted mainly of disordered A2 and ordered B2 phases while the atomized powder consisted of A2, B2 and DO{sub 3} phases. Increases in the annealing temperature caused the formation of a DO{sub 3} phase. At temperatures higher than 923 K, the final flake consisted of only A2 and DO{sub 3} phases. Grain size increased abruptly from 823 K, while the size of the DO{sub 3} phase increased rapidly from 623 K. Coercivity of the flake decreased after annealing, with the lowest coercivity obtained after 923 K annealing while saturation magnetization showed a minimum value of 928 kA/m after 523 K annealing. Sputtered Fe–12%Si films showed a highest electrical resistivity value of 191 μΩ·cm after 623 K annealing while the resistivity of Fe–4%Si sputtered films decreased almost linearly with annealing temperature. Therefore it could be concluded that high permeability of the 623 K sheet at 13.56 MHz and low permeability of the 923 K sheet at 80 MHz were due to the high resistivity as well as nanostructure of the 623 K flake. - Highlights: • Phase analysis in the atomized, milled and annealed powder by XRD. • Relationship between permeability and microstructure. • Variation of resistivity of Fe–Si films with annealing temperature.

  4. Low-noise pulsed current source for magnetic-field measurements of magnets for accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelyanenko, M. M.; Borisov, V. V.; Donyagin, A. M.; Khodzhibagiyan, H. G.; Kostromin, S. A.; Makarov, A. A.; Shemchuk, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The schematic diagram, design, and technical characteristics of the pulsed current source developed and produced for the magnetic-field measurement system of superconducting magnets for accelerators are described. The current source is based on the current regulator with pass transistor bank in the linear mode. Output current pulses (0-100 A) are produced by utilizing the energy of the preliminarily charged capacitor bank (5-40 V), which is additionally charged between pulses. The output current does not have the mains frequency and harmonics ripple. The relative noise level is less than-100 dB (or 10-5) of RMS value (it is defined as the ratio of output RMS noise current to a maximal output current of 100 A within the operating bandwidth, expressed in dB). The work was performed at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).

  5. Evidence for a current sheet forming in the wake of a Coronal Mass Ejection from multi-viewpoint coronagraph observations

    OpenAIRE

    Patsourakos, S.; Vourlidas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Ray-like features observed by coronagraphs in the wake of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are sometimes interpreted as the white light counterparts of current sheets (CSs) produced by the eruption. The 3D geometry of these ray-like features is largely unknown and its knowledge should clarify their association to the CS and place constraints on CME physics and coronal conditions. With this study we test these important implications for the first time. An example of such a post-CME ray was observ...

  6. Effect of strain on the critical current density of Bi-2223 thick films sandwiched between Ag sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, J.H. (Academia Sinica, Hefei (China). Inst. of Solid State Physics); Kong, Q.P. (Academia Sinica, Hefei (China). Inst. of Solid State Physics); Wang, S.X. (Academia Sinica, Hefei, Anhui (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics); Han, H.M. (Academia Sinica, Hefei, Anhui (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics)

    1994-08-16

    The tapes of (Bi, Pb)[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]Ca[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (Bi-2223) thick film sandwiched between Ag sheets are known to have very high J[sub c]. In this note, the stress-strain behaviour and the strain dependence of critical current density of the Ag/Bi-2223/Ag tapes are investigated. The microstructure of superconducting thick films subjected to various amounts of deformation was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). (orig.)

  7. New approaches in the design of magnetic tweezers–current magnetic tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessalova, Valentina [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perov, Nikolai [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Rodionova, Valeria [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14, 236004 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The main advantages of the magnetic tweezers are the low price and simplicity of use. However the range of their application is reduced due to shortcomings like, for example, the remanent induction of the core and interaction between ferromagnetic cores. We present the new design of magnetic tweezers–Current Magnetic Tweezers (CMT) that allow particle manipulation by means of the magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the non-magnetic wires. Arranging wires in different geometric shapes allows the particle movement either in two or three dimensions. Forces acting on the magnetic particles with the magnetic moment of 2·10{sup −11} A m{sup 2} at distances up to 1 mm had been experimentally measured. It is established that a current of about 1 A at a 1 mm distance generates force of (approximately) 3 pN which is consistent with theoretical estimates. - Highlights: • We suggest the idea and the results of the test the prototype based on 3 wire's system that allows manipulation of nanoparticles on XY plane.

  8. Stray Field Reduction in ALS Eddy Current Septum Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Shuman, Derek; Prestemon, Soren; Schlüter, Ross D; Steier, Christoph; Stover, Gregory D

    2005-01-01

    Stray field from an eddy current septum magnet adversely affects the circulating beam and can be reduced using several techniques. The stray field time history typically has a fast rise section followed by a long exponential decay section when pulsed with a half sine drive current. Changing the drive current pulse to a full sine has the effect of both reducing peak stray field magnitude by ~3x, and producing a quick decay from this peak to a lower field level which then has a similar long decay time constant as that from the half sine only drive current pulse. A method for tuning the second half sine (reverse) drive current pulse to eliminate the long exponential decay section is given.

  9. Microstructural evolution in warm-rolled and cold-rolled strip cast 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets and its influence on magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianglong; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Haoze; Wang, Guodong

    2017-07-01

    6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets were usually fabricated by warm rolling. In our previous work, 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with good magnetic properties had been successfully fabricated by cold rolling based on strip casting. In the present work, the main purposes were to find out the influences of warm rolling and cold rolling on microstructures and magnetic properties of the thin sheets with the thickness of 0.2 mm, and to confirm which rolling method was more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets. The results showed that the cold rolled sheet could obtain good surface quality and flatness, while the warm rolled sheet could not. The intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture (//ND) of cold rolled specimen was weaker than that of the warm rolled specimen, especially for the {1 1 1} component at surface layer and {1 1 1} component at center layer. After the same annealing treatment, the cold rolled specimen, which had higher stored energy and weaker intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture, could obtain smaller recrystallization grain size, weaker intensity of γ-fiber recrystallization texture and stronger intensity of λ-fiber recrystallization texture. Therefore, due to the good surface quality, smaller recrystallization grain size and optimum recrystallization texture, the cold rolled specimen possessed improved magnetic properties, and cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets.

  10. First-principles studies of BN sheets with absorbed transition metal single atoms or dimers: stabilities, electronic structures, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongwei; Lu, Zhansheng; Ju, Weiwei; Tang, Yanan

    2012-04-11

    BN sheets with absorbed transition metal (TM) single atoms, including Fe, Co, and Ni, and their dimers have been investigated by using a first-principles method within the generalized gradient approximation. All of the TM atoms studied are found to be chemically adsorbed on BN sheets. Upon adsorption, the binding energies of the Fe and Co single atoms are modest and almost independent of the adsorption sites, indicating the high mobility of the adatoms and isolated particles to be easily formed on the surface. However, Ni atoms are found to bind tightly to BN sheets and may adopt a layer-by-layer growth mode. The Fe, Co, and Ni dimers tend to lie (nearly) perpendicular to the BN plane. Due to the wide band gap of the pure BN sheet, the electronic structures of the BN sheets with TM adatoms are determined primarily by the distribution of TM electronic states around the Fermi level. Very interesting spin gapless semiconductors or half-metals can be obtained in the studied systems. The magnetism of the TM atoms is preserved well on the BN sheet, very close to that of the corresponding free atoms and often weakly dependent on the adsorption sites. The present results indicate that BN sheets with adsorbed TM atoms have potential applications in fields such as spintronics and magnetic data storage due to the special spin-polarized electronic structures and magnetic properties they possess.

  11. Eddy current septum magnets for injection and extraction at SSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lian-Hua; Gu, Ming; Liu, Bo; Chen, Rong

    2010-03-01

    There are 6 in-vacuum eddy current septum magnets used for booster injection, extraction, and storage ring injection in SSRF. Special attention was paid to coils and their support designs because of the shock force they bear in the magnetic fields and the high heat which is hard to be dissipated in vacuum environment. For the storage ring magnets, good transverse homogeneity in the gap was achieved by careful design, precise machining and accurate assembly; and an extremely low leakage field on the stored beam is another key feature thanks to the high permeability Mu metal. Magnetic field measurement was conducted with both a point coil and a long integral coil, and the results agree well with the OPERA-2d/3d simulations. An inner tube is added to keep the continuity of impedance for the circulating beam with two RF finger flanges at each end. There is no vacuum separation between the inner tube and the magnet chamber. Sputter ion pumps integrated with NEG are used to acquire the UHV for the chamber.

  12. A Magnetic Persistent Current Switch at milliKelvin Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    van Waarde, Bob; Oosterkamp, Tjerk

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a magnetically driven Persistent Current Switch operated in a dilution refrigerator. We show that it can be safely used to charge a 60 mH coil with 0.5 A at 11 mK, which heats up the dilution refrigerator to 60.5 mK. Measurements at 4 K on a 440 $\\mu$H coil reveal a residual resistance of $R \\leqslant 3.3$ p$\\Omega$.

  13. Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Martin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It is desirable to optimize (minimizing both the inductance and electron flow the magnetically insulated vacuum sections of low impedance pulsed-power drivers. The goal of low inductance is understandable from basic efficiency arguments. The goal of low electron flow results from two observations: (1 flowing electrons generally do not deliver energy to (or even reach most loads, and thus constitute a loss mechanism; (2 energetic electrons deposited in a small area can cause anode damage and anode plasma formation. Low inductance and low electron flow are competing goals; an optimized system requires a balance of the two. While magnetically insulated systems are generally forgiving, there are times when optimization is crucial. For example, in large pulsed-power drivers used to energize high energy density physics loads, the electron flow as a fraction of total current is small, but that flow often reaches the anode in relatively small regions. If the anode temperature becomes high enough to desorb gas, the resulting plasma initiates a gap closure process that can impact system performance. Magnetic-pressure driven (z pinches and material equation of state loads behave like a fixed inductor for much of the drive pulse. It is clear that neither fixed gap nor constant-impedance transmission lines are optimal for driving inductive loads. This work shows a technique for developing the optimal impedance profile for the magnetically insulated section of a high-current driver. Particle-in-cell calculations are used to validate the impedance profiles developed in a radial disk magnetically insulated transmission line geometry. The input parameters are the spacing and location of the minimum gap, the effective load inductance, and the desired electron flow profile. The radial electron flow profiles from these simulations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions when driven at relatively high voltage (i.e., V≥2  MV.

  14. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Asari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography (NIL is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL. We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  15. Methods of high current magnetic field generator for transcranial magnetic stimulation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, N. R.; Pritchard, J.; Weber, R. J.; Mina, M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the design procedures and underlying concepts of a novel High Current Magnetic Field Generator (HCMFG) with adjustable pulse width for transcranial magnetic stimulation applications. This is achieved by utilizing two different switching devices, the MOSFET and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Results indicate that currents as high as ±1200 A can be generated with inputs of +/-20 V. Special attention to tradeoffs between field generators utilizing IGBT circuits (HCMFG1) and MOSFET circuits (HCMFG2) was considered. The theory of operation, design, experimental results, and electronic setup are presented and analyzed.

  16. Methods of high current magnetic field generator for transcranial magnetic stimulation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouda, N. R., E-mail: nybouda@iastate.edu; Pritchard, J.; Weber, R. J.; Mina, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This paper describes the design procedures and underlying concepts of a novel High Current Magnetic Field Generator (HCMFG) with adjustable pulse width for transcranial magnetic stimulation applications. This is achieved by utilizing two different switching devices, the MOSFET and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Results indicate that currents as high as ±1200 A can be generated with inputs of +/−20 V. Special attention to tradeoffs between field generators utilizing IGBT circuits (HCMFG{sub 1}) and MOSFET circuits (HCMFG{sub 2}) was considered. The theory of operation, design, experimental results, and electronic setup are presented and analyzed.

  17. The choice of the concept of magnetic field lines or of electric current lines: Alfvén medal lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-I. Akasofu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1967, at the Birkeland Symposium in Sandefjord, Norway, Professor Hannes Alfvén stated that the second approach (in solving unsolved problems by the standard MHD theory to cosmic electrodynamics is to "thaw" the "frozen-in" magnetic field lines. "We can illustrate essential properties of the electromagnetic state of space either by depicting the magnetic field lines or by depicting electric current lines," he said. There has been much progress in space physics since the Birkeland Symposium more than 40 years ago, but unfortunately our scientific community has not really succeeded in thawing the frozen-in field lines. Instead, it has pursued magnetic reconnection, a concept that Alfvén had been critical of. It is shown here that we have to study many unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved in terms of both the magnetic field line concept and the current system concept. In taking Alfvén's approach, we must consider the whole system, including the power supply (dynamo process and its transmission and distribution (electric currents and observed phenomena (power dissipation processes. Such a consideration can provide physical insight into many of our unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved. In this paper, we consider substorm onset processes, the substorm current system, sunspots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, the interplanetary current sheet, and the magnetic field configuration of the heliosphere in terms of the current system concept. In particular, it is shown that a study of the current system is essential in substorm studies, more than changes of the magnetic field configuration in the magnetotail.

  18. The choice of the concept of magnetic field lines or of electric current lines: Alfvén medal lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    2011-07-01

    In 1967, at the Birkeland Symposium in Sandefjord, Norway, Professor Hannes Alfvén stated that the second approach (in solving unsolved problems by the standard MHD theory) to cosmic electrodynamics is to "thaw" the "frozen-in" magnetic field lines. "We can illustrate essential properties of the electromagnetic state of space either by depicting the magnetic field lines or by depicting electric current lines," he said. There has been much progress in space physics since the Birkeland Symposium more than 40 years ago, but unfortunately our scientific community has not really succeeded in thawing the frozen-in field lines. Instead, it has pursued magnetic reconnection, a concept that Alfvén had been critical of. It is shown here that we have to study many unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved in terms of both the magnetic field line concept and the current system concept. In taking Alfvén's approach, we must consider the whole system, including the power supply (dynamo process) and its transmission and distribution (electric currents) and observed phenomena (power dissipation processes). Such a consideration can provide physical insight into many of our unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved. In this paper, we consider substorm onset processes, the substorm current system, sunspots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, the interplanetary current sheet, and the magnetic field configuration of the heliosphere in terms of the current system concept. In particular, it is shown that a study of the current system is essential in substorm studies, more than changes of the magnetic field configuration in the magnetotail.

  19. The Most Intense Electron-Scale Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.

    2017-04-01

    Previous analysis of magnetohydrodynamic-scale currents in high-speed solar wind near 1 AU suggests that the most intense current-carrying structures occur at electron scales and are characterized by average current densities on the order of 1 pA/cm2. Here, this prediction is verified by examining the effects of the measurement bandwidth and/or measurement resolution on the analysis of synthetic solar wind signals. Assuming Taylor's hypothesis holds for the energetically dominant fluctuations at kinetic scales, the results show that when νc≫ νb, where νc is the measurement bandwidth and νb ≈ 1/3 Hz is the break frequency, the average scale of the most intense fluctuations in the current density proxy is approximately 1/νc, and the average peak current density is a weakly increasing function that scales approximately like νc^{0.1}.

  20. Plasma heating in a post eruption Current Sheet: a case study based on ultraviolet, soft, and hard X-ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Susino, Roberto; Krucker, Säm

    2013-01-01

    Off-limb observations of the solar corona after Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) often show strong, compact, and persistent UV sources behind the eruption. They are primarily observed by the SOHO/UVCS instrument in the "hot" Fe XVIII {\\lambda}974 {\\AA} line and are usually interpreted as a signature of plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection in the post-CME Current Sheet (CS). Nevertheless, the physical process itself and the altitude of the main energy release are currently not fully understood. In this work, we studied the evolution of plasma heating after the CME of 2004 July 28 by comparing UV spectra acquired by UVCS with soft X-ray (SXR) and hard X-ray (HXR)images of the post-flare loops taken by GOES/SXI and RHESSI. The X-ray data show a long-lasting extended source that is rising upwards, toward the high-temperature source detected by UVCS. UVCS data show the presence of significant non-thermal broadening in the CS (signature of turbulent motions) and a strong density gradient across the CS region. T...

  1. Finite-elements numerical model of the current-sheet movement and shaping in coaxial discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, Federico [CNEA-CONICET and Universidad Nacional del Centro, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Moreno, Cesar [INFIP-PLADEMA, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Clausse, Alejandro [CNEA-CONICET and Universidad Nacional del Centro, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)

    2005-08-01

    The movement and shaping of the current sheath in coaxial plasma guns is numerically modelled by means of a dynamic finite-elements representation. Numerical instabilities are avoided by a reshaping algorithm applied during the tracking of the current sheath acceleration. Improving upon older versions of the algorithm, the present model includes a delay model to treat the dielectric breakdown. Comparison against experimental measurements showed very good performances in representing the arrival times of the shock front at different filling pressures.

  2. Shocks and currents in stratified atmospheres with a magnetic null point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Lucas A.; Linton, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We use the resistive MHD code LARE (Arber et al 2001) to inject a compressive MHD wavepacket into a stratified atmosphere that has a single magnetic null point, as recently described in Tarr et al 2017. The 2.5D simulation represents a slice through a small ephemeral region or area of plage. The strong gradients in field strength and connectivity related to the presence of the null produce substantially different dynamics compared to the more slowly varying fields typically used in simple sunspot models. The wave-null interaction produces a fast mode shock that collapses the null into a current sheet and generates a set of outward propagating (from the null) slow mode shocks confined to field lines near each separatrix. A combination of oscillatory reconnection and shock dissipation ultimately raise the plasma's internal energy at the null and along each separatrix by 25-50% above the background. The resulting pressure gradients must be balanced by Lorentz forces, so that the final state has contact discontinuities along each separatrix and a persistent current at the null. The simulation demonstrates that fast and slow mode waves localize currents to the topologically important locations of the field, just as their Alfvenic counterparts do, and also illustrates the necessity of treating waves and reconnection as coupled phenomena.

  3. Modified pulsar current analysis: probing magnetic field evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Igoshev, A P

    2014-01-01

    We use a modified pulsar current analysis to study magnetic field decay in radio pulsars. In our approach we analyse the flow, not along the spin period axis as has been performed in previous studies, but study the flow along the direction of growing characteristic age, $\\tau=P/(2\\dot P)$. We perform extensive tests of the method and find that in most of the cases it is able to uncover non-negligible magnetic field decay (more than a few tens of per cent during the studied range of ages) in normal radio pulsars for realistic initial properties of neutron stars. However, precise determination of the magnetic field decay timescale is not possible at present. The estimated timescale may differ by a factor of few for different sets of initial distributions of neutron star parameters. In addition, some combinations of initial distributions and/or selection effects can also mimic enhanced field decay. We apply our method to the observed sample of radio pulsars at distances $<10$ kpc in the range of characteristi...

  4. Vibration effect on magnetization and critical current density of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovchanskiy, Igor A.; Pan, Alexey V.; George, Jonathan; Wells, Frederick S.; Fedoseev, Sergey A.; Rozenfeld, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    In this work the effect of vibrations on critical current density (J c ) of superconductors has been studied. The vibrations are shown to affect J c of all types of superconductors during their measurements, employing a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Increasing vibration frequency (f) and/or amplitude (A) leads to progressive reduction of J c as a function of magnetic field (B a ). The effect of vibrations is substantially stronger in thin films. It leads to development of unexpected kinks on {J}c({B}a) curves. Analysis of magnetization loops and relaxation of magnetization in YBCO films revealed that the vibration effect can be treated as the effective reduction of pinning potential. The asymmetry of the vibration effect in ascending and descending B a is observed, indicating differences in free energy of the corresponding vortex structures. Thermal effects induced by vibrations with large f and A are shown to have rather insignificant influence, while the vibrational vortex dynamics exhibit a strong impact. The irreversibility field ({B}{{irr}}) is shown to be instrumentally defined, and its value depends on VSM settings. In addition, the practical importance of {B}{{irr}} for J c modeling is demonstrated.

  5. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos,1 Robert L Duschka,1 Mandy Ahlborg,2 Gael Bringout,2 Christina Debbeler,2 Matthias Graeser,2 Christian Kaethner,2 Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug,2 Hanne Medimagh,2 Jan Stelzner,2 Thorsten M Buzug,2 Jörg Barkhausen,1 Florian M Vogt,1 Julian Haegele1 1Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lübeck, 2Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Abstract: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs. The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number

  6. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  7. Search for giant magnetic anisotropy in transition-metal dimers on defected hexagonal boron nitride sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, H.; Hu, J.; Wu, R. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of many transition-metal dimers embedded in a defected hexagonal boron nitride monolayer are investigated through density functional calculations to search for systems with magnetic anisotropy energies (MAEs) larger than 30meV. In particular, Ir-Ir@Dh-BN is found to have both large MAE (˜126 meV) and high structural stability against dissociation and diffusion, and it hence can serve as magnetic unit in spintronics and quantum computing devices. This giant MAE mainly results from the spin orbit coupling and the magnetization of the upper Ir atom, which is in a rather isolated environment.

  8. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  9. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These advan

  10. Nonmonotonic effects of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy on current-driven vortex wall motions in magnetic nanostripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan-Chang; Lei, Hai-Yang; Hu, Jing-Guo

    2015-09-01

    In a magnetic nanostripe, the effects of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on the current-driven horizontal motion of vortex wall along the stripe and the vertical motion of the vortex core are studied by micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the horizontal and vertical motion can generally be monotonously enhanced by PMA. However, when the current is small, a nonmonotonic phenomenon for the horizontal motion is found. Namely, the velocity of the horizontal motion firstly decreases and then increases with the increase of the PMA. We find that the reason for this is that the PMA can firstly increase and then decrease the confining force induced by the confining potential energy. In addition, the PMA always enhances the driving force induced by the current. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11247026 and 11374253).

  11. Two-Dimensional MHD Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection Triggered by A Supernova Shock in Interstellar Medium, Generation of X-Ray Gas in Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, S; Kudoh, T; Shibata, K; Tanuma, Syuniti; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2001-01-01

    We examine the magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova (or a point explosion) in interstellar medium, by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with high spatial resolution. We found that the magnetic reconnection starts long after a supernova shock (fast-mode MHD shock) passes a current sheet. The current sheet evolves as follows: (i) Tearing-mode instability is excited by the supernova shock, and the current sheet becomes thin in its nonlinear stage. (ii) The current-sheet thinning is saturated when the current-sheet thickness becomes comparable to that of Sweet-Parker current sheet. After that, Sweet-Parker type reconnection starts, and the current-sheet length increases. (iii) ``Secondary tearing-mode instability'' occurs in the thin Sweet-Parker current sheet. (iv) As a result, further current-sheet thinning occurs and anomalous resistivity sets in, because gas density decreases in the current sheet. Petschek type reconnection starts and heats interste...

  12. Current induced magnetization reversal in spin valves with Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoshima, K. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: aoshima.k-ia@nhk.or.jp; Funabashi, N. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Machida, K. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Miyamoto, Y. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Kuga, K. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan); Kawamura, N. [Science and Technical Reserch Laboratories, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Current induced magnetization reversal using current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) spin valves devises with Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} alloys were investigated. Film stacks of Si/SiO{sub 2}/Cu/IrMn/Heusler-pinned-layer/Cu/Heusler-free-layer were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering followed by post-annealing. Saturation magnetization (B {sub s}) of Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} are 12.7, 14.0, and 25 kg, respectively and magnetoresistance (MR) ratios of spin valves with the Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} are 3.6%, 3.5%, and 2.2%, respectively. The B {sub s} values and MR ratios obtained for Co{sub 2}MnGe and Co{sub 2}FeSi spin valves were smaller and larger, respectively, than those obtained for Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25}. We speculated that the large MR ratios could be attributed to larger spin polarization of Heusler alloys. J {sub c0} of Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} spin valves were 1.6x10{sup 7}, 2.7x10{sup 7}, and 5.1x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The thermal factors of Co{sub 2}MnGe, Co{sub 2}FeSi, and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} were 65, 48, and 55, respectively. Using the Heusler alloys, we successfully reduced the intrinsic critical current without degrading the thermal factor.

  13. Deglacial to Holocene history of ice-sheet retreat and bottom current strength on the western Barents Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, Hendrik; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Horry, Jan; Grave, Marina; Rebesco, Michele; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution sediment echosounder data combined with radiocarbon-dated sediment cores allowed us to reconstruct the Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture of the Kveithola Trough and surrounding Spitsbergenbanken. The deposits display the successive deglacial retreat of the Svalbard-Barents Sea Ice Sheet. Basal subglacial till indicates that the grounded ice sheet covered both bank and trough during the Late Weichselian. A glaciomarine blanket inside the trough coinciding with laminated plumites on the bank formed during the initial ice-melting phase from at least 16.1 to 13.5 cal ka BP in close proximity to the ice margin. After the establishment of open-marine conditions at around 13.5 cal ka BP, a sediment drift developed in the confined setting of the Kveithola Trough, contemporary with crudely laminated mud, an overlying lag deposit, and modern bioclastic-rich sand on Spitsbergenbanken. The Kveithola Drift shows a remarkable grain-size coarsening from the moat towards the southern flank of the trough. This trend contradicts the concept of a separated drift (which would imply coarser grain sizes in proximity of the moat) and indicates that the southern bank is the main sediment source for the coarse material building up the Kveithola Drift. This depocenter represents, therefore, a yet undescribed combination of off-bank wedge and confined drift. Although the deposits inside Kveithola Trough and on Spitsbergenbanken display different depocenter geometries, time-equivalent grain-size changes imply a region-wide sediment-dynamic connection. We thus relate a phase of coarsest sediment supply (8.8-6.3 cal ka BP) to an increase in bottom current strength, which might be related to a stronger Atlantic Water inflow from the Southeast across the bank leading to winnowing and off-bank export of sandy sediments.

  14. Heat transfer analysis of Jeffery fluid flow over a stretching sheet with suction/injection and magnetic dipole effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zeeshan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper was to investigate the flow and heat transfer of Jeffery fluid past a linearly stretching sheet with the effect of a magnetic dipole. The governing differential equations of motion and heat transfer are transformed into nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs using appropriate similarity transformations. Then the ODEs are solved by adopting two different schemes, Runge–Kutta with shooting technique and series solution based on GA and NM. The effect of various physical parameters including ferromagnetic interaction parameter (β, Deborah number (γ1, Prandtl number (Pr, suction/injection parameter (S, ratio of relaxation to retardation times (λ2 on velocity and temperature profiles is illustrated graphically and in tabular form by considering two types of thermal process namely prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed heat flux (PHF. Comparison with available results for particular cases is found an excellent agreement.

  15. Negative magnetic anomaly over Mt. Resnik, a subaerially erupted volcanic peak beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.; Morse, D.L.; Blankenship, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Mt. Resnik is one of the previously reported 18 subaerially erupted volcanoes (in the West Antarctic rift system), which have high elevation and high bed relief beneath the WAIS in the Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey. Mt. Resnik lies 300 m below the surface of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS); it has 1.6 km topographic relief, and a conical form defined by radar ice-sounding of bed topography. It has an associated complex negative magnetic anomaly revealed by the CWA survey. We calculated and interpreted magnetic models fit to the Mt. Resnik anomaly as a volcanic source comprising both reversely and normally magnetized (in the present field direction) volcanic flows, 0.5-2.5-km thick, erupted subaerially during a time of magnetic field reversal. The Mt. Resnik 305-nT anomaly is part of an approximately 50- by 40-km positive anomaly complex extending about 30 km to the west of the Mt. Resnik peak, associated with an underlying source complex of about the same area, whose top is at the bed of the WAIS. The bed relief of this shallow source complex has a maximum of only about 400 m, whereas the modeled source is >3 km thick. From the spatial relationship we interpret that this source and Mt Resnik are approximately contemporaneous. Any subglacially (older?) erupted edifices comprising hyaloclastite or other volcanic debris, which formerly overlaid the source to the west, were removed by the moving WAIS into which they were injected as is the general case for the ???1000 volcanic centers at the base of the WAIS. The presence of the magnetic field reversal modeled for Mt. Resnik may represent the Bruhnes-Matayama reversal at 780 ka (or an earlier reversal). There are ???100 short-wavelength, steep-gradient, negative magnetic anomalies observed over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), or about 10% of the approximately 1000 short-wavelength, shallow-source, high-amplitude (50- >1000 nT) "volcanic" magnetic anomalies in the CWA survey. These

  16. The 8 cm Period Electromagnetic Wiggler Magnet with Coils Made from Sheet Copper

    CERN Document Server

    Biallas, George H; Hiatt, Tommy; Neil, George R; Snyder, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    An electromagnetic wiggler, now lasing at the Jefferson Lab FEL, has 29 eight cm periods with K variable from 0.6 to1.1 and gap of 2.6 cm. The wiggler was made inexpensively in 11 weeks by an industrial machine shop. The conduction cooled coil design uses copper sheet material cut to forms using water jet cutting. The conductor is cut to serpentine shapes and the cooling plates are cut to ladder shape. The sheets are assembled in stacks insulated with polymer film, also cut with water jet. The coil design extends the serpentine conductor design of the Duke OK4 to more and smaller conductors. The wiggler features graded fields in the two poles at each end and trim coils on these poles to eliminate field errors caused by saturation. An added critical feature is mirror plates at the ends with integral trim coils to eliminate three dimensional end field effects and align the entrance and exit orbit with the axis of the wiggler. Details of construction, measurement methods and excellent wiggler performance are pre...

  17. Spin-polarized currents generated by magnetic Fe atomic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Chen, Xi

    2014-06-13

    Fe-based devices are widely used in spintronics because of high spin-polarization and magnetism. In this work, freestanding Fe atomic chains, the thinnest wires, were used to generate spin-polarized currents due to the spin-polarized energy bands. By ab initio calculations, the zigzag structure was found to be more stable than the wide-angle zigzag structure and had a higher ratio of spin-up and spin-down currents. By our theoretical prediction, Fe atomic chains have a sufficiently long thermal lifetime only at T ≦̸ 150 K, while C atomic chains are very stable even at T = 1000 K. This means that the spintronic devices based on Fe chains could work only at low temperatures. A system constructed by a short Fe chain sandwiched between two graphene electrodes could be used as a spin-polarized current generator, while a C chain could not be used in this way. The present work may be instructive and meaningful to further practical applications based on recent technical developments on the preparation of metal atomic chains (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 9055 (2010)).

  18. Employing sinusoidal shear deformation plate theory for transient analysis of three layers sandwich nanoplate integrated with piezo-magnetic face-sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, based on the sinusoidal shear deformation plate theory, equations of motion for a sandwich nanoplate containing a nano core and two integrated piezo-magnetic face-sheets are derived. The piezo-magnetic face-sheets are subjected to three dimensional electric and magnetic potentials. Nonlocal piezo-magneto-elastic relations are derived in a thermal environment. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive seven equations of motion in terms of three deformation components of mid-surface, two shear components and electric and magnetic potentials. Natural frequencies of the sandwich nanoplate are derived in terms of nonlocal parameter. After finding solutions to the governing equations of motion, the effect of important parameters of the nanoplate are investigated on the mechanical, electrical and magnetic components of the nanoplate. Based on the present study, with increasing applied electric potential, dimensionless deflection is decreased and maximum electric and magnetic potentials are increased. Furthermore, with increasing applied magnetic potential, deflection is increased and maximum electric and magnetic potentials are decreased significantly. The numerical results of this problem indicate that one can control deformation or stress in the nano structure by changing the applied electric and magnetic potentials.

  19. Numerical analysis of high strain rate failure of electro-magnetically loaded steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erice Borja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electro-magnetic forces provide a potentially power full means in designing dynamic experiments with active control of the loading conditions. This article deals with the development of computational models to simulate the thermo-mechanical response of electro-magnetically loaded metallic structures. The model assumes linear electromagnetic constitutive equations and time-independent electric induction to estimate the Joule heating and the Lorentz forces. The latter are then taken into account when evaluating stress equilibrium. A thermo-visco-plastic model with Johnson-Cook type of temperature and strain rate dependence and combined Swift-Voce hardening is used to evaluate the material's thermo-mechanical response. As a first application, the model is used to analyse the effect of electro-magnetic loading on the ductility of advanced high strength steels.

  20. Magnetic Field Equivalent Current Analysis-Based Radial Force Control for Bearingless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangqiu Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motors (BPMSMs, with all advantages of permanent magnet motors (PMSMs and magnetic bearings, have become an important research direction in the bearingless motor field. To realize a stable suspension for the BPMSM, accurate decoupling control between the electromagnetic torque and radial suspension force is indispensable. In this paper, a concise and reliable analysis method based on a magnetic field equivalent current is presented. By this analysis method, the operation principle is analyzed theoretically, and the necessary conditions to produce a stable radial suspension force are confirmed. In addition, mathematical models of the torque and radial suspension force are established which is verified by the finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS. Finally, an experimental prototype of a 2-4 poles surface-mounted BPMSM is tested with the customized control strategy. The simulation and experimental results have shown that the motor has good rotation and suspension performance, and validated the accuracy of the proposed analysis method and the feasibility of the control strategy.

  1. Electromagnetic Currents and Magnetic Moments in $\\chi$EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saori Pastore, Luca Girlanda, Rocco Schiavilla, Michele Viviani, Robert Wiringa

    2009-09-01

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{\\, 2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e\\, Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the $M1$ operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the N$^2$LO potential are fixed by fits to the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Three additional LEC's are needed to completely specify the $M1$ operator at N$^3$L

  2. Effects of process variables in decarburization annealing of Fe-3%Si-0.3%C steel sheet on textures and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Min; Koo, Yang Mo; Shim, Byoung Yul; Lee, Dong Nyung

    2017-01-01

    In Fe-3%Si-0.3%C steel sheet, a relatively strong //ND texture can evolve in the surface layer through the α→γ→α phase transformation in relatively low vacuum (4 Pa) for an annealing time of 10 min and at a cooling rate of 20 K/s. Oxidation of the steel sheet surface prevents the evolution of the //ND texture. However, vacuum-annealing under a vacuum pressure of 1.3×10-3 Pa causes decarburization of the steel sheet, which suppresses oxidation of the steel sheet surface, and subsequent annealing in wet hydrogen of 363 K in dew points causes a columnar grain structure with the //ND texture. After the two-step-annealing (the vacuum annealing under a vacuum pressure of 1.3×10-3 Pa and subsequent decarburizing annealing in wet hydrogen of 363 K in dew points), the decarburized steel sheet exhibits good soft magnetic properties in NO with 3%Si, W15/50 (core loss at 1.5T and 50 Hz) = 2.47 W/kg and B50 (magnetic flux density at 5000 A/m) = 1.71 T.

  3. Tailoring the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Sheets and Ribbons by Fluorination

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhiming

    2016-07-12

    Fluorination has been instrumental for tuning the properties of several two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2. However, its potential application has not yet been explored in 2D silicon carbide (SiC), a promising material for nanoelectronic devices. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of fully and partially fluorinated 2D SiC sheets and nanoribbons by means of density functional theory combined with cluster expansion calculations. We find that fully fluorinated 2D SiC exhibits chair configurations and a nonmagnetic semiconducting behavior. Fluorination is shown to be an efficient approach for tuning the band gap. Four ground states of partially fluorinated SiC, SiCF2x with x = 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, are obtained by cluster expansion calculations. All of them exhibit nanoroad patterns, with the x = 0.5 structure identified as the most stable one. The x = 0.0625 structure is a nonmagnetic metal, while the other three are all ferromagnetic half-metals, whose properties are not affected by the edge states. We propose an effective approach for modulating the electronic and magnetic behavior of 2D SiC, paving the way to applications of SiC nanostructures in integrated multifunctional and spintronic nanodevices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  4. Patterning Graphitic C-N Sheets into a Kagome Lattice for Magnetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yushiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2013-01-17

    We propose porous C-N-based structures for biocompatible magnetic materials that do not contain even a single metal ion. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we show that when patterned in the form of a kagome lattice, nonmagnetic g-C3N4 not only becomes ferromagnetic but also its magnetic properties can be further enhanced by applying external strain. Similarly, the magnetic moment per atom in ferromagnetic g-C4N3 is increased three fold when patterned into a kagome lattice. The Curie temperature of g-C3N4 kagome lattice is 100 K, while that of g-C4N3 kagome lattice is much higher, namely, 520 K. To date, all of the synthesized two- and three-dimensional magnetic kagome structures contain metal ions and are toxic. The objective of our work is to stimulate an experimental effort to develop nanopatterning techniques for the synthesis of g-C3N4- and g-C4N3-based kagome lattices.

  5. Relation between magnetic fields and electric currents in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliunas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell's equations allow the magnetic field B to be calculated if the electric current density J is assumed to be completely known as a function of space and time. The charged particles that constitute the current, however, are subject to Newton's laws as well, and J can be changed by forces acting on charged particles. Particularly in plasmas, where the concentration of charged particles is high, the effect of the electromagnetic field calculated from a given J on J itself cannot be ignored. Whereas in ordinary laboratory physics one is accustomed to take J as primary and B as derived from J, it is often asserted that in plasmas B should be viewed as primary and J as derived from B simply as (c/4π∇×B. Here I investigate the relation between ∇×B and J in the same terms and by the same method as previously applied to the MHD relation between the electric field and the plasma bulk flow vmv2001: assume that one but not the other is present initially, and calculate what happens. The result is that, for configurations with spatial scales much larger than the electron inertial length λe, a given ∇×B produces the corresponding J, while a given J does not produce any ∇×B but disappears instead. The reason for this can be understood by noting that ∇×B≠4π/cJ implies a time-varying electric field (displacement current which acts to change both terms (in order to bring them toward equality; the changes in the two terms, however, proceed on different time scales, light travel time for B and electron plasma period for J, and clearly the term changing much more slowly is the one that survives. (By definition, the two time scales are equal at λe. On larger scales, the evolution of B (and hence also of ∇×B is governed by

  6. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloska, Stephan P; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed.

  7. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Currents, magnetization and AC-losses of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconductors in rapidly changing magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitza, K.; Plotzner, V.; Waldmann, M.; Widmer, E.

    1988-06-01

    In YBa 2Cu 3O 7 samples of different shape time dependent magnetization currents were induced at 4.2K by the application of rapid magnetic field changes. This contactless method allows the study of the intergrain and intragrain currents in the resistive flux flow state.

  9. Comparing a current-carrying circular wire with polygons of equal perimeter; Magnetic field versus magnetic flux

    OpenAIRE

    J P Silva; Silvestre, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    We compare the magnetic field at the center of and the self-magnetic flux through a current-carrying circular loop, with those obtained for current-carrying polygons with the same perimeter. As the magnetic field diverges at the position of the wires, we compare the self-fluxes utilizing several regularization procedures. The calculation is best performed utilizing the vector potential, thus highlighting its usefulness in practical applications. Our analysis answers some of the intuition chal...

  10. Experimental identification of an azimuthal current in a magnetic nozzle of a radiofrequency plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Chiba, Aiki; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The azimuthal plasma current in a magnetic nozzle of a radiofrequency plasma thruster is experimentally identified by measuring the plasma-induced magnetic field. The axial plasma momentum increases over about 20 cm downstream of the thruster exit due to the Lorentz force arising from the azimuthal current. The measured current shows that the azimuthal current is given by the sum of the electron diamagnetic drift and \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} drift currents, where the latter component decreases with an increase in the magnetic field strength; hence the azimuthal current approaches the electron diamagnetic drift one for the strong magnetic field. The Lorentz force calculated from the measured azimuthal plasma current and the radial magnetic field is smaller than the directly measured force exerted to the magnetic field, which indicates the existence of a non-negligible Lorentz force in the source tube.

  11. Mechanically-Assisted Current-Induced Switching of the Magnetic Moment in a Torsional Oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Liufei; Jaafar, Reem; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.

    2014-01-01

    Switching of the direction of the magnetic moment in a nanomagnet is studied within a modified Slonczewski's model that permits torsional oscillations of the magnet. We show that the latter may inhibit or assist the magnetization switching, depending on parameters. Three regimes have been studied: the switching by torsional oscillations alone, the switching by the spin-polarized current with torsional oscillations permitted, and the magnetization switching by the current combined with the mec...

  12. Analytical magnetic torque calculations and experimental testing of radial flux permanent magnet-type eddy current brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Young; Jang, Seok-Myeong

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on analytical magnetic torque calculations and experimental tests of a radial flux permanent magnet (RFPM)-type eddy current brake (ECB). Analytical solutions for permanent magnet-generated magnetic fields that consider the eddy current reaction are obtained by using a magnetic vector potential and a two dimensional (2D) polar coordinate system. On the basis of these solutions, the analytical expressions for a magnetic torque are also derived. All analytical results are validated extensively by non-linear finite element calculations. In particular, magnetic torque measurements are obtained in tests to confirm the analyses. Finally, practical issues related to the analytical study of RFPM-type ECBs are fully discussed.

  13. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  14. Analysis on background magnetic field to generate eddy current by pulsed gradient of permanent-magnet MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the analytical expressions for the magnetic field H and induction B in iron-pole plates generated by MRI gradient coil are given using line-current and the multilayer dielectric plate model with the mirror-image method.Eddy current emanates from the magnetic flux in the iron-pole plates.In order to fully suppress the eddy current,this magnetic flux should be fully eliminated.The research results indicate the magnetic permeability of the resist-eddy plate must be bigger than that of magnetic pole material,i.e.pure iron,and that the resist-eddy plate should be thick enough to be far away from its magnetic saturation.

  15. Current and Future Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Dylan R.; Feng, Chang; Reichardt, Christian L.

    2017-09-01

    We present new limits on the amplitude of potential primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) using temperature and polarization measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from Planck, the BICEP2/Keck Array, Polarbear, and SPTpol. We reduce twofold the 95% confidence upper limit on the CMB anisotropy power due to a nearly scale-invariant PMF, with an allowed B-mode power at ℓ = 1500 of {D}{\\ell =1500}{BB}< 0.071 μ {K}2 for Planck versus {D}{\\ell =1500}{BB}< 0.034 μ {K}2 for the combined data set. We also forecast the expected limits from soon-to-deploy CMB experiments (like SPT-3G, Adv. ACTpol, or the Simons Array) and the proposed CMB-S4 experiment. Future CMB experiments should dramatically reduce the current uncertainties by one order of magnitude for the near-term experiments and two orders of magnitude for the CMB-S4 experiment. The constraints from CMB-S4 have the potential to rule out much of the parameter space for PMFs.

  16. Calculation of Skin Depths and Eddy-Current Power Losses for Magnetic Position Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We present a theoretic model to calculate skin depths and eddy-current power losses for a magnetic position sensor. Eddy-current, arised from the operation of an alternating-current ex citation, induces secondary currents and fields between magnetic material and magnetic position sensor. In this paper, a magnetic position sensor system is simplified to be an outer-winding coil along the axial direction of a low carbon steel bar. The analytical model is derived from basic field and circuit theory considering a linear approximation for a nonlinear permeability. Thus the skin depths and eddy-current power losses from the model in eddy-current modeling techniques at various frequencies of an excited current source can be calculated. The proposed configuration is capable of predicting the skin depths and eddy-current power losses for a magnetic position sensor and has a consistence with experiments.

  17. Reconstruction of conductivity and current density images using only one component of magnetic field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Keun; Yoon, Jeong-Rock; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Ohin

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) is to provide current density images of a subject using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with a current injection apparatus. The injection current generates a magnetic field that we can measure from MR phase images. We obtain internal current density images from the measured magnetic flux densities via Ampere's law. However, we must rotate the subject to acquire all of the three components of the induced magnetic flux density. This subject rotation is impractical in clinical MRI scanners when the subject is a human body. In this paper, we propose a way to eliminate the requirement of subject rotation by careful mathematical analysis of the MRCDI problem. In our new MRCDI technique, we need to measure only one component of the induced magnetic flux density and reconstruct both cross-sectional conductivity and current density images without any subject rotation.

  18. Anomalous current pinch of a toroidal axisymmetric plasma with stochastic magnetic field perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    2016-07-01

    Anomalous current pinch, in addition to the anomalous diffusion due to stochastic magnetic perturbations, is theoretically found, which may qualitatively explain the recent DIII-D experiment on resonant magnetic field perturbation. The anomalous current pinch, which may resolve the long-standing issue of seed current in a fully bootstrapped tokamak, is also discussed for the electrostatic turbulence.

  19. Field-aligned currents during northward interplanetary magnetic field: Morphology and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Rastatter, L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] We present the results of a global MHD simulation of solar wind magnetosphere interaction during northward IMF. In particular, we emphasize the effect of the IMF By component on the reconnection geometry and the mapping along field lines to the polar ionosphere, through field-aligned currents....... However, the idea that the NBZ currents rotate to form the two sheets of FACs sandwiching the ionospheric DPY current is only partly confirmed by the simulation....

  20. Flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting fluid of second grade over a stretching sheet subject to suction and to a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortell, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    An analysis is performed for flow and heat transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of an electrically conducting fluid of second grade subject to suction and to a transverse uniform magnetic field past a semi-infinite stretching sheet. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation and an analytical solution for this flow is utilized. The effects of viscous dissipation and work due to deformation are considered in the energy equation and the variations of dimensionless surface temperature and dimensionless surface temperature gradient with various parameters are graphed and tabulated. Two cases are studied, namely, (i) the sheet with constant surface temperature (CST case) and (ii) the sheet with prescribed surface temperature (PST case). (author)

  1. Contribution of the Magnetic Field of Eddy Currents to the Gilbert Damping Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Denisov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the role of the magnetic field of eddy currents, which are induced in conducting single-domain particles of spherical form, in the magnetization dynamics. To describe the dynamic behavior of magnetization and electromagnetic field generating by the time-dependent magnetization, we use the coupled system of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG and Maxwell equations. Assuming that the magnetization direction depends on time in an arbitrary way, we find the solution of the Maxwell equations in the quasi-stationary approximation and calculate the averaged (over the particle volume magnetic field of eddy currents. Considering this field as an extra contribution to the effective magnetic field acting on the particle magnetic moment, we derive the LLG equation in which the influence of eddy currents is completely accounted for by introducing an additional Gilbert damping parameter of electrodynamic origin.

  2. Simulation of Current Measurement Using Magnetic Sensor Arrays and Its Error Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJing; YAOJian-jun; WANGJian-hua

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic sensor arrays are proposed to measure electric current in a non-contac tway. In order to achieve higher accuracy, signal processing techniques for magnetic sensor arrays are utilized. Simulation techniques are necessary to study the factors influencing the accuracy of current measurement. This paper presents a simulation method to estimate the impact of sensing area and position of sensors on the accuracy of current measurement. Several error models are built up to support computer-aided design of magnetic sensor arrays.

  3. Effect of nonlinear thermal radiation on non-aligned bio-convective stagnation point flow of a magnetic-nanofluid over a stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayachandra Babu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study covers the relative study of non-aligned magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow of a nanofluid comprising gyrotactic microorganisms across a stretching sheet in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation and variable viscosity. The governing equations transitioned as nonlinear ordinary differential equations with suited similarity transformations. With the assistance of Runge-Kutta based shooting method, we derived solutions. Results for oblique and free stream flow cases are exhibited through plots for the parameters of concern. In tabular form, heat and mass transfer rate along with the local density of the motile microorganisms are analyzed for some parameters. It is found that local density of the motile microorganisms is highly influenced by the Biot and Peclet numbers. Rising values of the magnetic field parameter, Biot number, thermal radiation parameter and thermophoresis parameter increase the thermal boundary layer. Bioconvection Peclet number and bioconvection Lewis number have tendency to reduce the density of the motile microorganisms. It is also found that thermal and concentration boundary layers become high in free stream flow when compared with the oblique flow.

  4. Second Law Analysis of Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet Subject to a Transverse Magnetic Field with Heat and Mass Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Saouli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the second law analysis of a viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet subject to a transverse magnetic field with heat and mass transfer. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained analytically using Kummer’s functions. The effects of the magnetic and viscoelastic parameters on both the longitudianl and the transverse velocities are investigated. The influence of Prandt number, the magnetic parameter and the heat source/sink parameter on the temperature is analysed. The concentration and its variations with the Schmidt number and the magnetic parameter is presented as well. The velocity, the temperature and the concentration profiles are used to compute the entropy generation number. This number is graphed and studied as function of the magnetic parameter, the Prandtl number, The Schmidt number, the Reynolds number, the dimensionless group, the Hartmann number, the ratio of the dimensionless concentration difference to the dimensionless temperature difference and the constant parameter.

  5. Simulation of motional eddy current phenomena in soft magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gersem, Herbert; Hameyer, Kay

    2001-05-01

    The finite element simulation of conductors moving in a magnetic field at elevated speeds, yields oscillatory solutions. To overcome the effect of the huge convection terms, the partial differential equation is stabilised by adding artificial diffusion. Accurate results are obtained by applying adaptive mesh refinement. A rotational magnetic brake with a solid ferromagnetic rotor is simulated.

  6. Role of external magnetic field and current closure in the force balance mechanism of a magnetically stabilized plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Ravi; Goyal, Vidhi

    2012-10-01

    Experimental investigations on the role of applied external magnetic field and return current closure in the force balance mechanism of a plasma torch are reported. The plasma torch is of low power and has wall, gas and magnetic stabilization mechanisms incorporated in it. Gas flow is divided into two parts: axial-central and peripheral-shroud, applied magnetic field is axial and return current is co-axial. Results indicate that application of large external magnetic field gives rise to not only J x B force but also, coupled with gas flow, to a new drag-cum-centrifugal force that acts on the plasma arc root and column. The magnetic field also plays a role in the return current closure dynamics and thus in the overall force balance mechanism. This in turn affects the electro-thermal efficiency of the plasma torch. Detailed experimental results, analytical calculations and physical model representing the processes will be presented and discussed.

  7. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm² sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ∼1 kA/cm(2) from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ∼200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.

  8. Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, A

    1985-01-01

    Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

  9. The eddy current induced in the pulsed bump magnet for the CSNS/RCS injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jin-Xing; KANG Wen; HUO Li-Hua; HAO Yao-Dou; WANG Lei

    2011-01-01

    The injecton pulsed bending bump magnets of Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) in China Spallar tion Neutron Source (CSNS) consist of four horizontal bending (BH) magnets and four vertical bending (BV)magnets. The BH magnets are operated at a repetition rate of 25 Hz and are excited with a trapezoid rectangle waveform with about 1.6 milliseconds duration. The eddy current is induced in BH magnets and in the end plates it is expected to be large, so the heat generation is of our great concern. In this paper, the eddy current loss of the BH magnet has been investigated and calculated by using a coupling method of 3D electromagnetic and thermal analysis. The accuracy of the analysis is confirmed by testing the prototype BH magnet. The end plate temperature of the BH magnet provided with slit cuts has been decreased obviously and met the requirements.

  10. New aspects of plasma sheet dynamics - MHD and kinetic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wiechen

    Full Text Available Magnetic reconnection is a process of fundamental importance for the dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet. In this context, the development of thin current sheets in the near-Earth plasma sheet is a topic of special interest because they could be a possible cause of microscopic fluctuations acting as collective non-idealness from a macroscopic point of view. Simulations of the near-Earth plasma sheet including boundary perturbations due to localized inflow through the northern (or southern plasma sheet boundary show developing thin current sheets in the near-Earth plasma sheet about 810 RE tailwards of the Earth. This location is largely independent from the localization of the perturbation. The second part of the paper deals with the problem of the macroscopic non-ideal consequences of microscopic fluctuations. A new model is presented that allows the quantitative calculation of macroscopic non-idealness without considering details of microscopic instabilities or turbulence. This model is only based on the assumption of a strongly fluctuating, mixing dynamics on microscopic scales in phase space. The result of this approach is an expression for anomalous non-idealness formally similar to the Krook resistivity but now describing the macroscopic consequences of collective microscopic fluctuations, not of collisions.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma sheet · Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory; magnetic reconnection

  11. Flexible heat-flow sensing sheets based on the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect using one-dimensional spin-current conducting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Akihiro; Kondo, Koichi; Ishida, Masahiko; Ihara, Kazuki; Iwasaki, Yuma; Someya, Hiroko; Matsuba, Asuka; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoharu; Kohmoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Tomoo

    2016-03-15

    Heat-flow sensing is expected to be an important technological component of smart thermal management in the future. Conventionally, the thermoelectric (TE) conversion technique, which is based on the Seebeck effect, has been used to measure a heat flow by converting the flow into electric voltage. However, for ubiquitous heat-flow visualization, thin and flexible sensors with extremely low thermal resistance are highly desired. Recently, another type of TE effect, the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), has aroused great interest because the LSSE potentially offers favourable features for TE applications such as simple thin-film device structures. Here we demonstrate an LSSE-based flexible TE sheet that is especially suitable for a heat-flow sensing application. This TE sheet contained a Ni0.2Zn0.3Fe2.5O4 film which was formed on a flexible plastic sheet using a spray-coating method known as "ferrite plating". The experimental results suggest that the ferrite-plated film, which has a columnar crystal structure aligned perpendicular to the film plane, functions as a unique one-dimensional spin-current conductor suitable for bendable LSSE-based sensors. This newly developed thin TE sheet may be attached to differently shaped heat sources without obstructing an innate heat flux, paving the way to versatile heat-flow measurements and management.

  12. Flexible heat-flow sensing sheets based on the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect using one-dimensional spin-current conducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Akihiro; Kondo, Koichi; Ishida, Masahiko; Ihara, Kazuki; Iwasaki, Yuma; Someya, Hiroko; Matsuba, Asuka; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoharu; Kohmoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Tomoo

    2016-03-01

    Heat-flow sensing is expected to be an important technological component of smart thermal management in the future. Conventionally, the thermoelectric (TE) conversion technique, which is based on the Seebeck effect, has been used to measure a heat flow by converting the flow into electric voltage. However, for ubiquitous heat-flow visualization, thin and flexible sensors with extremely low thermal resistance are highly desired. Recently, another type of TE effect, the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), has aroused great interest because the LSSE potentially offers favourable features for TE applications such as simple thin-film device structures. Here we demonstrate an LSSE-based flexible TE sheet that is especially suitable for a heat-flow sensing application. This TE sheet contained a Ni0.2Zn0.3Fe2.5O4 film which was formed on a flexible plastic sheet using a spray-coating method known as “ferrite plating”. The experimental results suggest that the ferrite-plated film, which has a columnar crystal structure aligned perpendicular to the film plane, functions as a unique one-dimensional spin-current conductor suitable for bendable LSSE-based sensors. This newly developed thin TE sheet may be attached to differently shaped heat sources without obstructing an innate heat flux, paving the way to versatile heat-flow measurements and management.

  13. Magnetic Field Dependence of the Critical Current in S-N Bilayer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Smith, Stephen James; Bandler, Simon; Chervenak, James; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.; Adams, Joseph S.; Eckart, Megan E.; Busch, Sarah; Porst, Jan-Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the effects a non-uniform applied magnetic field has on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) critical current. This has implications on TES optimization. It has been shown that TESs resistive transition can be altered by magnetic fields. We have observed critical current rectification effects and explained these effects in terms of a magnetic self-field arising from asymmetric current injection into the sensor. Our TES physical model shows that this magnetic self-field can result in significantly degraded or improved TES performance. In order for this magnetically tuned TES strategy to reach its full potential we are investigating the effect a non-uniform applied magnetic field has on the critical current.

  14. Eddy current loss calculation and thermal analysis of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional magnetic field analytical model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is presented to calculate the eddy current loss, and the prediction of the copper plate temperature under various loads is analyzed. The magnetic field distribution is calculated, and then the eddy current loss is obtained, with the magnetic field analytical model established in cylindrical coordinate. The influence of various loads on eddy current loss is analyzed. Furthermore, a thermal model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is established by taking the eddy current loss as the heat source, using the electromagnetic-thermal coupled method. With the help of the thermal model, the influence of various loads on copper plate temperature rise is also analyzed. The calculated results are compared with the results of finite element method and measurement. The comparison results confirm the validity of the magnetic field analytical model and thermal model.

  15. Behavior of magnetic field and eddy current in a magnetostriction based bi-layered composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented a theoretical method for studying the behavior of magnetic field intensity and eddy current inside a magnetostriction based bi-layered composite. Firstly, the mathematical model for the electromagnetic field in the composite was established. Then, the governing equation for determining the magnetic field intensity and eddy current was solved. Furthermore, the effect of the composite’s conductivity on the magnetic field intensity and eddy current were discussed. Lastly, by comparing with the well known R.L. Stoll’s equation, the magnetic field intensity calculated based on our equation showed a less than 0.5% error.

  16. Behavior of magnetic field and eddy current in a magnetostriction based bi-layered composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Zhang, Kehao; Liu, Huifeng; Li, Junlin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we presented a theoretical method for studying the behavior of magnetic field intensity and eddy current inside a magnetostriction based bi-layered composite. Firstly, the mathematical model for the electromagnetic field in the composite was established. Then, the governing equation for determining the magnetic field intensity and eddy current was solved. Furthermore, the effect of the composite's conductivity on the magnetic field intensity and eddy current were discussed. Lastly, by comparing with the well known R.L. Stoll's equation, the magnetic field intensity calculated based on our equation showed a less than 0.5% error.

  17. The role of current loop in harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials in two polarizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sajedian, Iman; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of the current loop in the generation of second and third harmonic signals from magnetic metamaterials. We will show that the fact that the current loop in the magnetic resonance acts as a source for nonlinear effects and it consists of two orthogonal parts, leads to the generation of two harmonic signals in two orthogonal polarizations.

  18. Non-invasively measured cardiac magnetic field maps improve the estimation of the current distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kosch, Olaf; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz; Trontelj, Zvonko; Jazbinšek, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive body surface potential mapping (BSPM) and magnetic field mapping (MFM) measurements have been carried out in order to improve the estimation of the current distribution generated by the human heart. Electric and magnetic fields and also the planar gradient of the magnetic field during the QRS complex were imaged as a time series of field maps. A model of the current distribution should explain the features of both BSPM and MFM. Simulated maps generated by a single dipole or a st...

  19. RF current drive by electron cyclotron waves in the presence of magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Rosa, P.; Giruzzi, G

    1999-11-01

    The influence of the presence of magnetic islands, and the consequent modification of the tokamak magnetic surface topology, on electron current drive is analyzed. To this end, a new 3D Fokker-Planck code has been developed, taking into account the modifications of the magnetic equilibrium topology owing to the presence of the islands. Significant differences between electron cyclotron current drive efficiency with and without island inside the plasma are found, particularly in the case of interaction with locked modes. (authors)

  20. Magnetized direct current microdischarge I. Effect of the gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-03-01

    Following Paschen's law, electrical breakdown of gaps with small pd, where p is the gas pressure and d is the interelectrode gap, requires extremely high voltages. This means that the breakdown voltage for low-pressure microdischarges is of the order of a few kilovolts. This makes impractical the generation of low-pressure dc microdischarges. The application of dc magnetic field confines electrons in the cathode-anode gap. This leads to the significant decrease in the breakdown voltage because each electron experiences many collisions during its diffusion toward the anode. However, as was obtained experimentally, magnetized low-pressure microdischarges experience numerous instabilities whose nature is still not completely understood. In the present paper, we study the influence of the magnetic field on the low-pressure microdischarges. We use the self-consistent one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model, which takes into account the electron magnetization while ions remain unmagnetized. We obtain striations in the discharge. We show that these striations appear in both homogeneous and non-homogeneous magnetic fields. We find simple expression for the instability growth rate, which shows that the instability results from ionization processes.

  1. Dynamical skyrmion state in a spin current nano-oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R H; Lim, W L; Urazhdin, S

    2015-04-03

    We study the spectral characteristics of spin current nano-oscillators based on the Pt/[Co/Ni] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By varying the applied magnetic field and current, both localized and propagating spin wave modes of the oscillation are achieved. At small fields, we observe an abrupt onset of the modulation sidebands. We use micromagnetic simulations to identify this state as a dynamical magnetic skyrmion stabilized in the active device region by spin current injection, whose current-induced dynamics is accompanied by the gyrotropic motion of the core due to the skew deflection. Our results demonstrate a practical route for controllable skyrmion manipulation by spin current in magnetic thin films.

  2. Finite element analysis of gradient z-coil induced eddy currents in a permanent MRI magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Xia, Ling; Chen, Wufan; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart; Xie, Dexin

    2011-01-01

    In permanent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, pulsed gradient fields induce strong eddy currents in the conducting structures of the magnet body. The gradient field for image encoding is perturbed by these eddy currents leading to MR image distortions. This paper presents a comprehensive finite element (FE) analysis of the eddy current generation in the magnet conductors. In the proposed FE model, the hysteretic characteristics of ferromagnetic materials are considered and a scalar Preisach hysteresis model is employed. The developed FE model was applied to study gradient z-coil induced eddy currents in a 0.5 T permanent MRI device. The simulation results demonstrate that the approach could be effectively used to investigate eddy current problems involving ferromagnetic materials. With the knowledge gained from this eddy current model, our next step is to design a passive magnet structure and active gradient coils to reduce the eddy current effects.

  3. Eddy current analysis of permanent magnet dynamometers; Eikyu jishakushiki dinamo meter no kadenryu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-29

    The ultra-low inertia dynamometer equivalent to engines in inertia adopts a rare earth element magnet with large energy product, and simulates engine torque fluctuation by superimposing harmonic current on a stator coil. Since temperature rise is thus predicted by generation of fluctuating magnetic field due to the harmonic current or eddy current due to normal slot harmonics, sufficient study on eddy current loss is necessary for designs to prevent such performance drop. Eddy current analysis is under investigation by 3-D FEM for various size and shape magnets. The analysis example of an eddy current density distribution is illustrated for the one-pole section of the magnet stuck on a rotor surface which is divided into 4 parts along a rotor periphery. More precise analysis of such eddy current loss is scheduled for higher-reliability product design. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Comparing a current-carrying circular wire with polygons of equal perimeter: magnetic field versus magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2005-09-01

    We compare the magnetic field at the centre and the self-magnetic flux through a current-carrying circular loop, with those obtained for current-carrying polygons with the same perimeter. As the magnetic field diverges at the position of the wires, we compare the self-fluxes utilizing several regularization procedures. The calculation is best performed utilizing the vector potential, thus highlighting its usefulness in practical applications. Our analysis answers some of the intuition challenges students face when they encounter a related simple textbook example. These results can be applied directly to the determination of mutual inductances in a variety of situations.

  5. Analysis of recoverable current from one component of magnetic flux density in MREIT and MRCDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chunjae; Lee, Byung Il; Kwon, Oh In

    2007-06-01

    Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) provides a current density image by measuring the induced magnetic flux density within the subject with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) has been focused on extracting some useful information of the current density and conductivity distribution in the subject Omega using measured B(z), one component of the magnetic flux density B. In this paper, we analyze the map Tau from current density vector field J to one component of magnetic flux density B(z) without any assumption on the conductivity. The map Tau provides an orthogonal decomposition J = J(P) + J(N) of the current J where J(N) belongs to the null space of the map Tau. We explicitly describe the projected current density J(P) from measured B(z). Based on the decomposition, we prove that B(z) data due to one injection current guarantee a unique determination of the isotropic conductivity under assumptions that the current is two-dimensional and the conductivity value on the surface is known. For a two-dimensional dominating current case, the projected current density J(P) provides a good approximation of the true current J without accumulating noise effects. Numerical simulations show that J(P) from measured B(z) is quite similar to the target J. Biological tissue phantom experiments compare J(P) with the reconstructed J via the reconstructed isotropic conductivity using the harmonic B(z) algorithm.

  6. Improved Eddy-current Field Loss Model and Scaling Index for Magnets of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives detailed systematic researches on the mechanism and key factors of eddy-current losses in rotor magnets of high power-density permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSMs. Firstly, this paper establishes quantitative mathematic model of eddy-current losses for surface-mounted PMSM based on eddy current field model and Maxwell equations. Then, a scaling index is put forward to weigh the key factors relevant to the eddy-current losses in magnets. At the same time, the principles of eddy-current losses in prototype PMSM are analyzed by the finite element analysis (FEA software. The contents researched in the paper have practical reference values for design and reliability analysis of PMSMs.

  7. Simulation of Eddy Current Sensor Testing of Sheet Steel with Inner Air Holes%涡流传感器检测薄板内气孔型缺陷的三维仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭书涛; 陈建钧; 潘红良

    2012-01-01

    AbBased on the theory of electromagnetic-field, the calculation model of magnetic fields generated by detecting coil is deduced. This paper simulates the magnetic-field of eddy current testing of sheet steel with inner air holes. The aim is to determine the best drive frequency of testing the sheet steel by simulating the small air hole near the lower surface. According to the air hole with different diameter and different depth, analysis is made of the change rule of amplitude and phase of corresponding impedance. The result that we got is identical to the theory of electromagnetic-field, this can provide a meaningful reference and analysis method for the quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis of eddy current testing.%根据电磁场理论,推导出检测线圈所产生磁场的计算模型。采用ANSYS有限元软件,对涡流检测薄板内气孔型缺陷的磁场进行了数值模拟。通过仿真靠近下表面的小气孔,来确定检测该薄板的最佳激励频率。针对不同直径、不同深度的气孔,分析对应的阻抗改变值的幅值和相位角的变化规律。得出的结果与理论相吻合,可以为涡流检测的定量定性分析提供有意义的参考依据和分析方法。

  8. Fourier transform magnetic resonance current density imaging (FT-MRCDI) from one component of magnetic flux density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ider, Yusuf Ziya; Birgul, Ozlem; Oran, Omer Faruk; Arikan, Orhan; Hamamura, Mark J; Muftuler, L Tugan

    2010-06-01

    Fourier transform (FT)-based algorithms for magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) from one component of magnetic flux density have been developed for 2D and 3D problems. For 2D problems, where current is confined to the xy-plane and z-component of the magnetic flux density is measured also on the xy-plane inside the object, an iterative FT-MRCDI algorithm is developed by which both the current distribution inside the object and the z-component of the magnetic flux density on the xy-plane outside the object are reconstructed. The method is applied to simulated as well as actual data from phantoms. The effect of measurement error on the spatial resolution of the current density reconstruction is also investigated. For 3D objects an iterative FT-based algorithm is developed whereby the projected current is reconstructed on any slice using as data the Laplacian of the z-component of magnetic flux density measured for that slice. In an injected current MRCDI scenario, the current is not divergence free on the boundary of the object. The method developed in this study also handles this situation.

  9. Analysis and experiment of eddy current loss in Homopolar magnetic bearings with laminated rotor cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinji, Sun; Dong, Chen

    2013-08-01

    This paper analyses the eddy current loss in Homopolar magnetic bearings with laminated rotor cores produced by the high speed rotation in order to reduce the power loss for the aerospace applications. The analytical model of rotational power loss is proposed in Homopolar magnetic bearings with laminated rotor cores considering the magnetic circuit difference between Homopolar and Heteropolar magnetic bearings. Therefore, the eddy current power loss can be calculated accurately using the analytical model by magnetic field solutions according to the distribution of magnetic fields around the pole surface and boundary conditions at the surface of the rotor cores. The measurement method of rotational power loss in Homopolar magnetic bearing is proposed, and the results of the theoretical analysis are verified by experiments in the prototype MSCMG. The experimental results show the correctness of calculation results.

  10. Simulating net particle production and chiral magnetic current in a CP-odd domain

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We elucidate the numerical formulation to simulate net production of particles and anomalous currents with CP-breaking background fields which cause an imbalance of particles over anti-particles. For a concrete demonstration we numerically impose pulsed electric and magnetic fields to observe that the dynamical chiral magnetic current follows together with the net particle production. The produced particle density is quantitatively consistent with the axial anomaly, while the chiral magnetic current is suppressed by a delay before the the onset of the current generation.

  11. Magnetization switching of a metallic nanomagnet via current-induced surface spin-polarization of an underlying topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory.

  12. Magnetization switching of a metallic nanomagnet via current-induced surface spin-polarization of an underlying topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-04-01

    We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory.

  13. A linearly controlled direct-current power source for high-current inductive loads in a magnetic suspension wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, John S.; Daniels, Taumi S.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley 6 inch magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) requires an independently controlled bidirectional DC power source for each of six positioning electromagnets. These electromagnets provide five-degree-of-freedom control over a suspended aerodynamic test model. Existing power equipment, which employs resistance coupled thyratron controlled rectifiers as well as AC to DC motor generator converters, is obsolete, inefficient, and unreliable. A replacement six phase bidirectional controlled bridge rectifier is proposed, which employs power MOSFET switches sequenced by hybrid analog/digital circuits. Full load efficiency is 80 percent compared to 25 percent for the resistance coupled thyratron system. Current feedback provides high control linearity, adjustable current limiting, and current overload protection. A quenching circuit suppresses inductive voltage impulses. It is shown that 20 kHz interference from positioning magnet power into MSBS electromagnetic model position sensors results predominantly from capacitively coupled electric fields. Hence, proper shielding and grounding techniques are necessary. Inductively coupled magnetic interference is negligible.

  14. A linearly controlled direct-current power source for high-current inductive loads in a magnetic suspension wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, John S.; Daniels, Taumi S.

    1990-08-01

    The NASA Langley 6 inch magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) requires an independently controlled bidirectional DC power source for each of six positioning electromagnets. These electromagnets provide five-degree-of-freedom control over a suspended aerodynamic test model. Existing power equipment, which employs resistance coupled thyratron controlled rectifiers as well as AC to DC motor generator converters, is obsolete, inefficient, and unreliable. A replacement six phase bidirectional controlled bridge rectifier is proposed, which employs power MOSFET switches sequenced by hybrid analog/digital circuits. Full load efficiency is 80 percent compared to 25 percent for the resistance coupled thyratron system. Current feedback provides high control linearity, adjustable current limiting, and current overload protection. A quenching circuit suppresses inductive voltage impulses. It is shown that 20 kHz interference from positioning magnet power into MSBS electromagnetic model position sensors results predominantly from capacitively coupled electric fields. Hence, proper shielding and grounding techniques are necessary. Inductively coupled magnetic interference is negligible.

  15. Magnetization oscillations induced by spin current in a paramagnetic disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slachter, Abraham; van Wees, Bart Jan

    2011-01-01

    When electron spins are injected uniformly into a paramagnetic disk, they can precess along the demagnetizing field induced by the resulting magnetic moment. Normally this precession damps out by virtue of the spin relaxation, which is present in paramagnetic materials. We propose a mechanism to exc

  16. Effect of the external field on the soft magnetic properties and microstructure of directly cast Fe75P8.7B5C7Si4.3 nanocrystalline sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. W.; Lin, Y. Y.; Chang, H. W.; Lee, Y. I.; Chang, W. C.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    A new method to fabricate soft magnetic bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by an injection casting with applying external magnetic field during solidification has been developed. The effect of applying magnetic fields (Ha) on soft magnetic properties and microstructure of Fe75P8.7B5C7Si4.3 alloy sheets with dimension of t × 4 mm × 15 mm (t = 1-3 mm) have been studied. The microstructure shows that the fully amorphous is attained by the applying magnetic field even at the core region of the thicker sheets with t = 3 mm. All studied sheets exhibit similar saturation magnetization of 1.23-1.25 T, but the coercivity and resistivity are strongly dependent on the thickness t and the strength of magnetic field Ha, where Hc increases with t, the slope of Hc versus t decreases with the increase of Ha, and the resistivity increases with the increase of Ha. The changes of coercivity and resistivity are strongly related to the fully amorphous induced by Ha. The external magnetic field has significant improvement in glass forming ability, and thus coercivity and resistivity for the studied sheet, especially for larger t = 3 mm. This study suggests that applying a magnetic field during the casting process provides a useful way to produce high-performance magnetically soft Fe-based BMGs.

  17. Current status and future outlook for bonded neodymium permanent magnets (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croat, J. J.

    1997-04-01

    Bonded neodymium magnets can provide significant size and weight reduction and/or performance enhancement over sintered and, particularly, bonded ferrite permanent magnets and, moreover, provide these benefits at reasonable cost. Primarily for these reasons, these bonded magnets are now used in a wide and growing range of computer peripheral, office automation, and consumer electronic applications and now constitute the fastest growing segment of the permanent magnet market. The current status of these materials will be reviewed. Included is a brief overview of the manufacture of these magnetically isotropic magnets and a discussion of their unique properties and features from the perspective of both bonded magnet producer and user. Major applications are discussed as are some of the factors that will drive the market for these materials in the future. New technical developments, including the status and outlook for anisotropic bonded materials, high remanance isotropic materials and high temperature bonded magnets will also be discussed.

  18. The role of currents distribution in general relativistic equilibria of magnetized neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N; Del Zanna, L

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a critical role in the phenomenology of neutron stars. There is virtually no observable aspect which is not governed by them. Despite this, only recently efforts have been done to model magnetic fields in the correct general relativistic regime, characteristic of these compact objects. In this work we present, for the first time a comprehensive and detailed parameter study, in general relativity, of the role that the current distribution, and the related magnetic field structure, have in determining the precise structure of neutron stars. In particular, we show how the presence of localized currents can modify the field strength at the stellar surface, and we look for general trends, both in terms of energetic properties, and magnetic field configurations. Here we verify that, among other things, for a large class of different current distributions the resulting magnetic configurations are always dominated by the poloidal component of the current.

  19. Current Singularities at Quasi-Separatrix Layers and Three-Dimensional Magnetic Nulls

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, I J D

    2014-01-01

    The open problem of how singular current structures form in line-tied, three-dimensional magnetic fields is addressed. A Lagrangian magneto-frictional relaxation method is employed to model the field evolution towards the final near-singular state. Our starting point is an exact force-free solution of the governing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations which is sufficiently general to allow for topological features like magnetic nulls to be inside or outside the computational domain, depending on a simple set of parameters. Quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) are present in these structures and together with the magnetic nulls, they significantly influence the accumulation of current. It is shown that perturbations affecting the lateral boundaries of the configuration lead not only to collapse around the magnetic null, but also to significant QSL currents. Our results show that once a magnetic null is present, the developing currents are always attracted to that specific location and show a much stronger scaling wit...

  20. All-electric-controlled spin current switching in single-molecule magnet-tunnel junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zheng-Zhong; Shen Rui; Sheng Li; Wang Rui-Qiang; Wang Bai-Gen; Xing Ding-Yu

    2011-01-01

    A single-molecule magnet (SMM)coupled to two normal metallic electrodes can both switch spin-up and spindown electronic currents within two different windows of SMM gate voltage. Such spin current switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selected single electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. Since it is not magnetically controlled but all-electrically controlled, the proposed spin current switching effect may have potential applications in future spintronics.

  1. Effects of magnetic core geometry on false detection in residual current sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble INPG UJF-CNRS UMR 5529, 38400 Saint Martin d' Heres (France) and Schneider-Electric, Rue Pierre Mendes France, 38320 Eybens (France)]. E-mail: bruno.colin@leg.ensieg.inpg.fr; Chillet, Christian [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble INPG UJF-CNRS UMR 5529, 38400 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Kedous-Lebouc, Afef [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble INPG UJF-CNRS UMR 5529, 38400 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Mas, Patrick [Schneider-Electric, Rue Pierre Mendes France, 38320 Eybens (France)

    2006-09-15

    Under high-supply current, residual circuit breakers are subject to abnormal tripping, caused by false residual currents. Geometric or magnetic anomalies in the circuit breaker ring core seem to be responsible for these abnormal currents. This paper studies a few anomalies (spiral shape effect, conductor eccentricity, lamination effect) and calculates different contributions using the finite element simulations. The results show that the ring core, made of thin wound magnetic tape, is particularly sensitive to primary conductor eccentricity.

  2. An Identification Method of Magnetizing Inrush Current Phenomena in Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Naoki; Toyama, Atushi; Satoh, Kohki; Naitoh, Tadashi; Masaki, Kazuyuki

    In high voltage distribution systems, there are many power quality troubles due to voltage dips. Otherwise, a magnetizing inrush current causes the voltage dip. To suppress voltage dips, it is necessary to identify the magnetizing inrush current phenomena. In this paper, the authors propose a new identification method. The principles are that the saturation start/end flux is equal and the inrush current pattern exists. And to avoid a interfere with saturation area overlap; the rectangular coordinate method is adopted.

  3. The stabilize of current of load by redistribution of magnetic fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. I. Tinsky

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The supply transformer must have step up characteristic to stabilize the current of the electrical arc, when voltage and distance between coals of electrical arc are changed. The curves of the transformer voltage are parallel when the supply voltage is varied, therefore the load current is not constant. To stabilize the load current it is necessary to redistribute magnetic flux between the first pivot and magnetic pivot. The vector diagram of the reactive transformer for nominal regime is obtained

  4. Theory of spin current in magnetic nanopillars for zero-field microwave generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D M [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Mathon, J [Department of Mathematics, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-23

    In a magnetic nanopillar, microwave oscillations of the magnetization of one magnetic layer can be driven by spin-polarized current emitted from another magnetic layer. The conditions for this to occur in zero applied field are formulated in terms of the two components of the spin-transfer torque. One simple route to achieve microwave generation is to ensure that these components have opposite sign. Quantum-mechanical calculations are presented that show how this may be achieved by a suitable choice of the oscillating magnet thickness.

  5. Torque analysis and measurements of a permanent magnet type Eddy current brake with a Halbach magnet array based on analytical magnetic field calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Gyu; Choi, Jang-Young; Shin, Hyeon-Jae; Jang, Seok-Myeong

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the torque analysis and measurements of a permanent magnet (PM) type eddy current brake (ECB) with a Halbach magnet array based on analytical magnetic field calculations. On the basis of a magnetic vector potential and using a two-dimensional (2D) polar coordinate system, the analytical solution for magnetic flux density, including the eddy current reaction is evaluated. Based on these solutions, the magnetic torque is also determined analytically. A 2D finite element analysis is employed to validate the method used. Practical issues in the analytical study of the PM type ECBs, such as the maximum braking torque, the required rotor speed, and the segment-dependent, are fully discussed. Finally, the braking torque as a function of the rotor speed is measured to verify the results of the analytical study.

  6. Roles of the magnetic field and electric current in thermally activated domain wall motion in a submicrometer magnetic strip with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emori, Satoru; Beach, Geoffrey S D

    2012-01-18

    We have experimentally studied micrometer-scale domain wall (DW) motion driven by a magnetic field and an electric current in a Co/Pt multilayer strip with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The thermal activation energy for DW motion, along with its scaling with the driving field and current, has been extracted directly from the temperature dependence of the DW velocity. The injection of DC current resulted in an enhancement of the DW velocity independent of the current polarity, but produced no measurable change in the activation energy barrier. Through this analysis, the observed current-induced DW velocity enhancement can be entirely and unambiguously attributed to Joule heating.

  7. The role of current loop in harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials in two polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedian, Iman; Kim, Inki; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of current loop in the generation of second and third harmonic signals from magnetic metamaterials and we are clarifying why two polarized harmonics are generated from magnetic metamaterials. We show that the current loop formed in the magnetic resonant frequency acts as a source for nonlinear effects. The current loop that has a circular shape can be divided into two orthogonal parts, where each of these parts acts as a source for generating a harmonic signal parallel to itself. The type of harmonic signal is determined by the metamaterial's inversion symmetry in that direction. This claim is also supported by the experimental results of another group.

  8. RESULTS OF CALCULATION-EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ELECTRO-THERMAL RESISTIBILITY OF SHEET STEEL SAMPLES TO ACTION OF RATIONED COMPONENTS OF PULSED CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental researches of the electro-thermal resistibility of the steel sheet samples to action standard pulse current components of the artificial lightning with amplitude-time parameters (ATP, corresponded the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high tensions and large impulsive currents (LIC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of devices of high-voltage impulsive technique and measuring in them LIC. Сurrent amplitude ImA=±200 kA (with a tolerance of ±10 %; current action integral JA=2∙106 A2•s (with a tolerance of ±20 %; time, corresponding to the amplitude of the current ImA, tmA≤50 microseconds; the duration of the current flow τpA≤500 microseconds. Results. The results of the evaluation of the calculated and experimental studies of electro-thermal resistance of the samples of plates measuring 0,5 m  0,5 m stainless steel 1 mm thickness to the action on them artificial lightning impulse currents with rationed ATP on the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. A pulse A- component have a first amplitude 192 kA, the corresponding time of 34 μs, and the duration aperiodic component amplitude 804 A, corresponding to the time 9 ms. It has been shown that the long C- component current of artificial lightning can lead to keyhole these samples. The diameter of the holes in this thin steel sheet, which is formed during the flow of current C- components can reach 15 mm. The results of calculation and experiment agree within 28 %. Originality. For the first time in world practice on the generator large pulsed currents experimental studies of resistibility of sheet steel samples to the action of artificial lightning currents with critical parameters. Practical value. Using the results obtained in the practice of lightning protection will significantly improve the

  9. Electric currents in the solar atmosphere in the presence of magnetic null points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Santos, Jean; Büchner, Jörg; Otto, Antonius

    So far the role of magnetic null points in 3D reconnection was investigated mainly for the close vicinity of the null, with perturbations being applied at the nearby boundaries. In the solar atmosphere, however, electric currents are generated due to perturbations originating at the photosphere, far a way from coronal 3D nulls. We investigate the consequences of photospheric motion for the development of electric cur-rents in a coronal magnetic field configuration containing a null, located far away from the boundaries, and the influence of topological structures on their spatial distribution. We use a 3D resistive MHD code to investigate the consequences of photospheric plasma motion for the generation of currents in a coronal magnetic field containing a null. The plasma is consid-ered fully compressible and is initially in hydrostatic equilibrium. The initial magnetic field is current free (potential). Initially the photospheric plasma motion creates a magnetic field perturbation that propagates to the corona along the field lines at the local Alfvén speed. The shear Alfvenic wave pertur-e bation corresponds to a propagating current. The currents are mainly parallel to the magnetic field. The perturbations starting close to the foot points of the field lines that connect to the null eventually reach the vicinity of the null. Since the local Alfvén speed decreases as we approach the magnetic null point, the perturbations of the magnetic field never reach the null. Meanwhile, strong currents develop around the null point where the perturbations reach the intersection of two separatrices. On those regions, when there is an appropriate perturbation, a shear of the magnetic field is created in a length scale much smaller than the characteristic length scale of the system, generating a strong current channel.

  10. Current-driven magnetic domain wall motion and its real-time detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kab-Jin; Yoshimura, Yoko; Ono, Teruo

    2017-08-01

    Current-controlled magnetic domain wall motion has opened the possibility of a novel type of shift register memory device, which has been optimistically predicted to replace existing magnetic memories. Owing to this promising prospect, intensive work has been carried out during the last few decades. In this article, we first review the progress in the study of current-induced magnetic domain wall motion. Underlying mechanisms behind the domain wall motion, which have been discovered during last few decades, as well as technological achievements are presented. We then present our recent experimental results on the real-time detection of current-driven multiple magnetic domain wall motion, which directly demonstrates the operation of a magnetic domain wall shift register.

  11. The magnetic shear-current effect: generation of large-scale magnetic fields by the small-scale dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-04-01

    > A novel large-scale dynamo mechanism, the magnetic shear-current effect, is discussed and explored. The effect relies on the interaction of magnetic fluctuations with a mean shear flow, meaning the saturated state of the small-scale dynamo can drive a large-scale dynamo - in some sense the inverse of dynamo quenching. The dynamo is non-helical, with the mean field coefficient zero, and is caused by the interaction between an off-diagonal component of the turbulent resistivity and the stretching of the large-scale field by shear flow. Following up on previous numerical and analytic work, this paper presents further details of the numerical evidence for the effect, as well as an heuristic description of how magnetic fluctuations can interact with shear flow to produce the required electromotive force. The pressure response of the fluid is fundamental to this mechanism, which helps explain why the magnetic effect is stronger than its kinematic cousin, and the basic idea is related to the well-known lack of turbulent resistivity quenching by magnetic fluctuations. As well as being interesting for its applications to general high Reynolds number astrophysical turbulence, where strong small-scale magnetic fluctuations are expected to be prevalent, the magnetic shear-current effect is a likely candidate for large-scale dynamo in the unstratified regions of ionized accretion disks. Evidence for this is discussed, as well as future research directions and the challenges involved with understanding details of the effect in astrophysically relevant regimes.

  12. Current investigations into magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Jianrong; Aifantis, Katerina E; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2016-05-01

    It is generally recognized that nanoparticles possess unique physicochemical properties that are largely different from those of conventional materials, specifically the electromagnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). These properties have attracted many researchers to launch investigations into their potential biomedical applications, which have been reviewed in this article. First, common types of MNPs were briefly introduced. Then, the biomedical applications of MNPs were reviewed in seven parts: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cancer therapy, the delivery of drugs and genes, bone and dental repair, tissue engineering, biosensors, and in other aspects, which indicated that MNPs possess great potentials for many kinds of biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Although lots of achievements have been obtained, there is still a lot of work to do. New synthesis techniques and methods are still needed to develop the MNPs with satisfactory biocompatibility. More effective methods need to be exploited to prepare MNPs-based composites with fine microstructures and high biomedical performances. Other promising research points include the development of more appropriate techniques of experiments both in vitro and in vivo to detect and analyze the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MNPs and understand the possible influencing mechanism of the two properties. More comprehensive investigations into the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of composites containing MNPs with "core-shell" structure and deeper understanding and further study into the properties of MNPs to reveal their new biomedical applications, are also described in the conclusion and perspectives part.

  13. The Current Distribution in Bi-2223/Ag HTS Conductors: Comparing Hall Probe and Magnetic Knife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demencik, E.; Dhalle, M.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Polak, M.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the current distribution in three Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different filament lay-out, comparing the results of magnetic knife and Hall probe experiments. Detailed knowledge of the current distribution can be useful for the diagnostics of HTS conductors. The lateral current distribution was

  14. Magnetic Flux Fluctuations Due to Eddy Currents and Thermal Noise in Metallic Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunbajakau, S.; Rijpma, A.P.; Dolfsma, J.; Krooshoop, H.J.G.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Peters, M.J.; Rogalla, H.

    2003-01-01

    We derive expressions for the magnetic flux in a circular loop due to eddy currents and thermal noise in coaxial metallic disks. The eddy currents are induced by an applied field that changes sinusoidally in time. We give expressions for the eddy current noise when the frequency of the applied field

  15. Magnetic Flux Fluctuations Due to Eddy Currents and Thermal Noise in Metallic Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunbajakau, S.; Rijpma, A.P.; Dolfsma, J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Peters, M.J.; Rogalla, Horst

    2003-01-01

    We derive expressions for the magnetic flux in a circular loop due to eddy currents and thermal noise in coaxial metallic disks. The eddy currents are induced by an applied field that changes sinusoidally in time. We give expressions for the eddy current noise when the frequency of the applied field

  16. Residual magnetic field profiles and their current density profiles of coated conductors for fast and slow cut-off current operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Taillouli, M.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Shyshkin, O. [V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Coated conductor is an important candidate for power cable applications due to its high current density. Even for DC power cable transmission, we must study the transport properties of HTS tapes after slow and fast discharge. In order to evaluate relation of the magnetic field with applied current we developed a scanning magnetic field measurements system by employing a Hall probe. This work presents the measurements of the magnetic fields above a coated conductor by varying applied current pattern. In the work, a transport current of 100 A, less than the critical current, is applied to YBCO coated conductor. We measured the residual magnetic field distributions after cut off the transport current with slow and fast operations. The results show differences of the magnetic field profiles and the corresponding current profiles by an inverse solution from the magnetic field measurement between these two operations because of the hysteresis of coated conductor excited by the transport current.

  17. Two-dimensional electric current effects on a magnetized plasma in contact with a surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumack, A. E.; de Blank, H. J.; Westerhout, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Significant electric fields both parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field have been observed and modeled self-consistently in an ITER divertor relevant plasma–wall experiment. Due to magnetization, electric current is found to penetrate the plasma beam outside of the cascaded arc plasma source

  18. The effect of magnetic field annealing on the texture of 2nd recrystallization for a deformed Fe-3.2% Si steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Geol; Part, Su Dong; Kim, Shang Shu

    2004-12-01

    The effects of deformation on 2nd recrystallization behavior with or without magnetic field for a 1st recrystallized electrical steel sheet have been investigated. Annealing temperatures (800, 1000 °C) and cold-rolling rates (50, 70 %) were experimental parameters. A magnetic field of 5 T using a superconducting magnet at a heating rate of 15 °C/min was applied in a direction parallel to the rolling direction. The intensity of α-fiber was increased due to the deformation and, in particular, the formation of {100} component was tremendous. Considerable formation of {001} component was also found. At 800 °C, α-fiber was developed rapidly due to deformation, and η-fiber was also formed in the components {100} and {110} The effect of magnetic field annealing was more significant at 800 °C, while the effect at 1000 °C was negligible. These results are discussed in a phenomenological context considering the atomic fluctuation and magnetic induction depending on annealing temperature and magnetic field.

  19. New theorem of classical electromagnetism: equilibrium magnetic field and current density are zero inside ideal conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Fiolhais, Miguel C N; Providencia, C; Nordmark, Arne B

    2010-01-01

    We prove a theorem on the magnetic energy minimum in a system of perfect, or ideal, conductors. It is analogous to Thomson's theorem on the equilibrium electric field and charge distribution in a system of conductors. We first prove Thomson's theorem using a variational principle. Our new theorem is then derived by similar methods. We find that magnetic energy is minimized when the current distribution is a surface current density with zero interior magnetic field; perfect conductors are perfectly diamagnetic. The results agree with currents in superconductors being confined near the surface. The theorem implies a generalized force that expels current and magnetic field from the interior of a conductor that loses its resistivity. Examples of solutions that obey the theorem are presented.

  20. Magnetic guide of cold atoms using a U-shaped current-carrying conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 印建平

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new scheme to magnetically guide cold neutral atoms using a U-shaped current carrying conductor.The spatial magnetic field distribution from the U-shaped current-carrying conductor and the relationship between the magnetic field and parameters of the U-shaped conductor are analysed.Our study shows that U-shaped current-carrying conductor can be used to realize single-or double-channel magnetic guiding of cold atoms in weak-field-seeking states and to construct wrious atom-optical elements.By using Monte Carlo simulations,the dynamic process of the guided atomic-beam splitting in an atomic-beam splitter composed by the U-shaped current-carrying conductor is studied,and some results are presented.

  1. The Magnetic and Shielding Effects of Ring Current on Radiation Belt Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The ring current plays many key roles in controlling magnetospheric dynamics. A well-known example is the magnetic depression produced by the ring current, which alters the drift paths of radiation belt electrons and may cause significant electron flux dropout. Little attention is paid to the ring current shielding effect on radiation belt dynamics. A recent simulation study that combines the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) with the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has revealed that the ring current-associated shielding field directly and/or indirectly weakens the relativistic electron flux increase during magnetic storms. In this talk, we will discuss how ring current magnetic field and electric shielding moderate the radiation belt enhancement.

  2. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving ...

  3. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used in ...

  4. Symmetry ensemble theory of the spin wave emitting effect driven by current in nanoscale magnetic multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Min; Zhang Lei; Hu Jiu-Ning; Dong Hao; Deng Ning; Chen Pei-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a symmetry ensemble model for the magnetic dynamics caused by spin transfer torque in nanoscale pseudo-spin-valves, in which individual spin moments in the free layer are considered as subsystems to form a spinor ensemble. The magnetization dynamics equation of the ensemble was developed. By analytically investigating the equation, many magnetization dynamics properties excited by polarized current reported in experiments, such as double spin wave modes and the abrupt frequency jump, can be successfully explained. It is pointed out that an external field is not necessary for spin wave emitting (SWE) and a novel perpendicular configuration structure can provide much higher SWE efficiency in zero magnetic field.

  5. Measurement of induced magnetic flux density using injection current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) in MREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chunjae; Lee, Byung Il; Kwon, Ohin; Woo, Eung Je

    2007-02-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) measures induced magnetic flux densities subject to externally injected currents in order to visualize conductivity distributions inside an electrically conducting object. Injection currents induce magnetic flux densities that appear in phase parts of acquired MR image data. In the conventional current injection method, we inject currents during the time segment between the end of the first RF pulse and the beginning of the reading gradient in order to ensure the gradient linearity. Noting that longer current injections can accumulate more phase changes, we propose a new pulse sequence called injection current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) where the duration of the injection current pulse is extended until the end of the reading gradient. Since the current injection during the reading gradient disturbs the gradient linearity, we first analyze the MR signal produced by the ICNE pulse sequence and suggest a novel algorithm to extract the induced magnetic flux density from the acquired MR signal. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments show that the new method is clearly advantageous in terms of the reduced noise level in measured magnetic flux density data. The amount of noise reduction depends on the choice of the data acquisition time and it was about 24% when we used a prolonged data acquisition time of 10.8 ms. The ICNE method will enhance the clinical applicability of the MREIT technique when it is combined with an appropriate phase artefact minimization method.

  6. Potential Magnetic Field around a Helical Flux-rope Current Structure in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Petrie, G J D

    2007-01-01

    We consider the potential magnetic field associated with a helical electric line current flow, idealizing the near-potential coronal field within which a highly localized twisted current structure is embedded. It is found that this field has a significant axial component off the helical magnetic axis where there is no current flow, such that the flux winds around the axis. The helical line current field, in including the effects of flux rope writhe, is therefore more topologically complex than straight line and ring current fields sometimes used in solar flux rope models. The axial flux in magnetic fields around confined current structures may be affected by the writhe of these current structures such that the field twists preferentially with the same handedness as the writhe. This property of fields around confined current structures with writhe may be relevant to classes of coronal magnetic flux rope, including structures observed to have sigmoidal forms in soft X-rays and prominence magnetic fields. For ex...

  7. Simulation of the magnetic field generated by wires with stationary current and magnets with constant magnetization applied to the mirror trap, minimum-B and zero-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M. T.; Otero, O.

    2016-02-01

    As a contribution to the computational simulation of magnetic confinement and heating of plasmas ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance), this work is dedicated to the calculation and subsequent analysis of the magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets and coils required in magnetic traps between which we can mention the mirror trap, minimum- B and zero-B. To do this, we solved numerically the Biot-Savart law in the case of the coils with stationary current and the Ampere law in the case of the permanent magnets. The study includes the characterization of the ECR areas as well as the display of the vector field all of this applied to the magnetic traps mentioned above. Additionally, in the case of the mirror type trap and minimum-B trap, it is determined the ratio of the mirror, because it is important in the description of confinement.

  8. Two New Theories for the Current Charge Relativity and the Electric Origin of the Magnetic Force Between Two Filamentary Current Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Shadid, Waseem G T

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents two new theories and a new current representation to explain the magnetic force between two filamentary current elements as a result of electric force interactions between current charges. The first theory states that a current has an electric charge relative to its moving observer. The second theory states that the magnetic force is an electric force in origin. The new current representation characterizes a current as equal amounts of positive and negative point charges moving in opposite directions at the speed of light. Previous work regarded electricity and magnetism as different aspects of the same subject. One effort was made by Johnson to unify the origin of electricity and magnetism, but this effort yielded a formula that is unequal to the well-known magnetic force law. The explanation provided for the magnetic force depends on three factors: 1) representing the electric current as charges moving at the speed of light, 2) considering the relative velocity between moving charges, an...

  9. Enhancement of critical current in mesoscopic superconducting strips by external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Luck, Yannick; Fuchs, Lea; Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Current crowding in superconducting mesoscopic strips with bends results in decrease of critical current in these structures with respect to the strips without geometrical non-uniformities. Recently it has been shown that Meissner currents induced by externally applied magnetic field of appropriate direction allow to suppress this effect so that I{sub c}(B) can exceed I{sub c}(0). Experimental dependencies of critical current in mesoscopic bended strips made from ultra-thin superconducting films on externally applied magnetic field and their comparison to the theoretical predictions are presented and discussed.

  10. Effects of a spin-polarized current assisted Ørsted field in magnetization patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Oleksii M., E-mail: alexey@volkov.ca; Sheka, Denis D. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Mertens, Franz G. [Physics Institute, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    A spin-polarized electrical current leads to a variety of periodical magnetic structures in nanostripes. In the presence of the Ørsted field, which always assists an electrical current, the basic types of magnetic structures, i.e., a vortex-antivortex crystal and cross-tie domain walls, survive. The Ørsted field prevents saturation of the nanostripe and a longitudinal domain wall appears instead. Possible magnetization structures in stripes with different geometrical and material properties are studied numerically and analytically.

  11. Detection of fiber damage in a graphite epoxy composite using current injection and magnetic field mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, T. N.; Yost, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    A novel NDE technique is reported for detecting fiber disruptions in graphite-epoxy composites. The technique involves injecting electric current along the graphite fibers of a composite and measuring the resulting magnetic fields. The disruptions in current paths, which occur in areas of fiber damage, are detectable as perturbations in the magnetic field. The experimental setup, the measurements, and the magnetic images of experimental samples are presented. A resistive model has been developed to be used in the modeling of two-dimensional conductivity patterns in graphite composites. Diagrams of the setup and the circuitry are included.

  12. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    . Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling...... in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterising the tail current intensity...

  13. Magnetic signatures of ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems during geomagnetic quiet conditions - An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    High-precision magnetic measurements taken by LEO satellites (flying at altitudes between 300 and 800 km) allow for studying the ionosphericand magnetospheric processes and electric currents that causes only weak magnetic signature of a few nanotesla during geomagnetic quiet conditions....... Of particular importance for this endeavour are multipoint observationsin space, such as provided by the Swarm satellite constellation mission, inorder to better characterize the space-time-structure of the current systems. Focusing on geomagnetic quiet conditions, we provide an overview of ionospheric...... and magnetospheric sources and illustrate their magnetic signatureswith Swarm satellite observations....

  14. Magnetic Signatures of Ionospheric and Magnetospheric Current Systems During Geomagnetic Quiet Conditions—An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    High-precision magnetic measurements taken by LEO satellites (flying at altitudes between 300 and 800 km) allow for studying the ionospheric and magnetospheric processes and electric currents that causes only weak magnetic signature of a few nanotesla during geomagnetic quiet conditions. Of particular importance for this endeavour are multipoint observations in space, such as provided by the Swarm satellite constellation mission, in order to better characterize the space-time-structure of the current systems. Focusing on geomagnetic quiet conditions, we provide an overview of ionospheric and magnetospheric sources and illustrate their magnetic signatures with Swarm satellite observations.

  15. Effects of Magnetic Flux Circulation on Radiation Belt and Ring Current Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E. J.; Fok, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) determines the location of the dayside merging line and the magnetic flux circulation patterns. Magnetic flux circulation determines the amount of energy which enters the magnetosphere and ionosphere. We use the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) code to simulate both idealized and real solar wind cases. We use several satellites to validate the LFM simulation results for the real solar wind case studies. With these cases, we examine the magnetic flux circulation under differing IMF orientations. We also use the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model to examine the inner magnetospheric response to the orientation of the IMF. We will present the different magnetic flux circulation patterns and the resulting effects on the radiation belt and ring current population.

  16. The Origin and Structure of the Magnetic Fields and Currents of AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gabuzda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews observational evidence obtained to date about the overall structure of the magnetic fields in the jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. Because they are sensitive to the line-of-sight magnetic-field component, Faraday rotation observations of AGN jets provide an effective tool for searching for toroidal jet magnetic fields, whose line-of-sight component changes systematically across the jet. Transverse Faraday rotation measure (RM gradients providing direct evidence for helical/toroidal magnetic fields have been reliably detected in nearly 40 AGN on parsec scales. Helical magnetic fields are believed to form due to the combined action of the rotation of the central black hole and accretion disk, and these observations demonstrate that at least some of this helical field survives to distances well beyond the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI core. Observations of reversals in the direction of the transverse RM gradients in a number of AGN provide evidence for a“return”magnetic field forming a nested helical-field structure with oppositely directed azimuthal components in the inner and outer regions of the helical magnetic field. The collected data now provide firm evidence for a predominance of inward jet currents on parsec scales and outward currents on scales greater than a few tens of parsecs. This suggests a global pattern of magnetic fields and currents with an inward current near the jet axis and an outward current farther from the jet axis, with these currents closing in the accretion disk and far out in the radio lobes, forming a self-consistent set of fields and currents together with the implied nested helical-field structure.

  17. Experimental Measurement of Asymmetric Fluctuations of Poloidal Magnetic Field in Damavand Tokomak at Different Plasma Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi-Fard, Mahmoud; Alinejad, Naser; Rasouli, Chapar; Sadigzadeh, Asghar

    2012-08-01

    Toroidal and Poloidal magnetic fields have an important effect on the tokomak topology. Damavand Tokomak is a small size tokomak characterized with k = 1.2, B t = 1T, R 0 = 36 cm, maximum plasma current is about 35 KA with a discharge time of 21 ms. In this experimental work, the variation of poloidal magnetic field on the torodial cross section is measured and analyzed. In order to measure the polodial magnetic field, 18 probes were installed on the edge of tokomak plasma with ∆θ = 18°, while a limiter was installed inside the torus. Plasma current, I p, induces a polodial magnetic field, B p, smaller than the torodial magnetic field B t. Magnetic lines B produced as a combination of B t and B p, are localized on the nested toroidal magnetic surfaces. The presence of polodial magnetic field is necessary for particles confinement. Mirnov oscillations are the fluctuations of polodial magnetic field, detected by magnetic probes. Disrupted instability in Tokomak typically starts with mirnov oscillations which appear as fluctuations of polodial magnetic field and is detected by magnetic probes. Minor disruptions inside the plasma can contain principal magnetic islands and their satellites can cause the annihilation of plasma confinement. Production of thin layer of turbulent magnetic field lines cause minor disruption. Magnetic limiter may cause the deformation of symmetric equilibrium configuration and chaotic magnetic islands reveal in plasma occurring in thin region of chaotic field lines close to their separatrix. The width of this chaotic layer in the right side of poloidal profile of Damavand Tokomak is smaller than the width in the left side profile because of Shafranov displacement. Ergodic region in the left side of profile develops a perturbation on the magnetic polodial field lines, B p, that are greater in magnitude than that in the right side, although the values of B p on the left side are smaller than that on the right side of the profile. The Left

  18. Planck Charges, Planck Currents and The Hermitic Shangri-La for Magnetic Monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of Planck charges are summarized and extended in a consistent and unified manner to include Planck currents. These Planck parameters form a set of indicators serving as the boundary markers signaling the buffer zone separating the quantum gravity physics beyond Planck energy scale from the ordinary physics below the Planck scale. Combining the concepts of Planck charges with the Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation, a lower bound is discovered and attributed to the value of magnetic monopole as half of the Planck magnetic monopole. The value of the running electric fine structure constant is required to be confined to a restricted interval to keep physics involving magnetic monopoles below the Planck scale. It provides a prediction about the hermitic Shangri-La, a remote place the magnetic monopoles are inhabiting near the boundary but still within the scope of ordinary physics. It opens a window of hope to the theoretical and/or experimental probe for magnetic monopoles realizing...

  19. Effects of rf current on critical field for magnetization reversal in spin torque devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyu; Florez, Sylvia; Katine, Jordan; Carey, Matthew; Folks, Liesl; Terris, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    Current induced switching assisted by rf current has recently been observed in spin torque devices at low temperature [1, 2]. This effect allows control of spin transfer induced magnetization reversal through the frequency of an injected rf current. In this study, the effects of the rf current injection on critical field for magnetization reversal in spin valve junctions have been investigated. Measurements were conducted at room temperature, and the magnetic field was applied along the easy axis of the junction. An rf current was injected into the nanojunction at various frequencies ranging between 1 and 20 GHz. The dynamic resistance, dV/dI, was measured as a function of the rf frequency, power and the dc bias current while ramping the magnetic field. The rf current injection was observed to change the critical field for free layer magnetization reversal when the intrinsic spin-transfer-induced dynamics is frequency-locked with the injected rf. The results will be discussed in the context of macrospin models of spin transfer in metallic spin valve structures. [1] S. H. Florez et al. Phys. Rev. B 78, 184403 (2008) [2] Y.-T. Cui et al. Phys. Rev. B 77, 214440 (2008)

  20. Electric current variations and 3D magnetic configuration of coronal jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Harra, Louise K.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Guo, Yang; Demoulin, Pascal; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando, , Prof

    Coronal jets (EUV) were observed by SDO/AIA on September 17, 2010. HMI and THEMIS measured the vector magnetic field from which we derived the magnetic flux, the phostospheric velocity and the vertical electric current. The magnetic configuration was computed with a non linear force-free approach. The phostospheric current pattern of the recurrent jets were associated with the quasi-separatrix layers deduced from the magnetic extrapolation. The large twisted near-by Eiffel-tower-shape jet was also caused by reconnection in current layers containing a null point. This jet cannot be classified precisely within either the quiescent or the blowout jet types. We will show the importance of the existence of bald patches in the low atmosphere