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  1. Current advances in orthodontic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Liao, Li-Na; Yang, Xin; Lai, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic pain is an inflammatory pain that is initiated by orthodontic force-induced vascular occlusion followed by a cascade of inflammatory responses, including vascular changes, the recruitment of inflammatory and immune cells, and the release of neurogenic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, endogenous analgesic mechanisms check the inflammatory response and the sensation of pain subsides. The orthodontic pain signal, once received by periodontal sensory endings, reaches the sensory cortex for pain perception through three-order neurons: the trigeminal neuron at the trigeminal ganglia, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis at the medulla oblongata and the ventroposterior nucleus at the thalamus. Many brain areas participate in the emotion, cognition and memory of orthodontic pain, including the insular cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. A built-in analgesic neural pathway—periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe—has an important role in alleviating orthodontic pain. Currently, several treatment modalities have been applied for the relief of orthodontic pain, including pharmacological, mechanical and behavioural approaches and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief has been validated, but its effects on tooth movement are controversial. However, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of other modalities. Furthermore, gene therapy is a novel, viable and promising modality for alleviating orthodontic pain in the future. PMID:27341389

  2. Current deposition profiles in advanced geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    In advanced toroidal devices, plasma shaping can have a significant effect on quantities of interest, including the radio frequency (RF) deposited power and current. Most 2D RF modeling codes use a parameterization of current drive efficiencies to calculate fast wave driven currents. This parameterization is derived from a ray-tracing model in a low-beta model equilibrium. There are difficulties in applying it to a spectrum of waves, and it cannot account for multiple resonances and coherency effects between the electrons and the waves. By evaluating a formulation of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient in an arbitrary inhomogenous geometry with the fields from a full wave code, we address the effects of wave spectra, plasma inhomogeneity, and plasma profile on the evaluation of current deposition profiles. Current profiles are calculated directly from the quasilinear diffusion using the adjoint formulation, with the magnetic equilibrium specified consistently in both the adjoint routine and the full wave code. Results are benchmarked by comparing a power deposition calculation from conductivity to one from the quasilinear expression. RF driven current profiles for various devices, including tokamaks with different aspect ratios, will be presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Frontotemporal dementias: Recent advances and current controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyton Cristian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions characterized by atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes. Three main clinical variants are recognized: Behavioral variant (bv-FTD, Semantic dementia (SD, and Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA. However, logopenic/phonological (LPA variant has been recently described, showing a distinctive pattern of brain atrophy and often associated to Alzheimer′s disease pathology. The diagnosis of FTD is challenging, since there is clinical, pathological, and genetic overlap between the variants and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as motoneuron disease (MND and corticobasal degeneration (CBD. In addition, patients with gene mutations (tau and progranulin display an inconsistent clinical phenotype and the correspondence between the clinical variant and its pathology is unpredictable. New cognitive tests based on social cognition and emotional recognition together with advances in molecular pathology and genetics have contributed to an improved understanding. There is now a real possibility of accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present review concentrates on new insights and debates in FTD.

  5. Review: Current Advances in Gloriosa superba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA K. RAI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa superba L. is an important medicinal plant of Asia and Africa. It is used in diseases, like cancer, gout, scrofula and act as antipyretic, antihelmintic, purgative and antiabortive. It is a source of colchicines and colchicocides, which are very costly, being highly demanded by pharma industries. Due to excessive use of the plant for diverse medicinal purposes the species is on the verge of extinction and included in Red Data Book. The strenuous efforts of botanists, biotechnologists, policy makers and conservationists are required. It is a matter of great concern to conserve this plant otherwise we will be loosing it by 2020.The present review is focused on current status of the genus, source of alkaloids, poisonous nature, the strategies for its conservation and future perspectives of G. superba.

  6. Current advances on polynomial resultant formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Surajo; Aris, Nor'aini; Ahmad, Shamsatun Nahar

    2017-08-01

    Availability of computer algebra systems (CAS) lead to the resurrection of the resultant method for eliminating one or more variables from the polynomials system. The resultant matrix method has advantages over the Groebner basis and Ritt-Wu method due to their high complexity and storage requirement. This paper focuses on the current resultant matrix formulations and investigates their ability or otherwise towards producing optimal resultant matrices. A determinantal formula that gives exact resultant or a formulation that can minimize the presence of extraneous factors in the resultant formulation is often sought for when certain conditions that it exists can be determined. We present some applications of elimination theory via resultant formulations and examples are given to explain each of the presented settings.

  7. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Behavioral cardiology: current advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan

    2014-07-08

    Growing epidemiological evidence identifies key domains relevant to behavioral cardiology, including health behaviors, emotions, mental mindsets, stress management, social connectedness, and a sense of purpose. Each of these domains exists along a continuum, ranging from positive factors that promote health, to negative factors, which are pathophysiological. To date, there has been relatively little translation of this growing knowledge base into cardiology practice. Four initiatives are proposed to meet this challenge: 1) promulgating greater awareness of the potency of psychosocial risks factors; 2) overcoming a current "artificial divide" between conventional and psychosocial risk factors; 3) developing novel cost-effective interventions using Internet and mobile health applications, group-based counseling, and development of tiered-care behavioral management; and 4) in recognition that "one size does not fit all" with respect to behavioral interventions, developing specialists who can counsel patients in multidisciplinary fashion and use evidence-based approaches for promoting patient motivation and execution of health goals. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs.

  10. Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino neutral current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, P.C.; Deden, H.; Deutschmann, M.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Hasert, F.J.; Morfin, J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Seyfert, H.; Banerjee, S.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Beuselinck, R.; Butterworth, I.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Powell, K.J.; Davis, C.L.; Grossman, P.; McGow, R.; Mulvey, J.H.; Myatt, G.; Perkins, D.H.; Pons, R.; Radojicic, O.; Renton, P.; Saitta, B.; Stenger, V.

    1978-01-01

    The cross sections for γ and anti γ neutral current interactions for which the hadron energy is > 15 GeV have been measured. These results, and the ratios of neutral current to charged current sections, are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model. Values of sin 2 thetasub(w) have been obtained both with and without the use of a parametrisation for the hadronic part of the interaction; the values are in good agreement with each other and the preferred result, that obtained by the method independent of hadronic models, is sin 2 thetasub(w) = 0.22 +- 0.05. (Auth.)

  11. Current status and future potential for advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, L.; Naughton, M.D.; Papaiya, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    With escalating costs for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plants, and the possibility of unavailability of disposal space, some nuclear power utilities responded by commiting to implementing advanced volume reduction (VR) systems. This paper presents recent experience to implement advanced volume reduction technologies; their performance and typical operating and capital costs. This experience in the light of current economic conditions may enable us to predict the direction that future advanced VR technology commitments is taking

  12. Advanced robotics for medical rehabilitation current state of the art and recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on the key technologies in developing robots for a wide range of medical rehabilitation activities – which will include robotics basics, modelling and control, biomechanics modelling, rehabilitation strategies, robot assistance, clinical setup/implementation as well as neural and muscular interfaces for rehabilitation robot control – this book is split into two parts; a review of the current state of the art, and recent advances in robotics for medical rehabilitation. Both parts will include five sections for the five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) the upper limb; (ii) lower limb for gait rehabilitation (iii) hand, finger and wrist; (iv) ankle for strains and sprains; and (v) the use of EEG and EMG to create interfaces between the neurological and muscular functions of the patients and the rehabilitation robots. Each chapter provides a description of the design of the device, the control system used, and the implementation and testing to show how it fulfils the needs of that specific ...

  13. The payloads of Advanced Virgo: current status and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naticchioni, L.; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The development and integration of new detector payloads has been an important part of the Advanced Virgo (AdV) project, the major upgrade of the Virgo interferometric detector of Gravitational Waves, aiming to increase the detector sensitivity by one order of magnitude. During the integration phase of the new AdV payloads with monolithic suspension of mirrors we experienced systematic suspension failures later identified as caused by dust contamination of the vacuum system. In order to not postpone the detector commissioning, making possible to join the LIGO O2 observation run, the Collaboration decided to proceed with the integration of the payloads relying on steel wire suspensions for all the mirrors. In this proceeding the status of the currently integrated payloads is reported, including their angular control characterization and the Q-factor measurements for test mass steel wire suspensions. The payload upgrade for the re-integration of monolithic suspensions after the O2 run is reported in the last section.

  14. Current drive by Alfven waves in elongated cross section tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsypin, V.S.; Elfimov, A.G.; Nekrasov, F.M.; Azevedo, C.A.; Assis, A.S. de

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The problem of the noninductive current drive in cylindrical plasma model and in circular cross-section tokamaks had been already discussed intensively. At the beginning of the study of this problem it have been clear that there are significant difficulties in using of the current-drive in toroidal magnetic traps, especially in a tokamak reactor. Thus, in the case of the lower-hybrid current-drive the efficiency of this current-drive drops strongly as the plasma density increases. For the Alfven waves, there is an opinion that the efficiency of the current-drive drops as a result of waves absorption by the trapped particles 1,2. Okhawa proposed that the current in a magnetized plasma can be maintained also by means of forces, depending on the radiofrequency (rf) field amplitude gradients (the helicity injection). This idea was developed later, some new hopes appeared, connected with the possibility of the current-drive efficiency increasing. It was shown that for the cylindrical plasmas the local efficiency of Alfev wave current drive can be increased by one order of magnitude due to gradient forces, for the kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) and the global Alfven waves 9GAW) at some range of the phase velocity. For tokamaks, this additional nonresonant current drive does not depend on the trapped particle effects, which reduce strongly the Alfven current drive efficiency in tokamaks, as it is supposed. Now, the theory development of the Alfven wave (AW) current drive is very important in the cource of the future experiments on the TCA/BR tokamak (Brazil). In this paper, an attempt is made to clarify some general aspects of this problems for magnetic traps. For large aspects ratio tokamaks, with an elongated cross-section, some general formulas concerning the untrapped and trapped particles dynamics and their input to the Landau damping of the Alfven waves, are presented. They are supposed to be used for the further development of the Alfven current drive theory

  15. Current drive by Alfven waves in elongated cross section tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsypin, V.S.; Elfimov, A.G.; Nekrasov, F.M.; Azevedo, C.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Assis, A.S. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The problem of the noninductive current drive in cylindrical plasma model and in circular cross-section tokamaks had been already discussed intensively. At the beginning of the study of this problem it have been clear that there are significant difficulties in using of the current-drive in toroidal magnetic traps, especially in a tokamak reactor. Thus, in the case of the lower-hybrid current-drive the efficiency of this current-drive drops strongly as the plasma density increases. For the Alfven waves, there is an opinion that the efficiency of the current-drive drops as a result of waves absorption by the trapped particles 1,2. Okhawa proposed that the current in a magnetized plasma can be maintained also by means of forces, depending on the radiofrequency (rf) field amplitude gradients (the helicity injection). This idea was developed later, some new hopes appeared, connected with the possibility of the current-drive efficiency increasing. It was shown that for the cylindrical plasmas the local efficiency of Alfev wave current drive can be increased by one order of magnitude due to gradient forces, for the kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) and the global Alfven waves (GAW) at some range of the phase velocity. For tokamaks, this additional nonresonant current drive does not depend on the trapped particle effects, which reduce strongly the Alfven current drive efficiency in tokamaks, as it is supposed. Now, the theory development of the Alfven wave (AW) current drive is very important in the cource of the future experiments on the TCA/BR tokamak (Brazil). In this paper, an attempt is made to clarify some general aspects of this problems for magnetic traps. For large aspects ratio tokamaks, with an elongated cross-section, some general formulas concerning the untrapped and trapped particles dynamics and their input to the Landau damping of the Alfven waves, are presented. They are supposed to be used for the further development of the Alfven current drive theory

  16. Hot spots and dark current in advanced plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Manahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dark current can spoil witness bunch beam quality and acceleration efficiency in particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators. In advanced schemes, hot spots generated by the drive beam or the wakefield can release electrons from higher ionization threshold levels in the plasma media. These electrons may be trapped inside the plasma wake and will then accumulate dark current, which is generally detrimental for a clear and unspoiled plasma acceleration process. Strategies for generating clean and robust, dark current free plasma wake cavities are devised and analyzed, and crucial aspects for experimental realization of such optimized scenarios are discussed.

  17. Predictions of of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve this objective requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems - ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various role of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The paper addresses these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  18. Predictions of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve these objectives requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems--ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various roles of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The authors have addressed these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX

  19. Advanced modeling of reaction cross sections for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The shell model/R-matrix technique of calculating nuclear reaction cross sections for light projectiles incident on light nuclei is discussed, particularly in the application of the technique to thermonuclear reactions. Details are presented on the computational methods for the shell model which display how easily the calculations can be performed. Results of the shell model/R-matrix technique are discussed as are some of the problems encountered in picking an appropriate nucleon-nucleon interaction for the large model spaces which must be used for current problems. The status of our work on developing an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for use in large-basis shell model calculations is presented. This new interaction is based on a combination of global constraints and microscopic nuclear data. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Current advances and future perspectives in extrusion-based bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Hospodiuk, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly growing technology that has made substantial progress during the last decade. It has great versatility in printing various biologics, including cells, tissues, tissue constructs, organ modules and microfluidic devices, in applications from basic research and pharmaceutics to clinics. Despite the great benefits and flexibility in printing a wide range of bioinks, including tissue spheroids, tissue strands, cell pellets, decellularized matrix components, micro-carriers and cell-laden hydrogels, the technology currently faces several limitations and challenges. These include impediments to organ fabrication, the limited resolution of printed features, the need for advanced bioprinting solutions to transition the technology bench to bedside, the necessity of new bioink development for rapid, safe and sustainable delivery of cells in a biomimetically organized microenvironment, and regulatory concerns to transform the technology into a product. This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive review of EBB, discusses the current advancements in EBB technology and highlights future directions to transform the technology to generate viable end products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in superconductivity: new materials, critical currents and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, R.; Malik, S.K.; Grover, A.K.; Ayyub, P.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in the cuprates produced an explosive growth in research, driven by the quest for higher and higher superconducting transition temperatures. In the initial stages, the excitement was tremendous both in the physical sciences and in engineering. However, the complexity of the new materials on the one hand, and the absence of a viable theory on the other, have made further developments much more difficult. It is to be expected therefore, that the early excitement and the subsequent rapid advances have paved the way for more systematic and detailed studies of all aspects of superconductivity. The International Symposium was intended to provide a forum to review the progress in selected areas in superconductivity. The emphasis was on experimental and theoretical studies of the new superconductors, advances in the theoretical understanding, progress in studies of flux pinning and vortex dynamics which affect critical currents, and developments of novel material synthesis methods. Recent developments in the twin areas of thin films and devices were extensively discussed during the symposium. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Urogenital disease: current medical need and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoboski, M

    1998-11-01

    The Medicinal Chemistry Division session on Urogenital Disease began with an overview by Dr P-O Andersson (Pharmacia and Upjohn, MI, USA) of current medical need and recent advances in the field. Dr Andersson drew attention to the limited interest that pharmaceutical companies have historically shown in the area of non-malignant diseases of the urogenital tract. Conditions such as bladder overactivity and urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction have been poorly understood and have been regarded as unavoidable consequences of old age. One factor, which further compounds the problem, is that many people do not seek treatment, a practice which tends to lower the awareness of these conditions.

  3. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  4. Recent advancements in bioremediation of dye: Current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikrant, Kumar; Giri, Balendu Shekhar; Raza, Nadeem; Roy, Kangkan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rai, Birendra Nath; Singh, Ram Sharan

    2018-04-01

    The rampant industrialization and unchecked growth of modern textile production facilities coupled with the lack of proper treatment facilities have proliferated the discharge of effluents enriched with toxic, baleful, and carcinogenic pollutants including dyes, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, odorants, and other hazardous materials. Therefore, the development of cost-effective and efficient control measures against such pollution is imperative to safeguard ecosystems and natural resources. In this regard, recent advances in biotechnology and microbiology have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to traditional treatment methods. This review was organized to address bioremediation as a practical option for the treatment of dyes by evaluating its performance and typical attributes. It further highlights the current hurdles and future prospects for the abatement of dyes via biotechnology-based remediation techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of advanced and current leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guide 1.45 recommends the use of at least three different detection methods in reactors to detect leakage. Monitoring of both sump-flow and airborne particulate radioactivity is mandatory. A third method can involve either monitoring of condensate flow rate from air coolers or monitoring of airborne gaseous radioactivity. Although the methods currently used for leak detection reflect the state of the art, other techniques may be developed and used. Since the recommendations of Regulatory Guide 1.45 are not mandatory, Licensee Event Report Compilations have been reviewed to help establish actual capabilities for leak detection. The review of event reports, which had previously covered the period of June 1985 to August 1986 has been extended, and now covers events to June 1987. The total number of significant events is now 83. These reports have provided documented, sometimes detailed, summaries of reactor leaks. They have helped establish the capabilities of existing systems to detect and locate leaks. Differences between PWRs and BWRs with regard to leak detection have now been analyzed. With regard to detection methods, the greatest differences between reactor types are as follows: (a) The sump pump is reported as the detection method more frequently in BWRs than in PWRs (64% vs. 35%). (b) The radiation monitor is reported as the detection method (excluding false alarms) more frequently in PWRs. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate advanced acoustic leak detection methods are directed toward the generation and analysis of acoustic data from large (0.5 to 10 gal/min) leaks and modification of the software of the GARD/ANL advanced acoustic leak detection system. In order to reach the goal of 10 gal/min leaks, the Steam Generator Test Facility at ANL has been modified to carry out the leak testing. Tests were carried out with water at 525 deg. F and 1100 psi leaking through a fatigue crack in a 4-in

  6. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  7. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  8. Synergism between profile and cross section shape optimization for negative central shear advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Taylor, T.S.; Lao, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) concept is aimed at achieving high beta, high confinement, and a well aligned high bootstrap current fraction in a tokamak configuration consistent with steady state operation. The required improvements over the simple O-D scaling laws, normally used to predict standard, pulsed tokamak performance, axe obtained by taking into account the dependence of the stability and confinement on the 2-D equilibrium; the planned TPX experiment was designed to take full advantage of both advanced profiles and advanced cross-section shaping. Systematic stability studies of the promising Negative Central Shear (NCS) configuration have been performed for a wide variety of cross-section shapes and profile variations. The ideal MHD beta limit is found to be strongly dependent on both and, in fact, there is a clear synergistic relationship between the gains in beta from optimizing the profiles and optimizing the shape. Specifically, for a circular cross-section with highly peaked profiles, β is limited to normalized β values of β N = β/(I/aB) ∼ 2% (mT/MA). A small gain in beta can be achieved by broadening the pressure; however, the root-mean-square beta (β*) is slightly reduced. With peaked pressure profiles, a small increase in β N over that in a circular cross-section is also obtained by strong shaping. At fixed q, this translates to a much larger gain in β and β*. With both optimal profiles and strong shaping, however, the gain in all the relevant fusion performance parameters is dramatic; β and β* can be increased a factor 5 for example. Moreover, the bootstrap alignment is improved. For an optimized strongly shaped configuration, confinement, beta values, and bootstrap alignment adequate for a practical AT power plant appear to be realizable. Data from DIII-D supports these predictions and analysis of the DIII-D data will be presented

  9. Advanced Curation: Solving Current and Future Sample Return Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Calaway, M.; Evans, C.; McCubbin, F.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Curation is a wide-ranging and comprehensive research and development effort at NASA Johnson Space Center that identifies and remediates sample related issues. For current collections, Advanced Curation investigates new cleaning, verification, and analytical techniques to assess their suitability for improving curation processes. Specific needs are also assessed for future sample return missions. For each need, a written plan is drawn up to achieve the requirement. The plan draws while upon current Curation practices, input from Curators, the analytical expertise of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) team, and suitable standards maintained by ISO, IEST, NIST and other institutions. Additionally, new technologies are adopted on the bases of need and availability. Implementation plans are tested using customized trial programs with statistically robust courses of measurement, and are iterated if necessary until an implementable protocol is established. Upcoming and potential NASA missions such as OSIRIS-REx, the Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM), sample return missions in the New Frontiers program, and Mars sample return (MSR) all feature new difficulties and specialized sample handling requirements. The Mars 2020 mission in particular poses a suite of challenges since the mission will cache martian samples for possible return to Earth. In anticipation of future MSR, the following problems are among those under investigation: What is the most efficient means to achieve the less than 1.0 ng/sq cm total organic carbon (TOC) cleanliness required for all sample handling hardware? How do we maintain and verify cleanliness at this level? The Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP) predicts that organic carbon, if present, will be present at the "one to tens" of ppb level in martian near-surface samples. The same samples will likely contain wt% perchlorate salts, or approximately 1,000,000x as much perchlorate oxidizer as organic carbon

  10. Profile of advanced nursing practice in Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla Guerra, Sonia; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we described the profile of advanced nursing practice in Spain. A cross-sectional study design was used to explore the extent and patterns of advanced nursing practice activity within the domains of expert care planning, integrated care, interprofessional collaboration, education, research, evidence-based practice, and professional leadership. Data were collected in 2015/2016. Purposive sampling yielded a sample of 165 specialist and expert nurses employed by a dual tertiary and community hospital in an urban setting. The study included specialist and expert nurses who had a higher practice profile than registered general nurses. The performance of activities according to age, current position, years of experience, nursing grade, and education was compared. Practice domains were more strongly influenced by the predictors of nursing position and professional career ladder. Age and experience predictors were found to be weak predictors of advanced practice domains. This study offers essential information of the nursing workforce, and clarifies both the advanced nursing practice profile and nomenclature in the context of study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  12. Advanced Ceramics for NASA's Current and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2006-01-01

    Ceramic composites and monolithics are widely recognized by NASA as enabling materials for a variety of aerospace applications. Compared to traditional materials, ceramic materials offer higher specific strength which can enable lighter weight vehicle and engine concepts, increased payloads, and increased operational margins. Additionally, the higher temperature capabilities of these materials allows for increased operating temperatures within the engine and on the vehicle surfaces which can lead to improved engine efficiency and vehicle performance. To meet the requirements of the next generation of both rocket and air-breathing engines, NASA is actively pursuing the development and maturation of a variety of ceramic materials. Anticipated applications for carbide, nitride and oxide-based ceramics will be presented. The current status of these materials and needs for future goals will be outlined. NASA also understands the importance of teaming with other government agencies and industry to optimize these materials and advance them to the level of maturation needed for eventual vehicle and engine demonstrations. A number of successful partnering efforts with NASA and industry will be highlighted.

  13. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  14. [Current status of medical accident prevention in our pathology section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Honda, Takayuki

    2010-08-01

    Preventive measures against medical accident should be addressed in the pathology section. Medical accidents occur while preparing tissue specimens and making pathological diagnoses. For the preparation of tissue specimens, we have developed a work manual in consultation with past incident reports and update this manual regularly. We can reduce medical accidents by including a check system for each task. For pathological diagnosis, we perform some of the same checks as for tissue specimen preparation and can make more correct diagnoses by conferring with other departments. It is also important to check each other's work to prevent medical accidents.

  15. Current status and prospect of therapy with advanced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Tsutomu

    1979-01-01

    Symtomatic or palliative therapy of the patients with advanced cancer must be directed to the relief of specific distressing symptoms caused by or associated with neoplasm. The radiotherapy must have a clear concepts of the potential accomplishments of other treatment modalities, such as neurosurgery, anesthesiology, chemotherapy, pharmacology and psychotherapy, so that he may use his own method in proper perspective. I discussed following is an list of contents in this papers. Relief of pain, Psychotherapy, SVC obstruction, Obstructive jaundice, Brain and lung metastasis, prevention of fracture, Skin metastasis, Liver metastasis and treatment of advanced pediaric tumor etc. For the future: 1) Establishment of Stage and Grade of advanced cancer. 2) Development of new chemotherapeutic drug and immunotherapy. 3) Combination of multidisciplinary team and multidisciplinary treatment. (author)

  16. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  17. Ring energy selection and extra long straight sections for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Recommended criteria are given for the performance of Advanced Photon Source (APS), taking into consideration undulator tunability criteria and their relationship to the storage ring energy and undulator gap, length of straight sections

  18. Final evaluation of advanced and current leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Carlson, R.; Brewer, W.; Lanham, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the adequacy of leak detection systems in light water reactors. The sources of numerous reported leaks and methods of detection have been documented. Research to advance the state of the art of acoustic leak detection is presented, and procedures for implementation are discussed

  19. Recent Advances and Current Trends in Metamaterial-by-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, N.; Gottardi, G.

    2018-02-01

    Thanks to their potential applications in several engineering areas, metamaterials gained much of attentions among different research communities, leading to the development of several analysis and synthesis tools. In this context, the metamaterial-by-design (MbD) paradigm has been recently introduced as a powerful tool for the design of complex metamaterials-based structures. In this work a review of the state-of-art, as well as the recent advancements of MbD-based methods are presented.

  20. Advanced fuel technology and performance: Current status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    During the last years the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Division of the IAEA has been giving great attention to the collection, analysis and exchange of information in the field of reactor fuel technology. Most of these activities are being conducted in the framework of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to update and to continue the previous work, and to review the experience of advanced fuel technology, its performance with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends on the basis of national experience and discussions during the meeting. As a result of the meeting a Summary Report was prepared which reflected the status of the advanced nuclear fuel technology up to 1990. The 10 papers presented by participants of this meeting are also published here. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Current advances in the treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpada, Sandip P; Morris, Matthew T; Lian, Jayson; Rashidi, Sina

    2018-03-01

    Despite advances elucidating the causes of lateral and medial epicondylitis, the standard of care remains conservative management with NSAIDs, physical therapy, bracing, and rest. Scar tissue formation provoked by conservative management creates a tendon lacking the biomechanical properties and mechanical strength of normal tendon. The following review analyzes novel therapies to regenerate tendon and regain function in patients with epicondylitis. These treatments include PRP injection, BMAC, collagen-producing cell injection, and stem cell treatments. While these treatments are in early stages of investigation, they may warrant further consideration based on prospects of pain alleviation, function enhancement, and improved healing.

  2. Fluorescence lifetime assays: current advances and applications in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, Stephan; Doering, Klaus; Woelcke, Julian; Hassiepen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime assays complement the portfolio of established assay formats available in drug discovery, particularly with the recent advances in microplate readers and the commercial availability of novel fluorescent labels. Fluorescence lifetime assists in lowering complexity of compound screening assays, affording a modular, toolbox-like approach to assay development and yielding robust homogeneous assays. To date, materials and procedures have been reported for biochemical assays on proteases, as well as on protein kinases and phosphatases. This article gives an overview of two assay families, distinguished by the origin of the fluorescence signal modulation. The pharmaceutical industry demands techniques with a robust, integrated compound profiling process and short turnaround times. Fluorescence lifetime assays have already helped the drug discovery field, in this sense, by enhancing productivity during the hit-to-lead and lead optimization phases. Future work will focus on covering other biochemical molecular modifications by investigating the detailed photo-physical mechanisms underlying the fluorescence signal.

  3. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25524383

  4. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations

  5. Current advances in the cognitive neuroscience of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Daniel J; Tirovolas, Anna K

    2009-03-01

    The study of music perception and cognition is one of the oldest topics in experimental psychology. The last 20 years have seen an increased interest in understanding the functional neuroanatomy of music processing in humans, using a variety of technologies including fMRI, PET, ERP, MEG, and lesion studies. We review current findings in the context of a rich intellectual history of research, organized by the cognitive systems underlying different aspects of human musical behavior. We pay special attention to the perception of components of musical processing, musical structure, laterality effects, cultural issues, links between music and movement, emotional processing, expertise, and the amusias. Current trends are noted, such as the increased interest in evolutionary origins of music and comparisons of music and language. The review serves to demonstrate the important role that music can play in informing broad theories of higher order cognitive processes such as music in humans.

  6. Four years of DNA barcoding: current advances and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frézal, Lise; Leblois, Raphael

    2008-09-01

    Research using cytochrome c oxidase barcoding techniques on zoological specimens was initiated by Hebert et al. [Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S., deWaard, J.R., 2003. Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, S96-S99]. By March 2004, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life started to promote the use of a standardized DNA barcoding approach, consisting of identifying a specimen as belonging to a certain animal species based on a single universal marker: the DNA barcode sequence. Over the last 4 years, this approach has become increasingly popular and advances as well as limitations have clearly emerged as increasing amounts of organisms have been studied. Our purpose is to briefly expose DNA Barcode of Life principles, pros and cons, relevance and universality. The initially proposed Barcode of life framework has greatly evolved, giving rise to a flexible description of DNA barcoding and a larger range of applications.

  7. Current status and advancement of SPEEDI network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoei Suda; Yuko Rintsu; Shigeru Serizawa; Nobuaki Umeyama; Tetsuo Yamazaki; Shigeru Moriuchi; Hiroyuki Handa; Masamichi Chino; Haruyasu Nagai; Hiromi Yamazawa

    2005-01-01

    The range and concentration of the radioactive plume discharged during an accident would depend on the local topography and the meteorological conditions, e.g., wind direction and velocity, precipitation, and atmospheric stability. Considering these situations, SPEEDI, a computational code system, predicts the concentration of radioactive materials in the atmosphere and on the ground surface, air absorbed dose rate, external exposure dose and internal dose by inhalation. We introduced advanced SPEEDI (A-SPEEDI) models to solve some problems that were included in the conventional SPEEDI. New models have been developed as successor models of the conventional SPEEDI by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The major improvement is the introduction of a prognostic meteorological model PHYSIC to A-SPEEDI. PHYSIC performs the regional meteorological forecasts using nationwide meteorological observation data and meteorological forecast data RSM provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) for the initial condition and the boundary conditions around a nuclear facility. Atmospheric dispersion and dose calculation models were upgraded to improve the prediction performance as well. By introducing A-SPEEDI models, a long-term meteorological forecast such as following 24 hours is possible, and the prediction performance is improved under various meteorological conditions. (authors)

  8. Advanced ultrasonic and eddy current examinations of the reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, M.; Zado, V.

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plant components, the existing examination methods are permanently developed as well as the new methods of examination are implemented. For the same reason, beside referent requirements, complementary NDE methods are utilized. Some examination methods techniques are not required to be used by referent safety codes and standards but they are frequently practiced as additional prevention to the component failure. This article presents the state of the art methods and techniques currently applied for examination of the reactor vessel base material, clad and weld materials. (author)

  9. Pathophysiology of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the first chapter I have discussed thyroid function and thyroid status which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4 and peripheral biotransformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy allows high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. In another chapter the biotransformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines with respect to possible clinical implications is discussed. Finally, the role of TBG for interpration of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention directed to its functional heterogeneity. (orig.) [de

  10. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  11. Current advances in transdermal delivery of drugs for Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Giau, Vo Van; Vo, Tuong Kha

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder, which will play an increasingly important role both socially and financially in the aging populations. Treatments for AD show modest improvements in cognition and global functioning among patients. Furthermore, the oral administration of treating AD has had some drawbacks that decrease the medication adherence and efficacy of the therapy. Transdermal drugs are proposed as an alternative remedy to overcome the disadvantages of current pharmaceutical dosage options for this chronic disorder. They could have different strengths, such as offering a stable diffusion of active substance, avoiding the first pass metabolism, and reducing system adverse reactions. This article reviews the technical principles, novel techniques of transdermal delivery drug, and prospects for future development for the management of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions in AD patients. PMID:28706327

  12. The current state of industry development in Ukraine: advance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyba Maryna Valeriyivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the industry of Ukraine are considered at the article. The author determined that the stabilization of the situation and further development of the industry need first of all cessation of hostilities. It is necessary to implement effective measures to combat corruption, the development of consistent, constructive and concerted action on the formation of institutions guaranteeing stability, predictability and transparency of the market rules and procedures that minimize the impact of shadow factors, and implementation of professional privatization and limitation of monopoly at the markets, forming a transparent, competitive business environment, the introduction of new energy saving technologies. These measures will help attract investment, increase production and improve enterprise profitability.

  13. Advanced power flow technologies for high current ICF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Two new technologies for raising the power density in high current, inertial confinement fusion accelerators have been developed in the past two years. Magnetic flashover inhibition utilizes the self-magnetic fields around the vacuum insulator surface to inhibit surface flashover; average electric fields of 40 Mv/m at magnetic fields of 1.1 T have been achieved. Self-magnetic insulation of long, vacuum transmission lines has been used to transport power at 1.6 x 10 14 W/m 2 over six meters and up to 1.6 x 10 15 W/m 2 over short distances in a radial anode-cathode feed. The recent data relevant to these new technologies and their implications for ICF will be explored

  14. Current advances in transdermal delivery of drugs for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Giau, Vo Van; Vo, Tuong Kha

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder, which will play an increasingly important role both socially and financially in the aging populations. Treatments for AD show modest improvements in cognition and global functioning among patients. Furthermore, the oral administration of treating AD has had some drawbacks that decrease the medication adherence and efficacy of the therapy. Transdermal drugs are proposed as an alternative remedy to overcome the disadvantages of current pharmaceutical dosage options for this chronic disorder. They could have different strengths, such as offering a stable diffusion of active substance, avoiding the first pass metabolism, and reducing system adverse reactions. This article reviews the technical principles, novel techniques of transdermal delivery drug, and prospects for future development for the management of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions in AD patients.

  15. Advanced therapy medicinal products: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies that encompass gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products. These therapies are expected to bring important health benefits, but also to substantially impact the pharmaceuticals budget. The aim of this study was to characterise the ATMPs in development and discuss future implications in terms of market access. Clinical trials were searched in the following databases: EudraCT (EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials), ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization). Trials were classified by category of ATMP as defined by European regulation EC No. 1394/2007, as well as by development phase and disease area. The database search identified 939 clinical trials investigating ATMPs (85% ongoing, 15% completed). The majority of trials were in the early stages (Phase I, I/II: 64.3%, Phase II, II/III: 27.9%, Phase 3: 6.9%). Per category of ATMP, we identified 53.6% of trials for somatic cell therapies, 22.8% for tissue-engineered products, 22.4% for gene therapies, and 1.2% for combined products (incorporating a medical device). Disease areas included cancer (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (19.4%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), immune system and inflammation (11.5%), neurology (9.1%), and others. Of the trials, 47.2% enrolled fewer than 25 patients. Due to the complexity and specificity of ATMPs, new clinical trial methodologies are being considered (e.g., small sample size, non-randomised trials, single-arm trials, surrogate endpoints, integrated protocols, and adaptive designs). Evidence generation post-launch will become unavoidable to address payers' expectations. ATMPs represent a fast-growing field of interest. Although most of the products are in an early development phase, the combined trial phase and the potential to cure severe chronic conditions suggest that ATMPs may reach the market earlier than

  16. First Measurement of Charged Current Cross Sections at HERA with Longitudinally Polarised Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reisert, B.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Data taken with positrons of different longitudinal polarisation states in collision with unpolarised protons at HERA are used to measure the total cross sections of the charged current process, e^+ p \\to \\bar{\

  17. Preemptive analgesia II: recent advances and current trends.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: In Part I of this review article, techniques and agents that attenuate or prevent central and peripheral sensitization were reviewed. In Part II, the conditions required for effective preemptive techniques are evaluated. Specifically, preemptive analgesia may be defined as an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered central processing of afferent input from sites of injury. The most important conditions for establishment of effective preemptive analgesia are the establishment of an effective level of antinociception before injury, and the continuation of this effective analgesic level well into the post-injury period to prevent central sensitization during the inflammatory phase. Although single-agent therapy may attenuate the central nociceptive processing, multi-modal therapy is more effective, and may be associated with fewer side effects compared with the high-dose, single-agent therapy. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input require individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear more effective.

  18. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Klein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care. [1] It is a snapshot of a patient′s total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors. [2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT, as used at our institution (CAMC, and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society may vary widely from country to country and payment system. [3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons. [1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise.

  19. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kenneth C; Guha, Somes Chandra

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care.[1] It is a snapshot of a patient's total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors.[2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), as used at our institution (CAMC), and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society) may vary widely from country to country and payment system.[3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons.[1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise. PMID:25593414

  20. Recent advances in addictive disorders. Prevention. Current research and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, K L; Hopkins, R

    1993-03-01

    The AOD prevention programs of the 1990s should be resiliency-focused and include interventions of sufficient dosage and strength. Although some child behavioral technology exists to tackle successfully changes in resiliency, additional prevention strategies need to be developed and studied. In some way, the prevention field is hampered by the lack of sufficient research in the child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology fields, that includes transactional research in parenting and child rearing for high-risk youth. We simply do not know enough to determine how parents and other adults can best foster resilience in children. Questions that arise include how much to protect children from environmental stressors and how much to push them to confront new life stressors in the form of challenges to develop new skills or talents. There are no simple answers to these questions, but a number of useful guidelines could help parents and teachers to increase resilience in youth. Some of the guidelines currently being stressed include developing in youth an increased sense of responsibility for their own success, helping them to identify their talents, motivating them to dedicate their lives to helping society rather than feeling their only purpose in life is to be consumers, providing realistic appraisals and feedback for youth rather than graciously building up their self-esteem, stressing multicultural competence in an ever-shrinking world, encouraging and valuing education and skills training, increasing cooperative solutions to problems rather than competitive or aggressive solutions, and increasing a sense of responsibility for others and caring for others. Clearly, these are important objectives for creating the type of citizens that can make American strong in the twentieth century.

  1. First measurement of charged current cross sections at HERA with longitudinally polarised positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kückens, J.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-03-01

    Data taken with positrons of different longitudinal polarisation states in collision with unpolarised protons at HERA are used to measure the total cross sections of the charged current process, ep→ν¯X, for negative four-momentum transfer squared Q>400 GeV and inelasticity y<0.9. Together with the corresponding cross section obtained from the previously published unpolarised data, the polarisation dependence of the charged current cross section is measured for the first time at high Q and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction.

  2. Special section on advanced powertrains for more electric vehicles : Guest Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouscayrol, A.; Boulon, L.; Hofman, T.; Chan, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this special section were presented at the IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC) that was held in Coimbra, Portugal, in October 2014. Advanced traction and propulsion systems are developing in order to ensure better energy performance, reduced operating cost, and higher

  3. Ratio of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections for inclusive neutrino interactions in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, F.A.; Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.V.; Cence, R.J.; Coffin, T.C.; Cundy, D.C.; Diamond, R.N.; DiBianca, F.A.; French, H.T.; Hanft, R.; Kochowski, C.; Louis, W.C.; Lynch, G.R.; Malko, J.; Marriner, J.P.; Nezrick, F.A.; Parker, S.I.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Roe, B.P.; Ross, R.T.; Scott, W.G.; Seidl, A.A.; Smart, W.; Stenger, V.J.; Stevenson, M.L.; Vander Velde, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The ratio of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections is determined from a sample of events obtained in an exposure of the Fermilab 15-ft hydrogen bubble chamber to a high-energy, horn-focused neutrino beam. For evens with three or more prongs and with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c, the ratio is 0.40 +- 0.14. A Monte Carlo calculation assuming the Weinberg-Salam model is used to correct for excluded events, yielding R/sub NC/CC/ = 0.48 +- 0.17

  4. 75 FR 51437 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection (Advanced Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection (Advanced Meat Recovery) AGENCY: Food... information collection regarding the regulatory requirements associated with the production of meat from Advanced Meat Recovery systems because the OMB approval will expire on January 31, 2011. DATES: Comments on...

  5. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the SuperScaling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, M. V., E-mail: martin.inrne@gmail.com [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Megias, G. D.; Caballero, J. A. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); González-Jiménez, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Moreno, O.; Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Barbaro, M. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Antonov, A. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Moya de Guerra, E.; Udías, J. M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2016-03-25

    SuperScaling model (SuSA) predictions to neutrino-induced charged-current π{sup +} production in the Δ-resonance region are explored under MiniBooNE experimental conditions. The SuSA charged-current π{sup +} results are in good agreement with data on neutrino flux-averaged double-differential cross sections. The SuSA model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region are used for predictions of charged-current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections. Results are also compared with the T2K experimental data for inclusive scattering.

  6. Intra-operative maternal complications of emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor is a big challenge in obstetrics due to increased risk of intraoperative complications. In the last decade, a rapid increase in cesarean section done in advanced labor has been observed. Difficult deli-very of the fetal head during cesarean section carries a high risk of intraoperative complications like cervical and uterine tears, intra operative hemorrhage and trauma to the baby. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find out the frequency and risk factors for intra-operative complications in emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor, so that appropriate management protocols can be planned to reduce these complications. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit - 2 of Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Services Hospital, Lahore; from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2007. All patients undergoing emergency cesarean sections done on laboring mothers were included in the study. The sample was divided into two groups; emergency C-section done in advanced labor as the study group and emergency C-section in early labor as the control group. Data were collected regarding age, parity, booked or unbooked status, indications for cesarean section, level of competence of operating surgeon, intra-operative complications and the risk factors for these complications. Data were recorded on a structured proforma and compared between the two groups. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer programme SPSS Version 14 for windows applying student t-test for quantitative and chai square test for qualitative parameters. A p-value < 0.05 was used as statistically significant. Results: Out of 2064 total deliveries in the year 2007, 1290 (62.5%) were vaginal deliveries and 774 (37.5%) were C-Sections. Out of 774 C-Section, 174 (23%) were elective and 600 (77%) were emergency. Out of 600 emergency C-sections

  7. Multi-jet cross sections in charged current e{sup {+-}}p scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Jet cross sections were measured in charged current deep inelastic e{sup {+-}}p scattering at high boson virtualities Q{sup 2} with the ZEUS detector at HERA II using an integrated luminosity of 0.36 fb{sup -1}. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive-jet production as functions of Q{sup 2}, Bjorken x and the jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity. The dijet invariant mass cross section is also presented. Observation of three- and four-jet events in charged-current e{sup {+-}}p processes is reported for the first time. The predictions of next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD calculations are compared to the measurements. The measured inclusive-jet cross sections are well described in shape and normalization by the NLO predictions. The data have the potential to constrain the u and d valence quark distributions in the proton if included as input to global fits. (orig.)

  8. Multi-jet cross sections in charged current e±p scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-02-01

    Jet cross sections were measured in charged current deep inelastic e ± p scattering at high boson virtualities Q 2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA II using an integrated luminosity of 0.36 fb -1 . Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive-jet production as functions of Q 2 , Bjorken x and the jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity. The dijet invariant mass cross section is also presented. Observation of three- and four-jet events in charged-current e ± p processes is reported for the first time. The predictions of next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD calculations are compared to the measurements. The measured inclusive-jet cross sections are well described in shape and normalization by the NLO predictions. The data have the potential to constrain the u and d valence quark distributions in the proton if included as input to global fits. (orig.)

  9. Total Cross Sections at current/Future Colliders, conventional models and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M

    1999-01-01

    Rise in total cross sections for elastic scattering generated immense interest both for experimental measurements and theoretical investigations. How will total cross section behave at LHC and Cosmic Ray energies is therefore in the limelight of our future measurements. Theoretical studies become even more interesting when we take into consideration the ratio of real and imaginary parts of the scattering amplitudes. We will briefly undertake the current results and future prospects in the light of conventional as well as QCD-based phenomenology.

  10. Current error vector based prediction control of the section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Junjie, E-mail: hongjjie@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Liyi, E-mail: liliyi@hit.edu.cn [Dept. Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Zong Zhijian; Liu Zhongtu [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The structure of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM) is new. {yields} A new current control method CEVPC is employed in this motor. {yields} The sectional power supply method is different to the others and effective. {yields} The performance gets worse with voltage and current limitations. - Abstract: To include features such as greater thrust density, higher efficiency without reducing the thrust stability, this paper proposes a section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM), whose iron core is continuous, whereas winding is divided. The discrete system model of the motor is derived. With the definition of the current error vector and selection of the value function, the theory of the current error vector based prediction control (CEVPC) for the motor currents is explained clearly. According to the winding section feature, the motion region of the mover is divided into five zones, in which the implementation of the current predictive control method is proposed. Finally, the experimental platform is constructed and experiments are carried out. The results show: the current control effect has good dynamic response, and the thrust on the mover remains constant basically.

  11. Measurement of the ratios of neutral-current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, P. C.; Fritze, P.; Grässler, H.; Hasert, F. J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Pech, R.; Wünsch, B.; Grant, A.; Hulth, P. O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Pape, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Beuselinck, R.; Clayton, E. F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Petrides, A.; Albajar, C.; Myatt, G.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Bolognese, T.; Vignaud, D.; Aachen-Bonn-CERN-Democritos-Imperial College, London-Oxford-Saclay Collaboration

    1983-05-01

    The ratios of neutral current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in heavy Ne/H 2 mixture have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 200 GeV/ c narrow band beam. The ratios were obtained using a cut in the transverse momentum of the hadronic system. In the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model, our results correspond to the value of sin 2θw = 0.182 ± 0.020 ± 0.012. By combining this experiment with data from a hydrogen target the coupling constants uL2 and L2 are found to be 0.15 ± 0.04 and 0.19 ± 0.05, respectively.

  12. Measurement of the ratios of neutral-current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, P.C.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Hasert, F.J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Beuselinck, R.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Petrides, A.; Albajar, C.; Myatt, G.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1983-01-01

    The ratios of neutral current to charged current cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in heavy Ne/H 2 mixture have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 200 GeV/c narrow band beam. The ratios were obtained using a cut in the transverse momentum of the hadronic system. In the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model, our results correspond to the value of sin 2 THETAsub(w)=0.182+-0.020+-0.012. By combining this experiment with data from a hydrogen target the coupling constants usub(L) 2 and dsub(L) 2 are found to be 0.15+-0.04 and 0.19+-0.05, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Production of a high-current microsecond electron beam with a large cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullin, E.N.; Belomytsev, S.Ya.; Bugaev, S.P.; Gorbachev, S.I.; Zaslavskii, V.M.; Zorin, V.P.; Koval'chuk, B.M.; Loginov, S.V.; Matyukov, Yu.N.; Rasputin, R.M.; Tolkachev, V.S.; Shchanin, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Obtaining high-current wide-aperture electron beams is an important problem in the development of laser technology for controlled nuclear fusion and for solving ecological and technological problems. The main scheme for producing such beams involves the use of generators with intermediate energy storage devices and burst-emission vacuum diodes. Beam pinching is prevented by using an external magnetic field or sectioning the diode into magnetically insulated diodes with currents lower than the limiting current. The length of the electron-current pulse varies from tens to hundreds of nano-seconds and is limited by the parameters of the intermediate storage device. Here the authors study the formation of a high-current electron beam with a square cross section and a current of the order of the limiting current of the diode in the absence of an external magnetic field as well as a 'fast' storage device in the power supply circuit. These conditions as a whole correspond to a simpler electron-source circuit, but the beam forming becomes more complicated. The reason for this is that there is no external magnetic field and that the role of plasma processes in the diode is enhanced by the greater length of the electron-current pulses

  14. First results on fast wave current drive in advanced tokamak discharges in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, R.; Cary, W.P.; Baity, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    Initial experiments have been performed on the DIII-D tokamak on coupling, direct electron heating, and current drive by fast waves in advanced tokamak discharges. These experiments showed efficient central heating and current drive in agreement with theory in magnitude and profile. Extrapolating these results to temperature characteristic of a power plant (25 keV) gives current drive efficiency of about 0.3 MA/m 2

  15. Polydisperse particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemach, T.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by polydisperse suspension of n types of particles distributed in a fluid of density ρi. Each class of particles in suspension has a different settling velocity. The current propagates along a channel of non-rectangular cross section into an ambient fluid of constant density ρa. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general form -f1(z) ≤ y ≤ f2(z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion. We solve the problem by a finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h, velocity u, and mass fractions of particle (concentrations) (ϕ( j), j = 1, …, n) profiles. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged "box" model. We demonstrate that any degree of polydispersivity adds to the runout length of the currents, relative to that of equivalent monodisperse currents with an average settling velocity. The theoretical predictions are supported by the available experimental data. The present approach is a significant generalization of the particle-driven gravity current problem: on the one hand, now the monodisperse current in non-rectangular channels is a particular case of n = 1. On the other hand, the classical formulation of polydisperse currents for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model.

  16. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10 6 neutrino events and 1.60 x 10 5 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section

  17. Estimating time to pregnancy from current durations in a cross-sectional sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Kvist, Kajsa; Hartvig, Helle

    2002-01-01

    A new design for estimating the distribution of time to pregnancy is proposed and investigated. The design is based on recording current durations in a cross-sectional sample of women, leading to statistical problems similar to estimating renewal time distributions from backward recurrence times....

  18. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 106 neutrino events and 1.60 x 105 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  19. Current drive by Alfvacute en waves in elongated cross-section tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsypin, V.S.; Elfimov, A.G.; Nekrasov, F.M.; de Azevedo, C.A.; de Assis, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The general approach to the Alfvacute en wave current drive problem in tokamaks with elongated transverse cross-sections was considered in this paper. Model approximations are used to describe circulating and trapped particle dynamics. This approach gives the accuracy of some percents. The expressions for the time-averaged longitudinal current and the radio-frequency currents have been obtained. They are supposed to be useful for a further analytical and computational solution of this problem. As an example, kinetic Alfvacute en waves are considered in this paper. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. [Current recommendations for basic/advanced life support : Addressing unanswered questions and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, K; Schmid, B; Busch, H-J

    2016-11-01

    The revised guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation were implemented by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in October 2015. There were few changes concerning basic and advanced life support; however, some issues were clarified compared to the ERC recommendations from 2010. The present paper summarizes the procedures of basic and advanced life support according to the current guidelines and highlights the updates of 2015. Furthermore, the article depicts future prospects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that may improve outcome of patients after cardiac arrest in the future.

  1. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; /Mexico U., CEN; Anderson, C.E.; /Yale U.; Bazarko, A.O.; /Princeton U.; Brice, S.J.; /Fermilab; Brown, B.C.; /Fermilab; Bugel, L.; /Columbia U.; Cao, J.; /Michigan U.; Coney, L.; /Columbia U.; Conrad, J.M.; /MIT; Cox, D.C.; /Indiana U.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Columbia U.

    2010-02-01

    A high-statistics sample of charged-current muon neutrino scattering events collected with the MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed to extract the first measurement of the double differential cross section (d{sup 2}{sigma}/dT{sub {mu}}d cos {theta}{sub {mu}}) for charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on carbon. This result features minimal model dependence and provides the most complete information on this process to date. With the assumption of CCQE scattering, the absolute cross section as a function of neutrino energy ({sigma}[E{sub {nu}}]) and the single differential cross section (d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}) are extracted to facilitate comparison with previous measurements. These quantities may be used to characterize an effective axial-vector form factor of the nucleon and to improve the modeling of low-energy neutrino interactions on nuclear targets. The results are relevant for experiments searching for neutrino oscillations.

  2. Measurement of the $Z/A$ dependence of neutrino charged-current total cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Spada, F R; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Kama, S; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; El-Aidi, R; Van de Vyver, B; Vilian, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D G; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maslennikov, A L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2003-01-01

    A relative measurement of total cross-sections is reported for polyethylene, marble, iron, and lead targets for the inclusive charged-current reaction nu_mu + N -> mu^- + X. The targets, passive blocks of ~100kg each, were exposed simultaneously to the CERN SPS wide-band muon-neutrino beam over a period of 18 weeks. Systematics effects due to differences in the neutrino flux and detector efficiency for the different target locations were minimised by changing the position of the four targets on their support about every two weeks. The relative neutrino fluxes on the targets were monitored within the same experiment using charged-current interactions in the calorimeter positioned directly downstream of the four targets. From a fit to the Z/A dependence of the total cross-sections a value is deduced for the effective neutron-to-proton cross-section ratio.

  3. Measurement of the Z/A dependence of neutrino charged-current total cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topasku, A; Dantzig, R V

    2003-01-01

    A relative measurement of total cross-sections is reported for polyethylene, marble, iron, and lead targets for the inclusive charged-current reaction nu submu + N -> mu sup - + X. The targets, passive blocks of propor to 100 kg each, were exposed simultaneously to the CERN SPS wide-band muon-neutrino beam over a period of 18 weeks. Systematic effects due to differences in the neutrino flux and detector efficiency for the different target locations were minimised by changing the position of the four targets on their support about every two weeks. The relative neutrino fluxes on the targets were monitored within the same experiment using charged-current interactions in the calorimeter positioned directly downstream of the four targets. From a fit to the Z/A dependence of the total cross-sections a value is deduced for the effective neutron-to-proton cross-section ratio. (orig.)

  4. Neutrino-induced neutral-current reaction cross sections for r-process nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Langanke, K

    2002-01-01

    Neutrino-induced reactions play an important role during and after the r-process, if the latter occurs in an environment with extreme neutrino fluxes such as the neutrino-driven wind model or neutron star mergers. Recently we have evaluated the charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections relevant for r-process simulations. We extend our approach here to the neutral-current cross sections. Our tabulation considers neutron-rich nuclei with neutron numbers N=41-135 and charge numbers Z=21-82 and lists total as well as partial neutron spallation cross sections. The calculations have been performed within the random phase approximation considering multipole transitions with J<=3 and both parities. The supernova neutrino spectrum is described by a Fermi-Dirac distribution with various temperature parameters between T=2.8 MeV and T=10 MeV and with the degeneracy parameters alpha=0 and alpha=3.

  5. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections and calculational methods for the advanced neutron source against the FOEHN critical experiments measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Gehin, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are ∼ 13%, while the average differences are < 8%

  6. Measurements of charged- and neutral-current cross sections by the CFRR collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.; Barish, B.; Chu, Y.

    1981-07-01

    We present results on normalized charged and neutral current cross sections. The charged current results can be parameterized by a linearly rising cross section with sigma/sub ν//E = 0.719 +- 0.006 +- 0.036 x 10 -38 cm 2 /GeV and sigma/sub ν/-/E = 0.371 +- 0.004 +- 0.019 x 10 -38 cm 2 /GeV. These results are approx. 15% higher than previous measurements. Preliminary structure functions at low Q 2 are also presented. The neutral current was analyzed using the Paschos-Wolfenstein technique and yields sin 2 sigma/sub w/ = 0.243 +- 0.016

  7. Cross Sections of Charged Current Neutrino Scattering off 132Xe for the Supernova Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Divari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total cross sections as well as the neutrino event rates are calculated in the charged current neutrino and antineutrino scattering off 132Xe isotope at neutrino energies Ev<100 MeV. Transitions to excited nuclear states are calculated in the framework of quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The contributions from different multipoles are shown for various neutrino energies. Flux-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution. The flux-averaged cross sections are also calculated using terrestrial neutrino sources based on conventional sources (muon decay at rest or on low-energy beta-beams.

  8. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  9. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoya, Ibidun; Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; Del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M

    2016-05-16

    Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires, which were available in 15

  10. Grammar Coding in the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekker, Herman

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the revised system of grammar coding for verbs in the fourth edition of the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English" (OALD4), comparing it with two other similar dictionaries. It is shown that the OALD4 is found to be more favorable on many criteria than the other comparable dictionaries. (16 references) (VWL)

  11. A Measurement of the Charged-Current Interaction Cross Section of the Tau Neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Emily O' Connor [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The Fermilab experiment E872 (DONUT) was designed to make the first observation of the tau neutrino charged-current interaction. Using a hybrid emulsion-spectrometer detector, the tau lepton was identified by its single-prong or trident decay. Six interactions were observed, of which five were in the deep inelastic scattering region. These five interaction were used to measure the charged-current cross section of the tau neutrino. To minimize uncertainties, the tau neutrino cross section was measured relative to the electron neutrino cross section. The result σντNconstνeNconst = 0.77 ± 0.39 is consistent with 1.0, which is predicted by lepton universality. The tau neutrino cross section was also measured for 115 GeV neutrinos, which was the average energy of the interacted tau neutrinos. The result σντNexp = 45 ± 21 x 10-38 cm2 is consistent with the standard model prediction calculated in this thesis, σντNSM = 48 ± 5 x 10-38 cm2.

  12. Measurement and QCD Analysis of Neutral and Charged Current Cross Sections at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Portheault, B.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2003-01-01

    The inclusive e^+ p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken in 1999 and 2000 at a centre-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s} = 319 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 65.2 pb^-1. The cross sections are measured in the range of four-momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 100 and 30000 GeV^2 and Bjorken x between 0.0013 and 0.65. The neutral current analysis for the new e^+ p data and the earlier e^- p data taken in 1998 and 1999 is extended to small energies of the scattered electron and therefore to higher values of inelasticity y, allowing a determination of the longitudinal structure function F_L at high Q^2 (110 - 700 GeV^2). A new measurement of the structure function x F_3 is obtained using the new e^+ p and previously published e^\\pm p neutral current cross section data at high Q^2. These data together with H1 low Q^2 precision data are further used to perform new next-to-leading order QCD ...

  13. Preparation and benchmarking of ANSL-V cross sections for advanced neutron source reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arwood, J.W.; Ford, W.E. III; Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Waddell, M.W.; Webster, C.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Research and development for the advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor is being funded by the US Dept. of Energy. This reactor is to provide the world's most intense steady-state source of low-energy neutrons for a national experimental user facility. Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support ANS design work. The libraries, designated ANSL-V, are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 123-material P 3 neutron, 46-material P 0 or P 6 secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), and 34-material P 6 gamma-ray interaction (GRI) libraries

  14. A Physics-Based Engineering Approach to Predict the Cross Section for Advanced SRAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhou, Wanting; Liu, Huihua

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a physics-based engineering approach to estimate the heavy ion induced upset cross section for 6T SRAM cells from layout and technology parameters. The new approach calculates the effects of radiation with junction photocurrent, which is derived based on device physics. The new and simple approach handles the problem by using simple SPICE simulations. At first, the approach uses a standard SPICE program on a typical PC to predict the SPICE-simulated curve of the collected charge vs. its affected distance from the drain-body junction with the derived junction photocurrent. And then, the SPICE-simulated curve is used to calculate the heavy ion induced upset cross section with a simple model, which considers that the SEU cross section of a SRAM cell is more related to a “radius of influence” around a heavy ion strike than to the physical size of a diffusion node in the layout for advanced SRAMs in nano-scale process technologies. The calculated upset cross section based on this method is in good agreement with the test results for 6T SRAM cells processed using 90 nm process technology.

  15. The importance of collaboration in the advancement of current and next generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Kate; Goossen, John; Anness, Mike; Meston, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The sections of the contribution are as follows: Tradition of innovation. Growing demand for nuclear power; Collaboration drivers; Responses. Knowledge transfer and management is critical. What kind of focus? Equipment reliability. Advanced repair, replacement and construction approaches. Materials. Plant safety margins. Spent fuel management. Examples of European collaboration. Zorita materials examination. Collaboration in the development of next generation reactors; Westinghouse R and D priorities; A look to the future. (P.A.)

  16. Current Research on Containment Technologies for Verification Activities: Advanced Tools for Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, H.; Kuhn, M.; Krementz, D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Non-proliferation and Verification Research and Development currently funds research on advanced containment technologies to support Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) objectives for verification regimes. One effort in this area is the Advanced Tools for Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge (ATCK) project. Recognizing that CoK assurances must withstand potential threats from sophisticated adversaries, and that containment options must therefore keep pace with technology advances, the NNSA research and development on advanced containment tools is an important investment. The two ATCK efforts underway at present address the technical containment requirements for securing access points (loop seals) and protecting defined volumes. Multiple U.S. national laboratories are supporting this project: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SNL and SRNL are developing the ''Ceramic Seal,'' an active loop seal that integrates multiple advanced security capabilities and improved efficiency housed within a small-volume ceramic body. The development includes an associated handheld reader and interface software. Currently at the prototype stage, the Ceramic Seal will undergo a series of tests to determine operational readiness. It will be field tested in a representative verification trial in 2016. ORNL is developing the Whole Volume Containment Seal (WCS), a flexible conductive fabric capable of enclosing various sizes and shapes of monitored items. The WCS includes a distributed impedance measurement system for imaging the fabric surface area and passive tamper-indicating features such as permanent-staining conductive ink. With the expected technology advances from the Ceramic Seal and WCS, the ATCK project takes significant steps in advancing containment technologies to help maintain CoK for various verification

  17. Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemach, T.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρ i , propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρ a . The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general −f 1 (z) ≤ y ≤ f 2 (z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion which is produced by release from rest of a fixed volume of mixture from a lock. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h(x, t), velocity u(x, t), and volume fraction of particles (concentration) ϕ(x, t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law (f(z) = z α and f(z) = (H − z) α , where α is positive constant), trapezoidal, and circle. In general, the speed of propagation of the flows driven by suspensions decreases compared with those driven by a reduced gravity in homogeneous currents. However, the details depend on the geometry of the cross section. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged “box” model. The present approach is a significant generalization of the classical gravity current problem. The classical formulation for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model

  18. A dependence of quasielastic charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, N.; Jachowicz, N.; González-Jiménez, R.; Pandey, V.; Van Cuyck, T.

    2018-04-01

    Background: 12C has been and is still widely used in neutrino-nucleus scattering and oscillation experiments. More recently, 40Ar has emerged as an important nuclear target for current and future experiments. Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) possess various advantages in measuring electroweak neutrino-nucleus cross sections. Concurrent theoretical research is an evident necessity. Purpose: 40Ar is larger than 12C , and one expects nuclear effects to play a bigger role in reactions. We present inclusive differential and total cross section results for charged-current neutrino scattering on 40Ar and perform a comparison with 12C , 16O , and 56Fe targets, to find out about the A -dependent behavior of model predictions. Method: Our model starts off with a Hartree-Fock description of the nucleus, with the nucleons interacting through a mean field generated by an effective Skyrme force. Long-range correlations are introduced by means of a continuum random phase approximation approach. Further methods to improve the accuracy of model predictions are also incorporated in the calculations. Results: We present calculations for 12C , 16O , 40Ar , and 56Fe , showcasing differential cross sections over a broad range of kinematic values in the quasielastic regime. We furthermore show flux-folded results for 40Ar and we discuss the differences between nuclear responses. Conclusions: At low incoming energies and forward scattering we identify an enhancement in the 40Ar cross section compared to 12C , as well as in the high ω (low Tμ) region across the entire studied Eν range. The contribution to the folded cross section of the reaction strength at values of ω lower than 50 MeV for forward scattering is sizable.

  19. QCD analysis of neutral and charged current cross sections and search for contact interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirumov, Hayk

    2013-11-15

    A QCD analysis of the inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering cross section measured by the H1 experiment at HERA is presented. The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of about 0.5 fb{sup -1} and covers a kinematic range of 0.5 GeV{sup 2} - 30000 GeV{sup 2} in the negative four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and 3 . 10{sup -5} - 0.65 in Bjorken x. The performed QCD analysis of the double differential neutral and charged current cross sections results in a set of parton distribution functions H1PDF 2012. The precise data from HERA II period in the kinematic region of high Q{sup 2} considerably improve the accuracy of the PDFs at the high x. In addition a search for signs of new physics using single differential neutral current cross section measurements at high Q{sup 2} is performed. The observed good agreement of the analysed data with the Standard Model predictions allows to set constraints on various new physics models within the framework of contact interactions. Limits are derived on the compositeness scale for general contact interactions, on the ratio of mass to the Yukawa coupling for heavy leptoquark models, on the effective Plank-mass scale in the large extra dimension models and on the quark radius.

  20. Analysis of Advanced Fuel Assemblies and Core Designs for the Current and Next Generations of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragusa, Jean; Vierow, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the project is to design and analyze advanced fuel assemblies for use in current and future light water reactors and to assess their ability to reduce the inventory of transuranic elements, while preserving operational safety. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel can delay or avoid the need for a second geological repository in the US. Current light water reactor fuel assembly designs under investigation could reduce the plutonium inventory of reprocessed fuel. Nevertheless, these designs are not effective in stabilizing or reducing the inventory of minor actinides. In the course of this project, we developed and analyzed advanced fuel assembly designs with improved thermal transmutation capability regarding transuranic elements and especially minor actinides. These designs will be intended for use in thermal spectrum (e.g., current and future fleet of light water reactors in the US). We investigated various fuel types, namely high burn-up advanced mixed oxides and inert matrix fuels, in various geometrical designs that are compliant with the core internals of current and future light water reactors. Neutronic/thermal hydraulic effects were included. Transmutation efficiency and safety parameters were used to rank and down-select the various designs.

  1. Analysis of Advanced Fuel Assemblies and Core Designs for the Current and Next Generations of LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragusa, Jean; Vierow, Karen

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the project is to design and analyze advanced fuel assemblies for use in current and future light water reactors and to assess their ability to reduce the inventory of transuranic elements, while preserving operational safety. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel can delay or avoid the need for a second geological repository in the US. Current light water reactor fuel assembly designs under investigation could reduce the plutonium inventory of reprocessed fuel. Nevertheless, these designs are not effective in stabilizing or reducing the inventory of minor actinides. In the course of this project, we developed and analyzed advanced fuel assembly designs with improved thermal transmutation capability regarding transuranic elements and especially minor actinides. These designs will be intended for use in thermal spectrum (e.g., current and future fleet of light water reactors in the US). We investigated various fuel types, namely high burn-up advanced mixed oxides and inert matrix fuels, in various geometrical designs that are compliant with the core internals of current and future light water reactors. Neutronic/thermal hydraulic effects were included. Transmutation efficiency and safety parameters were used to rank and down-select the various designs.

  2. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  3. Measurement of the depth of narrow slotted sections in eddy current reference standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-gil; Ahn, Bongyoung; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2007-02-01

    The dimensions of the slots in eddy current (EC) reference standards are too narrow to be measured by general depth measurement methods such as the optical (laser) or stylus methods. However, measurement of the dimensions of the machined slots is a prerequisite to using the blocks as references. The present paper suggests a measurement method for the slotted section using an ultrasonic test. The width and depth of the slots measured in our study are roughly 0.1 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. The time of flight (TOF) of the ultrasonic wave was measured precisely. The ultrasonic velocity in the material of the EC reference standard was calculated with the measured values of the TOF and its thickness. Reflected waves from the tip of the slot and the bottom surface of the EC standard were successfully classified. Using this method we have successfully determined the depth of the slotted section.

  4. Inclusive dijet cross sections in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Adamczyk, L.

    2010-10-01

    Single- and double-differential inclusive dijet cross sections in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 374 pb -1 . The measurement was performed at large values of the photon virtuality, Q 2 , between 125 and 20 000 GeV 2 . The jets were reconstructed with the k T cluster algorithm in the Breit reference frame and selected by requiring their transverse energies in the Breit frame, E jet T,B , to be larger than 8 GeV. In addition, the invariant mass of the dijet system, M jj , was required to be greater than 20 GeV. The cross sections are described by the predictions of next-to-leading-order QCD. (orig.)

  5. Muon-neutrino-induced charged-current cross section without pions: Theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosel, U.; Gallmeister, K.

    2018-04-01

    We calculate the charged-current cross sections obtained at the T2K near detector for νμ-induced events without pions in the final state. The method used is quantum-kinetic transport theory. Results are shown first, as a benchmark, for electron-inclusive cross sections on 12C and 16O to be followed with a detailed comparison with the data measured by the T2K Collaboration on C8H8 and H2O targets. The contribution of 2p2h processes is found to be relevant mostly for backward angles; their theoretical uncertainties are within the experimental uncertainties. Particular emphasis is then put on a discussion of events in which pions are first created but then reabsorbed. Their contribution is found to be essential at forward angles.

  6. Inclusive dijet cross sections in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Cracow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-10-15

    Single- and double-differential inclusive dijet cross sections in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 374 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed at large values of the photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}, between 125 and 20 000 GeV{sup 2}. The jets were reconstructed with the k{sub T} cluster algorithm in the Breit reference frame and selected by requiring their transverse energies in the Breit frame, E{sup jet}{sub T,B}, to be larger than 8 GeV. In addition, the invariant mass of the dijet system, M{sub jj}, was required to be greater than 20 GeV. The cross sections are described by the predictions of next-to-leading-order QCD. (orig.)

  7. New relations between lN-scattering cross sections and neutral current parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyakov, V.A.; Kovalenko, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    New relations which connect cross sections with neutral current parameters have been obtained in deep inelastic and (quasi-)elastic ν(ν-bar)N, e ± (μ ± )N scattering. The relations are independent of the structure functions and formfactors of the nucleon. A known example is the Paschos-Wolfenstein relation in ν(ν-bar)N scattering. The relations have been obtained with allowance for the contribution of the extra Z' bozon which makes it possible to use them both for extractions of the standard model parameters (ρ, sin 2 Θ W ) and for the search for some manifestations of new physics. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Measurement of the nu/sub μ/ charged-current cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, N.J.; Connolly, P.L; Kahn, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber, filled with a heavy neon-hydrogen mix, was exposed to a narrow band nu/sub μ/ beam. Based on the observation of 830 charged current nu/sub μ/ interactions, the cross section was found to rise linearly with the neutrino energy in the interval, 10 GeV less than or equal to E/sub nu/ less than or equal to 240 GeV, with a constant slope of: sigma/sub nu/E/sub nu/ = (0.64 +- 0.05) 10 -38 cm 2 GeV -1 . This result is discussed in relation to other experiments

  9. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, Gratien; Jeppesen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls...... of thymus is compatible with increased thymic activity and emission of T lymphocytes....

  10. Unpolarized neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross section measurements at the H1 experiment, HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Shiraz Z.

    2009-11-15

    Measurements of the unpolarized inclusive neutral current reduced cross section in e{sup {+-}}p scattering at a center of mass energy {radical}(s) {approx_equal} 319 GeV are presented. The data was collected by the H1 detector during the HERA II running phase, after the 2000 luminosity upgrade, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 145 pb{sup -1} and 167 pb{sup -1} for the e{sup -}p and e{sup +}p periods respectively. The cross section measurements were made for the negative four-momentum transfer squared range 65{<=} Q{sup 2}{<=}30000 GeV{sup 2} and Bjorken-x range 0.00085{<=}x{<=}0.65. Dedicated measurements at inelasticity y=0.75 and Q{sup 2}{<=}800 GeV{sup 2} are also made. The details of the analysis are presented here. The cross section measurements presented here are found to agree with previously published data as well as predictions determined from various NLO QCD fits. Scaling violation of the F{sub 2} structure function as well differences between the e{sup -} and e{sup +} cross sections at high Q{sup 2} due to the xF{sub 3} structure function have been observed. The cross sections in the range Q{sup 2}{<=}800 GeV{sup 2} at inelasticity y=0.75 suggest non-zero values of the longitudinal structure function F{sub L}. (orig.)

  11. An update on current management of advanced renal cell cancer, biomarkers, and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi, Wanqing Iris; Kim, Jenny J.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treatment underwent significant advancement that resulted in an unprecedented improvement in the prognosis of this disease. This review will provide an updated review of currently approved treatment options, namely antiangiogenic and immunotherapy, as well as treatment guideline recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). We will summarize studies ongoing in determining prognostic and predictive biomarkers in maxi...

  12. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiacono, Laura Jean [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  13. Advances based on digital technology named TEDDY+ for inspection of eddy current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcenilla, V.; Hernandez, J.; Ribes, B.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the recent developing line of eddy current data acquisition system a new product based on digital technology named TEDDY+, comes to the market. With only 4 kg of weight constitutes a great advance with regards to other equipment's available in the market. These advances, have enabled, among others, to increase considerably the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, avoid typical saturation problems in the eddy current signal, increase the inspection speed, eliminate the reference probe, detect the air/tube signal in real time, and the possibility to integrate the tester inside a push puller thanks to its reduced size and to have integrated as part of the ET equipment the mechanical systems control board. Two product lines have been developed, one oriented to any market and application (nuclear market, industrial and aeronautical, chemical and petrochemical, etc) and other specially dedicated to the massive inspection of tubes, named TEDDY+SP (Suitcase Pusher). Both lines are prepared to use eddy current arrays which clearly constitute the future of the eddy current inspection systems. The new TEDDY+ line of products presented in this paper constitutes one of the most powerful and reliable existing in the market. These improvements and novelties place the new ET inspection system from Tecnatom as one of the most powerful and reliable in the market. (Author)

  14. ANSL-V: ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Waddell, M.W.; Webster, C.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Multigroup P3 neutron, P0-P3 secondary gamma ray production (SGRP), and P6 gamma ray interaction (GRI) cross section libraries have been generated to support design work on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross-Section Libraries), are data bases in a format suitable for subsequent generation of problem dependent cross sections. The ANSL-V libraries are available on magnetic tape from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  15. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  16. Cesarean section in the People’s Republic of China: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xing Lin Feng,1 Ying Wang,1 Lin An,2 Carine Ronsmans3 1Department of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Women, Children and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England Objective: To review the current knowledge on the prevalence, reasons, and consequences of cesarean sections in the People’s Republic of China. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles were systematically searched on PubMed. The following Chinese databases were comprehensively searched: the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and the VIP information. The databases were searched from inception to September 1, 2013. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility. Full texts of eligible papers were reviewed, where relevant references were hand-searched and reviewed. Findings: Sixty articles were included from PubMed, 17 articles were intentionally picked out from Chinese journals, and five additional articles were added, for a total of 82 articles for the analysis. With a current national rate near 40%, the literature consistently reported a rapid rise of cesarean sections in the People’s Republic of China in the past decades, irrespective of where people lived or their socioeconomic standing. Nonclinical factors were considered as the main drivers fueling the rise of cesareans in the People’s Republic of China. There was a lively debate on whether women’s preferences or providers’ distorted financial incentives affected the rise in cesarean sections. However, recent evidence suggests that it might be the People’s Republic of China’s health development approach – focusing on specialized care and marginalizing primary care – that is playing a role. Although 30 articles

  17. Rational design and optimization of downstream processes of virus particles for biopharmaceutical applications: current advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Tiago; Mota, José P B; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2011-01-01

    The advent of advanced therapies in the pharmaceutical industry has moved the spotlight into virus-like particles and viral vectors produced in cell culture holding great promise in a myriad of clinical targets, including cancer prophylaxis and treatment. Even though a couple of cases have reached the clinic, these products have yet to overcome a number of biological and technological challenges before broad utilization. Concerning the manufacturing processes, there is significant research focusing on the optimization of current cell culture systems and, more recently, on developing scalable downstream processes to generate material for pre-clinical and clinical trials. We review the current options for downstream processing of these complex biopharmaceuticals and underline current advances on knowledge-based toolboxes proposed for rational optimization of their processing. Rational tools developed to increase the yet scarce knowledge on the purification processes of complex biologicals are discussed as alternative to empirical, "black-boxed" based strategies classically used for process development. Innovative methodologies based on surface plasmon resonance, dynamic light scattering, scale-down high-throughput screening and mathematical modeling for supporting ion-exchange chromatography show great potential for a more efficient and cost-effective process design, optimization and equipment prototyping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cesarean section in the People’s Republic of China: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing Lin; Wang, Ying; An, Lin; Ronsmans, Carine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the current knowledge on the prevalence, reasons, and consequences of cesarean sections in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Peer-reviewed articles were systematically searched on PubMed. The following Chinese databases were comprehensively searched: the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and the VIP information. The databases were searched from inception to September 1, 2013. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility. Full texts of eligible papers were reviewed, where relevant references were hand-searched and reviewed. Findings Sixty articles were included from PubMed, 17 articles were intentionally picked out from Chinese journals, and five additional articles were added, for a total of 82 articles for the analysis. With a current national rate near 40%, the literature consistently reported a rapid rise of cesarean sections in the People’s Republic of China in the past decades, irrespective of where people lived or their socioeconomic standing. Nonclinical factors were considered as the main drivers fueling the rise of cesareans in the People’s Republic of China. There was a lively debate on whether women’s preferences or providers’ distorted financial incentives affected the rise in cesarean sections. However, recent evidence suggests that it might be the People’s Republic of China’s health development approach – focusing on specialized care and marginalizing primary care – that is playing a role. Although 30 articles were identified studying the consequences of cesareans, the methodologies are in general weak and the themes are out of focus. Conclusion The overuse of cesareans is rising alarmingly in the People’s Republic of China and has become a real public health problem. No consensus has been made on the leverage factors that drive the cesarean epidemic, particularly for those nonclinical factors. The more macro level structural factors may have played a part

  19. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O` Hara, J M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs.

  20. Advanced computer techniques for inverse modeling of electric current in cardiac tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Romero, L.A.; Diegert, C.F.

    1996-08-01

    For many years, ECG`s and vector cardiograms have been the tools of choice for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiac conduction problems, such as found in reentrant tachycardia or Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Through skillful analysis of these skin-surface measurements of cardiac generated electric currents, a physician can deduce the general location of heart conduction irregularities. Using a combination of high-fidelity geometry modeling, advanced mathematical algorithms and massively parallel computing, Sandia`s approach would provide much more accurate information and thus allow the physician to pinpoint the source of an arrhythmia or abnormal conduction pathway.

  1. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs

  2. Development of processing procedures for advanced silicon solar cells. [antireflection coatings and short circuit currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Avery, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Ten ohm-cm silicon solar cells, 0.2 mm thick, were produced with short circuit current efficiencies up to thirteen percent and using a combination of recent technical advances. The cells were fabricated in conventional and wraparound contact configurations. Improvement in cell collection efficiency from both the short and long wavelengths region of the solar spectrum was obtained by coupling a shallow junction and an optically transparent antireflection coating with back surface field technology. Both boron diffusion and aluminum alloying techniques were evaluated for forming back surface field cells. The latter method is less complicated and is compatible with wraparound cell processing.

  3. [Current advances and future prospects of genome editing technology in the field of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Tetsushi

    Genome editing technology can alter the genomic sequence at will, contributing the creation of cellular and animal models of human diseases including hereditary disorders and cancers, and the generation of the mutation-corrected human induced pluripotent stem cells for ex vivo regenerative medicine. In addition, novel approaches such as drug development using genome-wide CRISPR screening and cancer suppression using epigenome editing technology, which can change the epigenetic modifications in a site-specific manner, have also been conducted. In this article, I summarize the current advances and future prospects of genome editing technology in the field of biomedicine.

  4. Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.

  5. Current advances and trends in electro-Fenton process using heterogeneous catalysts - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza-Nogueiras, Verónica; Rosales, Emilio; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2018-06-01

    Over the last decades, advanced oxidation processes have often been used alone, or combined with other techniques, for remediation of ground and surface water pollutants. The application of heterogeneous catalysis to electrochemical advanced oxidation processes is especially useful due to its efficiency and environmental safety. Among those processes, electro-Fenton stands out as the one in which heterogeneous catalysis has been broadly applied. Thus, this review has introduced an up-to-date collation of the current knowledge of the heterogeneous electro-Fenton process, highlighting recent advances in the use of different catalysts such as iron minerals (pyrite, magnetite or goethite), prepared catalysts by the load of metals in inorganic and organic materials, nanoparticles, and the inclusion of catalysts on the cathode. The effects of physical-chemical parameters as well as the mechanisms involved are critically assessed. Finally, although the utilization of this process to remediation of wastewater overwhelmingly outnumber other utilities, several applications have been described in the context of regeneration of adsorbent or the remediation of soils as clear examples of the feasibility of the electro-Fenton process to solve different environmental problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety design features for current UK advanced gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellowlees, J. M.; Cobb, E. C. [Nuclear Power Co. (Risley) Ltd. (UK)

    1981-01-15

    The nuclear power stations planned for Heysham II and Torness will each have twin 660 MW(e) Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR) based on the design of those which have been operating at Hinkley Point 'B' and Hunterston 'B' since 1976. This paper has described the way in which the shutdown and cooling systems for the Heysham II and Torness AGRs have been selected in order to meet current UK safety requirements. Fault tree analyses have been used to identify the credible fault sequences, the probabilities of which have been calculated. By this means the relative importance of the various protective systems has been established and redundancy and reliability requirements identified. This systematic approach has led to a balanced design giving protection over the complete spectrum of fault sequences. Current safety requirements for thermal reactors in the UK and particular requirements in the design of the Heysham II and Torness reactors are discussed.

  7. Safety design features for current UK advanced gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellowlees, J.M.; Cobb, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear power stations planned for Heysham II and Torness will each have twin 660 MW(e) Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR) based on the design of those which have been operating at Hinkley Point 'B' and Hunterston 'B' since 1976. This paper has described the way in which the shutdown and cooling systems for the Heysham II and Torness AGRs have been selected in order to meet current UK safety requirements. Fault tree analyses have been used to identify the credible fault sequences, the probabilities of which have been calculated. By this means the relative importance of the various protective systems has been established and redundancy and reliability requirements identified. This systematic approach has led to a balanced design giving protection over the complete spectrum of fault sequences. Current safety requirements for thermal reactors in the UK and particular requirements in the design of the Heysham II and Torness reactors are discussed

  8. Measurement of charged and neutral current e-p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R.L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.; Katz, U.F.; Mari, S.M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, C.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Norman, D.J.P.; O'Mara, J.A.; Tapper, R.J.; Wilson, S.S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R.R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J.A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P.B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajac, J.; Kotanski, A.; Przybycien, M.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J.K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasinski, M.; Gilkinson, D.J.; Glasman, C.; Goettlicher, P.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hessling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Koepke, L.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Loehr, B.; Loewe, M.; Lueke, D.; Manczak, O.; Ng, J.S.T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic e - p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared Q 2 above 400GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 are presented. From the Q 2 dependence of the CC cross section, the mass term in the CC propagator is determined to be M W =76±16±13 GeV

  9. Review and Assessment of Neutron Cross Section and Nubar Covariances for Advanced Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov,V.M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman, M.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2007, the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) produced a set of preliminary neutron covariance data for the international project 'Nuclear Data Needs for Advanced Reactor Systems'. The project was sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, under the Subgroup 26 of the International Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). These preliminary covariances are described in two recent BNL reports. The NNDC used a simplified version of the method developed by BNL and LANL that combines the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances, the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE and the Bayesian code KALMAN with the experimental data used as guidance. There are numerous issues involved in these estimates of covariances and it was decided to perform an independent review and assessment of these results so that better covariances can be produced for the revised version in future. Reviewed and assessed are uncertainties for fission, capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and (n,2n) cross sections as well as prompt nubars for 15 minor actinides ({sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am and {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) and 4 major actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239}Pu). We examined available evaluations, performed comparison with experimental data, taken into account uncertainties in model parameterization and made use state-of-the-art nuclear reaction theory to produce the uncertainty assessment.

  10. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  11. Measurement of fission cross-section of actinides at n_TOF for advanced nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, Marco; Montagnoli, G; Mastinu, P

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the determination of high accuracy neutron-induced fission cross-sections of various isotopes - all of which radioactive - of interest for emerging nuclear technologies. The measurements had been performed at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n TOF. In particular, in this work, fission cross-sections on 233U, the main fissile isotope of the Th/U fuel cycle, and on the minor actinides 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm have been analyzed. Data on these isotopes are requested for the feasibility study of innovative nuclear systems (ADS and Generation IV reactors) currently being considered for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation. The measurements have been performed with a high performance Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), in conjunction with an innovative data acquisition system based on Flash-ADCs. The first step in the analysis has been the reconstruction of the digitized signals, in order to extract the information required for the discrimination between fission fragm...

  12. VAGINAL BIRTH AFTER A PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION: CURRENT TRENDS AND OUTLOOK IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, J D; Adu-Bonsaffoh, K

    2014-01-01

    The optimal mode of subsequent delivery of women with prior caesarean birth remains a subject of intense research and debate in contemporary obstetric practice especially in low resource settings like West Africa where there are obvious systemic and management-related challenges associated with trial of scar. However, there is evidence that vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) is safe in appropriately selected women in addition to adequate intrapartum monitoring and ready access to theatre when emergency CS is indicated. The primary objective of the study was to determine the current trends and performance of VBAC in Ghana after decades of practice of trial of labour after caesarean section (TOLAC) in the mist of inherent challenges in deciding the optimal mode of childbirth for women with a previous caesarean birth. The secondary objective was to relate evidence based practice of TOLAC to obstetric practice in low resource settings like Ghana and provide recommendations for improving maternal and newborn health among women with prior caesarean birth. This was a retrospective study of the records of patients who had had a prior caesarean delivery and who then proceeded to deliver the next babies at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) between Jan 2010 and Dec 2014. The data on demography, antenatal care, labour and delivery and outcomes were collected from the Labour and Recovery wards and the Biostatistics unit of the Maternity unit of the Hospital. Excluded were women with a previous CS who had multiple pregnancies and those with incomplete notes as well as those whose delivery plans were not predetermined antenatally.. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. There were 53,581 deliveries during the study period. Vaginal delivery was obtained in 31,870 (59.5%) pregnancies and 21,711(40.5%) had CS. Also, 6261 (11.7%) had had a prior CS and 2472 (39.5%) of these were selected for TOLAC while 2119 (33.8) were scheduled for planned repeat CS. There was

  13. Defects and their inspectability by UT in current heavy section steels for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, S.; Ohkubo, Y.; Takeya, M.; Wataya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination (UT, hereinafter) techniques and their equipment have been improved in search of the defects in steels and structures for nuclear power plant components, while the acceptance standards of the defects became continually more stringent in a ''sword and armour'' race. Consequently, the steel making technique had to respond in minimizing the possible defects in steels with successful results in the past two decades. The conventional UT procedures cover basically the following categories of function. 1) Detection and location of defects. 2) Sizing of defects. 3) Characterization of defects. 4) Structure and residual stress effects in ultrasonic field. With proper considerations to the configuration of the steels under examination, the inspectability of the possible defects is further to be optimized. However, the final evaluation has often to be left to the discretion of a competent NDE engineer, well experienced in UT and knowledgeable in steel making. It is therefore the intention of the present paper to review the states-of-the-art of the defects found in the current heavy section steels for primary and secondary components of nuclear power plant, manufactured by the authors' plant. Typical defects, detectable size of them and inspectability of them are discussed

  14. Laparoscopic simulation training in gynaecology: Current provision and staff attitudes - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore current provision of laparoscopic simulation training, and to determine attitudes of trainers and trainees to the role of simulators in surgical training across the UK. An anonymous cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was developed and circulated. All Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Training Programme Directors (TPD), College Tutors (RCT) and Trainee representatives (TR) across the UK were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-six obstetricians and gynaecologists participated. Sixty-three percent of hospitals had at least one box trainer, and 14.6% had least one virtual-reality simulator. Only 9.3% and 3.6% stated that trainees used a structured curriculum on box and virtual-reality simulators, respectively. Respondents working in a Large/Teaching hospital (p = 0.008) were more likely to agree that simulators enhance surgical training. Eighty-nine percent agreed that simulators improve the quality of training, and should be mandatory or desirable for junior trainees. Consultants (p = 0.003) and respondents over 40 years (p = 0.011) were more likely to hold that a simulation test should be undertaken before live operation. Our data demonstrated, therefore, that availability of laparoscopic simulators is inconsistent, with limited use of mandatory structured curricula. In contrast, both trainers and trainees recognise a need for greater use of laparoscopic simulation for surgical training.

  15. Nursing home manager's knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about advance care planning for people with dementia in long-term care settings: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Esther-Ruth; McIlfatrick, Sonja; Hasson, Felicity; Leavey, Gerry

    2017-09-01

    To examine nursing home managers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and current practice regarding advance care planning for people with dementia in long-term care settings informed by the theory of planned behaviour. Internationally, advance care planning is advocated for people with dementia. However, evidence suggests that discussions with people with dementia are rare, particularly in long-term care settings. Whilst nursing home managers can be considered central to implementation in this setting, there is a dearth of research that has examined their perspective. This study reports on their role with regard to advance care planning and the perceived factors which influence this. A cross-sectional postal survey was carried out as part of a larger scale sequential explanatory mixed-methods study between January-March 2015. Nursing home managers in a region in the UK (n = 178). A response rate of 66% (n = 116) was achieved. Nursing home managers demonstrated a lack of knowledge of advance care planning, with negative attitudes underpinned by concerns regarding the capacity and lack of perceived benefits to the person with dementia. Currently, they do not view advance care planning as part of their role, with lack of ownership impacting upon current practice behaviours. Whilst nursing home managers recognise the potential benefits of advance care planning, barriers and challenges create a reluctance to facilitate. Targeted training to address the knowledge deficit is required, with the wider components of advance care planning promoted. There is a need for greater role clarification to ensure nurses in long-term care settings identify with the process in the future. A gap between rhetoric and reality of implementation is evident; therefore, long-term care settings must critically examine system, organisational and individual factors for failure to implement advance care planning for people with dementia. Increased cognisance of the context in which advance care

  16. Advanced antenna system for Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in TCABR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchko, L.F.; Ozono, E.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Degasperi, F.T.; Lerche, E.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced antenna system that has been developed for investigation of Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in the TCABR tokamak is described. The main goal was the development of such a system that could insure the excitation of travelling single helicity modes with predefined wave mode numbers M and N. The system consists of four similar modules with poloidal windings. The required spatial spectrum is formed by proper phasing of the RF feeding currents. The impedance matching of the antenna with the four-phase oscillator is accomplished by resonant circuits which form one assembly unit with the RF feeders. The characteristics of the antenna system design with respect to the antenna-plasma coupling and plasma wave excitation, for different phasing of the feeding currents, are summarised. The antenna complex impedance Z=Z R +Z I is calculated taking into account both the plasma response to resonant excitation of fast Alfven waves and the nonresonant excitation of vacuum magnetic fields in conducting shell. The matching of the RF generator with the antenna system during plasma heating is simulated numerically, modelling the plasma response with mutually coupled effective inductances with corresponding active Z R and reactive Z I impedances. The results of the numerical simulation of the RF system performance, including both the RF magnetic field spectrum analysis and the modeling of the RF generator operation with plasma load, are presented. (orig.)

  17. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections for the Advanced Neutron Source against the FOEHN critical experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Gehin, J.C.; Worley, B.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The FOEHN critical experiments were analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. Eleven critical configurations were evaluated using the KENO, DORT, and VENTURE neutronics codes. Eigenvalue and power density profiles were computed and show very good agreement with measured values

  18. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). Safety Section: Modules 1-3. Instructor Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    These three modules, which were developed for use by instructors in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contain the materials required to present the safety section of the plant's adult-oriented, job-specific competency-based training program. The 3 modules contain 12 lessons on the following topics: lockout/tagout…

  19. The current format and ongoing advances of medical education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishen, Kriya; Ovadia, Steven; Arzillo, Samantha; Avashia, Yash; Thaller, Seth R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the current system of medical education along with the advances that are being made to support the demands of a changing health care system. American medical education must reform to anticipate the future needs of a changing health care system. Since the dramatic transformations to medical education that followed the publication of the Flexner report in 1910, medical education in the United States has largely remained unaltered. Today, the education of future physicians is undergoing modifications at all levels: premedical education, medical school, and residency training. Advances are being made with respect to curriculum design and content, standardized testing, and accreditation milestones. Fields such as plastic surgery are taking strides toward improving resident training as the next accreditation system is established. To promote more efficacious medical education, the American Medical Association has provided grants for innovations in education. Likewise, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlined 6 core competencies to standardize the educational goals of residency training. Such efforts are likely to improve the education of future physicians so that they are able to meet the future needs of American health care.

  20. Current therapeutic strategies of anti-HER2 treatment in advanced breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Huszno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The HER2/neu ( ERBB2 oncogene is amplified and/or overexpressed in approximately 20% of breast cancers, and is a strong prognostic factor for relapse and poor overall survival, particularly in node-positive patients. It is also an important predictor for response to trastuzumab, which has established efficacy against breast cancer with overexpression or amplification of the HER2 oncogene. Treatment with the anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody – trastuzumab significantly improves progression-free and overall survival among patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. However, in most patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, the disease progresses occurred, what cause the need for new targeted therapies for advanced disease. In clinical trials, there are tested new drugs to improve the results of treatment for this group of patients. This paper presents new drugs introduced into clinical practice for treatment of advanced breast cancer, whose molecular target are receptors of the HER2 family. In addition, new therapeutic strategies and drugs that are currently in clinical researches are discussed.

  1. Advance Care Planning Documentation in Electronic Health Records: Current Challenges and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Daniela; Panariello, Natalie; Henrich, Natalie; Hammes, Bernard; Hanson, Laura C; Meier, Diane E; Guinn, Nancy; Corrigan, Janet; Hubber, Sean; Luetke-Stahlman, Hannah; Block, Susan

    2018-04-01

    To develop a set of clinically relevant recommendations to improve the state of advance care planning (ACP) documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). Advance care planning (ACP) is a key process that supports goal-concordant care. For preferences to be honored, clinicians must be able to reliably record, find, and use ACP documentation. However, there are no standards to guide ACP documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). We interviewed 21 key informants to understand the strengths and weaknesses of EHR documentation systems for ACP and identify best practices. We analyzed these interviews using a qualitative content analysis approach and subsequently developed a preliminary set of recommendations. These recommendations were vetted and refined in a second round of input from a national panel of content experts. Informants identified six themes regarding current inadequacies in documentation and accessibility of ACP information and opportunities for improvement. We offer a set of concise, clinically relevant recommendations, informed by expert opinion, to improve the state of ACP documentation in the EHR.

  2. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    CERN Document Server

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  3. Current Animal Models of Postoperative Spine Infection and Potential Future Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eStavrakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Implant related infection following spine surgery is a devastating complication for patients and can potentially lead to significant neurological compromise, disability, morbidity, and even mortality. This paper provides an overview of the existing animal models of postoperative spine infection and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each model. In addition there is discussion regarding potential modifications to these animal models to better evaluate preventative and treatment strategies for this challenging complication. Current models are effective in simulating surgical procedures but fail to evaluate infection longitudinally using multiple techniques. Potential future modifications to these models include using advanced imaging technologies to evaluate infection, use of bioluminescent bacterial species, and testing of novel treatment strategies against multiple bacterial strains. There is potential to establish a postoperative spine infection model using smaller animals, such as mice, as these would be a more cost-effective screening tool for potential therapeutic interventions.

  4. Cancer of the Pancreas: Molecular Pathways and Current Advancement in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polireddy, Kishore; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers among all malignances, with a median overall survival of cancers harbor a variety of genetic alternations that render it difficult to treat even with targeted therapy. Recent studies revealed that pancreatic cancers are highly enriched with a cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which is resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, and therefore escapes chemotherapy and promotes tumor recurrence. Cancer cell epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly associated with metastasis, generation of CSCs, and treatment resistance in pancreatic cancer. Reviewed here are the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer, the major signaling pathways regulating pancreatic cancer EMT and CSCs, and the advancement in current clinical and experimental treatments for pancreatic cancer.

  5. Current Advancements and Strategies in Tissue Engineering for Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jasmine; Walsh, Claire; Yue, Dominic; Dardik, Alan; Cheema, Umber

    2017-06-01

    Significance: With an aging population leading to an increase in diabetes and associated cutaneous wounds, there is a pressing clinical need to improve wound-healing therapies. Recent Advances: Tissue engineering approaches for wound healing and skin regeneration have been developed over the past few decades. A review of current literature has identified common themes and strategies that are proving successful within the field: The delivery of cells, mainly mesenchymal stem cells, within scaffolds of the native matrix is one such strategy. We overview these approaches and give insights into mechanisms that aid wound healing in different clinical scenarios. Critical Issues: We discuss the importance of the biomimetic niche, and how recapitulating elements of the native microenvironment of cells can help direct cell behavior and fate. Future Directions: It is crucial that during the continued development of tissue engineering in wound repair, there is close collaboration between tissue engineers and clinicians to maintain the translational efficacy of this approach.

  6. Inclusive neutral current ep cross sections with HERA II and two-dimensional unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, David-Johannes

    2011-06-01

    In this thesis, the inclusive neutral current ep → eX cross section at small e - scattering angles has been measured using the electromagnetic SpaCal calorimeter in the backward region of the H1 detector. This calorimeter constructed of lead and scintillating fiber was designed to measure the scattered electron with high resolution in both energy and polar angle. The analysis comprises the kinematic range of 0.06 e 2 e 2 2 for the squared momentum exchange. The data sample consists of positron proton collisions of the years 2006 and 2007, adding up to an integrated luminosity of ∝141 pb -1 . Due to the high luminosity of the HERA II run phase the accuracy is no longer limited by the data statistics but rather by the detector resolution and systematics. The migration becomes increasingly influential; an effect which leads to distortions of the measured distribution as well as to statistical correlations between adjacent data points. At this stage, the correction of detector effects as well as the precise determination of statistical correlations become important features of a rigorous error treatment. In this analysis two-dimensional unfolding has been applied. This is a novel approach to H1 inclusive cross section measurements, which are usually based on a bin-by-bin efficiency correction (bin-by-bin method). With unfolding, the detector effect to the measurements is modelled by a linear transformation (''response matrix'') which is used to correct any distortion of the data. The inclusion of off-diagonal elements results in a coherent assessment of the statistical uncertainties and correlations. The model dependence can be optimally evaluated. In this context, the bin-by-bin method can be viewed as an approximation based on a diagonal response matrix. In a scenario of limited detector resolution, the unfolded data distributions will typically exhibit strong fluctuations and correlations between the data points. This issue can be addressed by smoothing

  7. Inclusive neutral current ep cross sections with HERA II and two-dimensional unfolding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, David-Johannes

    2011-06-15

    In this thesis, the inclusive neutral current ep {yields} eX cross section at small e{sup -} scattering angles has been measured using the electromagnetic SpaCal calorimeter in the backward region of the H1 detector. This calorimeter constructed of lead and scintillating fiber was designed to measure the scattered electron with high resolution in both energy and polar angle. The analysis comprises the kinematic range of 0.06 < y{sub e} < 0.6 for the inelasticity and 14 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sub e}{sup 2} < 110 GeV{sup 2} for the squared momentum exchange. The data sample consists of positron proton collisions of the years 2006 and 2007, adding up to an integrated luminosity of {proportional_to}141 pb{sup -1}. Due to the high luminosity of the HERA II run phase the accuracy is no longer limited by the data statistics but rather by the detector resolution and systematics. The migration becomes increasingly influential; an effect which leads to distortions of the measured distribution as well as to statistical correlations between adjacent data points. At this stage, the correction of detector effects as well as the precise determination of statistical correlations become important features of a rigorous error treatment. In this analysis two-dimensional unfolding has been applied. This is a novel approach to H1 inclusive cross section measurements, which are usually based on a bin-by-bin efficiency correction (bin-by-bin method). With unfolding, the detector effect to the measurements is modelled by a linear transformation (''response matrix'') which is used to correct any distortion of the data. The inclusion of off-diagonal elements results in a coherent assessment of the statistical uncertainties and correlations. The model dependence can be optimally evaluated. In this context, the bin-by-bin method can be viewed as an approximation based on a diagonal response matrix. In a scenario of limited detector resolution, the unfolded data distributions will

  8. Measurement of charged and neutral current e-p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-03-01

    Deep inelastic e - p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared, Q 2 , between 400 GeV 2 and the kinematic limit of 87500 GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections, dσ/dQ 2 , are presented. For Q 2 ∝M W 2 , where M W is the mass of the W boson, the CC and NC cross sections have comparable magnitudes, demonstrating the equal strengths of the weak and electromagnetic interactions at high Q 2 . The Q 2 dependence of the CC cross section determines the mass term in the CC propagator to be M W =76±16±13 GeV. (orig.)

  9. Advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe; Mirica, Dumitru; Croitoru, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Mihaila, V.; Peteu, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and the selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involve an extraction process usually by means of mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. The latter, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and built. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is a stainless steel cylinder with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, having horizontal position as working position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor is shown. It consists of nine cells (units): five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates which ensures the counter-current running of the two phases. The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is connected to an electric motor of high rotation speed. The extractor has been tested at 1000-3000 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase = 1. The mechanical and hydrodynamic behavior of the two phases in counter-current are described. The results showed that the performances have been generally good. The new facility appears to be a promising idea to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  10. Technical advances in the sectioning of dental tissue and of on-section cross-linked collagen detection in mineralized teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhrao, Sim K; Sloan, Alastair J; Smith, Emma L; Archer, Charles W

    2010-08-01

    Immunohistochemical detection of cross-linked fibrillar collagens in mineralized tissues is much desired for exploring the mechanisms of biomineralization in health and disease. Mineralized teeth are impossible to section when embedded in conventional media, thus limiting on-section characterization of matrix proteins by immunohistochemistry. We hypothesized that by using an especially formulated acrylic resin suitable for mineralized dental tissues, not only sectioning of teeth would be possible, but also our recently developed immunofluorescence labeling technique would be amenable to fully calcified tissues for characterization of dentinal fibrillar collagens, which remains elusive. The hypothesis was tested on fixed rodent teeth embedded in Technovit 9100 New. It was possible to cut thin (1 mum) sections of mineralized teeth, and immunofluorescence characterization of cross-linked type I fibrillar collagen was selected due to its abundance in dentine. Decalcified samples of teeth embedded in paraffin wax were also used to compare immunolabeling from either method using the same immunoreagents in equivalent concentrations. In the decalcified tissue sections, type I collagen labeling in the dentine along the tubules was "patchy" and the signal in the predentine was very weak. However, enhanced signal in mineralized samples with type I collagen was detected not only in the predentine but also at the limit between intertubular dentine, within the elements of the enamel organ and subgingival stroma. This report offers advances in sectioning mineralized dental tissues and allows the application of immunofluorescence not only for on-section protein detection but importantly for detecting cross-linked fibrous collagens in both soft and mineralized tissue sections.

  11. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration.

  12. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration. PMID:27069484

  13. Are advance directives helpful for good end of life decision making: a cross sectional survey of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peicius, Eimantas; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Kaminskas, Raimondas

    2017-06-05

    This paper joins the debate over changes in the role of health professionals when applying advance directives to manage the decision-making process at the end of life care. Issues in relation to advance directives occur in clinical units in Lithuania; however, it remains one of the few countries in the European Union (EU) where the discussion on advance directives is not included in the health-care policy-making agenda. To encourage the discussion of advance directives, a study was designed to examine health professionals' understanding and preferences related to advance directives. In addition, the study sought to explore the views of health care professionals of the application of Advance Directives (AD) in clinical practice in Lithuania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by interviewing 478 health professionals based at major health care centers in Kaunas district, Lithuania. The design of the study included the use of a questionnaire developed for this study and validated by a pilot study. The collected data were analyzed using standard descriptive statistical methods. The analysis of knowledge about AD revealed some statistically significant differences when comparing the respondents' profession and gender. The analysis also indicated key emerging themes among respondents including tranquility of mind, the longest possible life expectancy and freedom of choice. Further, the study findings revealed that more than half of the study participants preferred to express their will while alive by using advance directives. The study findings revealed a low level of knowledge on advance directives among health professionals. Most health professionals agreed that AD's improved end-of-life decision making while the majority of physicians appreciated AD as the best tool for sharing responsibilities in clinical practice in Lithuania. More physicians than nurses preferred the presence of advance directives to support their decision making in end-of-life situations.

  14. Factors Associated with Suicide Risk in Advanced Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun A; Chung, Seung Hyun; Lee, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to find out to what degree suicidal thoughts and associated factors affect the suicide risk of advanced cancer patients. The frequency of suicidal thoughts among patients with cancer, especially in the advanced stages, is about 3 times greater than the adult average in South Korea. We recruited 457 participants with four types of cancers (colon, breast, cervical, and lung) using stratified sampling. Data collection was carried out through one-on-one interviews by trained nurse...

  15. Precision measurement of the cross section of charged-current and neutral current processes at large Q2 at HERA with the polarized-electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Trong Hieu

    2010-03-01

    The inclusive cross sections for both charged and neutral current processes have been measured in interactions of longitudinally polarized electrons (positrons) with unpolarized protons using the full data samples collected by H1 at HERA-II. The data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 319 GeV correspond to an integrated luminosity of 149.1 pb -1 and 180.0 pb -1 for e - p and e + p collisions, representing an increase in statistics of a factor of 10 and 2, respectively, over the data from HERA-I. The measured double differential cross sections d 2 σ/dxdQ 2 cover more than two orders of magnitude in both Q 2 , the negative four-momentum transfer squared, up to 30000 GeV 2 , and Bjorken x, down to 0.003. The cross section data are compared to predictions of the Standard Model which is able to provide a good description of the data. The polarization asymmetry as a function of Q 2 is measured with improved precision, confirming the previous observation of P violation effect in neutral current ep scattering at distances down to 10 -18 m. The total cross sections of the charged current process, for Q 2 > 400 GeV 2 and inelasticity y ± beams and different polarization values. Together with the corresponding cross section obtained from the previously published unpolarized data, the polarization dependence of the charged current cross section is measured and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction with the absence of right-handed charged current. The cross sections are combined with previously published data from H1 to obtain the most precise unpolarized measurements. These are used to extract the structure function xF 3 γZ which is sensitive to the valence quark distributions down to low x values. The new cross sections have also been used in a combined electroweak and QCD fit to significantly improve the light quark couplings to the Z-boson than those obtained based on the HERA-I data alone. (orig.)

  16. Advanced electrical current measurements of microdischarges: evidence of sub-critical pulses and ion currents in barrier discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Kudrle, Vít; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Electrical current measurements in corona or barrier microdischarges are a challenge as they require both high temporal resolution and a large dynamic range of the current probe used. In this article, we apply a simple self-assembled current probe and compare it to commercial ones. An analysis in the time and frequency domain is carried out. Moreover, an improved methodology is presented, enabling both temporal resolution in sub-nanosecond times and current sensitivity in the order of tens of micro-amperes. Combining this methodology with a high-tech oscilloscope and self-developed software, a unique statistical analysis of currents in volume barrier discharge driven in atmospheric-pressure air is made for over 80 consecutive periods of a 15 kHz applied voltage. We reveal the presence of repetitive sub-critical current pulses and conclude that these can be identified with the discharging of surface charge microdomains. Moreover, extremely low, long-lasting microsecond currents were detected which are caused by ion flow, and are analysed in detail. The statistical behaviour presented gives deeper insight into the discharge physics of these usually undetectable current signals.

  17. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. This paper presents the flight heritage and results of the sensor technology, some hardware trades for the current sensor, and discusses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the various NGAVGS development units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

  18. Current status on advanced aqueous reprocessing process (next) in FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Myochin, Munetaka; Koyama, Tomozo

    2009-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) launched the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project in cooperation with the Japanese electric utilities in 2006. An integration of the advanced aqueous reprocessing concept and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication was selected as the most promising fuel cycle system. In order to accomplish the integration, R and D tasks were launched as FaCT Project in 2006 by Japanese joint team. The New Extraction System for TRU Recovery (NEXT) system is an advanced aqueous reprocessing concept which was based on the well established aqueous reprocessing for LWR spent fuel and newly applied processes such as uranium crystallization and extraction chromatography for MAs recovery. Main task of the NEXT process is to develop the TRU recovery process and equipments with high reliability, criticality safety, high durability and remote maintainability. In the FaCT project, all innovative technologies are planned to be developed within the next decade focusing on the future commercialization of FBR cycle systems. The judgment of the adoption of each innovative technology will be made by 2010 based on the results of R and Ds. The development of each technology is to be completed by around 2015. By the same time, it is scheduled to present the conceptual design of commercial and demonstrative fast reactor cycle facilities. The six items (Disassembling and shearing, Fuel dissolution, Uranium Crystallization, Single cycle co-extraction of U, Pu and Np, MA recovery by extraction chromatography and Waste treatment) have been identified as the issues to be developed corresponding to each process step. Current R and D status and prospects of this system until around 2015 is reported. (author)

  19. Advanced thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes: current and future applications. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    An OECD Workshop on Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Applications was held from 10 to 13 April 2000, in Barcelona, Spain, sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organised in collaboration with the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and hosted by CSN and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) in collaboration with the Spanish Electricity Association (UNESA). The objectives of the Workshop were to review the developments since the previous CSNI Workshop held in Annapolis [NEA/CSNI/ R(97)4; NUREG/CP-0159], to analyse the present status of maturity and remnant needs of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutronic system codes and methods, and finally to evaluate the role of these tools in the evolving regulatory environment. The Technical Sessions and Discussion Sessions covered the following topics: - Regulatory requirements for Best-Estimate (BE) code assessment; - Application of TH and neutronic codes for current safety issues; - Uncertainty analysis; - Needs for integral plant transient and accident analysis; - Simulators and fast running codes; - Advances in next generation TH and neutronic codes; - Future trends in physical modeling; - Long term plans for development of advanced codes. The focus of the Workshop was on system codes. An incursion was made, however, in the new field of applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes to nuclear safety analysis. As a general conclusion, the Barcelona Workshop can be considered representative of the progress towards the targets marked at Annapolis almost four years ago. The Annapolis Workshop had identified areas where further development and specific improvements were needed, among them: multi-field models, transport of interfacial area, 2D and 3D thermal-hydraulics, 3-D neutronics consistent with level of details of thermal-hydraulics. Recommendations issued at Annapolis included: developing small pilot/test codes for

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on advanced thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes: current and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An OECD Workshop on Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Applications was held from 10 to 13 April 2000, in Barcelona, Spain, sponsored by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organised in collaboration with the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and hosted by CSN and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) in collaboration with the Spanish Electricity Association (UNESA). The objectives of the Workshop were to review the developments since the previous CSNI Workshop held in Annapolis [NEA/CSNI/ R(97)4; NUREG/CP-0159], to analyse the present status of maturity and remnant needs of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutronic system codes and methods, and finally to evaluate the role of these tools in the evolving regulatory environment. The Technical Sessions and Discussion Sessions covered the following topics: - Regulatory requirements for Best-Estimate (BE) code assessment; - Application of TH and neutronic codes for current safety issues; - Uncertainty analysis; - Needs for integral plant transient and accident analysis; - Simulators and fast running codes; - Advances in next generation TH and neutronic codes; - Future trends in physical modeling; - Long term plans for development of advanced codes. The focus of the Workshop was on system codes. An incursion was made, however, in the new field of applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes to nuclear safety analysis. As a general conclusion, the Barcelona Workshop can be considered representative of the progress towards the targets marked at Annapolis almost four years ago. The Annapolis Workshop had identified areas where further development and specific improvements were needed, among them: multi-field models, transport of interfacial area, 2D and 3D thermal-hydraulics, 3-D neutronics consistent with level of details of thermal-hydraulics. Recommendations issued at Annapolis included: developing small pilot/test codes for

  1. Measurement of high-Q2 charged current cross sections in e+p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenberg, J.

    2004-06-01

    Cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in e + p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the running periods 1999 and 2000 correspond to an integrated luminosity of 61 pb -1 . Single differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy have been measured for Q 2 >200 GeV 2 , as well as the double differential reduced cross section d 2 σ/dxdQ 2 in the kinematic range 280 GeV 2 2 2 and 0.008 - p charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections. The helicity structure is investigated in particular. The mass of the space-like W boson propagator has been determined from a fit to dσ/dQ 2 . (orig.)

  2. Two-section linear direct-current accelerator of 1.2 MeV electrons. Mean beam current of 50 mA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, A.S.; Ermakov, D.I.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Shvedunov, V.I.; Sakharov, V.P.; Trower, W.P.

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results, obtained by simulation, creation and start-up of the two-section linear electron accelerator, are presented. The following beam parameters: beam current of 49 mA, mean energy of 1.2 MeV, of 59 kV, normalized emittance of 11 mm mrad are determined on the basis of the data on the beam dynamics simulation and the accelerating structure optimization. Special attention is paid to the choice of the version of the SHF-supply system of the two-section accelerator. The version of the SHF-supply system, based on the sections phasing, operating in the auto-oscillation model by means of the synchronizing signal from the feedback chain of the first section into the feedback chain of the second section, is considered. The electron beam parameters on the accelerator outlet (beam current - 44 mA, beam energy - 1.15 MeV, beam efficiency - 50.6 kW) proved to be close to the simulation results [ru

  3. Optimization and control of the plasma shape and current profile in noncircular cross-section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.W.; Bernard, L.C.; Chan, V.S.; Davidson, R.H.; Dobrott, D.R.; Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.; Pfeiffer, W.; Waltz, R.E.; Wang, T.S.

    1980-06-01

    High-β equilibria which are stable to all ideal MHD modes are found by optimizing the plasma shape and current profile for doublets, up-down asymmetric dees, and symmetric dees. The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria for low toroidal mode number n is analyzed with a global MHD stability code, GATO. The stability to high-n modes is analyzed with a localized ballooning code, BLOON. The attainment of high β is facilitated by an automated optimization search on shape and current parameters. The equilibria are calculated with a free-boundary equilibrium code using coils appropriate for the Doublet III experimental device. The optimal equilibria are characterized by broad current profiles with values of β/sub poloidal/ approx. =1. Experimental realization of the shapes and current profiles giving the highest β limits is explored with a 1 1/2-D transport code, which simulates the time evolution of the 2-D MHD equilibrium while calculating consistent current profiles from a 1-D transport model. Transport simulations indicate that nearly optimal shapes may be obtained provided that the currents in the field-shaping coils are appropriately programmed and the plasma current profile is sufficiently broad. Obtaining broad current profiles is possible by current ramping, neutral beam heating, and electron cyclotron heating. With combinations of these techniques it is possible to approach the optimum β predicted by the MHD theory

  4. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafay Ahmed,1 Matthew J Oborski,2 Misun Hwang,1 Frank S Lieberman,3 James M Mountz11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies

  5. Advanced simulation capability for environmental management - current status and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark; Scheibe, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States); Robinson, Bruce; Moulton, J. David; Dixon, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Marble, Justin; Gerdes, Kurt [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States); Stockton, Tom [Neptune and Company, Inc, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Seitz, Roger [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina (United States); Black, Paul [Neptune and Company, Inc, Lakewood, Colorado (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater (EM-12), is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach that is currently aimed at understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. ASCEM is a modular and open source high-performance computing tool. It will be used to facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization, and provide robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of capabilities, with current emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) multi-process simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The integration of the Platform and HPC capabilities were tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities in 2012. The current maturity of the ASCEM computational and analysis capabilities has afforded the opportunity for collaborative efforts to develop decision analysis tools to support and optimize radioactive waste disposal. Recent advances in computerized decision analysis frameworks provide the perfect opportunity to bring this capability into ASCEM. This will allow radioactive waste

  6. Measurement of charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e - p collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 175 pb -1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is given for positively and negatively polarised electron beams. The differential cross-sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy are presented for Q 2 >200 GeV 2 . The double-differential cross-section d 2 σ/dxdQ 2 is presented in the kinematic range 280 2 and 0.015< x<0.65. The measured cross sections are compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  7. Modeling interfacial glass-water reactions: recent advances and current limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, Kideok D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-01-01

    Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries-pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and timescales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the mesoscale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations (i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer simulations), Monte Carlo simulations, and molecular dynamics methods. Discussed in this manuscript are the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers. New results are presented as examples of each approach. (authors)

  8. Current Advances in Thyroid Cancer Management. Are We Ready for the Epidemic Rise of Diagnoses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Rusinek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rising incidence of thyroid cancers (TCs mainly small tumors, observed during recent years, lead to many controversies regarding treatment strategies. TCs represent a distinct molecular background and clinical outcome. Although in most cases TCs are characterized by a good prognosis, there are some aggressive forms, which do not respond to standard treatment. There are still some questions, which have to be resolved to avoid dangerous simplifications in the clinical management. In this article, we focused on the current advantages in preoperative molecular diagnostic tests and histopathological examination including noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP. We discussed the controversies regarding the extent of thyroid surgery and adjuvant radioiodine therapy, as well as new treatment modalities for radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC. Considering medullary thyroid cancer (MTC, we analyzed a clinical management based on histopathology and RET (ret proto-oncogene mutation genotype, disease follow-up with a special attention to serum calcitonin doubling time as an important prognostic marker, and targeted therapy applied in advanced MTC. In addition, we provided some data regarding anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, a highly lethal neoplasm, which lead to death in nearly 100% of patients due to the lack of effective treatment options.

  9. Current Advances in Pharmacotherapy and Technology for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is classically defined by its vascular lesions and damage in the neurons of the retina. The cellular and clinical elements of DR have many features of chronic inflammation. Understanding the individual cell-specific inflammatory changes in the retina may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to prevent vision loss. The systematic use of available pharmacotherapy has been reported as a useful adjunct tool to laser photocoagulation, a gold standard therapy for DR. Direct injections or intravitreal anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenesis agents are widely used pharmacotherapy to effectively treat DR and diabetic macular edema (DME. However, their effectiveness is short term, and the delivery system is often associated with adverse effects, such as cataract and increased intraocular pressure. Further, systemic agents (particularly hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antihypertensive agents and plants-based drugs have also provided promising treatment in the progression of DR. Recently, advancements in pluripotent stem cells technology enable restoration of retinal functionalities after transplantation of these cells into animals with retinal degeneration. This review paper summarizes the developments in the current and potential pharmacotherapy and therapeutic technology of DR. Literature search was done on online databases, PubMed, Google Scholar, clinitrials.gov, and browsing through individual ophthalmology journals and leading pharmaceutical company websites.

  10. Spermatogonial stem cells: Current biotechnological advances in reproduction and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Pedro Manuel

    2015-05-26

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the germ stem cells of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis. Through the process of spermatogenesis, they produce sperm while concomitantly keeping their cellular pool constant through self-renewal. SSC biology offers important applications for animal reproduction and overcoming human disease through regenerative therapies. To this end, several techniques involving SSCs have been developed and will be covered in this article. SSCs convey genetic information to the next generation, a property that can be exploited for gene targeting. Additionally, SSCs can be induced to become embryonic stem cell-like pluripotent cells in vitro. Updates on SSC transplantation techniques with related applications, such as fertility restoration and preservation of endangered species, are also covered on this article. SSC suspensions can be transplanted to the testis of an animal and this has given the basis for SSC functional assays. This procedure has proven technically demanding in large animals and men. In parallel, testis tissue xenografting, another transplantation technique, was developed and resulted in sperm production in testis explants grafted into ectopical locations in foreign species. Since SSC culture holds a pivotal role in SSC biotechnologies, current advances are overviewed. Finally, spermatogenesis in vitro, already demonstrated in mice, offers great promises to cope with reproductive issues in the farm animal industry and human clinical applications.

  11. Recent Advances in Boar Sperm Cryopreservation: State of the Art and Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M

    2015-07-01

    While sperm cryopreservation is the best technology to store boar semen for long-term periods, only 1% of all artificial inseminations (AI) conducted worldwide are made using frozen-thawed boar sperm. With the emergence of long-term extenders for liquid storage, the use of cryopreserved sperm in routine AI is less required. However, banks of boar semen contain cryopreserved sperm and planning inseminations in AI centres may benefit from the use of frozen-thawed semen. Therefore, there is an interest in the use of this technology to preserve boar sperm. In this regard, although the first attempts to cryopreserve boar semen date back to the seventies and this technology is still considered as optimal, some relevant improvements have been made in the last decade. After giving a general picture about boar sperm cryodamage, the present review seeks to shed light on these recent cryopreservation advances. These contributions regard to protein markers for predicting ejaculate freezability, sperm selection prior to start cryopreservation procedures, additives to freezing and thawing extenders, relevance of the AI-technique and insemination-to-ovulation interval. In conclusion, most of these progresses have allowed counteracting better boar sperm cryodamage and are thus considered as forward steps for this storage method. It is also worth noting that, despite being lower than fresh/extended semen, reproductive performance outcomes following AI with frozen-thawed boar sperm are currently acceptable. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Modelling Marine Sediment Biogeochemistry: Current Knowledge Gaps, Challenges, and Some Methodological Advice for Advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadi Lessin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological improvements in quality and quantity of benthic data, it is necessary to ensure that benthic systems are appropriately represented in coupled benthic-pelagic biogeochemical and ecological modelling studies. In this paper we focus on five topical challenges related to various aspects of modelling benthic environments: organic matter reactivity, dynamics of benthic-pelagic boundary layer, microphytobenthos, biological transport and small-scale heterogeneity, and impacts of episodic events. We discuss current gaps in their understanding and indicate plausible ways ahead. Further, we propose a three-pronged approach for the advancement of benthic and benthic-pelagic modelling, essential for improved understanding, management and prediction of the marine environment. This includes: (A development of a traceable and hierarchical framework for benthic-pelagic models, which will facilitate integration among models, reduce risk of bias, and clarify model limitations; (B extended cross-disciplinary approach to promote effective collaboration between modelling and empirical scientists of various backgrounds and better involvement of stakeholders and end-users; (C a common vocabulary for terminology used in benthic modelling, to promote model development and integration, and also to enhance mutual understanding.

  13. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Total Charged-Current Cross Sections on Carbon with MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Lu [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of charged-current inclusive cross sections of muon neutrino and antineutrino interaction on carbon, and antineutrino to neutrino cross section ratio, r, in the energy range 2 - 22 GeV, with data collected in the MINERA experiment. The dataset corresponds to an exposure of 3.2 x 1020 protons on target (POT) for neutrinos and 1.01020 POT for antineutrinos. Measurement of neutrino and antineutrino charged-current inclusive cross sections provides essential constraints for future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at a few GeV energy range. Our measured antineutrino cross section has an uncertainty in the range 6.1% - 10.5% and is the most precise measurement below 6 GeV to date. The measured r has an uncertainty of 5.0% - 7.5%. This is the rst measurement below 6 GeV since Gargamelle in 1970s. The cross sections are measured as a function of neutrino energy by dividing the eciency corrected charged-current sample with extracted uxes. Fluxes are obtained using the low- method, which uses low hadronic energy subsamples of charged-current inclusive sample to extract ux. Measured cross sections show good agreement with the prediction of neutrino interaction models above 7 GeV, and are about 10% below the model below 7 GeV. The measured r agrees with the GENIE model [1] over the whole energy region. The measured cross sections and r are compared with world data.

  14. The relatives' perspective on advanced cancer care in Denmark. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna T; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten A

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve advanced cancer care, evaluations are necessary. An important element of such evaluations is the perspective of the patient's relatives who have the role of being caregivers as well as co-users of the health care system. The aims were to investigate the scale structure of the ...

  15. 14 CFR Section 15 - Objective Classification-Income Taxes for Current Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 15 Objective Classification—Income Taxes for..., State, local, and foreign taxes based upon net income, computed at the normal tax and surtax rates in... carryback of losses in the year in which the loss occurs, credits for the carry-forward of losses in the...

  16. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)

  17. Current treatments for advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Socinski, Mark A

    2009-04-15

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States, and the majority of patients will have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and will present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. In the United States, the most common histology is adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous cell, large cell, and not otherwise specified. For patients with a preserved performance status (PS), double agent platinum-based therapy extends survival, improves quality of life (Qol), and reduces disease-related symptoms. The addition of a third cytotoxic agent increases toxicity without any clinical benefit. However, the addition of a targeted agent (bevacizumab, an antiangioegenesis agent, or cetuximab, an antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]) to platinum-based therapy has yielded an improvement in survival compared with platinum-based therapy alone. To receive bevacizumab, patients are required to have nonsquamous histology, a PS of 0 or 1, and no evidence of brain metastases, hemoptysis, uncontrolled hypertension, and no need for therapeutic anticoagulation. The benefits of chemotherapy for patients with a poor performance status are less well defined, and the current recommendations are for treatment with single-agent chemotherapy. Elderly patients (defined as age > or = 70 yr) derive a survival and Qol benefit from chemotherapy treatment, and for the majority of elderly patients single-agent chemotherapy is the standard. However, elderly patients with a good performance status and without co-morbidities can tolerate platinum-based therapy without excessive toxicity and appear to derive a survival benefit similar to that in younger patients. Recently, a separate population of patients defined by a light or never-smoking history has been identified. This patient population appears to have unique clinical and molecular characteristics, and may benefit from initial therapy with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Once patients have

  18. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  19. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections: superscaling extension to the pion production and realistic spectral function for quasielastic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.N.; Antonov, M.V.; Barbaro, J.A.; Caballero, G.A.; Megias, G.D.; González-Jiménez, R.; Giusti, C.; Meucci, A.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udías, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Superscaling approximation (SuSA) predictions to neutrino-induced charged-current pion production in the Δ-resonance region are explored under MiniBooNE experimental conditions. The results obtained within SuSA for the flux-averaged double-differential cross sections of the pion production for the ν_μ+CH_2 reaction as a function of the muon kinetic energy and of the scattering angle, the cross sections averaged over the angle, the total cross section for the pion production are compared with the corresponding MiniBooNE experimental data. The SuSA charged-current π"+ predictions are in good agreement with data on neutrino flux average cross-sections. The SuSA extension to the pion production region and the realistic spectral function S(p;ε) for quasielastic scattering are used for predictions of charged current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections. The results are compared with the inclusive neutrino-nucleus data from the T2K experiment. (author)

  20. Measurement of neutral current e±p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2013-12-01

    The neutral current e ± p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x≅1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb -1 of e - p and 142 pb -1 of e + p collisions at √(s)=318 GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q 2 , the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q 2 ≥725 GeV 2 . An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.

  1. Measurement of neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-15

    The neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x{approx_equal}1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb{sup -1} of e{sup -}p and 142 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}p collisions at {radical}(s)=318 GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q{sup 2}, the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q{sup 2}{>=}725 GeV{sup 2}. An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.

  2. First measurement of charged current cross sections at HERA with longitudinally polarized positrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, A.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Reimer, Petr; Sedlák, Jaroslav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 634, - (2006), s. 173-179 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05LA259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : HI experiment * ep scattering * cross section Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.043, year: 2006

  3. Measurement of neutrino induced charged current neutral pion production cross section at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catala-Perez, Juan [Univ. of Valencia (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino scattering experiment located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. It collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon around 1 GeV neutrino energy. In this thesis we present the results on the measurement of the muon neutrino cross section resulting in a μ- plus a single π0 final state (CC- π0 channel). The present work will show the steps taken to achieve this result: from the reconstruction improvements to the background extraction. The flux-averaged CC - π0 production cross section measurement obtained in this thesis < σCC- π0 > Φ = (5.6 ± 1.9fit ± 0.7beam ± 0.5int - 0.7det) × 10-40 cm2/N at an average energy of 0.89 GeV is found to agree well both with the expectation from the Monte Ca

  4. Current advanced therapy cell-based medicinal products for type-1-diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañibano-Hernández, Alberto; Del Burgo, Laura Sáenz; Espona-Noguera, Albert; Ciriza, Jesús; Pedraz, Jose Luis

    2018-03-27

    In the XXI century diabetes mellitus has become one of the main threats to human health with higher incidence in regions such as Europe and North America. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) occurs as a consequence of the immune-mediated destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. The administration of exogenous insulin through daily injections is the most prominent treatment for T1DM but its administration is frequently associated to failure in glucose metabolism control, finally leading to hyperglycemia episodes. Other approaches have been developed in the past decades, such as whole pancreas and islet allotransplantation, but they are restricted to patients who exhibit frequent episodes of hypoglycemia or renal failure because the lack of donors and islet survival. Moreover, patients transplanted with either whole pancreas or islets require of immune suppression to avoid the rejection of the transplant. Currently, advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP), such as implantable devices, have been developed in order to reduce immune rejection response while increasing cell survival. To overcome these issues, ATMPs must promote vascularization, guaranteeing the nutritional contribution, while providing O 2 until vasculature can surround the device. Moreover, it should help in the immune-protection to avoid acute and chronic rejection. The transplanted cells or islets should be embedded within biomaterials with tunable properties like injectability, stiffness and porosity mimicking natural ECM structural characteristics. And finally, an infinitive cell source that solves the donor scarcity should be found such as insulin producing cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Several companies have registered their ATMPs and future studies envision new prototypes. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and etiology of

  5. Optimization and control of plasma shape and current profile in non-circular cross-section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.W.; Bernard, L.C.; Chan, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamaks with elongated, non-circular cross-sections are under consideration as fusion reactors because they have the potential for stable operation at high β. Ideal MHD theory, however, predicts that careful current profile control will be required to achieve the potential high-β advantages of non-circular cross-sections. In this paper, high-β equilibria which are stable to all ideal MHD modes are found by optimizing the plasma shape and current profile for doublets, up-down asymmetric dees, and symmetric dees. The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria for low toroidal mode number n is analysed with a global MHD stability code, GATO. The stability to high-n modes is analysed with a localized ballooning code, BLOON. The attainment of high β is facilitated by an automated optimization search on shape and current parameters. The equilibria are calculated with a free-boundary equilibrium code using coils appropriate for the Doublet III experimental device. The optimal equilibria are characterized by broad current profiles with values of βsub(poloidal) approximately equal to 1. Experimental realization of the shapes and current profiles giving the highest β limits is explored with a 1 1/2-D transport code, which simulates the time evolution of the 2-D MHD equilibrium while calculating consistent current profiles from a 1-D transport model. Transport simulations indicate that nearly optimal shapes may be obtained provided that the currents in the field-shaping coils are appropriately programmed and the plasma current profile is sufficiently broad. Obtaining broad current profiles is possible by current ramping, neutral-beam heating, and electron-cyclotron heating. With combinations of these techniques it is possible to approach the optimum β predicted by the MHD theory. (author)

  6. 3-D inelastic analysis methods for hot section components. Volume 2: Advanced special functions models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. B.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    This Annual Status Report presents the results of work performed during the third year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Sections Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional analyses of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of mathematical models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components.

  7. Some medical and other risk factors for current cesarean section in a Jakarta hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Poedjiningsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last year the prevalence of cesarean section (CS increased in several countries as well as in Indonesia. In Indonesia there was no comprehensive study on risk factors related to CS. This case-control study was conducted at Fatmawati Hospital in Jakarta from 1 July 200 until 31 January 2001. Data was extracted from available medical records. Ceserean section was defined as a delivery through laparotomy. The control group consisted of subjects having vaginal deliveries. For each cases were selected randomly a control based on the date before or after 18 October 2000. Subject who had fetal distress had 544-folds increased risk to be CS relative to those who did not have fetal distress [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 544.86; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 71.85- 4131.78]. Furthermore, relative those who did not have dystocia, those who had dystocia had 143 times increased risk to be CS (adjusted OR = 52.86; 95% CI = 52.86 - 391.17. In term of previous CS, subjects who ever had previous CS had 30 times increased risk to be CS compared with the subjects who never had CS (adjusted OR = 30.23; 95% CI = 12.06 - 75.57. In contrast, compared with those who non cash payment, those who paid in cash had a lowered risk of 80% (adjusted OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.11-0.34. In conclusion, previous CS, dystocia, pre eclampsia, other medical indications, fetal distress, and non cash hospitalization expences increased risk of CS. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 230-4Keywords: cesarean section, risk factors

  8. Charged current cross section for massive cosmological neutrinos impinging on radioactive nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazauskas, R.; Volpe, C. [Institut de Physique Nuclueaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Vogel, P. [Kellogg Radiation Lab., Caltech, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2007-07-01

    We discuss the cross section formula both for massless and massive neutrinos on stable and radioactive nuclei. The latter could be of interest for the detection of cosmological neutrinos whose observation is one of the main challenges of modern cosmology. We analyze the signal to background ratio as a function of the ratio m{nu}/{delta}, i.e. the neutrino mass over the detector resolution and show that an energy resolution {delta} {<=} 0.5 eV would be required for sub-eV neutrino masses, independently of the gravitational neutrino clustering. Finally we mention the non-resonant character of neutrino capture on radioactive nuclei. (authors)

  9. Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sirvyte, Dainora

    2015-09-14

    Understanding the role of the family in shaping adolescent health risk behaviours has recently been given increased attention. This study investigated association between current smoking and a range of familial factors in a representative sample of Lithuanian adolescents. Study subjects (N = 3696) were adolescents aged 13- and 15-years from the schools in Lithuania who were surveyed in Spring 2014 according to the methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A standard HBSC international questionnaire was translated into Lithuanian and used anonymously to obtain information about current smoking patterns and family life (family structure, quality of communication in family, parental monitoring, bonding, parenting style, family time, etc.). Logistic regression was used to assess association between smoking and familial variables. The prevalence of current smoking was 16.5 % (20.8 % in boys and 11.9 % in girls; P parental support (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.95), easy communication with the father (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.38-0.80) and often use of electronic media for communication with parents (OR = 0.66; 95 % CI: 0.50-0.88). The last two determinants showed an inverse effect than it was hypothesized. Higher prevalence of smoking among adolescents of Lithuania is associated with a non- intact family structure as well as weaker parental support and bonding. Family life practices are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in Lithuania.

  10. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  11. Current status and perspective of advanced loop type fast reactor in fast reactor cycle technology development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Aoto, Kazumi; Morishita, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    After selecting the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication as the most promising concept of FR cycle system, 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems' was finalized in 2006. Instead, a new project, Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT Project) was launched in Japan focusing on development of the selected concepts. This paper describes the current status and perspective of the advanced loop type SFR system in the FaCT Project, especially on the design requirements, current design as well as the related innovative technologies together with the development road-map. Some considerations on advantages of the advanced loop type design are also described. (authors)

  12. Measurement of the #betta#sub(μ) and anti #betta#sub(μ)-nucleon charged current total cross sections, and the ratio of #betta#sub(μ) neutron to #betta#sub(μ) proton charged current total cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allasia, D.; Bisi, V.; Gamba, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Bobisut, F.; Calimani, E.; Ciampolillo, S.; Huzita, H.; Loreti, M.; Sconza, A.; Bolognese, T.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Louedec, C.; Mosca, L.; Vignaud, D.; Bonarelli, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Derkaoui, J.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Frodesen, A.G.; Halsteinslid, A.; Hornaes, A.

    1983-04-01

    This report contains an investigation performed by the Amsterdam-Bergen-Bologna-Padova-Pisa-Saclay-Torino collaboration. The total #betta#sub(μ)- and anti #betta#sub(μ)-nucleon charged current cross sections have been measured in BEBC filled with deuterium and exposed to the wide band neutrino and antineutrino beams at the CERN-SPS. Assuming a linear energy dependence for the cross sections, sigma = a Esub((anti #betta#)), the authors obtained the coefficients asub(#betta#N) = 0.60 +- 0.04 and asub(anti #betta#N) = 0.30 +- 0.02 (in units of 10 - 38 cm 2 /GeV), where the quoted error is mainly systematic. The ratio of the cross sections is sigmasub(anti #betta#N)/sigmasub(#betta#N) = 0.50 +- 0.03. They also determined the ratio of the charged current cross section for neutrino interactions on neutrons and protons R = sigmasub(#betta#n)/sigmasub(#betta#p) = 2.10 +- 0.08 (stat.) +- 0.22 (syst.). The dependence of R on the variables x, y and Esub(#betta#) is discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Cross-sections for neutral-current neutrino-nucleus interactions applications for $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Jachowicz, N; Heyde, Kris L G; Ryckebusch, J

    1999-01-01

    We calculate cross sections for neutral current quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within a continuum RPA model, based on a Green's function approach. As residual interaction a Skyrme force is used. The unperturbed single particle wave functions are generated using either a Woods-Saxon potential or a Hartree-Fock calculation. These calculations have interesting applications. Neutrinos play an important role in supernova nucleosynthesis. To obtain more information about these processes, cross sections are folded with a Fermi-Dirac distribution with temperatures of approximately 10$^9$ K.

  14. Measurement of neutral current deep inelastic e+p scattering cross sections with longitudinally polarized positrons with ZEUS at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlasenko, Michal

    2009-05-01

    Measurements of neutral current deep inelastic scattering of protons colliding with longitudinally polarized positrons, performed with data recorded in years 2006 and 2007 with the ZEUS detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L=113.3 pb -1 , are presented. The single-differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx, dσ/dy and the double-differential reduced cross section σ were measured in the kinematic region of 185 2 2 and y + and the generalized structure function x F 3 were extracted. All measurements agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  15. Shell-model computed cross sections for charged-current scattering of astrophysical neutrinos off 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostensalo, Joel; Suhonen, Jouni; Zuber, K.

    2018-03-01

    Charged-current (anti)neutrino-40Ar cross sections for astrophysical neutrinos have been calculated. The initial and final nuclear states were calculated using the nuclear shell model. The folded solar-neutrino scattering cross section was found to be 1.78 (23 ) ×10-42cm2 , which is higher than what the previous papers have reported. The contributions from the 1- and 2- multipoles were found to be significant at supernova-neutrino energies, confirming the random-phase approximation (RPA) result of a previous study. The effects of neutrino flavor conversions in dense stellar matter (matter oscillations) were found to enhance the neutrino-scattering cross sections significantly for both the normal and inverted mass hierarchies. For the antineutrino scattering, only a small difference between the nonoscillating and inverted-hierarchy cross sections was found, while the normal-hierarchy cross section was 2-3 times larger than that of the nonoscillating cross section, depending on the adopted parametrization of the Fermi-Dirac distribution. This property of the supernova-antineutrino signal could probably be used to distinguish between the two hierarchies in megaton LAr detectors.

  16. First Measurement of the Muon Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double-Differential Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, Joseph M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of the muon antineutrino charged current quasi-elastic double-differential cross section. These data significantly extend the knowledge of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV range, a region that has recently come under scrutiny due to a number of conflicting experimental results. To maximize the precision of this measurement, three novel techniques were employed to measure the neutrino background component of the data set. Representing the first measurements of the neutrino contribution to an accelerator-based antineutrino beam in the absence of a magnetic field, the successful execution of these techniques carry implications for current and future neutrino experiments.

  17. Theme section on mesophotic coral ecosystems: advances in knowledge and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Yossi; Eyal, Gal; Treibitz, Tali; Lesser, Michael P.; Appeldoorn, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The Second International Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems (MCEs) workshop was held in Eilat, Israel, October 26-31, 2014. Here we provide an account of: (1) advances in our knowledge of MCE ecology, including the central question of the potential vertical connectivity between MCEs and shallow-water reefs (SWRs), and that of the validity of the deep-reef refugia hypothesis (DRRH); (2) the contribution of the 2014 MCE workshop to the central question presented in (1), as well as its contribution to novel MCE studies on corals, sponges, fish, and crabs; and (3) gaps, priorities, and recommendations for future research stemming from the workshop. Despite their close proximity to well-studied SWRs, and the growing evidence of their importance, our scientific knowledge of MCEs is still in its infancy. During the last five years, we have witnessed an ever-increasing scientific interest in MCEs, expressed in the exponential increase in the number of publications studying this unique environment. The emerging consensus is that lower MCE benthic assemblages represent unique communities, either of separate species or genetically distinct individuals within species, and any significant support for the DRRH will be limited to upper MCEs. Determining the health and stability of MCEs, their biodiversity, and the degree of genetic connectivity among SWRs and MCEs, will ultimately indicate the ability of MCEs to contribute to the resilience of SWRs and help to guide future management and conservation strategies. MCEs deserve therefore management consideration in their own right. With the technological advancements taking place in recent years that facilitate access to MCEs, the prospects for exciting and innovative discoveries resulting from MCE research, spanning a wide variety of fields, are immense.

  18. Theoretical estimates of supernova-neutrino cross sections for the stable even-even lead isotopes: Charged-current reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosly, W.; Carlsson, B. G.; Suhonen, J.; Toivanen, J.; Ydrefors, E.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed study of the charged-current supernova electron neutrino and electron antineutrino scattering off the stable even-mass lead isotopes A =204 , 206, and 208 is reported in this work. The proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) is adopted to construct the nuclear final and initial states. Three different Skyrme interactions are tested for their isospin and spin-isospin properties and then applied to produce (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections for (anti)neutrino energies below 80 MeV. Realistic estimates of the nuclear responses to supernova (anti)neutrinos are computed by folding the computed cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electron (anti)neutrino energies. The computed cross sections are compared with earlier calculations and the analyses are extended to take into account the effects coming from the neutrino oscillations.

  19. $\\mu / \\pi$ Separation using Convolutional Neural Networks for the MicroBooNE Charged Current Inclusive Cross Section Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Jessica Nicole [Syracuse U.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to separate $\\mu^{\\prime}$s and $\\pi^{\\prime}$s for use in increasing the acceptance rate of $\\mu^{\\prime}$s below the implemented 75cm track length cut in the Charged Current Inclusive (CC-Inclusive) event selection for the CC-Inclusive Cross-Section Measurement. In doing this, we increase acceptance rate for CC-Inclusive events below a specific momentum range.

  20. Current status of core and advanced adult gastrointestinal endoscopy training in Canada: Survey of existing accredited programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xin; Barkun, Alan N; Waschke, Kevin; Martel, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    To determine the current status of core and advanced adult gastroenterology training in Canada. A survey consisting of 20 questions pertaining to core and advanced endoscopy training was circulated to 14 accredited adult gastroenterology residency program directors. For continuous variables, median and range were analyzed; for categorical variables, percentage and associated 95% CIs were analyzed. All 14 programs responded to the survey. The median number of core trainees was six (range four to 16). The median (range) procedural volumes for gastroscopy, colonoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and sigmoidoscopy, respectively, were 400 (150 to 1000), 325 (200 to 1500), 15 (zero to 250) and 60 (25 to 300). Eleven of 13 (84.6%) programs used endoscopy simulators in their curriculum. Eight of 14 programs (57%) provided a structured advanced endoscopy training fellowship. The majority (88%) offered training of combined endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography. The median number of positions offered yearly for advanced endoscopy fellowship was one (range one to three). The median (range) procedural volumes for ERCP, endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic mucosal resection, respectively, were 325 (200 to 750), 250 (80 to 400) and 20 (10 to 63). None of the current programs offered training in endoscopic submucosal dissection or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Most accredited adult Canadian gastroenterology programs met the minimal procedural requirements recommended by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology during core training. However, a more heterogeneous experience has been observed for advanced training. Additional studies would be required to validate and standardize evaluation tools used during gastroenterology curricula.

  1. Measurement of the antineutrino to neutrino charged-current interaction cross section ratio in MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; MinerνA Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total charged-current cross sections on carbon and their ratio using the MINERvA scintillator-tracker. The measurements span the energy range 2-22 GeV and were performed using forward and reversed horn focusing modes of the Fermilab low-energy NuMI beam to obtain large neutrino and antineutrino samples. The flux is obtained using a subsample of charged-current events at low hadronic energy transfer along with precise higher energy external neutrino cross section data overlapping with our energy range between 12-22 GeV. We also report on the antineutrino-neutrino cross section ratio, RCC , which does not rely on external normalization information. Our ratio measurement, obtained within the same experiment using the same technique, benefits from the cancellation of common sample systematic uncertainties and reaches a precision of ˜5 % at low energy. Our results for the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and for RCC are the most precise to date in the energy range Eν<6 GeV .

  2. Measurement of high-Q2 neutral current cross-sections with longitudinally polarised positrons with the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Trevor P.

    2012-07-01

    The cross sections for neutral current (NC) deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in e + p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are measured at high momentum transfer squared (Q 2 >185 GeV 2 ) at the ZEUS detector at HERA. The HERA accelerator provides e ± p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, which allows the weak contribution to the NC process to be studied at high Q 2 . The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb -1 collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007. The single differential NC cross sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy and the reduced cross section σ are measured. The structure function xF 3 is determined by combining the e + p NC reduced cross sections with the previously measured e - p measurements. The interference structure function xF 3 γZ is extracted at Q 2 =1500 GeV 2 . The cross-section asymmetry between the positive and negative polarisation of the positron beam is measured and the parity violation effects of the electroweak interaction are observed. The predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics agree well with the measurements. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e{sup -}p collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 175 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is given for positively and negatively polarised electron beams. The differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The double-differential cross-section d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} is presented in the kinematic range 280sections are compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current cross-sections with longitudinally polarised positrons with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Trevor P.

    2012-07-15

    The cross sections for neutral current (NC) deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are measured at high momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2}) at the ZEUS detector at HERA. The HERA accelerator provides e{sup {+-}}p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, which allows the weak contribution to the NC process to be studied at high Q{sup 2}. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007. The single differential NC cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross section {sigma} are measured. The structure function xF{sub 3} is determined by combining the e{sup +}p NC reduced cross sections with the previously measured e{sup -}p measurements. The interference structure function xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}Z} is extracted at Q{sup 2}=1500 GeV{sup 2}. The cross-section asymmetry between the positive and negative polarisation of the positron beam is measured and the parity violation effects of the electroweak interaction are observed. The predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics agree well with the measurements. (orig.)

  5. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slabej Martin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  6. Neutron cross-sections for advanced nuclear systems: the n_TOF project at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagallo M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of neutron-induced reactions is of high relevance in a wide variety of fields, ranging from stellar nucleosynthesis and fundamental nuclear physics to applications of nuclear technology. In nuclear energy, high accuracy neutron data are needed for the development of Generation IV fast reactors and accelerator driven systems, these last aimed specifically at nuclear waste incineration, as well as for research on innovative fuel cycles. In this context, a high luminosity Neutron Time Of Flight facility, n_TOF, is operating at CERN since more than a decade, with the aim of providing new, high accuracy and high resolution neutron cross-sections. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, a rich experimental program relevant to nuclear technology has been carried out so far. The program will be further expanded in the near future, thanks in particular to a new high-flux experimental area, now under construction.

  7. Measurement of Neutral and Charged Current Cross Sections in Electron-Proton Collisions at High $Q^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazarian, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyian, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    The inclusive e^-p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA, in the range of four-momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 150 and 30000 GeV^2, and Bjorken x between 0.002 and 0.65. The data were taken in 1998 and 1999 with a centre-of-mass energy of 320 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 16.4 pb^(-1). The data are compared with recent measurements of the inclusive neutral and charged current e^+p cross sections. For Q^2>1000 GeV^2 clear evidence is observed for an asymmetry between e^+p and e^-p neutral current scattering and the generalised structure function xF_3 is extracted for the first time at HERA. A fit to the charged current data is used to extract a value for the W boson propagator mass. The data are found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  8. Current practices in treatment of female genital fistula: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruminjo Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal outcomes in most countries of the developed world are good. However, in many developing/resource-poor countries, maternal outcomes are bleaker: Every year, more than 500,000 women die in childbirth, mostly in resource-poor countries. Those who survive often suffer from severe and long-term morbidities. One of the most devastating injuries is obstetric fistula, occurring most often in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Fistula treatment and care are available in many countries across Africa and Asia, but there is a lack of reliable data around clinical factors associated with the success of fistula repair surgery. Most published research has been retrospective. While these studies have provided useful information about the care and treatment of fistula, they are limited by the design. This study was designed to identify practices in care that could lead to the design of prospective and randomized controlled trials. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 surgeons known to provide fistula treatment services in Africa and Asia at private and government hospitals. The questionnaire was divided into three parts to address the following issues: prophylactic use of antibiotics before, during, and after fistula surgery; urethral catheter management; and management practices for patients with urinary incontinence following fistula repair. Results The results provide a glimpse into current practices in fistula treatment and care across a wide swath of geographic, economic, and organizational considerations. There is consensus in treatment in some areas (routine use of prophylactic antibiotics, limited bed rest until the catheter is removed, nonsurgical treatment for postsurgical incontinence, while there are wide variations in practice in other areas (duration of catheter use, surgical treatments for postsurgical incontinence. These findings are based on a small sample and do not allow for recommending

  9. Current practices in treatment of female genital fistula: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, Steven D; Ruminjo, Joseph; Landry, Evelyn G

    2010-11-10

    Maternal outcomes in most countries of the developed world are good. However, in many developing/resource-poor countries, maternal outcomes are bleaker: Every year, more than 500,000 women die in childbirth, mostly in resource-poor countries. Those who survive often suffer from severe and long-term morbidities. One of the most devastating injuries is obstetric fistula, occurring most often in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Fistula treatment and care are available in many countries across Africa and Asia, but there is a lack of reliable data around clinical factors associated with the success of fistula repair surgery. Most published research has been retrospective. While these studies have provided useful information about the care and treatment of fistula, they are limited by the design. This study was designed to identify practices in care that could lead to the design of prospective and randomized controlled trials. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 surgeons known to provide fistula treatment services in Africa and Asia at private and government hospitals. The questionnaire was divided into three parts to address the following issues: prophylactic use of antibiotics before, during, and after fistula surgery; urethral catheter management; and management practices for patients with urinary incontinence following fistula repair. The results provide a glimpse into current practices in fistula treatment and care across a wide swath of geographic, economic, and organizational considerations. There is consensus in treatment in some areas (routine use of prophylactic antibiotics, limited bed rest until the catheter is removed, nonsurgical treatment for postsurgical incontinence), while there are wide variations in practice in other areas (duration of catheter use, surgical treatments for postsurgical incontinence). These findings are based on a small sample and do not allow for recommending changes in clinical care, but they point to issues for

  10. Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Plant Performance. Safety and Performance in Current NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer technologies, signal processing, analytical modeling, and the advent of wireless sensors have provided the nuclear industry with ample means to automate and optimize maintenance activities and improve safety, efficiency, and availability, while reducing costs and radiation exposure to maintenance personnel. This paper provides a review of these developments and presents examples of their use in the nuclear power industry and the financial and safety benefits that they have produced. As the current generation of nuclear power plants have passed their mid-life, increased monitoring of their health is critical to their safe operation. This is especially true now that license renewal of nuclear power plants has accelerated, allowing some plants to operate up to 60 years or more. Furthermore, many utilities are maximizing their power output through uprating projects and retrofits. This puts additional demand and more stress on the plant equipment such as the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems and the reactor internal components making them more vulnerable to the effects of aging, degradation, and failure. In the meantime, the nuclear power industry is working to reduce generation costs by adopting condition-based maintenance strategies and automation of testing activities. These developments have stimulated great interest in on-line monitoring (OLM) technologies and new diagnostic and prognostic methods to anticipate, identify, and resolve equipment and process problems and ensure plant safety, efficiency, and immunity to accidents. The foundation for much of the required technologies has already been established through 40 years of research and development (R and D) efforts performed by numerous organizations, scientists, and engineers around the world including the author. This paper provides examples of these technologies and demonstrates how the gap between some of the more important R and D efforts and end users have been filled

  11. Current status of the active test at RRP and development programs for the advanced melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehira, Norio

    2016-01-01

    The vitrification facility in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started the active tests to solidify HAW into the glass in 2007 which was the examination of the final stage before the operation, but the active test had to be discontinued due to the trouble of glass melter operation with down of pouring by deposit of noble metals on the melter bottom. After the equipment and operating conditions were improved in response to the result of the mock-up tests, a series of active tests were restarted active tests in May, 2012. These tests were finished with enough confirmation of stability in the state such as glass temperature and controlling the noble metals. JNFL has been developed the advanced melter, Joule heated ceramic melter, and the design of the advanced melter is largely different from the existing one. For the confirmation of the advanced melter performances, the full-scale inactive tests had been performed and successfully finished. This paper describes outline of development for advanced melter in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  12. Faculty Development for Advancing Community Engagement in Higher Education: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Marshall; Plaxton-Moore, Star

    2017-01-01

    This research involved the conduct of a conceptual review of 28 refereed journal articles and a survey of campus centers for community engagement staff to identify salient features and trends of existing faculty development programming designed to advance service-learning and community engagement in higher education. Results of this investigation…

  13. Analysis Method for Laterally Loaded Pile Groups Using an Advanced Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stacul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A Boundary Element Method (BEM approach was developed for the analysis of pile groups. The proposed method includes: the non-linear behavior of the soil by a hyperbolic modulus reduction curve; the non-linear response of reinforced concrete pile sections, also taking into account the influence of tension stiffening; the influence of suction by increasing the stiffness of shallow portions of soil and modeled using the Modified Kovacs model; pile group shadowing effect, modeled using an approach similar to that proposed in the Strain Wedge Model for pile groups analyses. The proposed BEM method saves computational effort compared to more sophisticated codes such as VERSAT-P3D, PLAXIS 3D and FLAC-3D, and provides reliable results using input data from a standard site investigation. The reliability of this method was verified by comparing results from data from full scale and centrifuge tests on single piles and pile groups. A comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group composed by reinforced concrete bored piles. The results of the proposed method are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained in situ.

  14. Analysis Method for Laterally Loaded Pile Groups Using an Advanced Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacul, Stefano; Squeglia, Nunziante

    2018-02-15

    A Boundary Element Method (BEM) approach was developed for the analysis of pile groups. The proposed method includes: the non-linear behavior of the soil by a hyperbolic modulus reduction curve; the non-linear response of reinforced concrete pile sections, also taking into account the influence of tension stiffening; the influence of suction by increasing the stiffness of shallow portions of soil and modeled using the Modified Kovacs model; pile group shadowing effect, modeled using an approach similar to that proposed in the Strain Wedge Model for pile groups analyses. The proposed BEM method saves computational effort compared to more sophisticated codes such as VERSAT-P3D, PLAXIS 3D and FLAC-3D, and provides reliable results using input data from a standard site investigation. The reliability of this method was verified by comparing results from data from full scale and centrifuge tests on single piles and pile groups. A comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group composed by reinforced concrete bored piles. The results of the proposed method are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained in situ.

  15. Measurement of the Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section for Electron Neutrinos on a Hydrocarbon Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments, which observe the transition from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, promise to help answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding physics in the post-Standard-Model era. Because they wish to observe the interactions of electron neutrinos in their detectors, and because the power of current results is typically limited by their systematic uncertainties, these experiments require precise estimates of the cross-section for electron neutrino interactions. Of particular interest is the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) process, which gures signi cantly in the composition of the reactions observed at the far detector. However, no experimental measurements of this crosssection currently exist for electron neutrinos; instead, current experiments typically work from the abundance of muon neutrino CCQE cross-section data and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for electron neutrinos. Veri cation of these predictions is challenging due to the di culty of constructing an electron neutrino beam, but the advent of modern high-intensity muon neutrino beams|together with the percent-level electron neutrino impurity inherent in these beams| nally presents the opportunity to make such a measurement. We report herein the rst-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering, which was made using the MINER A detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE di erential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: nal-state electron angle, nal-state electron energy, and the square of the fourmomentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino , Q2. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE

  16. A measurement of the neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section at MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, David Christopher [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2008-02-01

    The neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic interaction v N → v N is a fundamental process of the weak interaction ideally suited for characterizing the structure of the nucleon neutral weak current. This process comprises ~18% of neutrino events in the neutrino oscillation experiment, MiniBooNE, ranking it as the experiment's third largest process. Using ~10% of MiniBooNE's available neutrino data, a sample of these events were identified and analyzed to determine the differential cross section as a function of the momentum transfer of the interaction, Q2. This is the first measurement of a differential cross section with MiniBooNE data. From this analysis, a value for the nucleon axial mass MA was extracted to be 1.34 ± 0.25 GeV consistent with previous measurements. The integrated cross section for the Q2 range 0.189 → 1.13 GeV2 was calculated to be (8.8 ± 0.6(stat) ± 0.2(syst)) x 10-40 cm2.

  17. Measurement of total cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions in hydrogen and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Corrigan, G.; Hoffmann, E.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Schmid, P.; Schmitz, N.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Wittek, W.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Guy, J. G.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Lagraa, M.; Marage, P.; Middleton, R. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachmuth, H.; Wells, J.

    1986-06-01

    BEBC filled in turn with hydrogen, and with a neon-hydrogen mixture, was exposed to the CERN SPS wide band neutrino and antineutrino beams. The ratios of the charged-current cross sections per nucleon, σ(νH2)/σ(νNe) and σ(νH2)/σ(νNe), between 20 and 300 GeV were found to be 0.656 +/- 0.020 and 1.425 +/- 0.052, respectively. Multiplying these ratios by the revised cross sections in neon, σ(νNe)/E = (0.723 +/- 0.038) × 10-38 cm2/GeV per nucleon and σ(νNe)/E = (0.351 +/- 0.019) × 10-38 cm2/GeV per nucleon, and their ratio, σ(νNe)/σ(νNe) = 0.485 +/- 0.020,, yields values for the total charged-current cross sections on protons, σ(νp)/E and σ(νp)/E, of (0.474 +/- 0.029) × 10-38 cm2/GeV and (0.500 +/- 0.032) × 10-38 cm2/GeV. respectively, and a value for the ratio σ(νp)/σ(νp) of 1.053 +/- 0.066. Present address: University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.

  18. Measurement of total cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions in hydrogen and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Baton, J.P.; Lagraa, M.; Bullock, F.W.; Fitch, P.J.; Sansum, R.A.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.G.; Kasper, P.; Venus, W.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Varvell, K.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Vallee, C.; Wells, J.

    1986-01-01

    BEBC filled in turn with hydrogen, and with a neon-hydrogen mixture, was exposed to the CERN SPS wide band neutrino and antineutrino beams. The ratios of the charged-current cross sections per nucleon, sigma(νH 2 )/sigma(νNe) and sigma(anti νH 2 )/sigma(anti νNe), between 20 and 300 GeV were found to be 0.656+-0.020 and 1.425+-0.052, respectively. Multiplying these ratios by the revised cross sections in neon, sigma(νNe)/E=(0.723+-0.038)x10 -38 cm 2 /GeV per nucleon and sigma(anti νNe)/E=(0.351+-0.019)x10 -38 cm 2 /GeV per nucleon, and their ratio, sigma(anti νNe)/sigma(νNe)=0.485+-0.020, yields values for the total charged-current cross sections on protons, sigma(νp)/E and sigma(anti νp)/E, of (0.474+-0.029)x10 -38 cm 2 /GeV and (0.500+-0.032)x10 -38 cm 2 /GeV, respectively, and a value for the ratio sigma(anti νp)/sigma(νp) of 1.053+-0.066. (orig.)

  19. Relation of n-value to critical current for local sections and overall sample in a SmBCO coated conductor pulled in tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Shojiro; Okuda, Hiroshi; Nagano, Shinji; Sugano, Michinaka; Oh, Sang-Song; Ha, Hong-Soo; Osamura, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Under application of tensile stress to a SmBCO (SmBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ) coated conductor sample consisting of series electric circuit of local sections, the relation of voltage-current curve, critical current and n-value of the sections to those of overall sample was studied. The change in critical current and n-value with increasing applied stress was different from section to section due to the difference in damage behavior of the SmBCO layer among the sections. When the difference in extent of damage among the sections was small, the voltages developed in all sections contributed to the voltage of overall sample. In this case, the critical current and n-value of overall sample were within the range of the highest and lowest values among the sections. On the other hand, when the damage in one section was far severer than that of other sections, the voltage developed in the most severely damaged section largely contributed to the overall voltage, and hence the voltage-current curves of the most severely damaged section were almost the same as those of overall sample. In this case, critical current of the overall sample was slightly higher and n-value of the overall sample was lower than the critical current and n-value of the most severely damaged section. Accordingly, the decrease in n-value with decreasing critical current in overall sample was sharper than that in sections. This phenomenon was accounted for by the increase in shunting current at cracked part at higher voltage in the most severely damaged section. (author)

  20. Current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jae

    2014-02-06

    To examine the association between cigarette smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents using the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Cross-sectional study. A nationally representative sample of middle and high school students across South Korea. 75 643 eligible participants across the country. Current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression. Data were analysed from a nationally representative survey of 75 643 participants (37 873 men and 37 770 women). Data were gathered on extensive information including current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in adolescence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in Korean adolescents. Among those who had never smoked, secondhand smoke exposure was positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents in a dose-response relation (OR 1.27, OR 1.52 in males; OR 1.25, OR 1.72 in females). Similar associations were observed among currently smoking men and women in a dose-response manner (OR 1.29, OR 1.55 in males; OR 1.22, OR 1.41 in females). These significant trends were consistently observed even after adjustments. We suggested that current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure were positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents. Efforts to encourage no smoking and no secondhand smoke exposure will be established for adolescents.

  1. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis.

  2. Key Advances in the Systemic Therapy for Soft tissue Sarcomas: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelesh Soman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas (STS represent a heterogeneous group of diverse neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Once relapsed from standard therapy, STS patients have limited treatment options especially those that present with advanced or metastatic disease. In this review article, we highlight recent clinical data that led to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of pazopanib (Votrient® for STS and regorafenib (Stivarga®, BAY 73-4506 in gastrointestinal stromal tumours. We also review ongoing safety/efficacy data for trabectedin (Yondelis®, ET-743, and data from clinical studies of ridaforolimus (AP23573; MK-8669 and palifosfamide (ZIO-201. We provide a list of some promising ongoing trials in soft tissue sarcomas including first line studies of TH-302 and trabectedin. Finally, our article delves into recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of STS and novel therapies that might be explored as treatment options for specific STS histologies.

  3. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light

  4. Measurement of neutral current cross sections at high Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    A new method is employed to measure the neutral current cross section up to Bjorken-x values of one with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 65.1 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions and 16.7 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p collisions at {radical}(s)=318 GeV and 38.6 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions at {radical}(s)=300 GeV. Cross sections have been extracted for Q{sup 2}{>=}648 GeV{sup 2} and are compared to predictions using different parton density functions. For the highest x bins, the data have a tendency to lie above the expectations using recent parton density function parametrizations. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of neutral current cross sections at high Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new method is employed to measure the neutral current cross section up to Bjorken-x values of one with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 65.1 pb -1 for e + p collisions and 16.7 pb -1 for e - p collisions at √(s)=318 GeV and 38.6 pb -1 for e + p collisions at √(s)=300 GeV. Cross sections have been extracted for Q 2 ≥648 GeV 2 and are compared to predictions using different parton density functions. For the highest x bins, the data have a tendency to lie above the expectations using recent parton density function parametrizations. (orig.)

  6. Current scenario of chalcopyrite bioleaching: a review on the recent advances to its heap-leach technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Deveci, Haci

    2015-11-01

    Chalcopyrite is the primary copper mineral used for production of copper metal. Today, as a result of rapid industrialization, there has been enormous demand to profitably process the low grade chalcopyrite and "dirty" concentrates through bioleaching. In the current scenario, heap bioleaching is the most advanced and preferred eco-friendly technology for processing of low grade, uneconomic/difficult-to-enrich ores for copper extraction. This paper reviews the current status of chalcopyrite bioleaching. Advanced information with the attempts made for understanding the diversity of bioleaching microorganisms; role of OMICs based research for future applications to industrial sectors and chemical/microbial aspects of chalcopyrite bioleaching is discussed. Additionally, the current progress made to overcome the problems of passivation as seen in chalcopyrite bioleaching systems have been conversed. Furthermore, advances in the designing of heap bioleaching plant along with microbial and environmental factors of importance have been reviewed with conclusions into the future prospects of chalcopyrite bioleaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurements of the neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross sections using longitudinally polarised lepton beams at HERA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, A.

    2007-01-18

    This thesis presents inclusive e{sup {+-}}p single and double differential cross sections for neutral current deep inelastic scattering measured as functions of the four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} and the Bjorken variable x in interactions of longitudinally polarised leptons with unpolarised protons using the H1 detector at HERA II. An overview of the phenomenology of deep inelastic scattering is given and the experimental apparatus as well as the measurement and analysis procedures are described. The analysis is based on e{sup +}p data taken in 2003-04 and e{sup -}p data taken in 2005 at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=318 GeV, with integrated luminosities of 47.6 pb{sup -1} and 98.4 pb{sup -1} for the e{sup +}p and e{sup -}p samples, respectively. The cross sections are measured in the range of 200current interactions and to determine the structure function xF{sub 3}. The new HERA II data are combined together with previously published data from HERA I to determine the structure function xF{sub 3} with improved precision. Furthermore, this measurement is combined with the corresponding ZEUS measurement to provide the most accurate measurement of the interference structure function xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3}, which is sensitive to the valence quark distributions down to low values of x. The data on polarised cross section asymmetries A{sup {+-}} are also combined with the ZEUS data. This leads to the first observation of parity violation in neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering at distances down to 10{sup -18} m. The data are well described by the Standard Model predictions. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobayyen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ratios R νp and R a ntiν a ntip of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R νp = 0.384±0.024±0.015 and R a ntiν a nti p = 0.338±0.014±0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2 θ W (M W ) a nti M a nti S of 0.225±0.030. 20 refs

  9. Social Media, Big Data, and Mental Health: Current Advances and Ethical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mike; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Mental health (including substance abuse) is the fifth greatest contributor to the global burden of disease, with an economic cost estimated to be US $2.5 trillion in 2010, and expected to double by 2030. Developing information systems to support and strengthen population-level mental health monitoring forms a core part of the World Health Organization's Comprehensive Action Plan 2013-2020. In this paper, we review recent work that utilizes social media "big data" in conjunction with associated technologies like natural language processing and machine learning to address pressing problems in population-level mental health surveillance and research, focusing both on technological advances and core ethical challenges.

  10. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and and antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Hoffmann, E.; Haidt, D.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M. L.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.; Fitch, P. J.; Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-Imperial College-München(MPI)-Oxford-University College Collaboration

    1986-10-01

    The ratios Rvp and Rvp of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 400 GeV wideband beam. The bubble chamber, equipped with the standard External Muon Identifier, was surrounded with an additional plane of wire chambers (Internal Picket Fence), which was added to improve neutral current event identification. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/ c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R vp = 0.384 ± 0.015 and R vp = 0.338 ± 0.014 ± 0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2θ w(M woverlineMSof 0.225 ± 0.030 . Combining the results from hydrogen and an isoscalar target, the differences of the neutral current chiral coupling constants were found to be u2l- d2L = -0.080 ± 0.043 ± 0.012 and u2R- d2R = 0.021±0.055±0.028.

  11. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Hoffmann, E.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M.L.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.; Fitch, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ratios R vp and R vp of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 400 GeV wideband beam. The bubble chamber, equipped with the standard External Muon Identifier, was surrounded with an additional plane of wire chambers (Internal Picket Fence), which was added to improve neutral current event identification. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R vp =0.384±0.024±0.015 and R vp =0.338±0.014±0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2 θ w (M w ) MS of 0.225±0.030. Combining the results from hydrogen and an isoscalar target, the differences of the neutral current chiral coupling constants were found to be u L 2 -d L 2 =-0.080±0.043±0.012 and u R 2 -d R 2 =0.021±0.055±0.028. (orig.)

  12. Current pain education within undergraduate medical studies across Europe: Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emma V; Battelli, Daniele; Gordon, David; Kopf, Andreas; Ribeiro, Sofia; Puig, Margarita M; Kress, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved pain is a substantial public health concern necessitating improvements in medical education. The Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study aimed to determine current levels and methods of undergraduate pain medicine education in Europe. Design and methods Using a cross-sectional design, publicly available curriculum information was sought from all medical schools in 15 representative European countries in 2012–2013. Descriptive analyses were performed on: the provision of pain teaching in dedicated pain modules, other modules or within the broader curriculum; whether pain teaching was compulsory or elective; the number of hours/credits spent teaching pain; pain topics; and teaching and assessment methods. Results Curriculum elements were publicly available from 242 of 249 identified schools (97%). In 55% (133/242) of schools, pain was taught only within compulsory non-pain-specific modules. The next most common approaches were for pain teaching to be provided wholly or in part via a dedicated pain module (74/242; 31%) or via a vertical or integrated approach to teaching through the broader curriculum, rather than within any specific module (17/242; 7%). The curricula of 17/242 schools (7%) showed no evidence of any pain teaching. Dedicated pain modules were most common in France (27/31 schools; 87%). Excluding France, only 22% (47/211 schools) provided a dedicated pain module and in only 9% (18/211) was this compulsory. Overall, the median number of hours spent teaching pain was 12.0 (range 4–56.0 h; IQR: 12.0) for compulsory dedicated pain modules and 9.0 (range 1.0–60.0 h; IQR: 10.5) for other compulsory (non-pain specific) modules. Pain medicine was principally taught in classrooms and assessed by conventional examinations. There was substantial international variation throughout. Conclusions Documented pain teaching in many European medical schools falls far short of what might be expected given the

  13. A Measurement of the Neutrino Neutral Current π0 Cross Section at MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaf, Jennifer Lynne [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino beam and detector at Fermilab are used to study the production of neutral current π0 events. The cross sections for neutrino interactions with mineral oil (CH2) are reported for resonantly produced and coherently produced single π0 events. We measure a resonant single π0 cross section of σ(vμ N π0) = (0.0129 ± 0.0011(stat.) ± 0.0043(syst.)) x 10-36 cm2/CH2 at a mean neutrino energy of 1.26 GeV. We measure a coherent single π0 cross section of σ(vμ A → vμ A π0) = (0.00077 ± 0.00016 (stat.) ± 0.00036 (syst.)) x 10-36 cm2/CH2 at mean neutrino energy 1.12 GeV.

  14. The application of neural network for the advancement of the eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Soneda, N.

    1996-01-01

    All the steam generator (SG) tubes of Japanese pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are inspected by the eddy current testing (ECT) method in every annual scheduled inspection. Here, a neural network system to estimate the class and size of defects from signals obtained by the eddy current testing (ECT) method has been developed. A trajectory of ECT signal is characterized by four representative parameters, and totally eight parameters obtained from two trajectories by different AC current frequencies are used as input parameters for neutral networks. A probabilistic descent method is employed to minimize the error at the learning process of neural networks. It is indicated that using multiple neutral networks which are separately responsible to each class of defects is effective to the improvement of their estimation accuracy. And, it is demonstrated that the neural network system which the authors developed can estimate the class and size of defects from unlearned trajectories with high accuracy

  15. Summary and viewgraphs from the Q-121 US/Japan advanced current drive concepts workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonoli, P.; Porkolab, M.; Chan, V.; Pinsker, R.; Politzer, P.; Darrow, D.; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Watari, Tetsuo; Itoh, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yukio; James, R.; Logan, G.; Porter, G.; Thomassen, K.; Lyon, J.; Mau, Tak; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Shigetoshi

    1990-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on current drive by ITER, which requires steady state operation in its engineering phase, it is important to bring theory and experiment in agreement for each of the schemes that could be used in that design. Both neutral beam and lower hybrid (LH) schemes are in excellent shape in that regard. Since the projected efficiency of all schemes is marginal it is also important to continue our search for more efficient processes. This workshop featured experimental and theoretical work in each processes. This workshop featured experimental and theoretical work in each of these areas, that is, validation of theory and the search for better ideas. There were a number of notable results to report, the most striking again (as with last year) the long pulse operation of TRIAM-1M. A low current was sustained for over 1 hour with LH waves, using new hall-effect sensors in the equilibrium field circuit to maintain position control. In JT-60, by sharpening the wave spectrum the current drive efficiency was improved to 0.34 x 10 20 m -2 A/W and 1.5 MA of current was driven entirely by the lower hybrid system. Also in that machine, using two different LH frequencies, the H-mode was entered. Finally, by using the LH system for startup they saved 2.5 resistive volt-sec of flux, which if extrapolated to ITER would save 40 volt-sec there. For the first time, and experiment on ECH current drive showed reasonable agreement with theory. Those experiments are reported here by James (LLNL) on the D3-D machine. Substantially lower ECH current drive than expected theoretically was observed on WT-3, but if differed by being in a low absorption regime. Nonetheless, excellent physics results were achieved in the WT-3 experiments, notably in having careful measurements of the parallel velocity distributions

  16. [Current status and future prospect of internal medicine treatment for advanced esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Fan, Q X

    2016-09-23

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of common malignant tumors, and the incidence and mortality of EC in China rank the first place in the world. Because of the occult onset, the early atypical symptoms, and the lack of effective early diagnostic methods, most of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease and lost the chance of surgery. Comprehensive treatment including palliative medical treatment, molecular targeted therapy, immunotherapy and so on is appropriate for these patients. How to choose the chemotherapy regimen and formulate reasonable treatment plan has become a hot spot in clinical research. Molecular targeted drugs have become a new developmental direction in cancer treatment because of their high specificity and antitumor activity, but the effects on esophageal cancer remain controversial. With the development of immune check point blockade treatment, breakthrough has been made in tumor immunotherapy, which has become an important means in cancer comprehensive treatment and shown a good prospect of treatment.

  17. Current Status of the Advanced Residual Gas Monitor for Heavy Ion Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A; Sergeeva, O; Skachkov, V S

    2005-01-01

    The challenge and complexity of the advanced RGM requires very careful design of each structural component of the monitor and special attention to match the properties of different subsystems. In the present paper the status of the high performance readout electronics is discussed. Single optical decoupled profile measurement channel (one of 100) with 14 bit resolution and 10 MHz bandwidth was tested and step-by-step improved. Special attention had been paid to the noise cancellation and digital data processing algorithms optimization. Another important point is a proper electromagnetic guiding system design. As it is shown, high field homogeneity, which is required for sub-millimeter spatial resolution, can be achieved despite the presence of the field-distorting hole for the light signal transmitting. The low energy (down to 10MeV per nucleon) beam disturbance compensation methods are also discussed. The ionization process and electron dynamics simulations are used for proving this system design.

  18. Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle and Hardness Testing, Aviation Quality Control (Advanced): 9227.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction includes the principles of eddy current, magnetic particle and hardness testing; standards used for analyzing test results; techniques of operating equipment; interpretation of indications; advantages and limitations of these methods of testing; care and calibration of equipment; and safety and work precautions. Motion…

  19. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored

  20. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored.

  1. Advanced Monte Carlo procedure for the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term based on evaluated cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, S.P.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von; Schmuck, I.; Konobeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Pereslavtsev, P.

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed computational procedure is presented for the generation of d-Li source neutrons in Monte Carlo transport calculations based on the use of evaluated double-differential d+ 6,7 Li cross section data. A new code M c DeLicious was developed as an extension to MCNP4C to enable neutronics design calculations for the d-Li based IFMIF neutron source making use of the evaluated deuteron data files. The M c DeLicious code was checked against available experimental data and calculation results of M c DeLi and MCNPX, both of which use built-in analytical models for the Li(d, xn) reaction. It is shown that M c DeLicious along with newly evaluated d+ 6,7 Li data is superior in predicting the characteristics of the d-Li neutron source. As this approach makes use of tabulated Li(d, xn) cross sections, the accuracy of the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term can be steadily improved with more advanced and validated data

  2. Advanced Monte Carlo procedure for the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term based on evaluated cross section data

    CERN Document Server

    Simakov, S P; Moellendorff, U V; Schmuck, I; Konobeev, A Y; Korovin, Y A; Pereslavtsev, P

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed computational procedure is presented for the generation of d-Li source neutrons in Monte Carlo transport calculations based on the use of evaluated double-differential d+ sup 6 sup , sup 7 Li cross section data. A new code M sup c DeLicious was developed as an extension to MCNP4C to enable neutronics design calculations for the d-Li based IFMIF neutron source making use of the evaluated deuteron data files. The M sup c DeLicious code was checked against available experimental data and calculation results of M sup c DeLi and MCNPX, both of which use built-in analytical models for the Li(d, xn) reaction. It is shown that M sup c DeLicious along with newly evaluated d+ sup 6 sup , sup 7 Li data is superior in predicting the characteristics of the d-Li neutron source. As this approach makes use of tabulated Li(d, xn) cross sections, the accuracy of the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term can be steadily improved with more advanced and validated data.

  3. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 , with 0.5 MW/m 2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  4. Current advances in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: focused on considerations targeting Aβ and tau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Qi Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs mainly the memory and cognitive function in elderly. Extracellular beta amyloid deposition and intracellular tau hyperphosphorylation are the two pathological events that are thought to cause neuronal dysfunction in AD. Since the detailed mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of AD are still not clear, the current treatments are those drugs that can alleviate the symptoms of AD patients. Recent studies have indicated that these symptom-reliving drugs also have the ability of regulating amyloid precursor protein processing and tau phosphorylation. Thus the pharmacological mechanism of these drugs may be too simply-evaluated. This review summarizes the current status of AD therapy and some potential preclinical considerations that target beta amyloid and tau protein are also discussed.

  5. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation in advanced interventional endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burtea, Daniela Elena; Dimitriu, Anca; Maloş, Anca Elena

    2015-01-01

    the patients and medical personnel. Current guidelines support the use of propofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverse effects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recovery time. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation has become......, improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as well as decreased recovery and discharge time. Despite the advantages of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol, there is still a continuous debate related to the successful generalization of the procedures....

  6. Advanced hyphenated chromatographic-mass spectrometry in mycotoxin determination: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric techniques are essential for advanced research in food safety and environmental monitoring. These fields are important for securing the health of humans and animals, and for ensuring environmental security. Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi, are major contaminants of agricultural products, food and feed, biological samples, and the environment as a whole. Mycotoxins can cause cancers, nephritic and hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders. Mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can provoke trade conflicts, resulting in massive economic losses. Risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination for humans and animals generally depends on clear identification and reliable quantitation in diversified matrices. Pioneering work on mycotoxin quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS) was performed in the early 1970s. Now, unambiguous confirmation and quantitation of mycotoxins can be readily achieved with a variety hyphenated techniques that combine chromatographic separation with MS, including liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC). With the advent of atmospheric pressure ionization, LC-MS has become a routine technique. Recently, the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same sample has drawn an increasing amount of attention. Thus, modern analyses must be able to detect and quantitate multiple mycotoxins in a single run. Improvements in tandem MS techniques have been made to achieve this purpose. This review describes the advanced research that has been done regarding mycotoxin determination using hyphenated chromatographic-MS techniques, but is not a full-circle survey of all the literature published on this topic. The present work provides an overview of the various hyphenated chromatographic-MS-based strategies that have been applied to mycotoxin analysis, with a focus on recent developments. The use of chromatographic-MS to measure levels of mycotoxins, including

  7. Anxiety and depression in patients with advanced macular degeneration: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimarolli VR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Verena R Cimarolli,1 Robin J Casten,2 Barry W Rovner,3–5 Vera Heyl,6 Silvia Sörensen,7,8 Amy Horowitz9 1Research Institute on Aging, Jewish Home Lifecare, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 6Institute of Special Education, University of Education, Heidelberg, Germany; 7Warner School of Education and Human Development, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 9Graduate School of Social Service, Fordham University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD – despite advances in prevention and medical treatment options – remains prevalent among older adults, often resulting in functional losses that negatively affect the mental health of older adults. In particular, the prevalence of both anxiety and depression in patients with AMD is high. Along with medical treatment options, low vision rehabilitation and AMD-specific behavioral and self-management programs have been developed and have demonstrated effectiveness in improving the mental health of AMD patients. This article reviews the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with advanced AMD, discusses potential mechanisms accounting for the development of depression and anxiety in AMD patients, presents the state-of the-art of available interventions for addressing anxiety and depression in AMD patients, and delineates recommendations for eye care professionals regarding how to

  8. Measurement of the Q2 dependence of the charged and neutral current cross sections in e±p scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.

    1996-03-01

    The Q 2 dependence and the total cross sections for charged and neutral current processes are measured in e ± p reactions for transverse momenta of the outgoing lepton larger than 25 GeV. Comparable size of cross sections for the neutral current process and for the weak charged current process are observed above Q 2 ∼5000 GeV 2 . Using the shape and magnitude of the charged current cross section we determine a propagator mass of m W =84 -7 +10 GeV. (orig.)

  9. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B.

    2007-06-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized

  10. Genome and metabolic engineering in non-conventional yeasts: Current advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kathrin Löbs

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial production of chemicals and proteins from biomass-derived and waste sugar streams is a rapidly growing area of research and development. While the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent host for the conversion of glucose to ethanol, production of other chemicals from alternative substrates often requires extensive strain engineering. To avoid complex and intensive engineering of S. cerevisiae, other yeasts are often selected as hosts for bioprocessing based on their natural capacity to produce a desired product: for example, the efficient production and secretion of proteins, lipids, and primary metabolites that have value as commodity chemicals. Even when using yeasts with beneficial native phenotypes, metabolic engineering to increase yield, titer, and production rate is essential. The non-conventional yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Scheffersomyces stipitis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pastoris have been developed as eukaryotic hosts because of their desirable phenotypes, including thermotolerance, assimilation of diverse carbon sources, and high protein secretion. However, advanced metabolic engineering in these yeasts has been limited. This review outlines the challenges of using non-conventional yeasts for strain and pathway engineering, and discusses the developed solutions to these problems and the resulting applications in industrial biotechnology.

  11. Genome and metabolic engineering in non-conventional yeasts: Current advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Schwartz, Cory; Wheeldon, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Microbial production of chemicals and proteins from biomass-derived and waste sugar streams is a rapidly growing area of research and development. While the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia e is an excellent host for the conversion of glucose to ethanol, production of other chemicals from alternative substrates often requires extensive strain engineering. To avoid complex and intensive engineering of S. cerevisiae, other yeasts are often selected as hosts for bioprocessing based on their natural capacity to produce a desired product: for example, the efficient production and secretion of proteins, lipids, and primary metabolites that have value as commodity chemicals. Even when using yeasts with beneficial native phenotypes, metabolic engineering to increase yield, titer, and production rate is essential. The non-conventional yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Scheffersomyces stipitis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pastoris have been developed as eukaryotic hosts because of their desirable phenotypes, including thermotolerance, assimilation of diverse carbon sources, and high protein secretion. However, advanced metabolic engineering in these yeasts has been limited. This review outlines the challenges of using non-conventional yeasts for strain and pathway engineering, and discusses the developed solutions to these problems and the resulting applications in industrial biotechnology.

  12. Evolution, current status and advances in application of platelet concentrate in periodontics and implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit Arvind

    2017-05-16

    Platelet concentrates (PC) [platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)] are frequently used for surgical procedures in medical and dental fields, particularly in oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and sports medicine. The objective of all these technologies is to extract all the elements from a blood sample that could be used to improve healing and promote tissue regeneration. Although leukocyte rich and leukocyte poor PRP's have their own place in literature, the importance of non-platelet components in a platelet concentrate remains a mystery. PC have come a long way since its first appearance in 1954 to the T-PRF, A-PRF and i-PRF introduced recently. These PC find varied applications successfully in periodontics and implant dentistry as well. However, the technique of preparation, standing time, transfer process, temperature of centrifuge, vibration, etc ., are the various factors for the mixed results reported in the literature. Until the introduction of a proper classification of terminologies, the PC were known by different names in different countries and by different commercial companies which also created a lot of confusion. This review intends to clarify all these confusion by briefing the exact evolution of PC, their preparation techniques, recent advances and their various clinical and technical aspects and applications.

  13. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  15. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Preceptor and Student Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornblaser, Emily K; Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E; Ombengi, David N; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W; Abrons, Jeanine P; Alsharif, Naser Z

    2016-04-25

    The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students.

  16. Current Status of Intensified Neo-Adjuvant Systemic Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Benedikt; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark, E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-05-25

    The addition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its prodrug capecitabine to radiotherapy (RT) is a standard approach in the neo-adjuvant treatment of patients with rectal tumors extending beyond the muscularis propria (stage II) and/or with clinical evidence of regional lymph node metastases (stage III). According to European randomized trials, the combined treatment modality resulted in favorable local control rates as compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone, but no improvement was found regarding the occurrence of distant metastases or overall survival. In an effort to further enhance the response rates and to decrease the high incidence of distant metastases in locally advanced rectal cancer patients, the addition of other chemotherapeutical drugs and biologic agents as radiation sensitizers to neo-adjuvant 5-FU based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been recently investigated. The role of those agents is however questionable as first results from phase III data do not show improvement on pathologic complete remission and circumferential resection margin negative resection rates as compared to 5-FU based CRT, nevertheless an increased toxicity.

  17. Comparative investigation of the economics of seawater desalting based on current and advanced distillation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueckstern, P.; Reed, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A reassessment of desalting plant design and product water cost based on current technology and energy and equipment costs has been made. Plant sizes in the range of 1 to 200 Mgd utilizing the multistage flash (MSF) and the vertical tube evaporator (VTE) were investigated. Process steam was assumed to be supplied by large nuclear dual-purpose plants or from fossil-fired low-pressure boilers. Plants applying the pH control method versus the threshold pretreatment method were compared. The potential benefits of applying low cost aluminum tubing in low-temperature VTE plants were also investigated

  18. Recent Advances in Simulation of Eddy Current Testing of Tubes and Experimental Validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboud, C.; Prémel, D.; Lesselier, D.; Bisiaux, B.

    2007-03-01

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used in iron and steel industry for the inspection of tubes during manufacturing. A collaboration between CEA and the Vallourec Research Center led to the development of new numerical functionalities dedicated to the simulation of ECT of non-magnetic tubes by external probes. The achievement of experimental validations led us to the integration of these models into the CIVA platform. Modeling approach and validation results are discussed here. A new numerical scheme is also proposed in order to improve the accuracy of the model.

  19. A comparison on the heat load of HTS current leads with respect to uniform and non-uniform cross-sectional areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Hak; Nam, Seok Ho; Lee, Je Yull; Song, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Hae Ryong; Baek, Geon Woo; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyoung Ku [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Current lead is a device that connects the power supply and superconducting magnets. High temperature superconductor (HTS) has lower thermal conductivity and higher current density than normal metal. For these reasons, the heat load can be reduced by replacing the normal metal of the current lead with the HTS. Conventional HTS current lead has same cross-sectional area in the axial direction. However, this is over-designed at the cold-end (4.2 K) in terms of current. The heat load can be reduced by reducing this part because the heat load is proportional to the cross-sectional area. Therefore, in this paper, heat load was calculated from the heat diffusion equation of HTS current leads with uniform and non-uniform cross-sectional areas. The cross-sectional area of the warm-end (65K) is designed considering burnout time when cooling system failure occurs. In cold-end, Joule heat and heat load due to current conduction occurs at the same time, so the cross-sectional area where the sum of the two heat is minimum is obtained. As a result of simulation, current leads for KSTAR TF coils with uniform and non-uniform cross-sectional areas were designed, and it was confirmed that the non-uniform cross-sectional areas could further reduce the heat load.

  20. Current technological advances in magnetic resonance with critical impact for clinical diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Val M

    2013-12-01

    The last 5 years of technological advances with major impact on clinical magnetic resonance (MR) are discussed, with greater emphasis on those that are most recent. These developments have already had a critical positive effect on clinical diagnosis and therapy and presage continued rapid improvements for the next 5 years. This review begins with a discussion of 2 topics that encompass the breadth of MR, in terms of anatomic applications, contrast media, and MR angiography. Subsequently, innovations are discussed by anatomic category, picking the areas with the greatest development, starting with the brain, moving forward to the liver and kidney, and concluding with the musculoskeletal system, breast, and prostate. Two final topics are then considered, which will likely, with time, become independent major fields in their own right, interventional MR and MR positron emission tomography (PET).The next decade will bring a new generation of MR contrast media, with research focused on substantial improvements (>100-fold) in relaxivity (contrast effect), thus providing greater efficacy, safety, and tissue targeting. Magnetic resonance angiography will see major advances because of the use of compressed sensing, in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, with movement away from nondynamic imaging. The breadth of available techniques and tissue contrast has greatly expanded in brain imaging, benefiting both from the introduction of new basic categories of imaging techniques, such as readout-segmented echo planar imaging and 3D fast spin echo imaging with variable flip angles, and from new refinements specific to anatomic areas, such as double inversion recovery and MP2RAGE. Liver imaging has benefited from the development of techniques to easily and rapidly assess lipid, and will see, overall, a marked improvement in the next 5 years from new techniques on the verge of clinical introduction, such as controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration

  1. Constant-current charging supplies for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.E.; Meyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    The APS linac beam energy must be stable to within ±1% to match the energy acceptance of the positron accumulator ring. The klystron pulse modulators must therefore provide a pulse-to-pulse repeatability of 0.1% in order for the beam to have the required energy stability. The modulators have had difficulty achieving the necessary repeatability since the pulse forming network (PFN) charging scheme does not include a deQing circuit. Several of the major charging circuit components are also less reliable than desired. In order to increase operating reliability and to improve pulse-to-pulse stability, it is planned to replace the high voltage power supplies in all modulators with constant-current power supplies. A new modulator charging supply that contains two EMI series 303 constant-current power supplies was constructed. Each of these EMI supplies delivers 1.5 A at up to 40 kV. One supply is sufficient for linac operation at up to 45 Hz, and two supplies in parallel enable linac operation at the nominal rf repetition rate of 60 Hz. This paper discusses test results from the new modulator, and also describes the existing modulators and their performance limitations

  2. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  3. Extrapolating power-ramp performance criteria for current and advanced CANDU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, M.; Chassie, G.G

    2000-06-01

    To improve the precision and accuracy of power-ramp performance criteria for high-burnup fuel, we have examined in-reactor fuel performance data as well as out-reactor test data. The data are consistent with some of the concepts used in the current formulations for defining fuel failure thresholds, such as size of power-ramp and extent of burnup. Our review indicates that there is a need to modify some other aspects of the current formulations; therefore, a modified formulation is presented in this paper. The improvements mainly concern corrodent concentration and its relationships with threshold stress for failure. The new formulation is consistent with known and expected trends such as strength of Zircaloy in corrosive environment, timing of the release of fission products to the pellet-to-sheath gap, CANLUB coating, and fuel burnup. Because of the increased precision and accuracy, the new formulation is better able to identify operational regimes that are at risk of power-ramp failures; this predictive ability provides enhanced protection to fuel against power-ramp defects. At die same time, by removing unnecessary conservatisms in other areas, the new formulation permits a greater range of defect-free operational envelope as well as larger operating margins in regions that are, in fact, not prone to power-ramp failures. (author)

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic modes analysis and control of Fusion Advanced Studies Torus high-current scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villone, F.; Mastrostefano, S. [Euratom-ENEA-CREATE Ass., DIEI, Univ. di Cassino e Lazio Merid., Cassino (Italy); Calabrò, G.; Vlad, G.; Crisanti, F.; Fusco, V. [C. R. Frascati, Euratom-ENEA Ass., Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marchiori, G.; Bolzonella, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P. [Cons. RFX, Euratom-ENEA-RFX Ass., Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Mantica, P. [IFP-CNR, Euratom-ENEA-CNR Ass. Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    One of the main FAST (Fusion Advanced Studies Torus) goals is to have a flexible experiment capable to test tools and scenarios for safe and reliable tokamak operation, in order to support ITER and help the final DEMO design. In particular, in this paper, we focus on operation close to a possible border of stability related to low-q operation. To this purpose, a new FAST scenario has then been designed at I{sub p} = 10 MA, B{sub T} = 8.5 T, q{sub 95} ≈ 2.3. Transport simulations, carried out by using the code JETTO and the first principle transport model GLF23, indicate that, under these conditions, FAST could achieve an equivalent Q ≈ 3.5. FAST will be equipped with a set of internal active coils for feedback control, which will produce magnetic perturbation with toroidal number n = 1 or n = 2. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode analysis and feedback control simulations performed with the codes MARS, MARS-F, CarMa (both assuming the presence of a perfect conductive wall and using the exact 3D resistive wall structure) show the possibility of the FAST conductive structures to stabilize n = 1 ideal modes. This leaves therefore room for active mitigation of the resistive mode (down to a characteristic time of 1 ms) for safety purposes, i.e., to avoid dangerous MHD-driven plasma disruption, when working close to the machine limits and magnetic and kinetic energy density not far from reactor values.

  5. Maintenance therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Socinski, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer has been an area of intense investigation. Maintenance therapy has been divided into two broad categories: continuation maintenance when the chemotherapy or targeted agent was part of a defined number of cycles of combination therapy and in the absence of disease progression is continued as a single agent or switch maintenance when a third agent is initiated after four cycles of platinum-based double-agent chemotherapy in the absence of disease progression. Two monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and bevacizumab, are used as continuation maintenance, but the incremental benefit of the maintenance therapy with these agents is undetermined. Phase III trials have not revealed an overall survival benefit for continuation maintenance chemotherapy, and this approach should be considered investigational. Phase III trials have demonstrated an improvement in overall survival with switch maintenance therapy with pemetrexed compared with placebo in patients with nonsquamous histology and erlotinib compared with placebo. Phase III trials have not revealed an improvement in quality of life with maintenance therapy. In the trials of maintenance therapy, 30 to 40% of patients enrolled in the observation or placebo arm did not receive second-line therapy, and among the patients who did receive second-line therapy, there was significant heterogeneity in the therapy. The development of maintenance therapy has raised issues about the role of treatment-free intervals in routine clinical care, trial design issues such as the optimal endpoint, the ethics of a placebo arm, and the implications of maintenance therapy for first-line trials.

  6. ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT- CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2013-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multiprocess Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial toolsets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  7. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, Joshua B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero $\\theta_{13}$, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  8. Measurement of the Antineutrino Double-Differential Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering Cross Section at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, Cheryl [Northwestern U.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.

  9. Effect of Wave Accessibility on Lower Hybrid Wave Current Drive in Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak with H-Mode Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin-Xia; Xiang Nong; Gan Chun-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the wave accessibility condition on the lower hybrid current drive in the experimental advanced superconductor Tokamak (EAST) plasma with H-mode operation is studied. Based on a simplified model, a mode conversion layer of the lower hybrid wave between the fast wave branch and the slow wave branch is proved to exist in the plasma periphery for typical EAST H-mode parameters. Under the framework of the lower hybrid wave simulation code (LSC), the wave ray trajectory and the associated current drive are calculated numerically. The results show that the wave accessibility condition plays an important role on the lower hybrid current drive in EAST plasma. For wave rays with parallel refractive index n ‖ = 2.1 or n ‖ = 2.5 launched from the outside midplane, the wave rays may penetrate the core plasma due to the toroidal geometry effect, while numerous reflections of the wave ray trajectories in the plasma periphery occur. However, low current drive efficiency is obtained. Meanwhile, the wave accessibility condition is improved if a higher confined magnetic field is applied. The simulation results show that for plasma parameters under present EAST H-mode operation, a significant lower hybrid wave current drive could be obtained for the wave spectrum with peak value n ‖ = 2.1 if a toroidal magnetic field B T = 2.5 T is applied. (paper)

  10. Skin, eye, and testis: current exposure problems and recent advances in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Three organs, the skin, eye and testis are potentially at risk from poorly penetrating radiations such as beta particles or low energy X-Rays. They may be preferentially irradiated in fields with steep depth - dose gradients and thereby dictate radiological protection procedures. Since there is not a wide margin of safety in the annual permissible dose limits for these organs it is important to have clearly defensible methods of dose assessment. This requires both an adequate understanding of the radiobiology of these organs and the availability of experimental techniques for measuring doses at various depths near the surface of the body. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge in this field, drawing partly on information from two recent CEC workshops on the 'Dosimetry of Beta Particles and Low Energy X-Rays' and 'Radiation Damage to the Skin'. It is concluded that protection criteria for the limitation of skin dose are in need of revision. (author)

  11. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management - Current Status and Phase II Demonstration Results - 13161

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R.; Flach, Greg [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Bldg 773-43A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MSIN K9-33, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Dixon, Paul; Moulton, J. David [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B284, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Hubbard, Susan S.; Faybishenko, Boris; Steefel, Carl I.; Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50B-4230, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marble, Justin [Department of Energy, 19901 Germantown Road, Germantown, MD 20874-1290 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial tool-sets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  12. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management - Current Status and Phase II Demonstration Results - 13161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Roger R.; Flach, Greg; Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian; Dixon, Paul; Moulton, J. David; Hubbard, Susan S.; Faybishenko, Boris; Steefel, Carl I.; Finsterle, Stefan; Marble, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial tool-sets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  13. Slaughter of pregnant cattle in German abattoirs--current situation and prevalence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patric; Lücker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2016-06-07

    The slaughter of pregnant cattle and the fate of the foetuses are relatively new subjects in the field of animal welfare. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health (SCVPH), however, does not believe this topic to be a critical issue because of the hitherto supposed rare occurrence of this practice. Some previous studies though, contradict this assessment, emphasising its relevance to animal welfare. With regard to the heterogeneous study design of previous investigations, the objective of this study is to evaluate the current situation concerning the slaughter of pregnant cattle in different German abattoirs. Additionally, the prevalence was assessed semi-quantitatively on the basis of a cross-sectional, voluntary and anonymous survey that was conducted amongst senior veterinary students of the University of Leipzig from 2010 until 2013. Of 255 evaluable questionnaires, 157 (63.6%) mention the slaughter of pregnant cattle, corresponding to 76.9% of all visited abattoirs. Slaughter of pregnant cattle is reported often (>10% of females) in 6 (3.8%), frequently (1-10% of females) in 56 (35.7%), and rarely (current situation is indispensable to ensure the high standards in animal welfare in Germany and Europe.

  14. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of Recent Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Palacio Schjetnan, Andrea; Faraji, Jamshid; Metz, Gerlinde A.; Tatsuno, Masami; Luczak, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. However, if tDCS could counteract these negative changes by influencing the system's neurophysiology, it would contribute to the formation of functionally meaningful connections and the maintenance of existing pathways. This paper is aimed at providing a review of underlying mechanisms of tDCS and its application to stroke. In addition, to maximize the effectiveness of tDCS in stroke rehabilitation, future research needs to determine the optimal stimulation protocols and parameters. We discuss how stimulation parameters could be optimized based on electrophysiological activity. In particular, we propose that cortical synchrony may represent a biomarker of tDCS efficacy to indicate communication between affected areas. Understanding the mechanisms by which tDCS affects the neural substrate after stroke and finding ways to optimize tDCS for each patient are key to effective rehabilitation approaches. PMID:23533955

  16. Current advances in mathematical modeling of anti-cancer drug penetration into tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Munju; Gillies, Robert J; Rejniak, Katarzyna A

    2013-11-18

    Delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumor tissues, including their interstitial transport and cellular uptake, is a complex process involving various biochemical, mechanical, and biophysical factors. Mathematical modeling provides a means through which to understand this complexity better, as well as to examine interactions between contributing components in a systematic way via computational simulations and quantitative analyses. In this review, we present the current state of mathematical modeling approaches that address phenomena related to drug delivery. We describe how various types of models were used to predict spatio-temporal distributions of drugs within the tumor tissue, to simulate different ways to overcome barriers to drug transport, or to optimize treatment schedules. Finally, we discuss how integration of mathematical modeling with experimental or clinical data can provide better tools to understand the drug delivery process, in particular to examine the specific tissue- or compound-related factors that limit drug penetration through tumors. Such tools will be important in designing new chemotherapy targets and optimal treatment strategies, as well as in developing non-invasive diagnosis to monitor treatment response and detect tumor recurrence.

  17. Diagnostic of corrosion defects in steam generator tubes using advanced signal processing from Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, Andre L.; Lopez, Luiz A.N.M.; Ting, Daniel K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the Brazilian Angra I PWR nuclear power plant went into a programmed shutdown for substitution of its Steam Generator (SG) which life was shortened due to stress corrosion in its tubes. The total cost of investment were around R$724 million. The signals generated during an Eddy-current Testing (ECT) inspection in SG tubes of nuclear plant allows for the localization and dimensioning of defects in the tubes. The defects related with corrosion generate complex signals that are difficult to analyze and are the most common cause in SG replacement in nuclear power plants around the world. The objective of this paper is the development of a methodology that allows for the characterization of corrosion signals by ECT inspections applied in the heat exchangers tubes of SG of a nuclear power plant. In this present work, the aim is to investigate distributed type defects by inducing controlled corrosion in sample tubes of different materials The ECT signals obtained from these samples tubes with corrosion implanted, will be analyzed using Zetec ECT equipment, the MIZ-17ET and its probes. The data acquisition will use a NI PC A/D CARD 700 card and the LabVIEW program. Subsequently, we will apply mathematical tools for signal processing like time windowed Fast Fourier transforms and Wavelets transforms, in MATLAB platform, which will allow effectiveness to remove the noises and to extract representative characteristics for the defect being analyzed. Previously obtained results as well as the proposal for the future work will be presented. (author)

  18. Modelling marine sediment biogeochemistry: Current knowledge gaps, challenges, and some methodological advice for advancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2018-01-01

    The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological improveme......The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological...... improvements in quality and quantity of benthic data, it is necessary to ensure that benthic systems are appropriately represented in coupled benthic-pelagic biogeochemical and ecological modelling studies. In this paper we focus on five topical challenges related to various aspects of modelling benthic...... environments: organic matter reactivity, dynamics of benthic-pelagic boundary layer, microphytobenthos, biological transport and small-scale heterogeneity, and impacts of episodic events. We discuss current gaps in their understanding and indicate plausible ways ahead. Further, we propose a three...

  19. Advanced 3-dimensional electron kinetic calculations for the current drive problem in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Bers, A.; Ram, A.; Harvey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate and fast electron kinetic calculations is a challenging issue for realistic simulations of thermonuclear tokamak plasmas. Relativistic corrections and electron trajectory effects must be fully taken into account for high temperature burning plasmas, while codes should also consistently describe wave-particle resonant interactions in presence of locally large gradients close to internal transport barrier. In that case, neoclassical effects may come into play and self-consistent evaluation of both the radio-frequency and bootstrap currents must be performed. In addition, a complex interplay between momentum and radial electron dynamics may take place, in presence of a possible energy dependent radial transport. Besides the physics needs, there are considerable numerical issues to solve, in order to reduce computer time consumption and memory requirements at an acceptable level, so that kinetic calculations may be valuably incorporated in a chain of codes which determines plasma equilibrium and wave propagation. So far, fully implicit 3-dimensional calculations based on a finite difference scheme and an incomplete L and U matrices factorization have been found to be so most effective method to reach this goal. A review of the present status in this active field of physics is presented, with an emphasis on possible future improvements. (authors)

  20. Advanced electron cyclotron heating and current drive experiments on the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stange Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first operational phase (OP 1.1 of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH was the exclusive heating method and provided plasma start-up, wall conditioning, heating and current drive. Six gyrotrons were commissioned for OP1.1 and used in parallel for plasma operation with a power of up to 4.3 MW. During standard X2-heating the spatially localized power deposition with high power density allowed controlling the radial profiles of the electron temperature and the rotational transform. Even though W7-X was not fully equipped with first wall tiles and operated with a graphite limiter instead of a divertor, electron densities of n e > 3·1019 m-3 could be achieved at electron temperatures of several keV and ion temperatures above 2 keV. These plasma parameters allowed the first demonstration of a multipath O2-heating scenario, which is envisaged for safe operation near the X-cutoff-density of 1.2·1020 m-3 after full commissioning of the ECRH system in the next operation phase OP1.2.

  1. Advanced ceramic matrix composite materials for current and future propulsion technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Beyer, S.; Knabe, H.; Immich, H.; Meistring, R.; Gessler, A.

    2004-08-01

    Current rocket engines, due to their method of construction, the materials used and the extreme loads to which they are subjected, feature a limited number of load cycles. Various technology programmes in Europe are concerned, besides developing reliable and rugged, low cost, throwaway equipment, with preparing for future reusable propulsion technologies. One of the key roles for realizing reusable engine components is the use of modern and innovative materials. One of the key technologies which concern various engine manufacturers worldwide is the development of fibre-reinforced ceramics—ceramic matrix composites. The advantages for the developers are obvious—the low specific weight, the high specific strength over a large temperature range, and their great damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics make this material class extremely interesting as a construction material. Over the past years, the Astrium company (formerly DASA) has, together with various partners, worked intensively on developing components for hypersonic engines and liquid rocket propulsion systems. In the year 2000, various hot-firing tests with subscale (scale 1:5) and full-scale nozzle extensions were conducted. In this year, a further decisive milestone was achieved in the sector of small thrusters, and long-term tests served to demonstrate the extraordinary stability of the C/SiC material. Besides developing and testing radiation-cooled nozzle components and small-thruster combustion chambers, Astrium worked on the preliminary development of actively cooled structures for future reusable propulsion systems. In order to get one step nearer to this objective, the development of a new fibre composite was commenced within the framework of a regionally sponsored programme. The objective here is to create multidirectional (3D) textile structures combined with a cost-effective infiltration process. Besides material and process development, the project also encompasses the development of

  2. Review of recent advances in heating and current drive on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiaen, A.M.; Eester, D. Van; Koch, R.

    1993-01-01

    Co-injection (D o →D + ) applied to TEXTOR leads to a hot ion mode regime with enhanced confinement. A synergistic increase of the beam effects is observed with the addition of ICRH at ω=2ω cD = ω cH (H minority heating scenario) resulting, beside other reviewed effects, in a significant increase of the ion temperature and of the beam driven current (respectively larger than 30% and 50% for the addition of an RF power comparable to the NBI one). The large ion heating efficiency of ICRH also remains when ICRH is added to balanced injection and the hot ion mode regime remains up to the maximum achieved β (=2/3 of the Troyon limit with more than 6MW of auxiliary heating). ICRH also leads to the formation of a more isotropic tail. These results are interpreted with the help of a Fokker-Planck code which computes the beam distribution function in presence of RF and of TRANSP simulations. The amount of RF absorption by the H minority, by the ion beam and the bulk plasma is theoretically evaluated. It is shown that a large part of the synergistic effects can be explained by the rise of the electron temperature due to the minority heating which increases the beam slowing down time and its critical energy. A smaller contribution to the effects is due to direct coupling of the RF power to the beam (less than 10% of the total RF absorbed power) and to the decrease of the plasma toroidal rotation induced by the RF. ICRH has also been added to co-injection at ω=3ω CD . In this case no minority heating is present and the RF energy coupling to the beam is one of the dominant effects. It leads to the formation of a very energetic tail of the ion beam with a strong increase of the beam-target neutron reactivity. (Author)

  3. Past, Current and Future of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, M.; Maeda, T.; Ono, N.; Tomii, N.; Kasahara, M.; Mokuno, M.; Sobue, S.

    2017-12-01

    time and quality, transition from AMSR-2 to follow-on mission to continue operational applications and keep long-term data record for climate studies. Currently, JAXA is studying possible payload capability of AMSR-2 follow-on onto the Greenhouse Gases Observation Satellite-3 (GOSAT-3) scheduled to be launched in Japanese Fiscal Year 2022.

  4. MHD phenomena in advanced scenarios on ASDEX upgrade and the influence of localised electron heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Hobirk, J.; Maraschek, M.; Peeters, A.G.; Pinches, S.D.; Schade, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Saarelma, S.

    2001-01-01

    MHD instabilities in advanced tokamak scenarios on the one hand are favourable as they can contribute to the stationarity of the current profiles and act as a trigger for the formation of internal transport barriers. In particular fishbone oscillations driven by fast particles arising from neutral beam injection (NBI) are shown to trigger internal transport barriers in low and reversed magnetic shear discharges. During the whistling down period of the fishbone oscillation the transport is reduced around the corresponding rational surface, leading to an increased pressure gradient. This behaviour is explained by the redistribution of the resonant fast particles resulting in a sheared plasma rotation due to the return current in the bulk plasma, which is equivalent to a radial electric field. On the other hand MHD instabilities limit the accessible operating regime. Ideal and resistive MHD modes such as double tearing modes, infernal modes and external kinks degrade the confinement or even lead to disruptions in ASDEX Upgrade reversed shear discharges. Localized electron cyclotron heating and current drive is shown to significantly affect the MHD stability of this type of discharges. (author)

  5. MHD phenomena in advanced scenarios on ASDEX Upgrade and the influence of localized electron heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Hobirk, J.; Maraschek, M.; Schade, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Saarelma, S.

    2001-01-01

    On the one hand, MHD instabilities in advanced tokamak scenarios are favourable as they can contribute to the stationarity of the current profiles and act as a trigger for the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs). In particular, fishbone oscillations driven by fast particles arising from NBI are shown to trigger ITBs in low and reversed magnetic shear discharges. During the whistling down period of the fishbone oscillation the transport is reduced around the corresponding rational surface, leading to an increased pressure gradient. This behaviour could be explained by the redistribution of the resonant fast particles resulting in a sheared plasma rotation due to the return current in the bulk plasma, which is equivalent to a radial electric field. On the other hand, MHD instabilities limit the accessible operating regime. Ideal and resistive MHD modes such as double tearing modes, infernal modes and external kinks degrade the confinement or even lead to disruptions in ASDEX Upgrade reversed shear discharges. Localized electron cyclotron heating and current drive are shown to significantly affect the MHD stability of this type of discharge. (author)

  6. Relationship of social support and decisional conflict to advance directives attitude in Korean older adults: A community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Jung, Dukyoo; Choi, MoonKi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between social support, decisional conflict, and attitude towards advance directives, and determine whether decisional conflict mediates the relation between social support and advance directives attitude among older adults in South Korea. In total, 209 community-based older adults (mean age, 74.82 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Demographic characteristics, self-perceived health status, social support, decisional conflict, and advance directives attitude were investigated via a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson's correlation and path analyses. The mean score of advance directives attitude was 48.01 (range, 35-61). Decisional conflict and social support were both significantly related to advance directives attitude (P conflict was a mediator between social support and advance directives attitudes. The results confirmed the importance of social support for reducing decisional conflict and encouraging positive attitudes toward advance directives. Future studies are needed to support the development of culturally sensitive educational approaches regarding advance directives for older adults in Korea. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  7. Calculation of a Tunnel Cross Section Subjected to Fire – with a New Advanced Transient Concrete Model for Reinforced Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural application of a new thermal induced strain model for concrete – the TIS-Model. An advanced transient concrete model (ATCM is applied with the material model of the TIS-Model. The non-linear model comprises thermal strain, elastic strain, plastic strain and transient temperature strains, and load history modelling of restraint concrete structures subjected to fire.The calculations by finite element analysis (FEA were done using the SAFIR structural code. The FEA software was basically new with respect to the material modelling derived to use the new TIS-Model (as a transient model considers thermal induced strain. The equations of the ATCM consider a lot of capabilities, especially for considering irreversible effects of temperature on some material properties. By considering the load history during heating up, increasing load bearing capacity may be obtained due to higher stiffness of the concrete. With this model, it is possible to apply the thermal-physical behaviour of material laws for calculation of structures under extreme temperature conditions.A tunnel cross section designed and built by the cut and cover method is calculated with a tunnel fire curve. The results are compared with the results of a calculation with the model of the Eurocode 2 (EC2-Model. The effect of load history in highly loaded structures under fire load will be investigated.A comparison of this model with the ordinary calculation system of Eurocode 2 (EC2 shows that a better evaluation of the safety level was achieved with the new model. This opens a space for optimizing concrete structure design with transient temperature conditions up to 1000 °C. 

  8. Current Advances in the Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Thiazolidinediones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alemán-González-Duhart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the current advances in the biochemical and physiological aspects in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 with thiazolidinediones (TZDs. DM2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, triggering the abnormal activation of physiological pathways such as glucose autooxidation, polyol’s pathway, formation of advance glycation end (AGE products, and glycolysis, leading to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, which are responsible for the micro- and macrovascular complications of the disease. The treatment of DM2 has been directed toward the reduction of hyperglycemia using different drugs such as insulin sensitizers, as the case of TZDs, which are able to lower blood glucose levels and circulating triglycerides by binding to the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ as full agonists. When TZDs interact with PPARγ, the receptor regulates the transcription of different genes involved in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and adipogenesis. However, TZDs exhibit some adverse effects such as fluid retention, weight gain, hepatotoxicity, plasma-volume expansion, hemodilution, edema, bone fractures, and congestive heart failure, which limits their use in DM2 patients.

  9. Current metabolomics: technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Sastia P; Yamamoto, Shinya; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2013-07-01

    Metabolomics, the global quantitative assessment of metabolites in a biological system, has played a pivotal role in various fields of science in the post-genomic era. Metabolites are the result of the interaction of the system's genome with its environment and are not merely the end product of gene expression, but also form part of the regulatory system in an integrated manner. Therefore, metabolomics is often considered a powerful tool to provide an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of a cell. The power of metabolomics lies on the acquisition of analytical data in which metabolites in a cellular system are quantified, and the extraction of the most meaningful elements of the data by using various data analysis tool. In this review, we discuss the latest development of analytical techniques and data analyses methods in metabolomics study. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of DC properties and current distribution in TFAS ITER conductor samples using high Jc Nb3Sn advanced strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Torre, A.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Dewittler, R.; Staehli, F.

    2007-01-01

    Two full-size conductor samples using advanced Nb 3 Sn strands were tested in the SULTAN facility in 2005-2006 within (I,B,T) ranges close to the ITER operating conditions (B MAX ∼ 12 T, T ∼ 5 K). Each sample includes two conductor legs, connected together by a twin-box joint in their lower part. The conductor design is the same for the four legs, similar to that of the ITER Toroidal Field Model Coil, but each leg uses specific strands newly developed and industrially produced to reach higher J c performances than in previous samples. In addition to classical voltage taps and temperature sensors, the sample instrumentation included Hall probe (HP) heads positioned so as to discriminate current distribution between conductor main sub-cables (petals). In a first simple approach, we analyse the results supposing that the conductor drives a uniform current among strands. The model is mainly based on geometrical considerations associated with a global approach on strand mechanical behavior. In a second part, we model the conductor in a more realistic way with different currents shared between main sub-cables. Taking into account various geometrical aspects (spiral trajectories, precise self-field maps...) the current in all petals are reconstructed with help of HP's signals, expected to experience self-field from CICC's. The mechanical aspects are also tentatively considered (electromagnetic load, bending strain...). Global results for both samples are shown, and possible inaccuracies due to geometrical parameters (petals positioning) are discussed. Those data are then injected into a Matlab program for electrical and geometrical CICC modeling (derived from the previous ENSIC code from CEA) and compared with dedicated experimental runs. Results are finally commented on the basis of overall consistency with HP's signals. (authors)

  11. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  12. Nuclear Medicine Technologists' Perception and Current Assessment of Quality: A Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, April; Farrell, Mary Beth; Williams, Jessica; Basso, Danny

    2017-06-01

    In 2015, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section (SNMMI-TS) launched a multiyear quality initiative to help prepare the technologist workforce for an evidence-based health-care delivery system that focuses on quality. To best implement the quality strategy, the SNMMI-TS first surveyed technologists to ascertain their perception of quality and current measurement of quality indicators. Methods: An internet survey was sent to 27,989 e-mail contacts. Questions related to demographic data, perceptions of quality, quality measurement, and opinions on the minimum level of education are discussed in this article. Results: A total of 4,007 (14.3%) responses were received. When asked to list 3 words or phrases that represent quality, there were a plethora of different responses. The top 3 responses were image quality, quality control, and technologist education or competency. Surveying patient satisfaction was the most common quality measure (80.9%), followed by evaluation of image quality (78.2%). Evaluation of image quality (90.3%) and equipment functionality (89.4%) were considered the most effective measures. Technologists' differentiation between quality, quality improvement, quality control, quality assurance, and quality assessment seemed ambiguous. Respondents were confident in their ability to assess and improve quality at their workplace (91.9%) and agreed their colleagues were committed to delivering quality work. Of note, 70.7% of respondents believed that quality is directly related to the technologist's level of education. Correspondingly, respondents felt there should be a minimum level of education (99.5%) and that certification or registry should be required (74.4%). Most respondents (59.6%) felt that a Bachelor's degree should be the minimum level of education, followed by an Associate's degree (40.4%). Conclusion: To best help nuclear medicine technologists provide quality care, the SNMMI-TS queried technologists to

  13. Current management of pregnancy-related low back pain: a national cross-sectional survey of U.K. physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A; Holden, M A; Ogollah, R O; Foster, N E

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy-related low back pain (LBP) is very common. Evidence from a systematic review supports the use of exercise and acupuncture, although little is known about the care received by women with pregnancy-related back pain in the U.K. To describe current acupuncture and standard care management of pregnancy-related LBP by U.K. physiotherapists. Cross-sectional survey of physiotherapists with experience of treating women with pregnancy-related LBP from three professional networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. In total, 1093 physiotherapists were mailed a questionnaire. The questionnaire captured respondents' demographic and practice setting information, and experience of managing women with pregnancy-related back pain, and investigated the reported management of pregnancy-related LBP using a patient case vignette of a specific, 'typical' case. The overall response rate was 58% (629/1093). Four hundred and ninety-nine physiotherapists had experience of treating women with pregnancy-related LBP and were included in the analysis. Most respondents worked wholly or partly in the U.K. National Health Service (78%). Most respondents reported that they treat patients with pregnancy-related LBP in three to four one-to-one treatment sessions over 3 to 6 weeks. The results show that a range of management strategies are employed for pregnancy-related LBP, and multimodal management is common. The most common reported treatment was home exercises (94%), and 24% of physiotherapists reported that they would use acupuncture with the patient described in the vignette. This study provides the first robust data on the management of pregnancy-related LBP by U.K. physiotherapists. Multimodal management is common, although exercise is the most frequently used treatment for pregnancy-related LBP. Acupuncture is used less often for this patient group. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The dynomak: An advanced spheromak reactor concept with imposed-dynamo current drive and next-generation nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.A., E-mail: das1990@uw.edu; Jarboe, T.R.; Morgan, K.D.; Pfaff, M.; Lavine, E.S.; Kamikawa, Y.; Hughes, M.; Andrist, P.; Marklin, G.; Nelson, B.A.

    2014-04-15

    A high-β spheromak reactor concept has been formulated with an estimated overnight capital cost that is competitive with conventional power sources. This reactor concept utilizes recently discovered imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) and a molten salt (FLiBe) blanket system for first wall cooling, neutron moderation and tritium breeding. Currently available materials and ITER-developed cryogenic pumping systems were implemented in this concept from the basis of technological feasibility. A tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of greater than 1.1 has been calculated using a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) neutron transport simulation. High temperature superconducting tapes (YBCO) were used for the equilibrium coil set, substantially reducing the recirculating power fraction when compared to previous spheromak reactor studies. Using zirconium hydride for neutron shielding, a limiting equilibrium coil lifetime of at least thirty full-power years has been achieved. The primary FLiBe loop was coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle due to attractive economics and high thermal efficiencies. With these advancements, an electrical output of 1000 MW from a thermal output of 2486 MW was achieved, yielding an overall plant efficiency of approximately 40%.

  15. Incremental Innovation and Progress in Advanced Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: Current Status and Future Impact of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Corey J; Obasaju, Coleman; Bunn, Paul; Bonomi, Philip; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Kim, Edward S; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Socinski, Mark A; Spigel, David R; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) is an aggressive form of cancer that poses many therapeutic challenges. Patients tend to be older, present at a later stage, and have a high incidence of comorbidities, which can compromise treatment delivery and exacerbate toxicity. In addition, certain agents routinely available for nonsquamous cell histologic subtypes, such as bevacizumab and pemetrexed, are contraindicated or lack efficacy in sqCLC. Therapeutic progress has been much slower for advanced sqCLC, with median survival times of approximately 9 to 11 months in most studies. Herein, we discuss the current therapeutic landscape for patients with sqCLC versus with nonsquamous NSCLC. Current evidence indicates that new targeted treatments, notably monoclonal antibodies such as ramucirumab and necitumumab, and immunotherapies such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab can provide survival prolongation, although the benefits are still relatively modest. These incremental improvements, all realized since 2012, in aggregate, will very likely have a clinically meaningful impact for patients with sqCLC. We also discuss recent genomic studies of sqCLC that have identified potentially actionable molecular targets, as well as the relevant targeted agents in clinical development. Finally, we discuss the magnitude of survival benefit and the risk-to-benefit ratio that would prove clinically meaningful in this underserved patient population with unmet needs. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Loretta; Cartwright, Ann; Collop, Nancy; Freedman, Neil; McLeod, Don; Weaver, Terri E; Rogers, Ann E

    2014-05-15

    To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through "on the job" training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap.

  17. Executive Summary of the NHLBI Workshop Report: Leveraging Current Scientific Advancements to Understand Sarcoidosis Variability and Improve Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa A; Crouser, Elliott D; Martin, William J; Eu, Jerry

    2017-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung; it is associated with significant disparities, more commonly impacting those in the prime of their lives (age 20-50 yr, with a second peak after age 60 yr), black individuals, and women. However, the burden of disease, the ability to diagnose and prognose organ involvement and course, as well as specific treatment options, management options, and disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood. As a result, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute undertook a sarcoidosis workshop, "Leveraging Current Scientific Advancements to Understand Sarcoidosis Variability and Improve Outcomes," to help address these issues by defining the scientific and clinical priorities to improve sarcoidosis care. The overarching recommendations from this workshop are outlined in the following summary and detailed in the accompanying articles. The recommendations included establishing collaborations and networks to conduct research based on consensus definitions of disease phenotypes and standards of care, and to provide clinical outreach to areas with a burden of disease to improve care. These collaborative networks would also serve as the hub to conduct clinical trials of devastating phenotypes (e.g., cardiac, neurologic, and fibrotic disease) not only for treatment but to enhance our understanding of the burden of disease. In addition, the networks would be used to leverage state-of-the-art "omics" and systems biology research, as well as other studies to advance understanding of disease pathogenesis, and development of biomarkers and therapeutic targets, with a goal to translate this information to improve care of individuals with sarcoidosis.

  18. Current advance care planning practice in the Australian community: an online survey of home care package case managers and service managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, Marcus; Detering, Karen M; Silvester, William

    2015-04-23

    Advance care planning (ACP) is the process of planning for future healthcare that is facilitated by a trained healthcare professional, whereby a person's values, beliefs and treatment preferences are made known to guide clinical decision-making at a future time when they cannot communicate their decisions. Despite the potential benefits of ACP for community aged care clients the availability of ACP is unknown, but likely to be low. In Australia many of these clients receive services through Home Care Package (HCP) programs. This study aimed to explore current attitudes, knowledge and practice of advance care planning among HCP service managers and case managers. An invitation to take part in a cross-sectional online survey was distributed by email to all HCP services across Australia in November 2012. Descriptive analyses were used to examine overall patterns of responses to each survey item in the full sample. 120 (response rate 25%) service managers and 178 (response rate 18%) case managers completed the survey. Only 34% of services had written ACP policies and procedures in place and 48% of case managers had previously completed any ACP training. In addition, although most case managers (70%) had initiated an ACP discussion in the past 12 months and viewed ACP as part of their role, the majority of the conversations (80%) did not result in documentation of the client's wishes and most (85%) of the case managers who responded did not believe ACP was done well within their service. This survey shows low organisational ACP systems and support for case managers and a lack of a normative approach to ACP across Australian HCP services. As HCPs become more prevalent it is essential that a model of ACP is developed and evaluated in this setting, so that clients have the opportunity to discuss and document their future healthcare wishes if they choose to.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, phase III study comparing two doses of erlotinib for second-line treatment of current smokers with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (CurrentS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Egbert F; Wu, Yi-Long; Gervais, Radj; Zhou, Caicun; Felip, Enriqueta; Feng, Jifeng; Guclu, Salih Zeki; Hoiczyk, Mathias; Dorokhova, Elena; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Grange, Susan; Perez-Moreno, Pablo Diego; Mitchell, Lada; Reck, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Active smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have increased erlotinib metabolism versus non-smoking patients, which reduces exposure. Therefore, an increased erlotinib dose may be beneficial. The CurrentS study (NCT01183858) assessed efficacy and safety of 300mg erlotinib (E300) as second-line therapy in current smokers with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC versus the standard 150mg dose (E150). Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC (current smokers who failed first-line platinum-based chemotherapy) were randomized to receive E150 or E300 until progression/death/unacceptable toxicity. progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints: overall survival (OS), disease control rate and safety. A total of 342 patients were screened; the intent-to-treat population comprised 159 E300 patients and 154 E150 patients. Median PFS was 7.0 versus 6.9 weeks with E300 versus E150, respectively (unstratified hazard ratio [HR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.33; unstratified log-rank P=0.671). Median OS was 6.8 months in both arms (unstratified HR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.80-1.32; unstratified log-rank P=0.846). Overall, 89.2% (E300 arm) and 84.4% (E150 arm) experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE) of any grade (44.3% and 37%, respectively, experienced grade ≥3 AEs); AEs of special interest were reported in 67.7% and 47.4% of patients, respectively. E300 resulted in higher mean plasma concentrations versus E150, however, this did not improve efficacy. Despite the difference in erlotinib exposure, there was no evidence of an incremental efficacy benefit of a higher erlotinib dose versus the standard dose in this population of highly active smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on lower hybrid current drive efficiency at high density towards long-pulse regimes in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M. H.; Ding, B. J.; Zhang, J. Z.; Gan, K. F.; Wang, H. Q.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wu, Z. G.; Ma, W. D.; Jia, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Y.; Feng, J. Q.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Peysson, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress on both L- and H-mode long-pulse discharges has been made recently in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [J. Li et al., Nature Phys. 9, 817 (2013) And B. N. Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 104006 (2013).]. In this paper, LHCD experiments at high density in L-mode plasmas have been investigated in order to explore possible methods of improving current drive (CD) efficiency, thus to extend the operational space in long-pulse and high performance plasma regime. It is observed that the normalized bremsstrahlung emission falls much more steeply than 1/n e-av (line-averaged density) above n e-av  = 2.2 × 10 19  m −3 indicating anomalous loss of CD efficiency. A large broadening of the operating line frequency (f = 2.45 GHz), measured by a radio frequency (RF) probe located outside the EAST vacuum vessel, is generally observed during high density cases, which is found to be one of the physical mechanisms resulting in the unfavorable CD efficiency. Collisional absorption of lower hybrid wave in the scrape off layer (SOL) may be another cause, but this assertion needs more experimental evidence and numerical analysis. It is found that plasmas with strong lithiation can improve CD efficiency largely, which should be benefited from the changes of edge parameters. In addition, several possible methods are proposed to recover good efficiency in future experiments for EAST

  1. Hierarchical micro-lamella-structured 3D porous copper current collector coated with tin for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeji [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Um, Ji Hyun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyelim [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won-Sub [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yung-Eun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Heeman, E-mail: heeman@kookmin.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Cellmotive Co. Ltd., #518, Engineering Building, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Sn-Cu scaffold anode fabricated by freeze-casting and electroless plating. • Sn-Cu scaffold architecture shows superior capacity and cyclic stability at high current density. • Sn-Cu scaffold electrode is commercially promising. - Abstract: A Novel 3D porous Sn-Cu architecture is prepared as an anode material for use in an advanced lithium-ion battery. Micro-lamellar-structured 3D porous Cu foam, which is electroless-plated with Sn as an active material, is used as anode current collector. Compared to Sn-coated Cu foil, the 3D Sn-Cu foam exhibits superior Li-ion capacity and stable capacity retention, demonstrating the advantage of 3D porous architecture by preserving its structural integrity. In addition, the effect of heat-treatment after Sn plating is investigated. Sn/Sn{sub 6}Cu{sub 5} and SnO{sub 2}/Cu{sub 10}Sn{sub 3} were formed on and in the 3D Sn-Cu foam under the heat-treatment at 150 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The development of Cu{sub 10}Sn{sub 3} in the 3D Sn-Cu foam heat-treated at 500 °C can be a key factor for the enhanced cyclic stability because the Cu{sub 10}Sn{sub 3} inactively reacts with Li-ion and alleviates the volume expansion of SnO{sub 2} as an inactive matrix.

  2. COMETS2: An advanced MATLAB toolbox for the numerical analysis of electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chany; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Sang Jun; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Since there is no way to measure electric current generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) inside the human head through in vivo experiments, numerical analysis based on the finite element method has been widely used to estimate the electric field inside the head. In 2013, we released a MATLAB toolbox named COMETS, which has been used by a number of groups and has helped researchers to gain insight into the electric field distribution during stimulation. The aim of this study was to develop an advanced MATLAB toolbox, named COMETS2, for the numerical analysis of the electric field generated by tDCS. COMETS2 can generate any sizes of rectangular pad electrodes on any positions on the scalp surface. To reduce the large computational burden when repeatedly testing multiple electrode locations and sizes, a new technique to decompose the global stiffness matrix was proposed. As examples of potential applications, we observed the effects of sizes and displacements of electrodes on the results of electric field analysis. The proposed mesh decomposition method significantly enhanced the overall computational efficiency. We implemented an automatic electrode modeler for the first time, and proposed a new technique to enhance the computational efficiency. In this paper, an efficient toolbox for tDCS analysis is introduced (freely available at http://www.cometstool.com). It is expected that COMETS2 will be a useful toolbox for researchers who want to benefit from the numerical analysis of electric fields generated by tDCS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Measurements of the inclusive neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross sections in MINERvA using the low-ν flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devan, J.; Ren, L.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    The total cross sections are important ingredients for the current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We present measurements of the total charged-current neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on scintillator (CH) in the NuMI low-energy beamline using an in situ prediction of the shape of the flux as a function of neutrino energy from 2-50 GeV. This flux prediction takes advantage of the fact that neutrino and antineutrino interactions with low nuclear recoil energy (ν ) have a nearly constant cross section as a function of incident neutrino energy. This measurement is the lowest energy application of the low-ν flux technique, the first time it has been used in the NuMI antineutrino beam configuration, and demonstrates that the technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies. The cross section measurements presented are the most precise measurements to date below 5 GeV.

  4. Recent advances with quiescent power supply current (I(sub DDQ)) testing at Sandia using the HP82000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, A. W.; Leong, D. J.; Cox, L. B.

    Last year at the HP82000 Users Group Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories gave a presentation on I(sub DDQ) testing. This year, some advances are presented on this testing including DUT board fixturing, external DC PMU measurement, and automatic IDD-All circuit calibration. Implementation is examined more than theory, with results presented from Sandia tests. After a brief summary I(sub DDQ) theory and testing concepts, how the break (hold state) vector and data formatting present a test vector generation concern for the HP82000 is described. Fixturing of the DUT board for both types of I(sub DDQ) measurement is then discussed, along with how the continuity test and test vector generation must be taken into account. Results of a test including continuity, IDD-All and I(sub DDQ) Value measurements is shown. Next, measurement of low current using an external PMU is discussed, including noise considerations, implementation and some test results showing nA-range measurements. A method is presented for automatic calibration of the IDD-All analog comparator circuit using RM BASIC on the HP82000, with implementation and measurement results. Finally, future directions for research in this area is explored.

  5. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.

  6. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-04-03

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced 'omics' technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound for the characterization and staging of rectal cancer. Current state of the method. Technological advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersak, Mariana M; Badea, Radu; Graur, Florin; Hajja, Nadim Al; Furcea, Luminita; Dudea, Sorin M

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is the most accurate type of examination for the assessment of rectal tumors. Over the years, the method has advanced from gray-scale examination to intravenous contrast media administration and to different types of elastography. The multimodal approach of tumors (transrectal, transvaginal) is adapted to each case. 3D ultrasound is useful for spatial representation and precise measurement of tumor formations, using CT/MR image reconstruction; color elastography is useful for tumor characterization and staging; endoscopic ultrasound using intravenous contrast agents can help study the amount of contrast agent targeted at the level of the tumor formations and contrast wash-in/wash-out time, based on the curves displayed on the device. The transvaginal approach often allows better visualization of the tumor than the transrectal approach. Performing the procedure with the rectal ampulla distended with contrast agent may be seen as an optimization of the examination methodology. All these aspects are additional methods for gray-scale endoscopic ultrasound, capable of increasing diagnostic accuracy. This paper aims at reviewing the progress of transrectal and transvaginal ultrasound, generically called endoscopic ultrasound, for rectal tumor diagnosis and staging, with emphasis on the current state of the method and its development trends.

  8. Technological Advance in an Expanding Economy: Its Impact on a Cross-Section of the Labor Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eva; And Others

    In 1967 the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan conducted a nationwide survey to determine the impact of changes in machine technology on a cross-section of the labor force. Although many studies have been made about automation, this study was larger in scope than most research and made use of cross-sectional analysis to show the…

  9. Introduction to special section of the Journal of Family Psychology, advances in mixed methods in family psychology: integrative and applied solutions for family science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2011-12-01

    Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review.

  10. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  11. Association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depends on age: A cross-sectional study in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Suhang; Li, Pei; Deng, Meiying; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Yu; Dang, Liangjun; Qu, Qiumin

    2017-09-08

    Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment, while the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment is not fully understood. The objectives were to identify a possible association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depending on age in the Chinese rural population. Data for the study consisted of 1,782 participants (40 years and older) who lived in a rural village in the vicinity of Xi'an, China. Data about smoking history and cognitive function were collected. Cognitive function was scored by the Mini-Mental State Examination. The effect of age on the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment was analyzed with interaction and stratified analysis by logistic regression models. Interaction analysis showed that current smoking is positively related with cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR]=9.067; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.305-62.979; P=.026). However, the interaction term, age by current smoking, is negatively related with cognitive impairment (OR=0.969; 95%CI 0.939-0.999; P=.045). Stratified logistic regression showed that in the 40-65 years of age sublayer, OR of current smoking is 1.966 (P=.044), whereas in the>65 years of age sublayer, the OR is 0.470 (P=.130). This means that the association between current smoking and cognitive impairment with age might be positive (OR>1) in lower age sublayers, but no significant difference in higher age sublayers. In conclusion, current smoking might be positively associated with cognitive impairment in the middle-aged but the relationship declines with increasing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Choosing an Advanced Therapy in Parkinson's Disease; is it an Evidence-Based Decision in Current Practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, F.A.; Heek, J. van; Bloem, B.R.; Post, B.; Faber, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), neurologists and patients face a complex decision for an advanced therapy. When choosing a treatment, the best available evidence should be combined with the professional's expertise and the patient's preferences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this

  13. Progress of the Charged Pion Semi-Inclusive Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section in NOvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaris, Aristeidis [Fermilab

    2017-10-09

    The NOvA experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to measure the rates of electron neutrino appearance and muon neutrino disappearance. The NOvA near detector is located at Fermilab, 800 m from the primary target and provides an excellent platform to measure and study neutrino-nucleus interactions. We present the status of the measurement of the double differential cross section with respect to muon kinematics for interactions involving charged pions in the final state, $\

  14. The current state of forests in the lower reaches of the Vah section Sala - Nove Mesto nad Vahom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamova, A.

    2009-01-01

    Area of interest lies in the central part of the Danube plain and extends along both sides of the river Vah. Naturally occurring habitats close to small-scale, and are considerable anthropicly contingent either directly (forestry) or indirectly (modified water regime). The contribution gives phyto-sociological characteristics of forests in the lower reaches of the Vah section Sala - Nove Mesto nad Vahom. We drew up the 21 phyto-sociological entries characterizing forest vegetation, which we classified into two associations Salici-Populetum, Fraxino Ulmetum-and community-Crataegus monogyna Populus nigra.

  15. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, Alice

    2016-01-28

    Nurses\\' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses\\' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients\\' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  16. A first measurement of the charged current DIS cross sections with longitudinally polarised electrons in the H1 experiment at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunovic, B.

    2007-07-01

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on data from electron-proton collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=319 GeV. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA collider in the year 2005 corresponding to two polarisation states: a left-handed electron polarisation of -27% and a right-handed electron polarisation of +37%, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 68.6 pb{sup -1} and 29.6 pb{sup -1}, respectively. The inclusive total deep inelastic charged current cross section and the differential cross sections are measured for both helicities in the kinematic domain Q{sup 2}>400 GeV{sup 2} and y<0.9. The entire analysis chain necessary for the determination of the cross sections is described with emphasis on the understanding of the performance of the Liquid Argon trigger system. The experimental results obtained are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model. In particular, the measurement of the total polarised charged current cross section confirms the Standard Model expectation that there are no weak charged current interactions mediated by a hypothetical right-handed W boson. In addition, a measurement of the charged current structure function F{sup cc}{sub 2} has been performed at the H1 experiment for the first time. The measurements are well described by the theoretical expectations based on parton distributions derived from inclusive neutral current measurements in H1, and are in agreement with published data from the ZEUS (e{sup {+-}}p) and CCFR (anti {nu}{sub {mu}}Fe) experiments. (orig.)

  17. Photonic generation of ultra-wideband signals by direct current modulation on SOA section of an SOA-integrated SGDBR laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hui; Yu, Yonglin; Shu, Tan; Huang, Dexiu; Jiang, Shan; Barry, Liam P

    2010-03-29

    Photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses are generated by direct current modulation of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) section of an SOA-integrated sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SGDBR) laser. Modulation responses of the SOA section of the laser are first simulated with a microwave equivalent circuit model. Simulated results show a resonance behavior indicating the possibility to generate UWB signals with complex shapes in the time domain. The UWB pulse generation is then experimentally demonstrated for different selected wavelength channels with an SOA-integrated SGDBR laser.

  18. A sub-GeV charged-current quasi-elastic νμ cross-section on carbon at SciBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walding, Joseph James

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus charged-current quasi-elastic scattering is the signal interaction used by many neutrino oscillation experiments. For muon disappearance studies the signal mode is ν μ n → μp. Modern oscillation experiments, such as T2K, produce neutrino beams with peak beam energies of order a few-GeV. It is therefore vitally important to have accurate measurements of the charged-current quasi-elastic cross-section for future neutrino oscillation experiments. Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the few-GeV region are not well understood, with the main uncertainties coming from understanding of the neutrino beam flux and the final state interactions within nuclei. SciBooNE is a sub-GeV neutrino-nucleus cross-section experiment based at Fermilab, Batavia, USA, with the goal to measure neutrino cross-sections with precision of order 5%. SciBooNE took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in total 0.99 x 10 20 and 1.53 x 10 20 protons on target were collected in neutrino and anti-neutrino mode, respectively. In this thesis a ν μ charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) cross-section contained within the SciBar sub-detector is presented. A method to tag muons in SciBar was developed and three samples were isolated. An excess in backwards tracks in the one-track sample is observed. A Poisson maximum likelihood is used to extract the CCQE cross-section. The fit was applied using a basic fit parameter model, successfully used to obtain the cross-section in the SciBar-MRD matched CCQE analysis. This method was found to be insufficient in describing the data for the SciBar-contained CCQE analysis. By adding two migration parameters the cross-section was calculated to be 1.004 ± 0.031 (stat) -0.150 +0.101 (sys) x 10 -38 cm 2 /neutron, excluding backwards tracks with a χ 2 = 203.8/76 d.o.f. and 1.083 ± 0.030(stat) -0.177 +0.115 (sys) x 10 -38 cm 2 /neutron, including backwards tracks with a χ 2 = 659.8/133 d.o.f. Only neutrino beam and detector systematics have been

  19. Advances in statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Stauffer; Nadav Nur

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in the Advances in Statistics section of the Partners in Flight (PIF) 2002 Proceedings represent a small sample of statistical topics of current importance to Partners In Flight research scientists: hierarchical modeling, estimation of detection probabilities, and Bayesian applications. Sauer et al. (this volume) examines a hierarchical model...

  20. EDITORIAL: Special section on recent progress on radio frequency heating and current drive studies in the JET tokamak Special section on recent progress on radio frequency heating and current drive studies in the JET tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, Jef; Mailloux, Joelle; Mayoral, Marie-Line

    2009-04-01

    This special cluster of papers summarizes the work accomplished during the last three years in the framework of the Task Force Heating at JET, whose mission it is to study the optimisation of heating systems for plasma heating and current drive, launching and deposition questions and the physics of plasma rotation. Good progress and new physics insights have been obtained with the three heating systems available at JET: lower hybrid (LH), ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and neutral beam injection (NBI). Topics covered in the present issue are the use of edge gas puffing to improve the coupling of LH waves at large distances between the plasma separatrix and the LH launcher. Closely linked with this topic are detailed studies of the changes in LH coupling due to modifications in the scrape-off layer during gas puffing and simultaneous application of ICRH. We revisit the fundamental ICRH heating of D plasmas, include new physics results made possible by recently installed new diagnostic capabilities on JET and point out caveats for ITER when NBI is simultaneously applied. Other topics are the study of the anomalous behaviour of fast ions from NBI, and a study of toroidal rotation induced by ICRH, both again with possible implications for ITER. In finalizing this cluster of articles, thanks are due to all colleagues involved in preparing and executing the JET programme under EFDA in recent years. We want to thank the EFDA leadership for the special privilege of appointing us as Leaders or Deputies of Task Force Heating, a wonderful and hardworking group of colleagues. Thanks also to all other European and non-European scientists who contributed to the JET scientific programme, the Operations team of JET and the colleagues of the Close Support Unit (CSU). Thanks are also due to the Editors, Editorial Board and referees of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion together with the publishing staff of IOP Publishing who have supported and contributed substantially to

  1. Current Molecular Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Therapeutic Mechanism, Clinical Trials, and Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaichun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great progress in the treatment of gastric cancer, it is still the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients often miss the opportunity for a surgical cure, because the cancer has already developed into advanced cancer when identified. Compared to best supportive care, chemotherapy can improve quality of life and prolong survival time, but the overall survival is often short. Due to the molecular study of gastric cancer, new molecular targeted drugs have entered the clinical use. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, can significantly improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with HER2 overexpression. Second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer with ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, has been proved to provide a beneficial effect. The VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, apatinib, can improve the survival of advanced gastric cancer patients after second-line chemotherapy failure. Unfortunately, none of the EGFR targeting antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab, VEGF targeting monoclonal antibodies (bevacizumab, mTOR inhibitor (everolimus, or HGF/MET pathway targeting drugs has a significant survival benefit. Many other clinical trials based on molecular markers are underway. This review will summarize targeted therapies for advanced gastric cancer.

  2. The current status of syphilis prevention and control in Jiangsu province, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fang Chen

    Full Text Available To analyze the midterm evaluation data from the National Syphilis Prevention and Control Plan (2010-2020 and evaluate the current status of syphilis prevention and control in Jiangsu province, China.We collected data via (1 field surveys conducted in 2015 and (2 data recorded in existing syphilis surveillance systems. We conducted descriptive statistical analysis to evaluate the current landscape of syphilis control initiatives and their potential effect in syphilis control.The incidence of all cases of syphilis decreased from 2010 (32.3 per 100,000 to 2015 (30.1 per 100,000, with an annual growth of -1.17% (x2trend = -7.52, P<0.001 in Jiangsu province. The incidence of primary and secondary syphilis and congenital syphilis both decreased significantly from 2010 to 2015. The average awareness rate of syphilis knowledge among professional personnel was 95.4% (3781/3963. Rural residents had the lowest awareness rate (83.5%, 1875/2245 and commercial sex workers had the highest awareness rate (92.1%, 7804/8474 in 2015. Only 47.8% (33908/70894 of patients received provider-initiated syphilis counseling and testing (PISTC services in sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics, but 94.5% (87927/93020 of all syphilis patients received free testing for syphilis. Overall, 97.2% (9378/9648 of syphilis reported cases of syphilis at medical institutions were confirmed to be accurate, and 92.2% (5850/6345 of patients diagnosed with syphilis at medical institutions received treatment with penicillin.The syphilis incidence rate in Jiangsu has decreased in recent years, but remains at a high level. It is essential to promote PISTC services to improve knowledge of syphilis and rates of testing and treatment in Jiangsu province.

  3. The current status of syphilis prevention and control in Jiangsu province, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Fang; Ding, Jian-Ping; Yan, Hong-Jing; Lu, Jing; Ding, Ping; Chen, Guo-Hong; Li, Jian-Jun; Huan, Xi-Ping; Yang, Hai-Tao; Tang, Wei-Ming; Fu, Geng-Feng

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the midterm evaluation data from the National Syphilis Prevention and Control Plan (2010-2020) and evaluate the current status of syphilis prevention and control in Jiangsu province, China. We collected data via (1) field surveys conducted in 2015 and (2) data recorded in existing syphilis surveillance systems. We conducted descriptive statistical analysis to evaluate the current landscape of syphilis control initiatives and their potential effect in syphilis control. The incidence of all cases of syphilis decreased from 2010 (32.3 per 100,000) to 2015 (30.1 per 100,000), with an annual growth of -1.17% (x2trend = -7.52, Psyphilis and congenital syphilis both decreased significantly from 2010 to 2015. The average awareness rate of syphilis knowledge among professional personnel was 95.4% (3781/3963). Rural residents had the lowest awareness rate (83.5%, 1875/2245) and commercial sex workers had the highest awareness rate (92.1%, 7804/8474) in 2015. Only 47.8% (33908/70894) of patients received provider-initiated syphilis counseling and testing (PISTC) services in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, but 94.5% (87927/93020) of all syphilis patients received free testing for syphilis. Overall, 97.2% (9378/9648) of syphilis reported cases of syphilis at medical institutions were confirmed to be accurate, and 92.2% (5850/6345) of patients diagnosed with syphilis at medical institutions received treatment with penicillin. The syphilis incidence rate in Jiangsu has decreased in recent years, but remains at a high level. It is essential to promote PISTC services to improve knowledge of syphilis and rates of testing and treatment in Jiangsu province.

  4. [Prospect and Current Situation of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors 
in First-line Treatment in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Yu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Yun

    2017-06-20

    With the breakthroughs achieved of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors monotherapy as first-line and second-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the treatment strategy is gradually evolving and optimizing. Immune combination therapy expands the benefit population and improves the curative effect. A series of randomized phase III trials are ongoing. In this review, we discuss the prospect and current situation of immune checkpoint inhibitors in first-line treatment in advanced NSCLC patients.

  5. The Current Situation of Hypertension among Rural Minimal Assurance Family Participants in Liaoning (China): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yintao; Yu, Shasha; Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Yuan; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-12-02

    In China, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing and is showing an epidemic accelerating trend. However, there is a lack of studies reporting the hypertension status of rural residents with minimum living allowances. We performed a cross-sectional study including 11,435 (5285 men and 6150 women) from the general population aged ≥35 years in the Liaoning Province of China from 2012 to 2013, of which 1258 (11.0%) participants came from minimal assurance families. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory examinations and self-reported lifestyle factor information were collected by trained personnel. Multivariate logistic regression was used to detect the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of hypertension. We found that the prevalence of hypertension was as high as 61.9% in participants from minimal assurance families and the odd ratio for hypertension was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The awareness, treatment, and control rates among treated hypertensive participants did not increase with higher level of income and education. In the total sample, the lower income levels increased the risk for hypertension, but education didn't show a significant association with hypertension. Thus, there is a severe hypertension situation in the Liaoning rural population of minimal assurance families, which need more attention and prevention and control measures for hypertension.

  6. Measurement of the ratio of charged current neutrino cross sections on neutrons and protons in the energy range 1-10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, W.; Pohl, M.; Schultze, K.; Derange, B.; Francois, T.; Van Dam, P.; Jaffre, M.; Longuemare, C.; Pascaud, C.; Calimani, E.; Ciampolillo, S.; Mattioli, F.

    1978-01-01

    The charged current cross-section ratio R = sigma(γ+n)/sigma(γ+p), averaged over the energy range, 1-10 GeV, is determined by two independent methods. The combined value is R = 2.08+-0.15. Semi-inclusive proton production rates on both proton and neutron targets are presented. Event rates of exclusive channels on the proton target are also given. (Auth.)

  7. New results from the H1 experiment at HERA on jets, the proton structure function, rapidity gap events, charged current cross section and searches for new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenshaw, T.; Mueller, K.

    1994-07-01

    The cross section of the charged current process e - p→ν e +hadrons is measured at HERA for transverse momenta of the hadron system larger than 25 GeV. The effect of the W propagator term is visible for the first time. A direct search for new particles is presented. No evidence for the production of leptoquarks, leptogluons R-parity violating squarks or excited electrons could be found. New exclusion limits are given. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current cross sections in e{sup +}p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, J

    2004-06-01

    Cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in e{sup +}p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the running periods 1999 and 2000 correspond to an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1}. Single differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy have been measured for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}, as well as the double differential reduced cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} in the kinematic range 280 GeV{sup 2}current deep inelastic scattering cross sections. The helicity structure is investigated in particular. The mass of the space-like W boson propagator has been determined from a fit to d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}. (orig.)

  9. Cobalt exposure and lung disease in tungsten carbide production. A cross-sectional study of current workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Eisen, E.A.; Greene, R.E.; Chamberlin, R.I.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,039 tungsten carbide (TC) production workers was carried out. The purposes were (1) to evaluate the prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and work-related wheezing, (2) to assess correlations between cobalt exposure and pulmonary disease, (3) to compare lung disease in grinders of hard carbide versus nongrinders, and (4) to evaluate the effects of new and previous threshold limit values for cobalt of 50 and 100 micrograms/m3. We obtained medical and occupational histories, flow-volume loops, single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), and chest radiographs. Time-weighted average cobalt levels were determined at every step in the production process. Work-related wheeze occurred in 113 participants (10.9%). Profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 occurred in 26 (2.6%) and interstitial lung disease (defined as profusion greater than or equal to 1M, FVC or DLCO less than or equal to 70%, and FEV1/FVC% greater than or equal to 75) in 7 (0.7%). The relative odds of work-related wheeze was 2.1 times for present cobalt exposures exceeding 50 micrograms/m3 compared with exposures less than or equal to 50 micrograms/m3. The relative odds of profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 was 5.1 times for average lifetime cobalt exposures exceeding 100 micrograms/m3 compared with exposures less than or equal to 100 micrograms/m3 in those with latency exceeding 10 yr. ILD was found in three workers with very low average lifetime exposures (less than 8 micrograms/m3) and shorter latencies. Grinders of hard carbide had lower mean DLCO than nongrinders, even though their cobalt exposures were lower

  10. Is current training in basic and advanced cardiac life support (BLS & ACLS) effective? A study of BLS & ACLS knowledge amongst healthcare professionals of North-Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Madavan; Nedungalaparambil, Nisanth Menon; Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare professionals are expected to have knowledge of current basic and advanced cardiac life support (BLS/ACLS) guidelines to revive unresponsive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the current practices and knowledge of BLS/ACLS principles among healthcare professionals of North-Kerala using pretested self-administered structured questionnaire. Answers were validated in accordance with American Heart Association's BLS/ACLS teaching manual and the results were analysed. Among 461 healthcare professionals, 141 (30.6%) were practicing physicians, 268 (58.1%) were nurses and 52 (11.3%) supporting staff. The maximum achievable score was 20 (BLS 15/ACLS 5). The mean score amongst all healthcare professionals was 8.9±4.7. The mean score among physicians, nurses and support staff were 8.6±3.4, 9±3.6 and 9±3.3 respectively. The majority of healthcare professionals scored ≤50% (237, 51.4%); 204 (44.3%) scored 51%-80% and 20 (4.34%) scored >80%. Mean scores decreased with age, male sex and across occupation. Nurses who underwent BLS/ACLS training previously had significantly higher mean scores (10.2±3.4) than untrained (8.2±3.6, P =0.001). Physicians with <5 years experience ( P =0.002) and nurses in the private sector ( P =0.003) had significantly higher scores. One hundred and sixty three (35.3%) healthcare professionals knew the correct airway opening manoeuvres like head tilt, chin lift and jaw thrust. Only 54 (11.7%) respondents were aware that atropine is not used in ACLS for cardiac arrest resuscitation and 79 (17.1%) correctly opted ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia as shockable rhythms. The majority of healthcare professionals (356, 77.2%) suggested that BLS/ACLS be included in academic curriculum. Inadequate knowledge of BLS/ACLS principles amongst healthcare professionals, especially physicians, illuminate lacunae in existing training systems and merit urgent redressal.

  11. Classification of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals and advanced machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Paul; Hussain, Abir; Al-Jumeily, Dhiya; Huang, De-Shuang; Bouguila, Nizar

    2017-07-06

    Visual inspection of cardiotocography traces by obstetricians and midwives is the gold standard for monitoring the wellbeing of the foetus during antenatal care. However, inter- and intra-observer variability is high with only a 30% positive predictive value for the classification of pathological outcomes. This has a significant negative impact on the perinatal foetus and often results in cardio-pulmonary arrest, brain and vital organ damage, cerebral palsy, hearing, visual and cognitive defects and in severe cases, death. This paper shows that using machine learning and foetal heart rate signals provides direct information about the foetal state and helps to filter the subjective opinions of medical practitioners when used as a decision support tool. The primary aim is to provide a proof-of-concept that demonstrates how machine learning can be used to objectively determine when medical intervention, such as caesarean section, is required and help avoid preventable perinatal deaths. This is evidenced using an open dataset that comprises 506 controls (normal virginal deliveries) and 46 cases (caesarean due to pH ≤ 7.20-acidosis, n = 18; pH > 7.20 and pH machine-learning algorithms are trained, and validated, using binary classifier performance measures. The findings show that deep learning classification achieves sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 91%, Area under the curve = 99%, F-score = 100%, and mean square error = 1%. The results demonstrate that machine learning significantly improves the efficiency for the detection of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals compared with obstetrician and midwife predictions and systems reported in previous studies.

  12. Current status of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a general hospital in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Chika; Yamada, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Gotoda, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been debate over the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in recent years in Japan. In addition, the level of satisfaction of patients and patient’s family after PEG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of PEG and the level of satisfaction of patients and patients’ families after PEG in Japan. Methods: We reviewed the existing data of all patients who underwent PEG tube insertion at Yuri Kumiai General Hospital (Akita, Japan) between February 2000 and December 2010. We examined the following points: underlying diseases requiring PEG, levels of consciousness, and performance status. We also sent a questionnaire to the patients and patient’s families to ask about their satisfaction with and thoughts about PEG. Results: The data of 545 patients who underwent PEG were reviewed. There were 295 men and 250 women, with a mean age of 77.2 ± 11.4 years. PEG was indicated most frequently for cerebrovascular disorders (48.2%, 239/545). There were 515 (94.4%, 515/545) patients showing consciousness disturbance and 444 (81.5%, 444/545) bedridden patients. The questionnaire was answered by one patient himself and 316 patients’ families. When asked, “Was performing PEG a good decision?”, 57.5% (182/316) of the patients’ families answered yes. Meanwhile, when patients’ family members were asked if they would wish to undergo PEG if they were in the same condition as the patient, 28.4% (90/316) answered yes, whereas 55.3% (175/316) answered no. Conclusions: Few patients were able to make their own decision about PEG tube placement because of consciousness disturbance. As a result, many family members of the patients did not want to experience PEG for themselves. Future studies should be performed to clarify the quality of life and ethical aspects associated with PEG. PMID:27313796

  13. Communication with children about a parent's advanced cancer and measures of parental anxiety and depression: a cross-sectional mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Claire E; Yopp, Justin M; Deal, Allison M; Mayer, Deborah K; Hanson, Laura C; Grunfeld, Gili; Rosenstein, Donald L; Park, Eliza M

    2018-01-01

    Parents with advanced cancer are faced with difficult decision-making about communication about their illness with their children. The objectives of this study were to describe how parents communicated with their children about advanced cancer and to explore associations between communication and parental depression and anxiety. This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of 42 patients with stage IV solid tumor malignancies who had at least one child less than 18 years of age. Participants completed a semi-structured interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used multiple linear regression to evaluate the association between extent of communication and HADS Anxiety and Depression scores. Interview data were analyzed using standard qualitative content and thematic techniques and triangulated with survey data. Higher HADS Anxiety scores, but not HADS Depression scores, were cross-sectionally associated with greater extent of parental communication (p = 0.003), even when controlling for performance status and children's ages. In qualitative analyses, parents who acknowledged the terminal nature of their illness or experienced higher symptom burden were more likely to report that they also communicated more extensively with children. A third of parents (n = 14, 33%) described difficulty with illness-related communication with their children. In this pilot study, parents with advanced cancer who reported more illness-related communication with their children also reported more symptoms of general anxiety. Future interventions should address psychological distress relevant to parenting and further assess how parental communication may be linked to parental mood symptoms.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body configuration with two advanced general aviation airfoil sections and simple flap systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a general aviation wing equipped with NACA 65 sub 2-415, NASA GA(W)-1, and NASA GA(PC)-1 airfoil sections were examined. The NASA GA(W)-1 wing was equipped with plain, split, and slotted partial- and full-span flaps and ailerons. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing was equipped with plain, partial- and full-span flaps. Experimental chordwise static-pressure distribution and wake drag measurements were obtained for the NASA GA(PC)-1 wing at the 22.5-percent spanwise station. Comparisons were made between the three wing configurations to evaluate the wing performance, stall, and maximum lift capabilities. The results of this investigation indicated that the NASA GA(W)-1 wing had a higher maximum lift capability and almost equivalent drag values compared with both the NACA 65 sub 2-415 and NASA GA(PC)-1 wings. The NASA GA(W)-1 had a maximum lift coefficient of 1.32 with 0 deg flap deflection, and 1.78 with 41.6 deg deflection of the partial-span slotted flap. The effectiveness of the NASA GA(W)-1 plain and slotted ailerons with differential deflections were equivalent. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing with full-span flaps deflected 0 deg for the design climb configuration showed improved lift and drag performance over the cruise flap setting of -10 deg.

  15. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An active controls technology (ACT) system architecture was selected based on current technology system elements and optimal control theory was evaluated for use in analyzing and synthesizing ACT multiple control laws. The system selected employs three redundant computers to implement all of the ACT functions, four redundant smaller computers to implement the crucial pitch-augmented stability function, and a separate maintenance and display computer. The reliability objective of probability of crucial function failure of less than 1 x 10 to the -9th power per flight of 1 hr can be met with current technology system components, if the software is assumed fault free and coverage approaching 1.0 can be provided. The optimal control theory approach to ACT control law synthesis yielded comparable control law performance much more systematically and directly than the classical s-domain approach. The ACT control law performance, although somewhat degraded by the inclusion of representative nonlinearities, remained quite effective. Certain high-frequency gust-load alleviation functions may require increased surface rate capability.

  16. Current status of accurate prognostic awareness in advanced/terminally ill cancer patients: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen Hsiu; Kuo, Su Ching; Tang, Siew Tzuh

    2017-05-01

    No systematic meta-analysis is available on the prevalence of cancer patients' accurate prognostic awareness and differences in accurate prognostic awareness by publication year, region, assessment method, and service received. To examine the prevalence of advanced/terminal cancer patients' accurate prognostic awareness and differences in accurate prognostic awareness by publication year, region, assessment method, and service received. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were systematically searched on accurate prognostic awareness in adult patients with advanced/terminal cancer (1990-2014). Pooled prevalences were calculated for accurate prognostic awareness by a random-effects model. Differences in weighted estimates of accurate prognostic awareness were compared by meta-regression. In total, 34 articles were retrieved for systematic review and meta-analysis. At best, only about half of advanced/terminal cancer patients accurately understood their prognosis (49.1%; 95% confidence interval: 42.7%-55.5%; range: 5.4%-85.7%). Accurate prognostic awareness was independent of service received and publication year, but highest in Australia, followed by East Asia, North America, and southern Europe and the United Kingdom (67.7%, 60.7%, 52.8%, and 36.0%, respectively; p = 0.019). Accurate prognostic awareness was higher by clinician assessment than by patient report (63.2% vs 44.5%, p cancer patients accurately understood their prognosis, with significant variations by region and assessment method. Healthcare professionals should thoroughly assess advanced/terminal cancer patients' preferences for prognostic information and engage them in prognostic discussion early in the cancer trajectory, thus facilitating their accurate prognostic awareness and the quality of end-of-life care decision-making.

  17. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advances in radiation-hydrodynamics and atomic physics simulation for current and new neutron-less targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Minguez, E.; Bravo, E.

    2003-01-01

    We present advances in advanced fusion cycles, atomic physics and radiation hydrodynamics. With ARWEN code we analyze a target design for ICF based on jet production. ARWEN is 2D Adaptive Mesh Refinement fluid dynamic and multigroup radiation transport. We are designing, by using also ARWEN, a target for laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena. We feature an experimental device to reproduce collisions of two shock waves, scaled to roughly represent cosmic supernova remnants. Opacity calculations are obtained with ANALOP code, which uses parametric potentials fitting to self-consistent potentials. It includes temperature and density effects by linearized Debye-Hueckel and it treats excited configurations and H+He-like lines. Advanced fusion cycles, as the a neutronic proton-boron 11 reaction, require very high ignition temperatures. Plasma conditions for a fusion-burning wave to propagate at such temperatures are rather extreme and complex, because of the overlapping effects of the main energy transport mechanisms. Calculations on the most appropriate ICF regimes for this purpose are presented. (author)

  19. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwai, Takehiko

    1998-07-01

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  20. Measurement of high-Q2 neutral current deep inelastic e-p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e - p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q 2 and x are measured in the kinematic region y 2 > 185GeV 2 for both positively and negatively polarised electron beams and for each polarisation state separately. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 169.9 pb -1 taken with the ZEUS detector in 2005 and 2006 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV. The structure functions xF 3 and xF 3 γZ are determined by combining the e - p results presented in this paper with previously measured e + p neutral current data. The asymmetry parameter A - is used to demonstrate the parity violating effects of electroweak interactions at large spacelike photon virtuality. The measurements agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup -}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup -}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q{sup 2} and x are measured in the kinematic region y < 0.9 and Q{sup 2} > 185GeV{sup 2} for both positively and negatively polarised electron beams and for each polarisation state separately. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 169.9 pb{sup -1} taken with the ZEUS detector in 2005 and 2006 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV. The structure functions xF{sub 3} and xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}}{sup Z} are determined by combining the e{sup -}p results presented in this paper with previously measured e{sup +}p neutral current data. The asymmetry parameter A{sup -} is used to demonstrate the parity violating effects of electroweak interactions at large spacelike photon virtuality. The measurements agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup +}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-08-15

    Measurements of neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross-section {sigma} were measured in the kinematic region Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2} and y<0.9, where Q{sup 2} is the four-momentum transfer squared, x the Bjorken scaling variable, and y the inelasticity of the interaction. The measurements were performed separately for positively and negatively polarised positron beams. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The structure functions F{sub 3} and F{sup {gamma}Z}{sub 3} were determined by combining the e{sup +}p results presented in this paper with previously published e{sup -}p neutral current results. The asymmetry parameter A{sup +} is used to demonstrate the parity violation predicted in electroweak interactions. The measurements are well described by the predictions of the Standard Model.

  3. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics; Max-Planck-Inst., Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 132 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is presented at positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beams. The single-differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The reduced cross-section {sigma} is presented in the kinematic range 200

  4. Measurement of neutral current deep inelastic e{sup +}p scattering cross sections with longitudinally polarized positrons with ZEUS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlasenko, Michal

    2009-05-15

    Measurements of neutral current deep inelastic scattering of protons colliding with longitudinally polarized positrons, performed with data recorded in years 2006 and 2007 with the ZEUS detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L=113.3 pb{sup -1}, are presented. The single-differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx, d{sigma}/dy and the double-differential reduced cross section {sigma} were measured in the kinematic region of 185

  5. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Single Pion Production Cross Section on Water with the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2017-01-26

    The T2K off-axis near detector, ND280, is used to make the first differential cross section measurements of muon neutrino charged current single positive pion production on a water target at energies ${\\sim}0.8$~GeV. The differential measurements are presented as a function of muon and pion kinematics, in the restricted phase-space defined by $p_{\\pi^+}>200$MeV/c, $p_{\\mu^-}>200$MeV/c, $\\cos \\theta_{\\pi^+}>0.3$ and $\\cos \\theta_{\\mu^-}>0.3$. The total flux integrated $\

  6. Status of a Deep Learning Based Measurement of the Inclusive Muon Neutrino Charged-current Cross Section in the NOvA Near Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Biswaranjan [Indian Inst. Tech., Hyderabad

    2017-10-10

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It uses the NuMI beam from Fermilab and two sampling calorimeter detectors placed off-axis from the beam. The 293 ton Near Detector measures the unoscillated neutrino energy spectrum, which can be used to predict the neutrino energy spectrum observed at the 14 kton Far Detector. The Near Detector also provides an excellent opportunity to measure neutrino interaction cross sections with high statistics, which will benefit current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. This analysis implements new algorithms to identify $\

  7. Current use of ultrasound for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries--a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas C Risom; Rimstad, Ivan Jonassen; Tarpgaard, Mona

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was distributed to one anaesthesiologist at every hospital in the Nordic countries; a total of 177 anaesthesiologists were contacted from July till August 2012. RESULTS: The use of US for placing central venous catheters (CVCs) seems......PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) guidance for central vascular access in children has been advocated as a safer approach compared to traditional landmark techniques. We therefore collected data on the current use of US for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries...

  8. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  9. Changes in cross-sectional area of pulmonary vessels on chest computed tomography after chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayama, Masato; Inui, Naoki; Kusagaya, Hideki; Suzuki, Seiichiro; Inoue, Yusuke; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-05-01

    Chemotherapy is associated with a risk of vascular damage. Novel anti-angiogenic agents, which can directly affect tumor angiogenesis, are increasingly being used. However, the effects of these agents on normal vasculature are not well understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of chemotherapy in general, and the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab, more specifically, on the pulmonary vasculature in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For this, we used the cross-sectional area of pulmonary vessels (CSA), which is an easily measurable indicator of small pulmonary vasculature on non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT). We retrospectively reviewed CT scans of the lungs of 75 chemo-naïve patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC, for measurement of CSA, before and after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, using a semi-automatic image-processing program. Measured vessels were classified in two groups: small vessels with CSA area (%CSAsmall-diameter vessels, with a significant decrease in %CSAsmall pulmonary vascular damage. Use of bevacizumab does not enhance the reduction in area of pulmonary vessels.

  10. Paediatric advance care planning survey: a cross-sectional examination of congruence and discordance between adolescents with HIV/AIDS and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Maureen E; Dallas, Ronald H; Garvie, Patricia A; Wilkins, Megan L; Garcia, Ana; Cheng, Yao Iris; Wang, Jichuan

    2017-09-21

    To identify patient-reported paediatric advance care planning (pACP) needs of adolescents living with HIV and to examine the congruence with their family's perception of their needs. A cross-sectional survey among six paediatric hospital-based outpatient HIV specialty clinics. Participants included 48 adolescent/family dyads (n=96 participants) within a larger study facilitating pACP. The main outcome measure was the Lyon Advance Care Planning Survey - Adolescent and Surrogate Versions-Revised. Adolescents' mean age was 18 years (range ≥14-congruence in pACP needs within adolescent/family dyads. There was substantial congruence in that being free from pain (PABAK=0.83), and understanding your treatment choices (PABAK=0.92) were very important or important. There was discordance about being off machines that extend life (PABAK=0.08) and when is the best time to bring up EOL decisions (PABAK=0.32). Areas of discordance were associated with life-sustaining choices and when to have the EOL conversation. Targeted, adolescent/family-centred, evidence-based pACP interventions are needed to improve family understanding of youth's EOL wishes. NCT01289444; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Proceedings of the ninth DAE-BRNS life science symposium on current advances in immunobiology and cancer: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Enormous quantities of food and agricultural produce are spoiled by microbial activity, which is a major challenge to food security today. Besides, contamination of foods by pathogens or their toxins pose serious problems affecting food safety worldwide. Development of cost effective, reliable, and user friendly methods for detection and identification of microbial pathogens has always remained a challenge in microbiology. Microbial research has also aided development of probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals, which are important for health. The objective of symposium was to address and dwell upon the recent advances in some of the above research areas pertaining to microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment. The main themes of the symposium were: Adaptation to Stresses, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Sustainable Agriculture, Food Safety, Food Security and Nutrition, Environmental Microbiology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  13. Current advances in the generation of human iPS cells: implications in cell-based regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Ana; González, Clara; Iriondo, Amaia; Fernández, Bárbara; Prieto, Cristina; Marín, Carlos; Liste, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Over the last few years, the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human somatic cells has proved to be one of the most potentially useful discoveries in regenerative medicine. iPSCs are becoming an invaluable tool to study the pathology of different diseases and for drug screening. However, several limitations still affect the possibility of applying iPS cell-based technology in therapeutic prospects. Most strategies for iPSCs generation are based on gene delivery via retroviral or lentiviral vectors, which integrate into the host's cell genome, causing a remarkable risk of insertional mutagenesis and oncogenic transformation. To avoid such risks, significant advances have been made with non-integrative reprogramming strategies. On the other hand, although many different kinds of somatic cells have been employed to generate iPSCs, there is still no consensus about the ideal type of cell to be reprogrammed. In this review we present the recent advances in the generation of human iPSCs, discussing their advantages and limitations in terms of safety and efficiency. We also present a selection of somatic cell sources, considering their capability to be reprogrammed and tissue accessibility. From a translational medicine perspective, these two topics will provide evidence to elucidate the most suitable combination of reprogramming strategy and cell source to be applied in each human iPSC-based therapy. The wide variety of diseases this technology could treat opens a hopeful future for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  15. A first measurement of the charged current DIS cross sections with longitudinally polarised electrons in the H1 experiment at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunovic, B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on data from electron-proton collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=319 GeV. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA collider in the year 2005 corresponding to two polarisation states: a left-handed electron polarisation of -27% and a right-handed electron polarisation of +37%, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 68.6 pb -1 and 29.6 pb -1 , respectively. The inclusive total deep inelastic charged current cross section and the differential cross sections are measured for both helicities in the kinematic domain Q 2 >400 GeV 2 and y cc 2 has been performed at the H1 experiment for the first time. The measurements are well described by the theoretical expectations based on parton distributions derived from inclusive neutral current measurements in H1, and are in agreement with published data from the ZEUS (e ± p) and CCFR (anti ν μ Fe) experiments. (orig.)

  16. Precision measurement of the cross section of charged-current and neutral current processes at large Q{sup 2} at HERA with the polarized-electron beam; Mesures de precision de la section efficace des processus courant charge et courant neutre a grand Q{sup 2} a HERA avec le faisceau d'electrons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Trong Hieu

    2011-04-15

    The inclusive cross sections for both charged and neutral current processes have been measured in interactions of longitudinally polarized electrons (positrons) with unpolarized protons using the full data samples collected by H1 at HERA-II. The data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 319 GeV correspond to an integrated luminosity of 149.1 pb{sup -1} and 180.0 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p and e{sup +}p collisions, representing an increase in statistics of a factor of 10 and 2, respectively, over the data from HERA-I. The measured double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} cover more than two orders of magnitude in both Q{sup 2}, the negative four-momentum transfer squared, up to 30000 GeV{sup 2}, and Bjorken x, down to 0.003. The cross section data are compared to predictions of the Standard Model which is able to provide a good description of the data. The polarization asymmetry as a function of Q{sup 2} is measured with improved precision, confirming the previous observation of P violation effect in neutral current ep scattering at distances down to 10{sup -18} m. The total cross sections of the charged current process, for Q{sup 2} > 400 GeV{sup 2} and inelasticity y < 0.9 are measured for 4 independent data samples with e{sup {+-}} beams and different polarization values. Together with the corresponding cross section obtained from the previously published unpolarized data, the polarization dependence of the charged current cross section is measured and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction with the absence of right-handed charged current. The cross sections are combined with previously published data from H1 to obtain the most precise unpolarized measurements. These are used to extract the structure function xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}}{sup Z} which is sensitive to the valence quark distributions down to low x values. The new cross sections have also been used in a combined electroweak and QCD fit to significantly improve the

  17. An Improved Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section on Hydrocarbon at MINERnuA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dun

    Neutrino interactions in the detectors of long baseline oscillation experiments are analyzed to determine the neutrino flavor and energy spectrum, allowing the neutrino mass ordering and mixing parameters to be determined. For neutrino interactions below the pion production threshold, the dominant reaction is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering. Oscillation experiments are made of heavy nuclei so the QE process occurs on nucleons that are embedded in the nuclear environment. Predictions of the QE cross-section suffer from significant uncertainties due to our understanding of that nuclear environment and the way it is probed by the weak interaction. I have developed a new technique to reduce the inelastic background to CCQE process by identifying the "Michel electrons" produced by pions. Additionally an updated neutrino flux was used to extract the cross-section and estimates for some sources of systematic uncertainties have been improved. The measured cross-section is compared to several theoretical models and the effect that the signal definition ("CCQE" vs "CCQE-like") has on the measurement is also explored.

  18. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between neuroticism and cognitive ability in advanced old age: the moderating role of severe sensory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Markus; Kuźma, Elżbieta; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Heyl, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Gaining a comprehensive picture of the network of constructs in which cognitive functioning is embedded is crucial across the full lifespan. With respect to personality, previous findings support a relationship between neuroticism and cognitive abilities. However, findings regarding old age are inconsistent. In particular, little is known about potentially moderating variables which might explain some of the inconsistency. Our aim was to examine the moderating effect of severe sensory impairment on cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between neuroticism and cognitive functioning. The study sample consisted of 121 visually impaired (VI), 116 hearing impaired (HI), and 150 sensory unimpaired older adults (UI). Mean age was 82.50 years (SD = 4.71 years). Neuroticism was assessed by the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and multiple established tests were used for the assessment of cognitive performance (e.g., subtests of the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). Bivariate correlations and multi-group structural equation models indicated stronger relationships between cognitive abilities and neuroticism in both sensory impaired groups (VI and HI) compared to UI older individuals. This relationship was attenuated but still significant in both sensory impaired groups when controlling for age, education and health (number of chronic conditions). In cross-lagged panel models, higher baseline neuroticism was significantly associated with lower cognitive performance four years later in VI and HI individuals. Our results suggest that sensory impairment moderates both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between neuroticism and cognitive function in advanced old age.

  19. Current advances in molecular methods for detection of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria in natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Dick, Richard; Lin, Jih-Gaw; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) process uniquely links microbial nitrogen and carbon cycles. Research on n-damo bacteria progresses quickly with experimental evidences through enrichment cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detecting them in various natural ecosystems and engineered systems play a very important role in the discovery of their distribution, abundance, and biodiversity in the ecosystems. Important characteristics of n-damo enrichments were obtained and their key significance in microbial nitrogen and carbon cycles was investigated. The molecular methods currently used in detecting n-damo bacteria were comprehensively reviewed and discussed for their strengths and limitations in applications with a wide range of samples. The pmoA gene-based PCR primers for n-damo bacterial detection were evaluated and, in particular, several incorrectly stated PCR primer nucleotide sequences in the published papers were also pointed out to allow correct applications of the PCR primers in current and future investigations. Furthermore, this review also offers the future perspectives of n-damo bacteria based on current information and methods available for a better acquisition of new knowledge about this group of bacteria.

  20. Current perspectives on the health risks associated with the consumption of advanced glycation end products: recommendations for dietary management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palimeri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Palimeri,* Eleni Palioura,* Evanthia Diamanti-KandarakisEndocrine Unit, Medical School University of Athens, Athens, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs constitute a complex group of compounds produced endogenously during the aging process and under conditions of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. AGEs also have an emerging exogenous origin. Cigarette smoke and diet are the two main exogenous sources of AGEs (glycotoxins. Modern Western diets are rich in AGEs which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several metabolic and degenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of AGEs not only in animal studies but also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. This article reviews the evidence linking dietary glycotoxins to several disorders from diabetic complications and renal failure to liver dysfunction, female reproduction, eye and cognitive disorders as well as cancer. Furthermore, strategies for AGE reduction are discussed with a focus on dietary modification.Keywords: AGEs, dietary glycotoxins, dietary restriction, PCOS, MSR-1, RAGE

  1. Clinical potential of nintedanib for the second-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothschild SI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sacha I Rothschild Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The therapeutic landscape in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is changing. The description of molecular alterations leading to NSCLC carcinogenesis and progression (so-called oncogenic driver mutations and the development of targeted agents interfering with the tumor-promoting intracellular signaling pathways have improved the outcome for many patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC. However, many patients with stage IV NSCLC do not have one of the targetable predictive biomarkers, and are therefore in need of classical chemotherapy. This especially applies to squamous cell cancer. A platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with stage IV NSCLC. As second-line therapies, docetaxel, pemetrexed, and the EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor erlotinib have demonstrated benefit in Phase III randomized trials. Recently, the addition of the angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib to docetaxel has proven efficacious, and is a new treatment option in the second-line setting. Preclinical and clinical data of nintedanib for the treatment of lung cancer patients are reviewed here. Keywords: nintedanib, lung cancer, angiokinase inhibitor, VEGFR, PDGF, FGFR

  2. Relationships between neighbourhood characteristics and current STI status among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women living in the Southern USA: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Kramer, Michael R; Adimora, Adaora A; Haardörfer, Regine; Wingood, Gina M; Ludema, Christina; Rubtsova, Anna; Hickson, DeMarc A; Ross, Zev; Golub, Elizabeth; Bolivar, Hector; Cooper, Hannah Lf

    2017-12-01

    Neighbourhood characteristics (eg, high poverty rates) are associated with STIs among HIV-uninfected women in the USA. However, no multilevel analyses investigating the associations between neighbourhood exposures and STIs have explored these relationships among women living with HIV infection. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine relationships between neighbourhood characteristics and current STI status and (2) investigate whether the magnitudes and directions of these relationships varied by HIV status in a predominantly HIV-infected cohort of women living in the Southern USA. This cross-sectional multilevel analysis tests relationships between census tract characteristics and current STI status using data from 737 women enrolled at the Women's Interagency HIV Study's southern sites (530 HIV-infected and 207 HIV-uninfected women). Administrative data (eg, US Census) described the census tract-level social disorder (eg, violent crime rate) and social disadvantage (eg, alcohol outlet density) where women lived. Participant-level data were gathered via survey. Testing positive for a current STI was defined as a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis or syphilis. Hierarchical generalised linear models were used to determine relationships between tract-level characteristics and current STI status, and to test whether these relationships varied by HIV status. Eleven per cent of participants tested positive for at least one current STI. Greater tract-level social disorder (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.87) and social disadvantage (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.86) were associated with having a current STI. There was no evidence of additive or multiplicative interaction between tract-level characteristics and HIV status. Findings suggest that neighbourhood characteristics may be associated with current STIs among women living in the South, and that relationships do not vary by HIV status. Future research should establish the

  3. Advancing current approaches to disease management evaluation: capitalizing on heterogeneity to understand what works and for whom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissen, Arianne M J; Adams, John L; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Linden, Ariel; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2013-03-14

    Evaluating large-scale disease management interventions implemented in actual health care settings is a complex undertaking for which universally accepted methods do not exist. Fundamental issues, such as a lack of control patients and limited generalizability, hamper the use of the 'gold-standard' randomized controlled trial, while methodological shortcomings restrict the value of observational designs. Advancing methods for disease management evaluation in practice is pivotal to learn more about the impact of population-wide approaches. Methods must account for the presence of heterogeneity in effects, which necessitates a more granular assessment of outcomes. This paper introduces multilevel regression methods as valuable techniques to evaluate 'real-world' disease management approaches in a manner that produces meaningful findings for everyday practice. In a worked example, these methods are applied to retrospectively gathered routine health care data covering a cohort of 105,056 diabetes patients who receive disease management for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands. Multivariable, multilevel regression models are fitted to identify trends in clinical outcomes and correct for differences in characteristics of patients (age, disease duration, health status, diabetes complications, smoking status) and the intervention (measurement frequency and range, length of follow-up). After a median one year follow-up, the Dutch disease management approach was associated with small average improvements in systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein, while a slight deterioration occurred in glycated hemoglobin. Differential findings suggest that patients with poorly controlled diabetes tend to benefit most from disease management in terms of improved clinical measures. Additionally, a greater measurement frequency was associated with better outcomes, while longer length of follow-up was accompanied by less positive results. Despite concerted efforts to adjust

  4. Restored symmetries, quark puzzle, and the Pomeron as a Josephson current. [Clustering effects, quantum supercurrents, cross sections, phase transitions, narrowing gap mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, R V [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1976-07-01

    A special type of symmetry is studied, wherein manifest invariance is restored by direct integration over a set of spontaneously broken ground states. In addition to invariant states and multiplets these symmetry realizations are shown to lead, in general, to clustering effects and quantum supercurrents. A systematic exploration of these symmetry realizations is proposed, mostly in physical situations where it has so far been believed that the only consequences of the symmetry are invariant states and multiplets. An application of these ideas to the quark system yields a possible explanation for the unobservability of free quarks and an interpretation of the Pomeron as a generalized Josephson current. Furthermore, the 'narrowing gap mechanism' suggests an explanation for the behavior of the e/sup +/ e/sup -/ ..-->.. hadrons cross section and a speculation on an approaching phase transition in hadronic production and the observation of free quarks.

  5. Atomic processes, cross sections, and reaction rates necessary for modelling hydrogen-negative-ion sources and identification of optimum H- current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The principal electron excitation cross sections for vibrational excitation in a hydrogen discharge are reported. In the first chamber of a two-chamber hydrogen negative-ion-source system subject to the beam-line constraint of a maximum gas pressure, the density of vibrationally excited molecules reaches an asymptote for increasing discharge current or the equivalent fast electron density. Operating near this first-chamber asymptote, there exists a spatially-dependent maximum negative-ion density in the second chamber. With the extraction grid placed at this maximum the optimum performance of a hydrogen-based system is determined. This optimum performance provides a criterion for the selection of differing source types for fusion applications

  6. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios in neutrino and antineutrino nucleon interactions and determination of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Groot, J.G.H. de; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Knobloch, J.; May, J.; Navarria, F.L.; Palazzi, P.; Para, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rothberg, J.; Schlatter, D.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; Rueden, W. von; Wahl, H.; Wotschak, J.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Klasen, H.P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Lierl, H.; Pollmann, D.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B.; Willutzki, H.J.; Dydak, F.; Flottmann, T.; Geweniger, C.; Hepp, V.; Krolikowski, J.; Tittel, K.; Bloch, P.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Guyot, C.; Loucatos, S.; Maillard, J.; Merlo, J.P.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Turlay, R.; He, J.T.; Ruan, T.Z.; Wu, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The cross section ratios of neutral and charged current interactions induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos in iron have been measured in the 200 GeV narrow-band beam at the CERN SPS. We find Rsub(ν)=0.301+-0.007 and Rsub(anti ν)=0.363+-0.015 for a hadron energy cut of 10 GeV. The results are in agreement with the standard model of electroweak interactions. In the MS renormalization scheme at the scale of the W boson mass sin 2 Osub(w)(msub(w))=0.226+-0.012 is obtained, where the error represents the experimental uncertainty. The theoretical uncertainty is estimated to be Δ sind 2 Osub(w)=+-0.006. (orig.)

  7. Cytopenias among ART-naive patients with advanced HIV disease on enrolment to care and treatment services at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Daniel W; Godfrey, Kahamba G; Kilonzo, Semvua B; Mpondo, Bonaventura C

    2017-03-01

    HIV/AIDS causes high morbidity and mortality through both immunosuppression and complications not directly related to immunosuppression. Haematological abnormalities, including various cytopenias, occur commonly in HIV through immune and non-immune pathways. Though these complications could potentially cause serious clinical implications, published literature on the magnitude of this problem and its associated factors in Tanzania is scarce. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of HIV-associated cytopenias among ART-naive patients enrolling for care and treatment services at Bugando Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study done between March 2015 and February 2016, involving all antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive adult HIV-positive patients enrolling for care and treatment services at Bugando CTC. Patients younger than 18 years and those with missing data were excluded. Data were analysed using Stata version 11 to determine the prevalence and risk factors of cytopenias. A total of 1205 ART-naive patients were included. Median age was 41 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32 to 48). Most participants were female (n = 789; 65.6%), with a female-to-male ratio of 2:1. The median baseline CD4 count was 200 cells/µL (IQR 113 to 439). About half (49%) of the study participants had baseline CD4 counts less than 200 cells/µL. Anaemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia were found in 704 (58.4%), 285 (23.6%), and 174 (14.4%) participants, respectively, and these were strongly associated with advanced HIV infection. The magnitude of cytopenias is high among ART-naive HIV-positive adults, and cytopenias are more marked with advanced HIV infection. Early diagnosis of HIV and timely initiation of ART could potentially reduce the number of people living with advanced HIV disease and its associated complications, including the cytopenias investigated in this study. Patients with cytopenias should

  8. Measurement of the Water to Scintillator Charged-Current Cross-Section Ratio for Muon Neutrinos at the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083872

    2017-10-02

    The T2K experiment is a 295-km long-baseline neutrino experiment which aims at the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters. Precise measurements of these parameters require accurate extrapolation of interaction rates from the near detector, ND280, mainly made of scintillator (hydrocarbon), to Super-Kamiokande, the water Cherenkov far detector. Measurements on water and of the water to hydrocarbon ratio, contribute to eliminate the uncertainties arising from carbon/oxygen differences. The cross section on water is obtained by subtraction of event distributions in two almost identical sub-detectors, one of which is equipped with water-filled modules. The measurement is performed by selecting a muon neutrino charged-current sample, in an exposure of 5.80 × 10^(20) protons on target. The water to hydrocarbon cross-section ratio is extracted for good acceptance kinematic regions (only forward muons with momentum higher than 100 MeV), in bins of reconstructed energy, the very quantity used in T2K oscillatio...

  9. Advances and current state of the security and privacy in electronic health records: survey from a social perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Antonio; de la Torre, Isabel

    2012-10-01

    E-Health systems are experiencing an impulse in these last years, when many medical agencies began to include digital solutions into their platforms. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are one of the most important improvements, being in its most part a patient-oriented tool. To achieve a completely operational EHR platform, security and privacy problems have to be resolved, due to the importance of the data included within these records. But given all the different methods to address security and privacy, they still remain in most cases as an open issue. This paper studies existing and proposed solutions included in different scenarios, in order to offer an overview of the current state in EHR systems. Bibliographic material has been obtained mainly from MEDLINE and SCOPUS sources, and over 30 publications have been analyzed. Many EHR platforms are being developed, but most of them present weaknesses when they are opened to the public. These architectures gain significance when they cover all the requisites related to security and privacy.

  10. Contemporary surgical devices for male stress urinary incontinence: a review of technological advances in current continence surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) remains a debilitating condition that adversely impacts all domains of quality of life and is associated with significant social stigma and health economic burden. The incidence of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPI) depends on the definition of urinary incontinence and the length of patient follow up. In patients with persistent PPI following failure of conservative measures, surgical treatment is recommended although there is no published guideline on when surgery should be performed, and what the best surgical option is. Male slings (MS) can be divided into adjustable or non-adjustable types, and offers an attractive option for patients who wish to avoid mechanical handling during urinary voiding. Published intermediate data supports good safety and efficacy rate in men with mild to moderate degree of SUI. The AMS 800 artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) remains the standard of treatment for complete continence and has the longest efficacy and safety records. Other AUS-like devices are designed to address current AMS 800 limitations but themselves are fraught with their own issues.

  11. Factors associated with recent intimate partner violence experience amongst currently married women in Afghanistan and health impacts of IPV: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Corboz, Julienne; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-05-03

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is exceedingly common in conflict and post-conflict settings. We first seek to describe factors associated with past 12 month IPV amongst currently married women in Afghanistan, focused on the factors typically assumed to drive IPV. Second, to describe whether IPV is independently associated with a range of health outcomes. Cross-sectional analysis of currently married Afghan women, comprising the baseline study of a trial to prevent IPV. We use multinomial regression, reporting adjusted relative-risk ratios to model factors associated with the different forms of IPV, comparing no IPV, emotional IPV only, and physical IPV and emotional IPV. Second we assessed whether experience of emotional IPV, and physical IPV, were independently associated with health outcomes, reporting adjusted ß coefficients and adjusted odds ratios as appropriate. Nine hundred thirty five currently married women were recruited, 11.8% experienced only emotional IPV and 23.1% experienced physical and emotional IPV. Emotional IPV only was associated with attending a women's group, greater food insecurity, her husband having more than one wife, experiencing other forms of family violence, and more inequitable community gender norms. Experiencing both physical IPV and emotional IPV was associated with attending a women's group, more childhood trauma, husband cruelty, her husband having more than one wife, experiencing other forms of family violence, more inequitable community gender norms, and greater reported disability. Emotional IPV and physical IPV were independently associated with worse health outcomes. IPV remains common in Afghanistan. Economic interventions for women alone are unlikely to prevent IPV and potentially may increase IPV. Economic interventions need to also work with husbands and families, and work to transform community level gender norms. NCT03236948 . Registered 28 July 2017, retrospectively registered.

  12. Current and past smoking patterns in a Central European urban population: a cross-sectional study in a high-burden country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narine K. Movsisyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the socioeconomic variations in smoking and quitting rates across the European region; however, data from Central and East European countries, where the tobacco burden is especially high, are sparse. This study aimed to assess the patterns in current and past smoking prevalence based on cross-sectional data from a Central European urban population sample. Methods Data from 2160 respondents aged 25–64 years in Brno, Czech Republic were collected in 2013–2014 using the Czech post-MONICA survey questionnaire to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking status. The age- and sex-stratified randomized sample was drawn using health insurance registries. Descriptive statistics and quit ratios were calculated, and chi-square and multivariate logistic analyses conducted to examine relationships between current and past smoking and demographic (age, gender, marital status and socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupation. Results The prevalence of current and past smoking was 23.6 and 31.3 % among men and 20.5 and 23.2 % among women, respectively. Education reliably predicted smoking and quitting rates in both genders. Among men, being unemployed was associated with greater odds of smoking (OR 3.6; 1.6–8.1 and lower likelihood of quitting (OR 0.2: 0.1–0.6; the likelihood of quitting also increased with age (OR 1.8; 1.2–2.8. Among women, marital status (being married decreased the odds of current smoking (OR 0.6; 0.4–0.9 and increased the odds of quitting (OR 2.2; 1.2–3.9. Quit ratios were the lowest in the youngest age group (25–34 years where quitting was more strongly associated with middle income (OR 2.7; 95 % CI 1.2–5.9 than with higher education (OR 2.9; 95 % CI 0.9–8.2. Conclusions Interventions to increase cessation rates and reduce smoking prevalence need to be gender-specific and carefully tailored to the needs of the disadvantaged groups

  13. Factors influencing the health-related quality of life of Chinese advanced cancer patients and their spousal caregivers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-08-02

    Cancer and its treatment have a major impact on the lives of patients and their intimate partners, such as on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aims of this study are to: (i) assess the HRQOL of advanced cancer patients and spousal caregivers, and explore the relationship between the HRQOL of cancer patients and that of their spousal caregivers; (ii) detect factors influencing the HRQOL of cancer patients and spousal caregivers; and (iii) explore the impact of anxiety and depression on the HRQOL of couples. A total of 131 couples where one of the partners was hospitalized for advanced cancer were invited to complete a survey to assess their demographic and background information, HRQOL, and anxiety and depression. HRQOL was measured using the SF-12, while anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Data were analyzed using a T-test, Pearson correlations, multiple linear regressions, and structural equation modeling. In general, the spousal caregivers had higher levels of HRQOL (seven out of eight SF-12 domains and two SF-12 dimensions) p = 0.038-0.000, anxiety (p = 0.002), and depression (p = 0.011) than patients. Correlations of HRQOL between patients and spouses were small to moderate (r = 0.193-0.398). Multiple independent factors influencing the physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), vitality (VT), and role emotional (RE) sections of the SF-12 were identified, including: gender, time since diagnosis, levels of education, working status, the extent to which spousal caregivers were informed about the disease, improved marital relationship after the diagnosis of cancer, and anxiety and depression. For both patients and spousal caregivers, the strongest independent factor influencing HRQOL (SF-12 PCS, MCS, VT, and RE) was anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression may have both actor and partner effects on the HRQOL of couples to various degrees. The findings of

  14. Supportive care needs and psychological distress and/or quality of life in ambulatory advanced colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Okuyama, Toru; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Yosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Sugano, Koji; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2017-12-01

    Although currently many advanced colorectal cancer patients continuously receive chemotherapy, there are very few findings with regard to the supportive care needs of such patients. The purposes of this study were to investigate the patients' perceived needs and the association with psychological distress and/or quality of life, and to clarify the characteristics of patients with a high degree of unmet needs. Ambulatory colorectal cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy were asked to complete the Short-Form Supportive Care Needs Survey questionnaire, which covers five domains of need (health system and information, psychological, physical, care and support, and sexuality needs), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Complete data were available for 100 patients. Almost all of the top 10 most common unmet needs belonged to the psychological domain. The patients' total needs were significantly associated with both psychological distress (r = 0.65, P quality of life (r = -0.38, P patients' needs and psychological distress and/or quality of life suggest that interventions that respond to patients' needs may be one possible strategy for ameliorating psychological distress and enhancing quality of life. Female patients' needs should be evaluated more carefully. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Current status of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infection among children in two primary schools in North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewos, Biniam; Alemu, Abebe; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Alemu, Agersew; Addis, Zelalem; Tiruneh, Moges; Aimero, Mulugeta; Kassu, Afework

    2014-02-10

    School age children are one of the groups at high risk for intestinal parasitic infections especially in developing countries like Ethiopia as the supply of good quality drinking water and latrine coverage are poor. Though there are previous data on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma mansoni infection among these high risk groups current status in the study area is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs and S. mansoni infections among school children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gorgora and Chuahit towns, North Gondar Zone, North West Ethiopia from January 20 to February 25, 2012 involving 261 school children. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using Kato Katz method. Chi-square test was used to see if there is association between sociodemographic factors and other risk factors for STH and S. mansoni infection and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed as measures of association. P intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolates (39.8%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.1%) and Hookworms (4.9%). Schistosoma mansoni was detected in 33.7% of the children. Among infected individuals, 9.5% were coinfected by S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides and 1.5% with S. mansoni and T. trichiura. Swimming habit (OR: 2.536, 95% CI: 1.122, 5.737, P = 0.022) was significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni was high among school children. This should call for implementation of an integrated strategy to reduce morbidity and control of transmission of STH and S. mansoni.

  16. Development of inherent technologies for advanced PWR core - A study on the current status and the construction feasibility of critical facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik; Yang, Hyun Seok [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea); Kim, Chang Hyo; Shim, Hyung Jin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the appropriateness of constructing critical facilities in our country and to decide a course of constructing them if necessary by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. We investigated the status and the utilization of foreign critical facilities through literature survey and personal visitation. In our judgement, critical facilities are necessary for developing the advanced reactors and fuels which are being studied as parts of the Nuclear R and D Program by MOST. Considering the construction cost and the current state of domestic economy, however, it is unjustifiable to build three different types of critical facilities (the light water, the heavy water, and the fast critical facility). It appears to be reasonable to build a light water critical, considering the construction cost, degree of utilization, and other constraints. (author). 89 refs., 134 figs., 64 tabs.

  17. Producing explicit UPSILON flavor in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at DORIS energies. [neutral currents, cross section, signature, 15 to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genz, H [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik; Gorn, M [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-07-31

    If the neutral currents changing the flavor implicit in the UPSILON(9.5) are not suppressed, vector mesons with explicit UPSILON flavor should be produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at up to two e/sup +/e/sup -/ energies between ..sqrt..s approximately 5 - 6.5 GeV with a cross section sigma (peak, averaged over 7 MeV beam resolution) approximately 0.25% of sigma(e/sup +/e/sup -/..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/). The signature would be monochromatic ..gamma.. lines with Esub(..gamma..)approximately 50-150 MeV, probably together with K production. Explicit flavor of a (anti QQ)sub(V) at 30 GeV would be produced at ..sqrt..s approximately 15-16 and ..sqrt..s approximately 20 GeV with sigmasup(averaged)sub(peak) approximately 3% and 5% of sigmasub(..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/) with GAMMAsub(beam) = 27 and 48 MeV, respectively. The signature would be the same as above.

  18. Current Capabilities at SNL for the Integration of Small Modular Reactors onto Smart Microgrids Using Sandia's Smart Microgrid Technology High Performance Computing and Advanced Manufacturing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Smart grids are a crucial component for enabling the nation’s future energy needs, as part of a modernization effort led by the Department of Energy. Smart grids and smart microgrids are being considered in niche applications, and as part of a comprehensive energy strategy to help manage the nation’s growing energy demands, for critical infrastructures, military installations, small rural communities, and large populations with limited water supplies. As part of a far-reaching strategic initiative, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) presents herein a unique, three-pronged approach to integrate small modular reactors (SMRs) into microgrids, with the goal of providing economically-competitive, reliable, and secure energy to meet the nation’s needs. SNL’s triad methodology involves an innovative blend of smart microgrid technology, high performance computing (HPC), and advanced manufacturing (AM). In this report, Sandia’s current capabilities in those areas are summarized, as well as paths forward that will enable DOE to achieve its energy goals. In the area of smart grid/microgrid technology, Sandia’s current computational capabilities can model the entire grid, including temporal aspects and cyber security issues. Our tools include system development, integration, testing and evaluation, monitoring, and sustainment.

  19. Current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene in a developed residential community of Singapore: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang

    2015-06-21

    Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted within a residential area in the west of Singapore from June to August 2013. A total of 1,156 household units were randomly sampled and invited to participate in an interviewer-assisted survey using standardised questionnaires. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test and multivariate logistic regression modelling, respectively. R program was used for all statistical analysis. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported where applicable. A total of 240 units (20.8%) consented and responded to the survey invitation. About 77% of the expected knowledge and attitude were observed in at least 80% of the participants, compared to only about 31% of the expected behaviours and practises. Being single [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.16-4.48], having flu in the past six month (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.74-6.06), preferred self-medication (AOR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) were risk factors of diarrhoea. Washing hands with water before attending to children or sick persons (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.82), washing hands with water (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.05-0.45) and water with soap (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) after attending to children or sick persons, and hand washing between 30 s to a minute (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.90) were protective factors against diarrhoea. Good knowledge and attitude of the

  20. Determinants of unmet need for family planning among currently married women in Dangila town administration, Awi Zone, Amhara regional state; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Ewnetu; Abeje, Gedefaw; Ejigu, Tadese

    2015-05-13

    Unmet need for family planning is a major problem of developing countries. Evidences about unmet need for family planning and associated factors are not enough in Dangila town. Therefore, this study was done to assess the magnitude and determinants of unmet need for family planning among currently married women in Dangila town. Community based cross sectional study design was used to collect data from a total of 551 currently married women from February to March 2014. Data were collected using pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire after written consent was obtained from respondents. Collected data were edited, coded, and entered to SPSS version 16.0. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to identify determinants of unmet need for family planning. This study revealed that 17.4 % of married women had unmet need for family planning. In this study, women who were housewife/farmers were about 7 [OR = 6.81 (1.91-24.29)] times more likely to have unmet need compared to employed women. Women who were not counseled about family planning by health workers [OR = 6.76 (3.17-14.42)], women whose partner had non-supportive attitude for family planning use [OR = 3.34 (1.26-8.90)] and rural women [OR = 17.65 (4.35-71.67)] were also more likely to have unmet need for family planning. About 33 %, 32 %, 23.5 % and 11.8 % of women mentioned less perceived risk of pregnancy due to breast feeding, fear of side effects, partner opposition and religious prohibition respectively as reasons for not using contraceptives at the time of interview. The level of unmet need for family planning in the study area is still high compared to the target set (10 %) in the national family planning guide plan of Ethiopia to be achieved by the end of 2015. Therefore, it is important to strengthen counseling and partner involvement in Dangila town to reduce unmet need for family planning.

  1. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  2. Identifying current training provision and future training needs in allergy available for UK general practice trainees: national cross-sectional survey of General Practitioner Specialist Training programme directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jayne; Rafi, Imran; Smith, Helen; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-03-01

    There are ongoing concerns about the quality of care provision for allergy in primary care. To identify current training provision in allergy to GP trainees and to understand how this could be enhanced. A cross-sectional survey of GP Speciality Training (GPST) programme directors was undertaken. Programme directors of the 174 GPST schemes were sent an online questionnaire which was informed by the content of the Royal College of General Practitioners curriculum. Quantitative data were descriptively analysed and a thematic analysis was undertaken of free text responses. We obtained responses from 146 directors representing 106 training programmes. Responses indicated that two-thirds (62%, 95% CI 53.1 to 71.5) of programmes were providing at least some allergy training, with the remaining third stating that they either provided no training or were unsure. Overall, one-third (33%, 95% CI 22.7 to 42.2) of programme directors believed that all the relevant allergy-related curriculum requirements were being met. Where provided, this training was believed to be best for organ-specific allergic disorders but was thought to be poorer for systemic allergic disorders, particularly food allergy where 67% (95% CI 57.5 to 76.5) of respondents indicated that training was poor. There was considerable interest in increasing the allergy training provided, preferably through eLearning modules and problem-based learning materials supported by those with relevant specialist knowledge. This UK-wide survey has identified important gaps in the training of GP trainees in relation to allergy care. Addressing these gaps, particularly in the management of systemic allergic disorders, should help to improve delivery of primary care-based allergy care.

  3. Determinants of completion of advance directives: a cross-sectional comparison of 649 outpatients from private practices versus 2158 outpatients from a university clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirstinger, Jochen; Bleyer, Bernhard; Blum, Christian; Rechenmacher, Michael; Wiese, Christoph H; Gruber, Hans

    2017-12-21

    To compare outpatients from private practices and outpatients from a university clinic regarding the determinants of completion of advance directives (AD) in order to generalise results of studies from one setting to the other. Five determinants of completion of AD were studied: familiarity with AD, source of information about AD, prior experiences with own life-threatening diseases or family members in need of care and motives in favour and against completion of AD. Observational cross-sectional study. Private practices and a university clinic in Germany in 2012. 649 outpatients from private practices and 2158 outpatients from 10 departments of a university clinic. Completion of AD, familiarity with AD, sources of information about AD (consultation), prior experiences (with own life-threatening disease and family members in need of care), motives in favour of or against completion of AD, sociodemographic data. Determinants of completion of AD did not differ between outpatients from private practices versus university clinic outpatients. Prior experience with severe disease led to a significantly higher rate of completion of AD (33%/36% with vs 24%/24% without prior experience). Participants with completion of AD had more often received legal than medical consultation before completion, but participants without completion of AD are rather aiming for medical consultation. The motives in favour of or against completion of AD indicated inconsistent patterns. Determinants of completion of AD are comparable in outpatients from private practices and outpatients from a university clinic. Generalisations from university clinic samples towards a broader context thus seem to be legitimate. Only one-third of patients with prior experience with own life-threatening diseases or family members in need of care had completed an AD as expression of their autonomous volition. The participants' motives for or against completion of AD indicate that ADs are considered a kind of

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of Current Smoking and Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Han and Tujia Nationalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    Objectives: This study examined the patterns and determinants of current smoking and intention to smoke among secondary school students of Han and Tujia nationalities in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions, namely, Chongqing, Liaocheng, and Tianjin, of China in 2015. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the total subjects ( n = 1805), 78.9% were ethnic Han and 21.1% were ethnic Tujia. Overall 9.4% (Han: 7.7%; Tujia: 15.5%) secondary school students were smokers and 37.28% smoked more than once per day. Of the non-smoker students ( n = 1636), 17.4% have an intention to smoke. A total of 81.1% of students reportedly had never been taught throughout school about smoking or tobacco prevention. When compared to the students who were taught in the school about smoking or tobacco prevention (18.90%) students who were never taught were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.14-5.01). As compared to Han nationality students who were from Tujia nationality were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.88-4.04) and were more likely to have a higher frequency of smoking (95% CI (0.88, 0.88), p = 0.010). Non-smokers who were high school students (OR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.12-8.66), whose academic performance were situated in the last 25% (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.48-3.34) and lower than 50% (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02-2.20) were more likely to have an intention of smoking. Conclusions: About one in ten secondary school students was a smoker, one in three smokers smoked more than one time per day, and a quarter of non-smokers had an intention of smoking in China. Smoking rate was higher among students from Tujia than the Han nationality. This study provided some important information for future tobacco control programs among secondary school students in the ethnic minority autonomous region and minority settlements in a multi-ethnic country.

  5. Critical review of the current and future challenges associated with advanced in vitro systems towards the study of nanoparticle (secondary) genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen J; Clift, Martin J D; Singh, Neenu; de Oliveira Mallia, Jefferson; Burgum, Michael; Wills, John W; Wilkinson, Thomas S; Jenkins, Gareth J S; Doak, Shareen H

    2017-01-01

    With the need to understand the potential biological impact of the plethora of nanoparticles (NPs) being manufactured for a wide range of potential human applications, due to their inevitable human exposure, research activities in the field of NP toxicology has grown exponentially over the last decade. Whilst such increased research efforts have elucidated an increasingly significant knowledge base pertaining to the potential human health hazard posed by NPs, understanding regarding the possibility for NPs to elicit genotoxicity is limited. In vivo models are unable to adequately discriminate between the specific modes of action associated with the onset of genotoxicity. Additionally, in line with the recent European directives, there is an inherent need to move away from invasive animal testing strategies. Thus, in vitro systems are an important tool for expanding our mechanistic insight into NP genotoxicity. Yet uncertainty remains concerning their validity and specificity for this purpose due to the unique challenges presented when correlating NP behaviour in vitro and in vivo This review therefore highlights the current state of the art in advanced in vitro systems and their specific advantages and disadvantages from a NP genotoxicity testing perspective. Key indicators will be given related to how these systems might be used or improved to enhance understanding of NP genotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society.

  6. Profile of chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorders in newly diagnosed advanced predialysis diabetic kidney disease patients: A hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S; Beatrice, A M; Ghosh, A; Pramanik, S; Bhattacharjee, R; Ghosh, S; Raychaudhury, A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Chowdhury, S

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been poorly studied in pre-dialysis Indian CKD population. There are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in diabetic CKD patients. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out the profile of mineral bone disorders in T2DM patients with pre-dialysis CKD. In this cross-sectional design, diabetic patients with newly-diagnosed stage 4 and 5 CKD were evaluated. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 72 eligible patients participated (44 males, 28 females; age 54.2±11.7). Patients with CKD Stage 5 had a lower level of corrected serum calcium and significantly higher level of inorganic phosphorus, total ALP and iPTH as compared to stage 4 patients. Overall, 38.5% were hypocalcemic, 31.43% were hyperphosphatemic. 24.2% of CKD subjects were vitamin D deficient (110pg/ml) was detected in nearly 43% of patients. In stage 5, only 32% patients was found to have hyperparathyroidism (iPTH>300pg/ml). There was a good correlation between iPTH and total ALP (r=0.5, p=0.0001) in this cohort. 25 (OH) vitamin D was inversely correlated with ALP (r=-0.39, P=0.001) and showed negative correlation with urine ACR (r=-0.37, P=0.002). As a group, the osteoporotic CKD subjects exhibited higher iPTH (220.1±153.8 vs. 119±108pg/ml, p<0.05) as compared to those who were osteopenic or had normal bone density. There was significant correlation between BMD and iPTH (adjusted r=-0.436; P=0.001). In the multivariate regression model, we found intact PTH to predict BMD even after adjustment of all the confounders. The current study showed that adynamic bone disease is prevalent even in pre-dialysis CKD population. High bone turnover disease may not be the most prevalent type in diabetic CKD. However, it

  7. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  8. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  9. Dysfunctions of decision-making and cognitive control as transdiagnostic mechanisms of mental disorders: advances, gaps, and needs in current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantageous decision-making and impaired volitional control over actions, thoughts, and emotions are characteristics of a wide range of mental disorders such as addiction, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders and may reflect transdiagnostic core mechanisms and possibly vulnerability factors. Elucidating the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms is a precondition for moving from symptom-based to mechanism-based disorder classifications and ultimately mechanism-targeted interventions. However, despite substantial advances in basic research on decision-making and cognitive control, there are still profound gaps in our current understanding of dysfunctions of these processes in mental disorders. Central unresolved questions are: (i) to which degree such dysfunctions reflect transdiagnostic mechanisms or disorder-specific patterns of impairment; (ii) how phenotypical features of mental disorders relate to dysfunctional control parameter settings and aberrant interactions between large-scale brain systems involved in habit and reward-based learning, performance monitoring, emotion regulation, and cognitive control; (iii) whether cognitive control impairments are consequences or antecedent vulnerability factors of mental disorders; (iv) whether they reflect generalized competence impairments or context-specific performance failures; (v) whether not only impaired but also chronic over-control contributes to mental disorders. In the light of these gaps, needs for future research are: (i) an increased focus on basic cognitive-affective mechanisms underlying decision and control dysfunctions across disorders; (ii) longitudinal-prospective studies systematically incorporating theory-driven behavioural tasks and neuroimaging protocols to assess decision-making and control dysfunctions and aberrant interactions between underlying large-scale brain systems; (iii) use of latent-variable models of cognitive control rather than single tasks; (iv) increased focus on

  10. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S.; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  11. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  12. Advanced Approaches to Greatly Reduce Hydrogen Gas Crossover Losses in PEM Electrolyzers Operating at High Pressures and Low Current Densities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ElectroChem proposes technology advances in its unique PEM IFF water electrolyzer design to meet the NASA requirement for an electrolyzer that will operate very...

  13. Current Implementation of and Opinions and Concerns Regarding Suicide Education for Social Work Undergraduate Students in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Manami; Hikitsuchi, Emi; Takai, Michiko; Okada, Sumie; Watanabe, Yasue; Fukushima, Kiyoko; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Takeshima, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the current implementation status of and opinions and concerns regarding suicide education at schools of social work in Japan. We conducted a survey of faculty members who taught at least one of the social work subjects. About half the respondents had given a lecture of some kind on suicide, and more than 80% agreed that…

  14. Experimental Section: On the magnetic field distribution generated by a dipolar current source situated in a realistically shaped compartment model of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.W.H.; Bosch, F.G.C.; Peters, M.J.; Lopes da silva, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution around the head is simulated using a realistically shaped compartment model of the head. The model is based on magnetic resonance images. The 3 compartments describe the brain, the skull and the scalp. The source is represented by a current dipole situated in the

  15. A measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and final state interaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Tammy [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-current quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.

  16. Detecting Intracranial Hemorrhage Using Automatic Tube Current Modulation With Advanced Modeled Iterative Reconstruction in Unenhanced Head Single- and Dual-Energy Dual-Source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Wichmann, Julian L; Bennett, Dennis W; Leithner, Doris; Bauer, Ralf W; Vogl, Thomas J; Bodelle, Boris

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine diagnostic accuracy, image quality, and radiation dose of low-dose single- and dual-energy unenhanced third-generation dual-source head CT for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 123 patients with suspected ICH were examined using a dual-source 192-MDCT scanner. Standard-dose 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT; n = 36) and 80-kVp and 150-kVp dual-energy CT (DECT; n = 30) images were compared with low-dose SECT (n = 32) and DECT (n = 25) images obtained using automated tube current modulation (ATCM). Advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) was used for all protocols. Detection of ICH was performed by three readers who were blinded to the image acquisition parameters of each image series. Image quality was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa. Radiation dose was measured as dose-length product (DLP). Detection of ICH was excellent (sensitivity, 94.9-100%; specificity, 94.7-100%) in all protocols (p = 1.00) with perfect interobserver agreement (0.83-0.96). Qualitative ratings showed significantly better ratings for both standard-dose protocols regarding gray matter-to-white matter contrast (p ≤ 0.014), whereas highest gray matter-to-white matter contrast-to-noise ratio was observed with low-dose DECT images (p ≥ 0.057). The lowest posterior fossa artifact index was measured for standard-dose DECT, which showed significantly lower values compared with low-dose protocols (p ≤ 0.034). Delineation of ventricular margins and sharpness of subarachnoidal spaces were rated excellent in all protocols (p ≥ 0.096). Low-dose techniques lowered radiation dose by 26% for SECT images (DLP, 575.0 ± 72.3 mGy · cm vs 771.5 ± 146.8 mGy · cm; p dual-source CT while allowing significant radiation dose reduction.

  17. ANSL-V: ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor studies. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.Q.; Renier, J.P.; Bucholz, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The original ANSL-V cross-section libraries (ORNL-6618) were developed over a period of several years for the physics analysis of the ANS reactor, with little thought toward including the materials commonly needed for shielding applications. Materials commonly used for shielding applications include calcium barium, sulfur, phosphorous, and bismuth. These materials, as well as {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, and the naturally occurring isotopes of hafnium, have been added to the ANSL-V libraries. The gamma-ray production and gamma-ray interaction cross sections were completely regenerated for the ANSL-V 99n/44g library which did not exist previously. The MALOCS module was used to collapse the 99n/44g coupled library to the 39n/44g broad- group library. COMET was used to renormalize the two-dimensional (2- D) neutron matrix sums to agree with the one-dimensional (1-D) averaged values. The FRESH module was used to adjust the thermal scattering matrices on the 99n/44g and 39n/44g ANSL-V libraries. PERFUME was used to correct the original XLACS Legendre polynomial fits to produce acceptable distributions. The final ANSL-V 99n/44g and 39n/44g cross-section libraries were both checked by running RADE. The AIM module was used to convert the master cross-section libraries from binary coded decimal to binary format (or vice versa).

  18. Current child, but not maternal, snoring is bi-directionally related to adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers: A cross-sectional and a prospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Olivia M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2017-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), typically manifested as snoring, is closely associated with obesity. However, the directionality of associations of OSA with cardiometabolic risk markers is unclear, as obesity increases risk for OSA, and OSA results in excess weight gain and its metabolic consequences. Less is known about how obesity and OSA may relate in children and adolescents and whether maternal OSA may influence the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Among 1078 children from the Project Viva cohort, we examined cross-sectionally and prospectively associations of parent-reported child or maternal snoring with cardiometabolic outcomes, including adiposity, adipokines, and insulin resistance. Cross-sectionally, child snoring was related to adiposity and metabolic risk, particularly body mass index (BMI; β 0.61kg/m 2 , 95% CI 0.33, 0.89; pchild snoring at the early teen visit (~12y) after correction for covariates. Child snoring at ~9y was related to changes in adiposity between mid-childhood and early teen visits. Child but not maternal snoring, was related to child adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes. Adiposity and child snoring are associated with each other cross-sectionally and are each predictive of the other among children/adolescents prospectively. These results suggest similar mechanisms in pediatric/adolescent populations as in adults for the development of sleep-disordered breathing and sleep apnea that will need to be confirmed in randomized clinical trials. Importantly, this research points to the need to target both sleep and obesity in order to break this vicious cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current State of Dental Education: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J

    2017-08-01

    This executive summary for Section 1 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides a composite picture of information from 12 background articles on the current state of dental education in the United States. The summary includes the following topics: the current status of the dental curriculum, the implications of student debt and dental school finances, the expansion of enrollment, student diversity, pre- and postdoctoral education, safety net status of dental school clinics, and trends in faculty.

  20. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  1. Advance Health Care Directives and “Public Guardian”: The Italian Supreme Court Requests the Status of Current and Not Future Inability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advance health care decisions animate an intense debate in several European countries, which started more than 20 years ago in the USA and led to the adoption of different rules, based on the diverse legal, sociocultural and philosophical traditions of each society. In Italy, the controversial issue of advance directives and end of life’s rights, in the absence of a clear and comprehensive legislation, has been over time a subject of interest of the Supreme Court. Since 2004 a law introduced the “Public Guardian,” aiming to provide an instrument of assistance to the person lacking in autonomy because of an illness or incapacity. Recently, this critical issue has once again been brought to the interest of the Supreme Court, which passed a judgment trying to clarify the legislative application of the appointment of the Guardian in the field of advance directives.

  2. Total cross sections for nu$_{mu}$ and n$\\overline{u}_{mu}$ charged-current interactions between 20 and 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bosetti, Peter C; Fritze, P; Grässler, Herbert; Hasert, F J; Schulte, R; Böckmann, Klaus; Kokott, T P; Nellen, B; Wünsch, B; Cundy, Donald C; Grant, A; Hulth, P O; Klein, H; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Pagiola, E; Pape, L; Peyrou, Charles; Scott, W G; Wachsmuth, H W; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Barnham, Keith W J; Butterworth, Ian; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Miller, D B; Mobayyen, M; Penfold, C; Petrides, A; Powell, K J; Albajar, C; Perkins, Donald Hill; Radojicic, D; Saitta, B; Bolognese, T; Tallini, Bruno; Velasco, J; Vignaud, D

    1982-01-01

    Exposures of the Ne/H/sub 2/ filled Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) to a dichromatic neutrino (antineutrino) beam produced by 400 GeV protons of the CERN SPS yielded approximately 3100 events with a negative, and approximately 1100 with a positive, muon. The neutrino flux is determined from the muon flux in the shielding. Assuming a linear energy dependence of the cross section, the values sigma /E between 20 and 200 GeV are found to be 0.657+or-0.012 (stat.)+or-0.027 (syst.) and 0.309+or-0.009 (stat.)+or-0.013 (syst.) cm/sup 2/ (GeV nucleon)/sup -1/, for neutrinos and antineutrinos, respectively. The scaling variable q/sup 2//E decreases significantly with increasing energy both for neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  3. Total cross sections ν μ and ḡn μcharged-current interactions between 20 and 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, P.; Deden, H.; Fritze, P.; Grässler, H.; Hasert, F. J.; Schulte, R.; Böckmann, K.; Kokott, Th.; Nellen, B.; Wünsch, B.; Cundy, D. C.; Grant, A.; Hulth, P. O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Pagiola, E.; Pape, L.; Peyrou, Ch.; Scott, W. G.; Wachsmuth, H.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Butterworth, I.; Iaselli, G.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M.; Penfold, C.; Petrides, A.; Powell, K. J.; Albajar, C.; Perkins, D. H.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Bolognese, T.; Tallini, B.; Velasco, J.; Vignaud, D.; Aachen-Bonn-Cern-Demokritos-London-Oxford-Saclay Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    Exposures of the Ne/H 2 filled Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) to a dichromatic neutrino (antineutrino) beam produced by 400 GeV protons of the CERN SPS yielded ∼ 3100 events with a negative, and ∼ 1100 with a positive, muon. The neutrino flux is determined from the muon flux in the shielding. Assuming a linear energy dependence of the cross section, the values {σ}/{E} between 20 and 200 GeV are found to be 0.657 ± 0.012 (stat.) ± 0.027 (syst.) and 0.309 ± 0.009 (stat.) ± 0.013 (syst.) cm 2 (GeV nucleon) -1, for neutrinos and antineutrinos, respectively. The scaling variable {q 2}/{E} decreases significantly with increasing energy both for neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  4. Current advances in mechanical design and production VII: proceedings of the Seventh Cairo University International MDP Conference ; Cairo-Egypt, February 15-17, 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Megahed, Säıd M; Hassan, Mohamed F

    2000-01-01

    ... with keynote papers to enrich the sessions and to highlight the recent advances on the various fields of mechanical design and production. A total of 160 papers were submitted to MDP-7 conference from more than 21 countries from the 6 continents. All papers were thoroughly refereed by the conference scientific committee. Following the reviewing proces...

  5. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives A mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijmen, M.P.S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Methods: Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n= 5768). A purposive sample of people

  6. Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts : An overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Douwe J.; Van de Water, Tara; Lutgers, Helen L.; Graaff, Reindert; Gans, Rijk O.; Zijlstra, Felix; Smit, Andries J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGES) predict long-term complications in age-related diseases. However, there are no clinically applicable markers for measuring AGES in vivo. Methods: We have recently introduced the AGE-Reader (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands) to

  7. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ + ) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ + to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH 2 ) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV ν + events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ + and CCQE measurements.

  8. Single photon emission in electron-positron colliding beam reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/. -->. u/sup +/u/sup -/. [Total cross section, current conservation, hard-proton correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, M [Saitama Medical College (Japan)

    1974-01-01

    We evaluate the energy spectrum of the photons emitted in the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/..gamma.., and the hard photon correction to the total cross-section of the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/. We develop a simple technique based on the analytical QED formulae, in particular, on the current conservation.

  9. Intention to stay of nurses in current posts in difficult-to-staff areas of Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Murray, Susan F; Dimassi, Hani; Jamal, Diana; Abualrub, Raeda; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Clinton, Michael; Dumit, Nuhad Y

    2013-11-01

    The nursing workforce shortages in difficult-to-staff areas have implications not only for quality of care but also for population health outcomes. An understanding of attrition and of retention is important to inform policies on the nursing workforce. This paper draws on questionnaire survey data from nurses working in difficult-to-staff areas in four countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar). It aims to identify the specific and common factors associated with nurses' intention to stay in their current post for the coming 1-3 years in three countries with an internally trained nursing workforce and in a fourth where the workforce is externally recruited. Nurses working in 'difficult to staff' areas in Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar were surveyed. A conceptual model composed of 6 dimensions based on that of the World Health Organization was constructed with 'intent to stay' (Career Decisions) as the main outcome. Regression models were constructed for each of the dimensions in the conceptual model with 'intent to stay' as the dependent variable for each of the study countries. Subsequently, a collective model that combined Lebanon, Jordan and Yemen was constructed to identify common factors that are associated with intent to stay. Factors associated with intent to stay differed for study countries. Marriage was positively associated with intent to stay in Lebanon and Jordan whereas years of experience were positively significant for Lebanon and Yemen. Shorter commuting time was significantly associated with intent to stay in Jordan whereas a preference for village life was significant for Lebanon. Job satisfaction was significantly associated with intent to stay in all study countries. Nurses in Lebanon, Jordan and Qatar who indicated that they would choose nursing if they had the opportunity to choose a career all over again were significantly more likely to intend to stay in their current post. Studies of nurses working in

  10. Association between environmental factors and current asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province--Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Soto, María Teresa; Patiño, Armando; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2013-11-05

    In recent years, the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in childhood has considerably increased in developing countries including Bolivia, possibly due to changes in lifestyle, environmental and domestic factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors and asthma, rhinoconjuctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2340 children attending the fifth grade in 36 randomly selected elementary schools in Oropeza province. The prevalence of symptoms was determined using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Environmental factors were assessed by the ISAAC environmental questionnaire including questions related to exposure to pets, farm animals, indoor and outdoor pollution, presence of disease vectors at home and precarious household conditions. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were adjusted for age, sex and place of living. Thirty seven percent of children reported that at least one of their parents smoked at home. Wood or coal was used as cooking fuel in 19% of the homes and 29% reported intense truck traffic on the street where they lived. With respect to hygiene conditions, 86% reported exposure to dogs, 59% exposure to cats and 36% regular contact to farm animals. More than one precarious household condition was reported by 8% of children. In the adjusted model exposure to dog (adjusted OR 1.4; CI 95% 1.0-1.9), cat (1.2; 1.0-1.5), farm animals (1.5; 1.2-1.8); intense truck traffic (1.3; 1.0-1.6), parents smoking at home (1.2; 1.0-1.5), presence of disease vectors at home (fourth quartile vs. first quartile: 1.6; 1.2-2.3) and two or more precarious household conditions (1.5; 1.0-2.2) were significantly associated with rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. The associations were similar for asthma and eczema symptoms; however it did not reach the level of statistical

  11. Patterns of dignity-related distress at the end of life: a cross-sectional study of patients with advanced cancer and care home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sue; Davies, Joanna M; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene J

    2014-10-01

    To provide effective palliative care in different settings, it is important to understand and identify the sources of dignity-related distress experienced by people nearing the end of life. To describe and compare the sources of dignity-related distress reported by cancer patients and care home residents. Secondary analysis of merged data. Participants completed the Patient Dignity Inventory (assessing 25 sources of dignity-related distress) and measures of quality of life and depression. A total of 45 adult patients with advanced cancer referred to hospital-based palliative care teams in London, United Kingdom, and 60 residents living in one of 15 care homes in London. Care home residents were older and had poorer functioning. Both groups reported a wide range of dignity-related problems. Although the number or problems reported on the Patient Dignity Inventory was similar for the two groups (mean (standard deviation): 5.9 (5.5) for cancer patients and 4.1 (4.3) for care home residents, p = 0.07), there was a tendency for more cancer patients to report some existential problems. Experiencing physically distressing symptoms and functional limitations were prevalent problems for both groups. Patient Dignity Inventory problems were associated with poorer performance status and functioning for residents, with age and cognitive impairment for cancer patients and with poorer quality of life and depression for both groups. Although characteristics of the samples differed, similarities in the dignity-related problems reported by cancer patients and care home residents support research suggesting a common pathway towards death for malignant and non-malignant disease. A wider understanding of the sources of dignity-related distress would help clinicians provide more effective end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Warnke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small

  13. Predicting Medical Students’ Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students’ perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students’ attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance

  14. Predicting Medical Students' Current Attitudes Toward Psychiatry, Interest in Psychiatry, and Estimated Likelihood of Working in Psychiatry: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Ingeborg; Gamma, Alex; Buadze, Maria; Schleifer, Roman; Canela, Carlos; Strebel, Bernd; Tényi, Tamás; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas; Liebrenz, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatry as a medical discipline is becoming increasingly important due to the high and increasing worldwide burden associated with mental disorders. Surprisingly, however, there is a lack of young academics choosing psychiatry as a career. Previous evidence on medical students' perspectives is abundant but has methodological shortcomings. Therefore, by attempting to avoid previous shortcomings, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the predictors of the following three outcome variables: current medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry, interest in psychiatry, and estimated likelihood of working in psychiatry. The sample consisted of N  = 1,356 medical students at 45 medical schools in Germany and Austria as well as regions of Switzerland and Hungary with a German language curriculum. We used snowball sampling via Facebook with a link to an online questionnaire as recruitment procedure. Snowball sampling is based on referrals made among people. This questionnaire included a German version of the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry Scale (ATP-30-G) and further variables related to outcomes and potential predictors in terms of sociodemography (e.g., gender) or medical training (e.g., curriculum-related experience with psychiatry). Data were analyzed by linear mixed models and further regression models. On average, students had a positive attitude to and high general interest in, but low professional preference for, psychiatry. A neutral attitude to psychiatry was partly related to the discipline itself, psychiatrists, or psychiatric patients. Female gender and previous experience with psychiatry, particularly curriculum-related and personal experience, were important predictors of all outcomes. Students in the first years of medical training were more interested in pursuing psychiatry as a career. Furthermore, the country of the medical school was related to the outcomes. However, statistical models explained only a small proportion of variance. The

  15. Study of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders in newly detected advanced renal failure patients: A Hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Etta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the disturbances in mineral metabolism, abnormalities in bone mineral density (BMD, and extraskeletal calcification in newly detected, untreated predialysis stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD patients at a tertiary care hospital in North India. This is cross-sectional observational study. A total of 95 (68 males, 27 females newly detected patients underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical assessment [serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD], BMD measurement (at spine, hip, and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, lateral abdominal radiograph [for abdominal aortic calcification (AAC], skeletal survey (to look for any abnormality including fractures, and echocardiography [for any cardiac valvular calcification (CVC]. Symptoms related to CKD-mineral bone disorder were seen in 33.6% of the study patients. Prevalence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and hypovitaminosis D was 64.2%, 81.1%, 49.5%, and 89.5%, respectively. CVC was seen in 22.1% of patients on echocardiography, mostly involving the mitral valve. Patients with CVC were more likely to be males and smokers. There was no significant difference in iPTH levels between patients with or without CVC. AAC was seen in 10.5% of patients on lateral abdominal X-ray. Patients with AAC had higher levels of iPTH, phosphorus, and ALP and lower levels of calcium compared to patients without AAC. BMD by DXA showed a low bone mass in 41.05% of our patients and was more prevalent in CKD stage 5. Most of the study patients had hyperparathyroidism and low 25(OHD levels. Our study shows that newly detected, naïve Indian CKD patients have a high prevalence of disturbances of mineral metabolism including hyperparathyroidism, Vitamin D deficiency, abnormal BMD, and valvular and vascular calcification, even before initiating dialysis.

  16. Advances in outcomes measurement in rehabilitation medicine: current initiatives from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Cella, David

    2011-10-01

    The articles in this supplement present recent advances in the measurement of patient-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes. Specifically, these articles highlight the combined efforts of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Center on Medical Rehabilitation Research, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service to improve HRQOL measurement. In addition, this supplement is intended to provide rehabilitation professionals with information about these efforts and the implications that these advances in outcomes measurement have for rehabilitation medicine and clinical practice. These new measurement scales use state-of-the-art method techniques, including item response theory and computerized adaptive testing. In addition, scale development involves both qualitative and quantitative methods, as well as the administration of items to hundreds or even thousands of research participants. The scales deliberately have been built with overlap of items between scales so that linkages and equivalency scores can be computed. Ultimately, these scales should facilitate direct comparison of outcomes instruments across studies and will serve as standard data elements across research trials without compromising the specificity of disease- or condition-targeted measures. This supplement includes the initial publications for many of these new measurement initiatives, each of which provides researchers and clinicians with better tools for evaluation of the efficacy of their interventions. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-10-31

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies.

  18. Radiation effects on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of advanced p-n junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyai, A.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.; Hayama, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Ohyama, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of 20 MeV proton irradiation on the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of different geometry n + -p-well junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation and processed in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. From I-V characteristics, a higher current damage coefficient was found for the bulk than for the peripheral component. The radiation-induced boron de-activation resulted in a lowering of the p-well doping, which has been derived from high-frequency C-V measurements. This was confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis, revealing the presence of interstitial boron related radiation defects. As will be demonstrated for the bulk leakage-current damage coefficient, the electric field enhanced generation rate of charge carriers and the radiation-induced boron de-activation should be accounted for properly

  19. Treatment options in HR⁺/HER2⁻ advanced breast cancer patients pretreated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors: what does current evidence tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Placido, Sabino; Pronzato, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Many postmenopausal women with advanced or metastatic breast cancer (BC) receive nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs). Virtually all of them experience progression, but may still gain benefit from a different endocrine or targeted agent. We indirectly compare the results of trials on endocrine or targeted treatment in HR(+)/HER2(-) mBC patients who progressed after a prior NSAI therapy. Although with the limitations of any indirect comparison, evidence suggests that only the combination of everolimus and exemestane is associated with a prolonged progression-free survival and a more evident clinical benefit than its comparators. We speculate that prior NSAI therapy can 'per se' individuate patients eligible to everolimus. More robust data from head-to-head trials will provide more grounded evidence on this issue.

  20. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth after a C-section, called a VBAC ) Emergency C-Sections Some C-sections are unexpected emergency ... side to nurse or using the clutch (or football) hold can take the pressure off your abdomen. ...

  1. Experience gained in the current LWR that influence the design and operation of the LWR advanced from the viewpoint of safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, J.; Corisco, M.; Riverola, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the construction of the first light water reactors (LWR) safety analysis has played a very important role in the operation and its evolution to come up with designs that are currently operating. With new tools available, this role will see increased allowing more efficient operation with security assessments in real time, and a more efficient designs both in terms of fuel efficiency and from the security of the plant during operation.

  2. Preliminary inter-model comparison of the Agulhas current with direct range doppler velocity estimates from Envisat's Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Backeberg, Bjorn C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available in this study. areas of interest, such as the thermocline and bottom boundary layers. The terrain following coordinates avoid spurious effects associated with discontinuous (step-wise) representation of bathymetry. The ROMS....6 weaker than observed from ASAR. Furthermore, ROMS seems to be superior over HYCOM at representing the topographic stearing effect of the Agulhas Current, especially in the southern region. An assessment of the vertical structure...

  3. The evolving role of radiosurgery in the management of radiation-induced meningiomas: a review of current advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Badhiwala, Jetan; Mansouri, Sheila; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-01-01

    Meningiomas are among the most common primary adult brain tumors, which arise either spontaneously or secondary to environmental factors such as ionizing radiation. The latter are referred to as radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs) which, while much less common than their spontaneous counterparts, are challenging from a management point of view. Similar to spontaneous meningiomas, the optimal management of RIMs is complete surgical resection. However, given their high grade, multiplicity, tendency to invade bone and venous sinuses, and high recurrence rate, this cannot always be accomplished safely. Therefore, other therapeutic modalities, such as stereotactic radiosurgery, have emerged. In the current review, we provide an overview of the historical outcomes achieved for RIMs through radiosurgery and microsurgical resection. Furthermore, we provide a discussion of clinical and radiological parameters that affect the decision-making process with regard to the management of RIMs. We also provide an outline of recent changes in our understanding of RIMs, based on molecular and genetic markers, and how these will change our management perspective. We conclude the review by summarizing some of the current obstacles in the management of RIMs with SRS and how current and future research can address these challenges.

  4. The Evolving Role of Radiosurgery in the Management of Radiation-Induced Meningiomas: A Review of Current Advances and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mansouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are among the most common primary adult brain tumors, which arise either spontaneously or secondary to environmental factors such as ionizing radiation. The latter are referred to as radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs which, while much less common than their spontaneous counterparts, are challenging from a management point of view. Similar to spontaneous meningiomas, the optimal management of RIMs is complete surgical resection. However, given their high grade, multiplicity, tendency to invade bone and venous sinuses, and high recurrence rate, this cannot always be accomplished safely. Therefore, other therapeutic modalities, such as stereotactic radiosurgery, have emerged. In the current review, we provide an overview of the historical outcomes achieved for RIMs through radiosurgery and microsurgical resection. Furthermore, we provide a discussion of clinical and radiological parameters that affect the decision-making process with regard to the management of RIMs. We also provide an outline of recent changes in our understanding of RIMs, based on molecular and genetic markers, and how these will change our management perspective. We conclude the review by summarizing some of the current obstacles in the management of RIMs with SRS and how current and future research can address these challenges.

  5. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives: a mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijmen, Matthijs P S; Pasman, H Roeline W; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-06-01

    What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n=5768). A purposive sample of people suffering from an illness was selected from the cohort for an in-depth interview (n=29). About half of our population had no direct motivation to draft their AD. Most mentioned motivation for the other half was an illness of a family member or friend. Many different and specific aims for drafting an AD were mentioned. An often mentioned more general aim in people with different ADs was to prevent unnecessary lengthening of life or treatment (14-16%). Most respondents communicated about having an AD with close-ones (63-88%) and with their GP (65-79%). In the interviews people gave vivid examples of experiences of what they hoped to prevent at the end of life. Some mentioned difficulties foreseeing the future and gave examples of response shift. ADs can give directions to caregivers about what people want at the end of life. ADs have to be discussed in detail by their owners and caregivers, since owners often have specific aims with their AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in paediatrics in 2016: current practices and challenges in allergy, autoimmune diseases, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Di Mauro, Dora; Mastrorilli, Carla; Montella, Silvia; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2017-09-16

    This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated. New diagnostic tools are available for ascertaining brucellosis, celiac disease and viral infections. The usefulness of aCGH as first-tier test is confirmed in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel information have been provided on the safety of milk for infants. Recent advances in the treatment of common disorders, including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, hypo-glycemia in newborns, atopic dermatitis, constipation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, regurgitation, short stature, secretions in children with cerebral palsy have been reported. Antipyretics treatment has been updated by national guidelines and studies have excluded side effects (e.g. asthma risk during acetaminophen therapy). Vaccinations are a painful event and several options are reported to prevent this pain. Adverse effects due to metabolic abnormalities are reported for second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  7. Enhancing intracellular taxane delivery: current role and perspectives of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Valentina; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Conte, Pierfranco

    2012-02-01

    Docetaxel and paclitaxel are among the most active agents for the treatment of breast cancer. These first-generation taxanes are extremely hydrophobic; therefore, solvents are needed for its parenteral administration. Albumin nanoparticle technology allows for the transportation of such hydrophobic drugs without the need of potentially toxic solvents. Nab-paclitaxel can be administered without premedication, in a shorter infusion time and without the need for a special infusion set. Moreover, this technology allows the selective delivery of larger amounts of anticancer drug to tumors, by exploiting endogenous albumin pathways. An overview of the albumin nanoparticle technology, from a clinical perspective, is reported in this paper. The preclinical and clinical development of nab-paclitaxel is reviewed, in the context of available therapies for advanced breast cancer, with a focus on safety data. Preclinical and clinical data on the prognostic and predictive role of SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) are also reported. Nab-paclitaxel is approved at present for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, after the failure of first-line standard therapy, when anthracyclines are not indicated. Efficacy and safety data, along with a more convenient administration, confirm the potential for nab-paclitaxel to become a reference taxane in breast cancer treatment.

  8. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Steven K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ+) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ+ to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH2) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < Eν < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ+ events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ+ and CCQE measurements.

  9. Advances in the study of current-use non-PBDE brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the environment and humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the high production volume,currently in use,and not regulated non-polybrominated diphenyl ether(PBDE) flame retardants,such as tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA) ,hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) and dechlorane plus(DP),and the alternative flame retardants of PBDE,such as BTBPE and DBDPE,in the environment has attracted increasing attention and aroused concern due to the increasing regulation and phasing-out of PBDEs.This paper reviews the distribution,bioaccumulation,human exposure and environmental behavior of those non-PBDE flame retardants in various environmental compartments.The data gaps and needs for future research are discussed.

  10. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  12. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  13. Non-small cell lung cancer: current status of chemoradiation for locally advanced disease and an update on susceptibility and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byhardt, Roger W.

    1996-01-01

    Locally advanced, inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) afflicts 40,000 patients yearly. The traditional treatment has been radiation therapy (RT) alone with 5 year survival rates averaging around 5%. Recent reports of randomized clinical trials using combined radiochemotherapy suggest significant improvement in survival compared to RT alone. These trials are difficult to evaluate because of differences in dose, timing and sequencing of both the chemotherapy (CT) and the RT. Dr. Byhardt will give an overview of the significant chemoradiation trials, especially with respect to the factors associated with reduction of local failure and distant metastasis. Dr. Tishler will review the biologic rationale of these regimens and make some prognostications about the potential role of new chemotherapy agents, new developments in RT dose-time-fractionation, and new RT technology in future radiochemotherapy trials. While progress continues to be made using the more traditional cancer treatment modalities, investigations in NSCLC epidemiology and prevention are providing new insights regarding susceptibility, etiology, failure risk stratification, and potential avenues of therapeutic intervention. Dr. Spitz will discuss NSCLC as a paradigm of an environmentally induced disease in which host susceptibility may be determined by genetically determined modulation of environmental exposures. A mutagen sensitivity assay can determine individuals at high risk for developing NSCLC if exposed to carcinogens such as those in cigarette smoke. This susceptibility may have prognostic implications that could influence choice of therapy. Highly susceptible individuals can also be selected for special counseling, smoking cessation, with consideration given to chemoprevention. Dr. Gritz will review major work done in this area

  14. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  15. Advancement of the Eddy Current Testing using neural network technique. Development of 3-D finite element analysis sytem of elctro-magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takayuki; Soneda, Naoki

    1994-01-01

    In PWR plants, an automatic recognition system of Eddy Current Testing (ECT) signals of steam generator tubes are strongly required to reduce inspectors' labor and to improve the reliability of the testing. Although the neural-network technique is very promising for this kind of system, it is necessary to evaluate its applicability to ECT signals throughly, where a database of the relationship of the defects and ECT signals plays a very important role. In this paper, a three dimensional finite element analysis system of electromagnetic field, which consists of an FEM code and pre/post processor, is developed to generate a database of ECT signals. T-Ω method and the edge element are employed in the FEM code to reduce the required computer memory. The code is verified through some comparisons with experiments and other calculations. (author)

  16. Fiscal 1998 research report. Current state survey for promoting the field test project for introduction of advanced industrial furnaces; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo ni okeru jigyo sokushin no tame no jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Survey was made on the current state of installation and operation of industrial furnaces mainly in manufacturers to predict the applicability of advanced industrial furnaces, and study was made on energy consumption trends, the energy saving effect of advanced industrial furnaces, and factor extraction for their applicability. In the survey, questionnaires were delivered to 4,597 offices extracted from domestic 50,780 offices with employees more than 30, and nearly 30% of them were recovered, covering nearly 2.6% of all the offices concerned with this survey. As the survey result, the total annual energy consumption of domestic manufacturers was estimated to be 740,949 x 10{sup 6}Mcal, and among it, 709,709 x 10{sup 6}Mcal for large industrial furnaces. Under the assumption that nearly 30% of large industrial furnaces in operation are replaced with advanced industrial furnaces, energy saving expectation is estimated to be 210,000 x 10{sup 6}Mcal. Opinions and demands for this project showed the difficulty in their application to industrial furnaces in operation and study on their effects. Further enlightenment activities are necessary. (NEDO)

  17. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  18. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  19. Advances in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  20. Advances in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mastorakis, Nikos E

    2009-01-01

    Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.

  1. 28 CFR 104.22 - Advance Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance Benefits. 104.22 Section 104.22... Filing for Compensation; Application for Advance Benefits § 104.22 Advance Benefits. (a) Advance Benefits. Eligible Claimants may apply for immediate “Advance Benefits” in a fixed amount as follows: (1) $50,000 for...

  2. Venezuelan Counseling: Advancement and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, George Davy

    2011-01-01

    In the worldwide community it is not well known that counseling and guidance professional practices have a long tradition in Venezuela. Therefore, this contribution's main purpose is to inform the international audience about past and contemporary counseling in Venezuela. Geographic, demographic, and cultural facts about Venezuela are provided.…

  3. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies--once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors achieves several recycling objectives; fast nuclear reactors achieve all of them

  4. Current situation of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) in Chinese patients older than 40 years with airflow limitation: rationale and design for a multicenter, cross-sectional trial (study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yao, Wanzhen; Cai, Baiqiang; Chen, Ping; Ling, Xia; Shang, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the frequently occurring chronic airway diseases, and the overlapping syndrome observed in the majority of patients has been recently defined as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung (GOLD, 2014) and Global initiative for Asthma (GINA, 2015). The proportion, features, and clinical practice of ACOS still remain elusive in China. We are conducting this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study (NCT02600221) to investigate the distributions of chronic obstructive diseases in patients >40 years of age with chronic airflow limitation in China along with determination of the main clinical practice and features of these diseases. The study will also explore the factors that may influence the exacerbations and severity of ACOS in Chinese patients (>40 years of age). A total of 2,000 patients (age, ≥40 years; either sex) who are clinically diagnosed as having asthma, COPD/chronic bronchitis/emphysema, or ACOS for at least 12 months with airflow limitation [post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC): current situation, main clinical practice, and features of ACOS, asthma, and COPD conditions in Chinese patients. The insights will be helpful in designing optimal management strategies for ACOS and redefining the healthcare development programs.

  5. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Double-Differential Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Like Cross Section on a Hydrocarbon Target at Ev ~ 3.5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi Paolo [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2016-01-01

    The MINERvA Experiment (Main Injector Experiment v ₋ A interaction) [1] is a highly segmented detector of neutrinos, able to record events with high precision (over than thirteen million event in a four year run), using the NuMI Beam (Neutrino Main Injector) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory [2]. This thesis presents a measurement of the Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Like1 vμ interaction on polystyrene scintillator (CH) in the MINERvA experiment with neutrino energies between 1.5 and 10 GeV. We use data taken between2 March 2010 and April 2012. The interactions were selected by requiring a negative muon, a reconstructed and identified proton, no michel electrons in the final state (in order to get rid of soft pions decaying) and a low calorimetric recoil energy away from the interaction vertex. The analysis is performed on 66,214 quasi-elastic like event candidates in the detectors tracker region with an estimated purity of 74%. The final measurement reported is a double differential cross sections in terms of the muon longitudinal and transversal momentum observables.

  6. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due t...

  7. Japan's advanced medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  8. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980–2000). Methods A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Findings Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = −.198, t = −2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. Conclusions These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their

  9. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana B

    2013-10-23

    The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980-2000). A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = -.198, t = -2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their relationship, which is not fully explained by linear

  10. Education of advanced practice nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Misener, Ruth; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Harbman, Patricia; Donald, Faith; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Carter, Nancy; Kilpatrick, Kelley; DiCenso, Alba

    2010-12-01

    In Canada, education programs for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) roles began 40 years ago. NP programs are offered in almost all provinces. Education for the CNS role has occurred through graduate nursing programs generically defined as providing preparation for advanced nursing practice. For this paper, we drew on pertinent sections of a scoping review of the literature and key informant interviews conducted for a decision support synthesis on advanced practice nursing to describe the following: (1) history of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (2) current status of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (3) curriculum issues, (4) interprofessional education, (5) resources for education and (6) continuing education. Although national frameworks defining advanced nursing practice and NP competencies provide some direction for education programs, Canada does not have countrywide standards of education for either the NP or CNS role. Inconsistency in the educational requirements for primary healthcare NPs continues to cause significant problems and interferes with inter-jurisdictional licensing portability. For both CNSs and NPs, there can be a mismatch between a generalized education and specialized practice. The value of interprofessional education in facilitating effective teamwork is emphasized. Recommendations for future directions for advanced practice nursing education are offered.

  11. Are current UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) obesity risk guidelines useful? Cross-sectional associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large, representative English population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Faiza; Batty, G David

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently released obesity guidelines for health risk. For the first time in the UK, we estimate the utility of these guidelines by relating them to the established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Health Survey for England (HSE) 2006, a population-based cross-sectional study in England was used with a sample size of 7225 men and women aged ≥35 years (age range: 35-97 years). The following CVD risk factor outcomes were used: hypertension, diabetes, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and Framingham risk score. Four NICE categories of obesity were created based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC): no risk (up to normal BMI and low/high WC); increased risk (normal BMI & very high WC, or obese & low WC); high risk (overweight & very high WC, or obese & high WC); and very high risk (obese I & very high WC or obese II/III with any levels of WC. Men and women in the very high risk category had the highest odds ratios (OR) of having unfavourable CVD risk factors compared to those in the no risk category. For example, the OR of having hypertension for those in the very high risk category of the NICE obesity groupings was 2.57 (95% confidence interval 2.06 to 3.21) in men, and 2.15 (1.75 to 2.64) in women. Moreover, a dose-response association between the adiposity groups and most of the CVD risk factors was observed except total cholesterol in men and low HDL in women. Similar results were apparent when the Framingham risk score was the outcome of interest. In conclusion, the current NICE definitions of obesity show utility for a range of CVD risk factors and CVD risk in both men and women.

  12. Advanced fuels campaign 2013 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hamelin, Doug [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  13. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.) [pt

  14. 7 CFR 1485.18 - Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operates MAP and EIP/MAP on a reimbursable basis. CCC will not advance funds to an EIP/MAP participant or... generic activity budget. However, CCC will not make any advance to an MAP participant where an advance is... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advances. 1485.18 Section 1485.18 Agriculture...

  15. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra-advanced processing system. Sections 1 and 2; Chosentan kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    The ultra-advanced processing system is intended to develop an ultra-advanced processing device technology and an ultra-advanced processing technology. These technologies are indispensable to create such new processing technologies as ultra-precision and ultra-micro processing, and ultra high-grade surface modification processing, which have been impossible by the processing technologies having been available to date. It is also intended to develop a measuring and evaluating technology to support the above technologies. The intended system makes it possible to produce 21st century electronic components and ultra-high grade environment resistant materials. In order to achieve these goals, research and development has been performed on the excited beam technologies such as large output excimer laser and high-density ion beams, the ultra-precision machining device technology, the ultra-advanced processing technology using the above technologies, and the measuring and evaluating technology to assure the reliability of these technologies as the fundamental technologies. This project has begun in fiscal 1986, where fiscal 1987 has achieved development of component technologies related to the large output excimer laser and high-density ion beams, the ultra-precision machining device technology, the ultra-advanced processing technology using the above technologies, and the measuring and evaluating technology, and completed the device technology, having achieved the final target. (NEDO)

  16. Evaluation of robotically controlled advanced endoscopic instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak

    Background Advanced flexible endoscopes and instruments with multiple degrees of freedom enable physicians to perform challenging procedures such as the removal of large sections of mucosal tissue. However, these advanced endoscopes are difficult to control and require several physicians to

  17. Chemoradiation for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: Potential for Improving Results to Match Those of Current Treatment Modalities for Early-Stage Tumors-Long-Term Results of Hyperfractionated Chemoradiation With Carbogen Breathing and Anemia Correction With Erythropoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Alfonso; Martinez, Jose Carlos; Serdio, Jose Luis de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To attempt to improve results of chemoradiation for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: From March 1996 to April 2007, 98 patients with head and neck cancer (15 Stage III and 83 Stage IV) were treated with a twice-daily hyperfractionated schedule. Eleven patients presented with N0, 11 with N1, 13 with N2A, 17 with N2B, 24 with N2C, and 22 with N3. Each fraction of treatment consisted of 5 mg/m 2 of carboplatin plus 115 cGy with carbogen breathing. Treatment was given 5 days per week up to total doses of 350 mg/m 2 of carboplatin plus 8050 cGy in 7 weeks. Anemia was corrected with erythropoietin. Results: Ninety-six patients tolerated the treatment as scheduled. All patients tolerated the planned radiation dose. Local toxicity remained at the level expected with irradiation alone. Chemotherapy toxicity was moderate. Ninety-seven complete responses were achieved. After 11 years of follow-up (median, 81 months), actuarial locoregional control, cause-specific survival, overall survival, and nodal control rates at 5 and 10 years were, respectively, 83% and 83%, 68% and 68%, 57% and 55%, and 100% and 100%. Median follow-up of disease-free survivors was 80 months. No significant differences in survival were observed between the different subsites or between the pretreatment node status groups (N0 vs. N+, N0 vs. N1, N0 vs. N2A, N0 vs. N2B, N0 vs. N2C, and N0 vs. N3). Conclusions: Improving results of chemoradiation for advanced head and neck cancer up to the level obtained with current treatments for early-stage tumors is a potentially reachable goal

  18. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction is a complete reference text composed of the most thorough collection of topics on the ACL and its surgical reconstruction compiled, with contributions from some of the world's experts and most experienced ACL surgeons. Various procedures mentioned throughout the text are also demonstrated in an accompanying video CD-ROM. PURPOSE Composing a single, comprehensive and complete information source on ACL including basic sciences, clinical issues, latest concepts and surgical techniques, from evaluation to outcome, from history to future, editors and contributors have targeted to keep the audience pace with the latest concepts and techniques for the evaluation and the treatment of ACL injuries. FEATURES The text is composed of 27 chapters in 6 sections. The first section is mostly about basic sciences, also history of the ACL, imaging, clinical approach to adolescent and pediatric patients are subjected. In the second section, Graft Choices and Arthroscopy Portals for ACL Reconstruction are mentioned. The third section is about the technique and the outcome of the single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The fourth chapter includes the techniques and outcome of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In the fifth chapter revision, navigation technology, rehabilitation and the evaluation of the outcome of ACL reconstruction is subjected. The sixth/the last chapter is about the future advances to reach: What We Have Learned and the Future of ACL Reconstruction. AUDIENCE Orthopedic residents, sports traumatology and knee surgery fellows, orthopedic surgeons, also scientists in basic sciences or clinicians who are studying or planning a research on ACL forms the audience group of this book. ASSESSMENT This is the latest, the most complete and comprehensive textbook of ACL reconstruction produced by the editorial work up of two pioneer and masters "Freddie H. Fu MD and Steven B. Cohen MD" with the contribution of world

  19. GHRSST L3C global sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-A) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  20. GHRSST L3C global sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-B) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  1. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  2. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  3. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  4. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  5. Advanced tokamak physics in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Bray, B.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Gohil, P.; Greenfield, C.M.; Hsieh, C.-L.; Hyatt, A.W.; La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Pinsker, R.I.; Prater, R.; Scoville, J.T.; Staebler, G.M.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.; West, W.P. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States); Wade, M.R.; Lazarus, E.A.; Murakami, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Jayakumar, R.; Lasnier, C.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Rice, B.W.; Wolf, N.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Austin, M.E. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelov, I.; Johnson, L.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Wong, K.-L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Garofalo, A.M.; Navratil, G.A. [Columbia University, New York (United States); Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kinsey, J.E. [Leheigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); McKee, G.R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rettig, C.L.; Rhodes, T.L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Advanced tokamaks seek to achieve a high bootstrap current fraction without sacrificing fusion power density or fusion gain. Good progress has been made towards the DIII-D research goal of demonstrating a high-{beta} advanced tokamak plasma in steady state with a relaxed, fully non-inductive current profile and a bootstrap current fraction greater than 50%. The limiting factors for transport, stability, and current profile control in advanced operating modes are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. U.S. Department Of Energy's nuclear engineering education research: highlights of recent and current research-II. 2. Advanced Finite Element Discretizations for High-Energy Ion Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleicher, Frederick; Prinja, Anil K.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient multigroup model that accurately describes electronic energy loss straggling was recently presented for use in multigroup Monte Carlo and deterministic high-energy ion transport codes. The model preserves the mean energy loss per path length, using the continuous slowing down (CSD) approximation, and mean-squared energy loss per path length, using strictly down-scatter multigroup cross sections, and accurately captures the energy spectrum of an initially monoenergetic ion beam. However, the dominant CSD energy loss process coupled with the small (but non-negligible) straggling poses a significant challenge for deterministic numerical solution when incident beams are monoenergetic or have discontinuous energy spectra. Such spectra broaden very slowly with depth into the target material, and thus, the interior distributions display sharpness and discontinuities. Advanced space-energy discretization methods are consequently necessary to achieve numerical robustness. In this paper, we investigate finite element solutions to this problem using two general families of discontinuous trial functions, one linear and the other nonlinear. The two families have been numerically tested, and we show results for 1.7-GeV protons incident on a tungsten target. For benchmarking purposes, we have also performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Figure 1 displays the spatially converged energy spectrum with 200 groups after the beam has penetrated two-thirds of the ion range (85 cm). We contrast results from linear (LD), bilinear (BLD), and quadratic (QD) discontinuous trail functions against those from exponential-linear (LE), exponential-bilinear (BLE), and exponential-quadratic (QE) discontinuous trail functions. It is clear that the linear and bilinear results from both families are grossly inaccurate, both showing unacceptably high numerical straggling when compared against the MC results. The nonlinear results are everywhere positive while the linear schemes display

  7. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  8. Advances in chemical physics advances in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya; Vij, Jagdish K

    2009-01-01

    Prigogine and Rice's highly acclaimed series, Advances in Chemical Physics, provides a forum for critical, authoritative reviews of current topics in every area of chemical physics. Edited by J.K. Vij, this volume focuses on recent advances in liquid crystals with significant, up-to-date chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers in the field.

  9. Advanced Containment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  10. The current state of forests in the lower reaches of the Vah section Sala - Nove Mesto nad Vahom; Sucasny stav lesov dolneho toku Vahu v useku Sala - Nove Mesto nad Vahom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamova, A [Slovenska akademia vied, Ustav krajinnej ekologie, P.O.Box 254, 81499 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2009-04-22

    Area of interest lies in the central part of the Danube plain and extends along both sides of the river Vah. Naturally occurring habitats close to small-scale, and are considerable anthropicly contingent either directly (forestry) or indirectly (modified water regime). The contribution gives phyto-sociological characteristics of forests in the lower reaches of the Vah section Sala - Nove Mesto nad Vahom. We drew up the 21 phyto-sociological entries characterizing forest vegetation, which we classified into two associations Salici-Populetum, Fraxino Ulmetum-and community-Crataegus monogyna Populus nigra.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Advanced Near Net Shape Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) project is to radically improve near net shape manufacturing methods from the current...

  12. Advanced reactor experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri, A.; Papin, J.; Uhle, J.; Vitanza, C.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the NEA has been examining advanced reactor issues and disseminating information of use to regulators, designers and researchers on safety issues and research needed. Following the recommendation of participants at an NEA workshop, a Task Group on Advanced Reactor Experimental Facilities (TAREF) was initiated with the aim of providing an overview of facilities suitable for carrying out the safety research considered necessary for gas-cooled reactors (GCRs) and sodium fast reactors (SFRs), with other reactor systems possibly being considered in a subsequent phase. The TAREF was thus created in 2008 with the following participating countries: Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea and the United States. In a second stage, India provided valuable information on its experimental facilities related to SFR safety research. The study method adopted entailed first identifying high-priority safety issues that require research and then categorizing the available facilities in terms of their ability to address the safety issues. For each of the technical areas, the task members agreed on a set of safety issues requiring research and established a ranking with regard to safety relevance (high, medium, low) and the status of knowledge based on the following scale relative to full knowledge: high (100%-75%), medium (75 - 25%) and low (25-0%). Only the issues identified as being of high safety relevance and for which the state of knowledge is low or medium were included in the discussion, as these issues would likely warrant further study. For each of the safety issues, the TAREF members identified appropriate facilities, providing relevant information such as operating conditions (in- or out-of reactor), operating range, description of the test section, type of testing, instrumentation, current status and availability, and uniqueness. Based on the information collected, the task members assessed prospects and priorities

  13. Current awareness on yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (3 weeks journals - search completed 5th. Dec. 2001)

  14. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  15. Physics and safety of advanced research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.; Hardt, P. von der

    1987-01-01

    Advanced research reactor concepts are presently being developed in order to meet the neutron-based research needs of the nineties. Among these research reactors, which are characterized by an average power density of 1-10 MW per liter, highest priority is now generally given to the 'beam tube reactors'. These provide very high values of the thermal neutron flux (10 14 -10 16 cm -2 s -1 ) in a large volume outside of the reactor core, which can be used for sample irradiations and, in particular, for neutron scattering experiments. The paper first discusses the 'inverse flux trap concept' and the main physical aspects of the design and optimization of beam tube reactors. After that two examples of advanced research reactor projects are described which may be considered as two opposite extremes with respect to the physical optimization principle just mentioned. The present situation concerning cross section libraries and neutronic computer codes is more or less satisfactory. The safety analyses of advanced research reactors can largely be updated from those of current new designs, partially taking advantage of the immense volume of work done for power reactors. The paper indicates a few areas where generic problems for advanced research reactor safety are to be solved. (orig.)

  16. Advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to what the aims of advanced reactor development have to be, if a new generation of nuclear power is really to play an important role in man's energy generation activities in a fragile environment. The background given briefly covers present atmospheric evidence, the current situation in nuclear power, how reactors work and what can go wrong with them, and the present magnitudes of world energy generation. The central part of the paper describes what is currently being done in advanced reactor development and what can be expected from various systems and various elements of it. A vigorous case is made that three elements must be present in any advanced reactor development: (1) breeding; (2) passive safety; and (3) shorter-live nuclear waste. All three are possible. In the right advanced reactor systems the ways of achieving them are known. But R and D is necessary. That is the central argument made in the paper. Not advanced reactor prototype construction at this point, but R and D itself. (author)

  17. Current programmes of Metallurgy Division (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Current research and development programmes of the Metallurgy Division are listed under the headings: 1)Thrust Areas, 2)High Temperature Materials Section, 3)Chemical Metallurgy Section, 4)Metallurgical Thermochemistry Section, 5)Physical Metallurgy Section, 6)Mechanical Metallurgy Section, 7)Corrosion Metallurgy Section, 8)Electrochemical Science and Technology Section, 9)Ceramics Section, and 10)Fabrication and Maintenance Group. A list of equipment in the Division and a list of sciientific personnel of the Division are also given. (M.G.B.)

  18. Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Landis What are the risk factors for developing Parkinson's? The clearest risk factor is age. In addition, ...

  19. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  20. 20 CFR 606.30 - Interest rates on advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rates on advances. 606.30 Section... UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.30 Interest rates on advances. Advances made to States pursuant to title XII of the Social...

  1. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  2. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  3. AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Claasens, Saskya; Spengane, Zandile; Prozesky, Hans; Burton, Rosie; Parker, Arifa; Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Mendelson, Marc; Taljaard, Jantjie; Schneider, Johann W; Beylis, Natalie; Maloba, Bonnie; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Dlamini, Sipho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses. Methods We prospectively enrolled HIV-infected adult patients living in Western Cape, South Africa, with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/μL and widespread skin lesions present ≤6 months that were deemed clinically compatible with SM. We obtained skin biopsies for histopathology and fungal culture and collected epidemiological and clinical data. Results Of 34 patients enrolled and in whom a diagnosis could be made, 25 had proven SM: 14 had emergomycosis, and 3 each had histoplasmosis and sporotrichosis; for 5 additional patients, the fungal species could not be identified. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) had been initiated in the preceding 4 weeks for 11/25 (44%) patients with SM (vs no patients without SM). Plaques and scale crust occurred more frequently in patients with SM (96% vs 25%, P = .0002; and 67% vs 13%, P = .01, respectively). Conclusions Recent ART initiation and presence of plaques or scale crust should make clinicians consider SM in patients with advanced HIV infection in this geographic area. Clinical overlap between SM and other dermatoses makes early skin biopsy critical for timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29164168

  4. MR Neurography: Advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, A.; Carrino, J.A.; Trueblood, E.; Lianxin Zhao, L.; Koceski, S.; Shteriev, F.; Lenkinski, L.; Sinclair, Ch.D.J.; Andreisek, G.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration.

  5. 40 CFR 35.2101 - Advanced treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advanced treatment. 35.2101 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2101 Advanced treatment. Projects proposing advanced treatment shall be awarded grant assistance only after the project has been...

  6. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  7. Current leads for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Current leads for superconducting magnets have been studied since 1960's. The technology of current leads may seem to have been established both in theory and experiment before the middle of 1970's. Nevertheless, a wide variety of superconducting magnets have been introduced in the last 15 years, and the demands for special current leads have increased in accordance to the variety. A steady advance has been made in the design theory and fabrication of current leads. This paper describes the recent current lead technology regarding the design theory, safety in accidents, and high current capability. (author)

  8. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  9. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  10. Advances in business ICT

    CERN Document Server

    Pełech-Pilichowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Futurists and scientists alike profess the coming of a new era in the history – the knowledge era. The notion of knowledge is as old as humans’ self-consciousness, but new challenges appear. The meaning of the word “knowledge” is changing from cognitive notion to a technical term denoting a structured economic resource to be actively managed. This contributed volume is a result of vivid and extremely valuable discussions held at 3rd International Workshop on Advances in Business ICT (ABICT) in Wrocław, Poland, September 9-12, 2012. The workshop focused on Advances in Business ICT approached from a multidisciplinary perspective. It provided an international forum for scientists/experts from academia and industry to discuss and exchange current results, applications, new ideas of ongoing research and experience on all aspects of Business Intelligence. ABICT has also been an opportunity to demonstrate different ideas and tools for developing and supporting organizational creativity, as well as advances ...

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with unmet need for family planning among the currently married reproductive age women in Shire-Enda- Slassie, Northern West of Tigray, Ethiopia 2015: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Gelawdiwos; Birhan, Nigussie; Gebreslasie, Kahsay

    2016-01-01

    Unmet family planning is one of the common causes for low contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries including Ethiopia. Thus, this study designed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of unmet need in Shire Endaslassie town, Northern west of Tigray, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study design was employed. Multistage sampling technique was employed and data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire by interviewer administered technique. Questionnaires were reviewed and checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. Reviewed data were entered to Epi info 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 statistical software. Variables with P-value of less than 0.2 in bivariate analyses were entered for multivariate analysis and AOR at 95% CI with p-value of less than 0.05 were considered as significant variables. The overall unmet need for family planning in the study area was 109(21.4%). 74(14.5%) for spacing and 35(6.9%) for limiting. Age group of 35-39 and >=40 (AOR= 2.7,95%CI:1.1,6.5), (AOR = 2.65, 95%CI:1.10, 6.40) respectively, decided numbers of desired children more than five (AOR = O.48, 95%CI: 0.28, 0.80), discussions of client with heath care providers (AOR = 6.32, 95%CI: 2.56, 15.58), previous use of modern family planning (AOR = 2.29, 95%CI, 1.20, 4.34) were significantly associated with unmet need for family planning. Unmet need for family planning in the study area was high, so continuous discussion on modern family planning with community health workers and encouraging of women to decide desired numbers of children of less than five in general are better to be strengthened.

  12. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  13. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  14. Current preventive strategies and management of Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in solid organ transplantation in Europe. Results of the ESGICH Questionnaire-based Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, R; Manuel, O; Hirsch, H H; Fernández-Ruiz, M; López-Medrano, F; Comoli, P; Caillard, S; Grossi, P; Aguado, J M

    2015-06-01

    There is limited clinical evidence on the utility of the monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia in the pre-emptive management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We investigated current preventive measures against EBV-related PTLD through a web-based questionnaire sent to 669 SOT programmes in 35 European countries. This study was performed on behalf of the ESGICH study group from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. A total of 71 SOT programmes from 15 European countries participated in the study. EBV serostatus of the recipient is routinely obtained in 69/71 centres (97%) and 64 (90%) have access to EBV DNAemia assays. EBV monitoring is routinely used in 85.9% of the programmes and 77.4% reported performing pre-emptive treatment for patients with significant EBV DNAemia levels. Pre-emptive treatment for EBV DNAemia included reduction of immunosuppression in 50.9%, switch to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in 30.9%, and use of rituximab in 14.5% of programmes. Imaging by whole-body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used in 60.9% of centres to rule out PTLD and complemented computer tomography is used in 50%. In 10.9% of centres, FDG-PET is included in the first-line diagnostic workup in patients with high-risk EBV DNAemia. Despite the lack of definitive evidence, EBV load measurements are frequently used in Europe to guide diagnostic workup and pre-emptive reduction of immunosuppression. We need prospective and controlled studies to define the impact of EBV monitoring in reducing the risk of PTLD in SOT recipients. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The fol